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Sample records for ethyl glucuronide etg

  1. Comparison of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) concentrations in hair for testing abstinence.

    PubMed

    Albermann, M E; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2011-04-01

    Hair analysis is a powerful tool for retrospective drug analysis. By determining the minor ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair, even a previous consumption of alcohol is detectable. However, previous studies showed a lack of correlation if both parameters are determined simultaneously. A further study was conducted to confirm or refute these results. One hundred and sixty hair samples were analyzed for EtG and FAEE in the context of driving ability. In 109 cases, alcohol abstinence was clearly proven and was excluded in 15 cases. In 36 cases, ambiguous results were found. Possible reasons for the deviating results are discussed. It is recommended, that in context of driving ability diagnostics the EtG result is determinant. In critical cases FAEE concentrations can be determined for checking purposes, but a negative FAEE result cannot refute a determined EtG concentration >7 pg/mg. PMID:21127843

  2. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    PubMed Central

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001–100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours. PMID:26996103

  3. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours. PMID:26996103

  4. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. PMID:25137651

  5. High levels of agreement between clinic-based ethyl glucuronide (EtG) immunoassays and laboratory-based mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Leickly, Emily; McDonell, Michael G.; Vilardaga, Roger; Angelo, Frank A.; Lowe, Jessica M.; McPherson, Sterling; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoassay urine drug screening cups that detect use for two or more days are commonly used in addiction treatment settings. Until recently, there has been no comparable immunoassay test for alcohol use in these settings. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the agreement of a commercially available ethyl glucuronide immunoassay (EtG-I) test conducted at an outpatient addiction clinic and lab-based EtG mass spectrometry (EtG-MS) conducted at a drug testing laboratory at three cut-off levels. High agreement between these two measures would support the usefulness of EtG-I as a clinical tool for monitoring alcohol use. Methods Forty adults with co-occurring alcohol dependence and serious mental illnesses submitted 1068 urine samples over a 16-week alcohol treatment study. All samples were tested using EtG-I on a benchtop analyzer and 149 were randomly selected for EtG-MS analysis at a local laboratory. Agreement was defined as the number of samples where EtG-I and EtG-MS were both above or below a specific cut-off level. Agreement was calculated at low cut-off levels (100 and 250 ng/ml), as well as at a higher cut-off level (500 ng/ml) recommended by most by commercial drug testing laboratories. Results Agreement between EtG-I and EtG-MS was high across all cut-off levels (90.6% at 100 ng/ml, and 96.6% at 250 and 500 ng/ml). Conclusions EtG immunoassays conducted at low cut-off levels in point-of-care testing settings have high agreement with lab-based EtG-MS. EtG-I can be considered a useful clinical monitoring tool for alcohol use in community-based addiction treatment settings. PMID:25695340

  6. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Walsham, Natalie E; Sherwood, Roy A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol misuse is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although clinical history, examination, and the use of self-report questionnaires may identify subjects with harmful patterns of alcohol use, denial or under-reporting of alcohol intake is common. Existing biomarkers for detecting alcohol misuse include measurement of blood or urine ethanol for acute alcohol consumption, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyl transferase for chronic alcohol misuse. There is a need for a biomarker that can detect excessive alcohol consumption in the timeframe between 1 day and several weeks. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol detectable in urine for up to 90 h and longer in hair. Because EtG has high specificity for excess alcohol intake, it has great potential for use in detecting "binge" drinking. Using urine or hair, this noninvasive marker has a role in a variety of clinical and forensic settings. PMID:25735859

  7. Influence of Gilbert's syndrome on the formation of ethyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Laura M; Gunsilius, Leonie; Lardi, Christelle; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Thierauf-Emberger, Annette

    2015-09-01

    A drinking experiment with participants suffering from Gilbert's syndrome was performed to study the possible influence of this glucuronidation disorder on the formation of ethyl glucuronide (EtG). Gilbert's syndrome is a rather common and, in most cases, asymptomatic congenital metabolic aberration with a prevalence of about 5 %. It is characterized by a reduction of the enzyme activity of the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoform 1A1 up to 80 %. One of the glucuronidation products is EtG, which is formed in the organism following exposure to ethanol. EtG is used as a short-term marker for ethyl alcohol consumption to prove abstinence in various settings. After 2 days of abstinence from ethanol and giving a void urine sample, 30 study participants drank 0.1 L of sparkling wine (9 g ethanol). 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after drinking, urine samples were collected. 3 hours after drinking, an additional blood sample was taken, in which liver enzyme activities, ethanol, hematological parameters, and bilirubin were measured. EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS), another short-term marker of ethanol consumption, were determined in the urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); creatinine was measured photometrically. In all participants, EtG and EtS were detected in concentrations showing a wide range (EtG: 3 h sample 0.5-18.43 mg/L and 6 h sample 0.67-13.8 mg/L; EtS: 3 h sample 0.87-6.87 mg/L and 6 h sample 0.29-4.48 mg/L). No evidence of impaired EtG formation was found. Thus, EtG seems to be a suitable marker for ethanol consumption even in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome. PMID:25680552

  8. Detection of ethyl glucuronide in blood spotted on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Kaufmann, E; Thoma, D; Thierauf, A; Weinmann, W; Skopp, G; Alt, A

    2011-07-15

    This study aims to show that sensitive detection of ethyl glucuronide in dried blood spotted onto various surfaces after a period of 24h is feasible. At present, there is insufficient information how tightly ethyl glucuronide (EtG) binds to various materials and how easily it can be eluted. 4ml aliquots of blood samples obtained from seven volunteers after consumption of alcoholic beverages were applied to six different surfaces. After drying and a 24h-storage at 20±2°C the samples were re-dissolved in water, and EtG was subsequently analyzed by a LC-MS Paul-type ion trap. A comparison was made between dried and corresponding fluid samples. EtG was detectable in all subjects' samples following consumption of alcohol. EtG was also detectable after a storage time of four weeks at 4°C in whole blood that had been preserved with EDTA. EtG was detectable in all samples dried on different surfaces and its concentration remained relatively constant irrespective of the particular condition of the material. Detection of EtG in blood spots from the scene may indicate recent alcohol consumption in cases where collection of blood remained undone or could not be performed. PMID:21641739

  9. Testing for ethanol markers in hair: discrepancies after simultaneous quantification of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Nicholson, D

    2014-10-01

    The hair of 97 cases were analysed for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE, including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate) according to the Society of Hair Testing guidelines to examine the role of both tests in documenting chronic excessive alcohol drinking, particularly when the results are in contradiction. 27 (27.8%) results were EtG negative and FAEE positive, when applying the SoHT cut-offs, probably due to the use of alcohol-containing hair products. Four cases (4.1%) were EtG positive and FAEE negative that were attributed to the use of herbal lotions containing EtG. PMID:24794020

  10. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  11. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.

  12. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF URINARY ETHYL GLUCURONIDE AND ETHYL SULFATE IN LIVER DISEASE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Koch, David G.; Burgess, Douglas M.; Willner, Ira R.; Reuben, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to monitor alcohol use in the care of liver disease patients, but patient self-report can be unreliable. We therefore evaluated the performance of urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in detecting alcohol use in the days preceding a clinical encounter. Methods Subjects (n=120) were recruited at a university-based Hepatology clinic or during hospitalization. Alcohol consumption was ascertained by validated self-report measures. Urine EtG (cutoff 100 ng/mL) and EtS (cutoff 25 ng/mL) concentrations were assayed by a contracted laboratory using tandem mass spectrometry. The sensitivity and specificity of each biomarker in the detection of drinking during the 3 and 7 days preceding the clinic visit were determined, as well as the influence of liver disease severity on these results. Results Urine EtG (sensitivity 76%, specificity 93%) and urine EtS (sensitivity 82%, specificity 86%) performed well in identifying recent drinking, and liver disease severity does not affect biomarker performance. After elimination of one false negative self-report, urine EtG > 100 ng/mL was 100% specific for drinking within the past week, whereas 9% of the subjects without evidence of alcohol drinking for at least one week had EtS > 25 ng/mL. Conclusions Urine EtG and EtS can objectively supplement the detection of recent alcohol use in patients with liver disease. Additional research may determine optimal methods for integrating these tests into clinical care. PMID:22725265

  13. Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200°C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:24817051

  14. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in autopsy samples 27 years after death.

    PubMed

    Politi, Lucia; Morini, Luca; Mari, Francesco; Groppi, Angelo; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    The unique case of a 50-year-old known alcoholic whose corpse was exhumed 27 years after death is reported. The man apparently committed suicide by hanging, but many years later the case was questioned and homicide-linked to a long-lasting serial killer case-was suspected. Thus, the corpse was exhumed, and at the autopsy it was found to be naturally mummified. This fact permitted the analysis of body tissues with the aim to investigate the persistence of ethanol conjugates in the biological material 27 years after death. Fragments of liver and kidney, a blood clot, and a hair strand were collected and submitted to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) were identified and quantified in the liver, the kidney, and the blood clot. Hair analysis was found to be severely affected by ion suppression even after solid phase extraction. Consequently, EtG was identified in all hair segments (0-3 cm, 3-6 cm, and 6-10 cm), but no reliable quantification could be carried out. In summary, our findings demonstrate that, notwithstanding the expected conjugate degradation, EtG and EtS can be indicative of ante-mortem use of alcohol even many years after death. PMID:18661140

  15. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship between ethanol dose and FAEE and EtG concentrations in hair, the combined use of both parameters strongly increases the accuracy of the diagnosis by mutual confirmation and identification of false positive or false negative results due to biological variations or analytical errors. PMID:20061103

  16. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human serum by hyphenation of capillary isotachophoresis and zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Novkov, Michaela; Krivnkov, Ludmila

    2008-04-01

    The determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a marker of recent alcohol consumption, in human serum by hyphenation of capillary ITP (CITP) and CZE is reported. For CITP step, 1 x 10(-2) M hydrochloric acid adjusted with epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) to pH 4.4 was used as the leading electrolyte, and 1 x 10(-2) M nicotinic acid with EACA, pH 4.4, was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE). All electrolytes contained 0.2% hydroxypropylcellulose to suppress electroosmosis. In CITP, EtG was separated from fast serum macrocomponents chloride, phosphate, lactate, and acetate. Zones of microcomponents including EtG that migrated between acetate and nicotinate were forwarded to the second capillary filled with a BGE identical with the TE. Conductivity detection was used in the CITP step. Sensitive detection in the CZE step was performed using indirect spectrophotometric detection at 254 nm. The assay is based on a 1:5 dilution of serum with deionized water and has a concentration LOD for EtG in diluted sample of 9.8 x 10(-9) M. The method was used for the determination of EtG in sera of volunteers consuming alcohol. PMID:18383012

  17. Clinical Sensitivity and Specificity of Meconium Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters, Ethyl Glucuronide, and Ethyl Sulfate for Detecting Maternal Drinking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Dukes, Kimberly A.; Tripp, Tara; Petersen, Julie M.; Raffo, Cheri; Burd, Larry; Odendaal, Hein; Elliott, Amy J.; Hereld, Dale; Signore, Caroline; Willinger, Marian; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated agreement between self-reported prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and objective meconium alcohol markers to determine the optimal meconium marker and threshold for identifying PAE. Methods Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 0.1 g meconium from infants of Safe Passage Study participants. Detailed PAE information was collected from women with a validated timeline follow-back interview. As meconium formation begins during weeks 12-20, maternal self-reported drinking at or beyond 19 weeks was our exposure variable. Results Of 107 women, 33 reported no alcohol consumption in pregnancy, 16 stopped drinking by week 19, and 58 drank beyond 19 weeks (including 45 3rd trimester drinkers). There was moderate-substantial agreement between self-reported PAE ≥19 weeks and meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g (kappa: 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.73). This biomarker and associated cutoff was superior to a 7 FAEE sum ≥2 nmol/g and all other individual and combination marker cutoffs. With meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g as the gold-standard condition and maternal self-report ≥19 weeks gestation as the test condition, 82% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.6-92.0) and 75% specificity (95% CI: 63.2-86.8) were observed. A significant dose-concentration relationship between self-reported drinks per drinking day and meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g also was observed (P<0.01). Conclusions We assessed meconium EtG, EtS, and FAEE concentrations in the same meconium sample and compared concentrations to detailed self-reported PAE data. Maternal alcohol consumption ≥19 weeks was better represented by meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g compared to current FAEE cutoffs. PMID:25595440

  18. Quantitation of ethyl glucuronide in serum & urine by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Bharat, Venkatesh; Murthy, Pratima

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Alcohol misuse has now become a serious public health problem and early intervention is important in minimizing the harm. Biochemical markers of recent and high levels of alcohol consumption can play an important role in providing feedback regarding the health consequences of alcohol misuse. Existing markers are not sensitive to recent consumption and in detecting early relapse. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a phase-II metabolite of ethanol is a promising marker of recent alcohol use and can be detected in body fluids. In this study an analytical technique for quantitation of EtG in body fluids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric detection (MS) was developed and validated. Methods: De-proteinization of serum and urine samples was done with perchloric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Serum samples were passed through phospholipids removal cartridges for further clean up. EtG was isolated using amino propyl solid phase extraction columns. Chromatographic separation was achieved by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results: Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 50 and 150 ng/ml for urine and 80 and 210 ng/ml for serum, respectively. Signal to noise ratio was 3:1, mean absolute recovery was 80-85 per cent. Significant correlation was obtained between breath alcohol and serum EtG levels (r=0.853) and urine EtG and time since last abuse (r = -0.903) in clinical samples. Interpretation & conclusions: In the absence of other standardized techniques to quantitate EtG in biological samples, this GC-MS method was found to have high throughput and was sensitive and specific. PMID:25857498

  19. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair to assess excessive alcohol consumption in a student population.

    PubMed

    Oppolzer, David; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was used to evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption amongst the Portuguese university student population. A total of 975 samples were analysed. For data interpretation, the 2014 guidelines from the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) for the use of alcohol markers in hair for the assessment of both abstinence and chronic excessive alcohol consumption were considered. EtG concentrations were significantly higher in the male population. The effect of hair products and cosmetics was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significant lower concentrations were obtained when conditioner or hair mask was used or when hair was dyed. Based on the analytical data and information obtained in the questionnaires from the participants, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed in order to determine the ideal cut-offs for our study population. Optimal cut-off values were estimated at 7.3 pg/mg for abstinence or rare occasional drinking control and 29.8 pg/mg for excessive consumption. These values are very close to the values suggested by the SoHT, proving their adequacy to the studied population. Overall, the obtained EtG concentrations demonstrate that participants are usually well aware of their consumption pattern, correlating with the self-reported consumed alcohol quantity, consumption habits and excessive consumption close to the time of hair sampling. PMID:26537927

  20. Improvement of ethyl glucuronide determination in human urine and serum samples by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Janda, I; Alt, A

    2001-07-15

    An improved method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in human serum and urine was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric detection (MS). EtG was isolated from serum and urine using aminopropyl SPE columns after deproteination with perchloric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The chromatographic separation was performed on a DB 1701 fused-silica column. At a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, a quantification limit of 173 and 560 ng/ml and a detection limit of 37 and 168 ng/ml could be determined for serum and urine, respectively. This indicates high specificity and sensitivity of the described method. The mean absolute recovery was approximately 85%, while intra- and inter-day precision of the assay were all less than 7.5%. The linearity of the calibration curves was satisfying as indicated by correlation coefficients of >0.993. The presented method provides the basis for determination and identification of EtG in human serum and urine samples in a low-concentration range for monitoring alcohol consumption during treatment for alcohol dependence and comorbid alcohol abuse of psychotherapy patients. PMID:11486833

  1. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: a controlled alcohol-dosing study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    L Crunelle, Cleo; Cappelle, Delphine; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase II metabolite of alcohol that accumulates in hair. It has been established as a sensitive marker to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol over recent months using a cut-off of ≥7 pg/mg hair to assess repeated alcohol consumption. The primary aim was to assess whether amounts of alcohol consumed correlated with EtG concentrations in hair. Additionally, we investigated whether the current applied cut-off value of 7 pg/mg hair was adequate to assess the regular consumption of low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol. A prospective controlled alcohol-dosing study in 30 healthy individuals matched on age and gender. Individuals were instructed to drink no alcohol (N = 10), 100 g alcohol per week (N = 10) or 150 g alcohol per week (N = 10) for 12 consecutive weeks, before and after which hair was collected. Throughout the study, compliance to daily alcohol consumption was assessed by analyzing urine EtG three times weekly. Participants in the non-drinking group had median EtG concentrations of 0.5 pg/mg hair (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 pg/mg; range < 0.21-4.5 pg/mg). Participants consuming 100 and 150 g alcohol per week showed median EtG concentrations of 5.6 pg/mg hair (IQR 4.7 pg/mg; range 2.0-9.8 pg/mg) and 11.3 pg/mg hair (IQR 5.0 pg/mg; range 7.7-38.9 pg/mg), respectively. Hair EtG concentrations between the three study groups differed significantly from one another (p < 0.001). Hair EtG concentrations can be used to differentiate between repeated (low-to-moderate) amounts of alcohol consumed over a long time period. For the assessment of repeated alcohol use, we propose that the current cut-off of 7 pg/mg could be re-evaluated. PMID:26549114

  2. The influence of cleansing shampoos on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair analyzed with an optimized and validated LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Binz, Tina M; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is widely used as a marker for assessment of alcohol consumption behavior. In this study the influence of special cleansing shampoos on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair was investigated. For that purpose an optimized LC-MS/MS method was developed using a Hypercarb porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column and validated according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Twenty-five hair samples of persons with known alcohol consumption behavior were investigated (21 positive samples and 4 blank samples). The hair samples were divided into two strands of hair and were analyzed after treatment with one out of four cleansing shampoos and without shampoo treatment. EtG concentrations in hair did not show any significant differences after a single application of the different cleansing shampoos. EtG was still detectable in all the positive hair samples without significant concentration change. These results clearly demonstrated that a single application of the tested cleansing shampoos did not remove EtG from hair and therefore had no influence on EtG concentration in analytical hair analysis. PMID:25151107

  3. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from chest hair were higher. EtG in armpit hair was lower and in leg hair higher than in scalp hair. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG essentially increases the accuracy of interpretation since both markers complement each other by a different sensitivity to sources of error. PMID:22036309

  4. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: applications to forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Laurent; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Morichon, Julien; Bevalot, Fabien; Izac, Paul; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct marker of ethanol consumption, and its assay in hair is an efficient tool for chronic alcoholism diagnosis. In 2012, the Society of Hair Testing proposed a new consensus for hair concentrations interpretation, strongly advising the use of analytical methods providing a limit of quantification of less than 3 pg/mg. The present work describes the optimization and validation of a previously developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method in order to comply with this recommendation. The concentration range of this improved method is from 3 to 1,000 pg/mg. Some cases are then described to illustrate the usefulness of hair EtG: a forensic post-mortem case and two cases of suspension of driving licences. Finally, hair samples of some teetotallers (n = 10) have been analyzed, which allowed neither to quantitate nor to detect any trace of EtG. PMID:23824336

  5. Ethyl glucuronide in human hair after daily consumption of 16 or 32 g of ethanol for 3 months.

    PubMed

    Kronstrand, Robert; Brinkhagen, Linda; Nyström, Fredrik H

    2012-02-10

    The overall objectives of the study were to develop a sensitive method for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) determination in hair and then investigate if a low or moderate intake of ethanol could be differentiated from total abstinence. Forty-four subjects were included in the study, 12 males (7 drinkers and 5 abstinent) and 32 females (14 drinkers and 18 abstinent). The study lasted 3 months and the female drinkers consumed one glass (16 g of ethanol) and the males consumed two glasses (32 g of ethanol) of wine (13.5-14%) daily. Hair samples were collected as close as possible above the skin and the proximal 2 cm were analyzed for EtG. Hair was cut into pieces of about 0.5 cm length and washed before incubation overnight in water and then extracted on Clean Screen EtG Carbon columns. The LC/MS/MS system consisted of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC connected to an API 4000 triple quadrupole instrument. Two transitions for EtG and one for the internal standard EtG-D(5) were measured. The method was linear from 60 to 10,000 pg/sample. Imprecision studies were performed at three levels as well as with an authentic sample. Total imprecision was 16% at 200 pg/sample, 8% at 1000 pg/sample, 6% at 8000 pg/sample and 13% at 29 pg/mg in the authentic sample. Of those who drank two glasses of wine every day, four had measurable amounts of EtG in their hair (5-11 pg/mg), and in only one of the females drinking one glass of wine EtG was quantified (3 pg/mg). Among the 23 abstinent subjects two had traces of EtG in the hair. We conclude that persons who ingested 16 or 32 g of ethanol daily for 3 months presented with low concentrations of EtG in hair, well below the proposed threshold for overconsumption set at 30 pg/mg. In addition, none of those who ingested 16 g/day had concentrations over the proposed abstinence threshold of 7 pg/mg. PMID:21367545

  6. Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25–50 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500–5,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5–1,000 and 2.5–500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2–96.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from −84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within ±20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (−20 °C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 °C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304

  7. Impact of the grinding process on the quantification of ethyl glucuronide in hair using a validated UPLC-ESI-MS-MS method.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Natalie; Wille, Sarah M R; Di Fazio, Vincent; Ramírez Fernández, Maria Del Mar; Yegles, Michel; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) has provided cutoffs for the quantification of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair to indicate occasional or chronic/excessive alcohol consumption. Although several sensitive methods have been reported, past proficiency test results show a lack of reproducibility. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LLOQ of 10 pg EtG/mg hair) has been validated according to the international guidelines, including the successful participation in five proficiency tests. This method was subsequently used to evaluate the impact of different grinding conditions (cut, weakly or extensively pulverized hair samples) on the final measured EtG concentration. Hair from alcohol consumers (n = 2) and commercially available quality control samples (QCs) (n = 2) was used. For the QCs, extensive pulverization led to a significantly higher amount of measured EtG. In the hair samples obtained from volunteers, cut or weakly pulverized hair resulted in EtG concentrations below the LLOQ, while the mean concentrations of 14 and 40 pg EtG/mg hair were determined after extensive pulverization. Differences in sample preparation could partially explain inter-laboratory variability. As the differences in results can lead to a different interpretation even when applying the SoHT cutoffs, it is of interest to standardize sample preparation techniques in the field of EtG hair testing. PMID:25274495

  8. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. PMID:25180828

  9. Inhibition of beta-glucuronidase by natural glucuronides of kampo medicines using glucuronide of SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Narita, M; Nagai, E; Hagiwara, H; Aburada, M; Yokoi, T; Kamataki, T

    1993-01-01

    1. 7-Ethyl-10-[4-(piperidino)-1-piperidino] carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11), a potent anticancer agent currently under development for clinical use, is metabolized in vivo to 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), which is subsequently conjugated to 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin glucuronide (SN-38-glucuronide). The SN-38-glucuronide was hydrolysed by beta-glucuronidase from E. coli to aglycones and glucuronic acid. 2. Four purified natural glucuronides including baicalin, wogonoside, luteolin-3'-glucuronide, and glycyrrhizin, inhibited beta-glucuronidase using SN-38-glucuronide as substrate. The inhibition potencies of these natural glucuronides toward beta-glucuronidase were similar to that of saccharic acid 1,4-lactone. 3. These results indicate that plant materials of Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicines containing these glucuronides could be used in vivo to decrease the enterohepatic circulation of SN-38 and possibly that of other drugs. PMID:8484262

  10. Validation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS/MS for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair according to forensic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Schrder, Johannes; Dufaux, Bertin; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    The analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair is a powerful tool for chronic alcohol abuse control because of the typical wide detection window of the hair matrix and due to the possibility of segmentation, allowing evaluation of alcohol consumption in different periods. Additionally, EtG in hair is often the only diagnostic parameter of choice for alcohol abuse when other clinical parameters such as ALT, AST, gammaGT and CDT (asialotransferrin and disialotransferrin) are in the normal range and EtG in urine negative. In this paper, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a new method based on hair extraction with water, clean-up by solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in combination with GC-MS/MS according to forensic guidelines. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 2.8 to 1000 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The LLOQ was 2.8 pg/mg and the LLOD was 0.6 pg/mg. An error profile calculated according to the "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" (GUM) at 99% confidence intervals for the range 5-750 pg/mg hair did not exceed 10%. This range corresponds to more than 98% of the positive samples analysed. PMID:20061100

  11. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Hutchinson, Mark R; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K; Maier, Steven F; Rice, Kenner C; Watkins, Linda R

    2013-05-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  12. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kharbouche, Hicham; Sporkert, Frank; Troxler, Stphanie; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice; Staub, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30 mg of hair by aqueous incubation and purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using mixed mode extraction cartridges followed by derivation with perfluoropentanoic anhydride (PFPA). The analysis was performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using the transitions m/z 347-->163 (for the quantification) and m/z 347-->119 (for the identification) for EtG, and m/z 352-->163 for EtG-d(5) used as internal standard. For validation, we prepared quality controls (QC) using hair samples taken post mortem from 2 subjects with a known history of alcoholism. These samples were confirmed by a proficiency test with 7 participating laboratories. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 8.4 to 259.4 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated with 3.0 pg/mg. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was fixed at 8.4 pg/mg. Repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%), tested at 4 QC levels, were less than 13.2%. The analytical method was applied to several hair samples obtained from autopsy cases with a history of alcoholism and/or lesions caused by alcohol. EtG concentrations in hair ranged from 60 to 820 pg/mg hair. PMID:19109074

  13. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay to Detect Ethyl Glucuronide in Human Fingernail: Comparison to Hair and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joseph; Jones, Mary; Plate, Charles; Lewis, Douglas; Fendrich, Michael; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the use of hair specimens for the long-term detection of the alcohol biomarker ethyl glucuronide has been increasing in popularity and usage. We evaluated the usefulness of fingernail clippings as a suitable alternative to hair for ethyl glucuronide detection. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of ethyl glucuronide in fingernail clippings was fully validated and used to analyze the hair and/or fingernail specimens of 606 college-aged study participants. The limit of detection was 2 pg/mg, the limit of quantitation was 8 pg/mg and the method was linear from 8 to 2000 pg/mg. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision studies at three different concentrations (20, 40, 200 pg/mg) were all within 7.8% and all intra- and inter-assay bias studies at these levels were within 115.1% of target concentration. Ethyl glucuronide levels in fingernail (mean = 29.1 ± 55.6 pg/mg) were higher than ethyl glucuronide levels in hair (mean = 9.48 ± 22.3 pg/mg) and a correlation of the matched pairs was observed (r = 0.552, P < 0.01, n = 529). Evaluating each gender separately revealed that the correlation of male fingernail to male hair was large and significant (r = 0.782, P < 0.01, n = 195) while female hair to female fingernail was small yet significant (r = 0.249, P < 0.01, n = 334). The study results demonstrated that fingernail may be a suitable alternative to hair for ethyl glucuronide detection and may be the preferred sample type due to the lack of a gender bias.

  14. A novel, simultaneous extraction of FAEE and EtG from meconium and analysis by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Vaiano, Fabio; Favretto, Donata; Palumbo, Diego; Cooper, Gail; Mactier, Helen; Busardò, Francesco P; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl-glucuronide (EtG) in meconium have been widely studied as biomarkers of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Many analytical approaches have been proposed for their analysis, mostly consisting of separated extraction procedures requiring the use of two meconium aliquots. This study aimed to validate a new analytical procedure for the simultaneous extraction of FAEEs and EtG from a meconium aliquot through a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) applied to 242 anonymized samples of meconium. Targeted FAEEs were: ethyl-myristate (Myr), ethyl-palmitate (Pal), ethyl-oleate (Ole) and ethyl-stearate (Ste). Two hundred milligrams of meconium was sonicated with acetonitrile, and a single SPE performed by means of aminopropyl columns. FAEEs were eluted with hexane, followed by EtG elution with water. Both the mixtures were dried, recovered, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using C8 (FAEEs) and C18 (EtG) columns. Transitions were: m/z 257 → 57,88, Myr; m/z 262 → 57,88, Myr-d5; m/z 285 → 57, 72, Pal; m/z 290 → 57,258, Pal-d5; m/z 311 → 72,114, Ole; m/z 316 → 72,265, Ole-d5; m/z 257 → 57,72 Ste; m/z 318 → 57,286, Ste-d5; m/z 221 → 75,85, EtG; m/z 226 → 75,85, EtG-d5. Lower limit of quantification range was 10-15 ng/g for FAEEs and 10 ng/g for EtG. Linearity was evaluated for different concentration ranges; the mean coefficients of determination (R (2)) were above 0.9961. Precision and accuracy for FAEEs and EtG were consistently ≤20 % and ±20 %, respectively. Ion suppression was observed for all the analytes. Matrix effect did not significantly affect the analyses. Recovery efficiency was 93 % for EtG and 75-85 % for FAEEs. PMID:26873204

  15. Involvement of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 in ethanol glucuronidation, and interactions with common drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Al Saabi, Alaa; Allorge, Delphine; Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Tournel, Gilles; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) determination is increasingly used in clinical and forensic toxicology to document ethanol consumption. The enzymes involved in EtG production, as well as potential interactions with common drugs of abuse, have not been extensively studied. Activities of human liver (HLM), kidney (HKM), and intestinal (HIM) microsomes, as well as of 12 major human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), toward ethanol (50 and 500 mM) were evaluated in vitro using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined for pooled microsomes and recombinant UGTs with significant activity. Individual contributions of UGTs were estimated using the relative activity factor approach, proposed for scaling activities obtained with cDNA-expressed enzymes to HLM. Interaction of morphine, codeine, lorazepam, oxazepam, nicotine, cotinine, cannabinol, and cannabidiol (5, 10, 15 mg/l) with ethanol (1.15, 4.6, 11.5 g/l; i.e., 25, 100, 250 mM) glucuronidation was assessed using pooled HLM. Ethanol glucuronidation intrinsic clearance (Cl(int)) was 4 and 12.7 times higher for HLM than for HKM and HIM, respectively. All recombinant UGTs, except UGT1A1, 1A6, and 1A10, produced EtG in detectable amounts. UGT1A9 and 2B7 were the most active enzymes, each accounting for 17 and 33% of HLM Cl(int), respectively. Only cannabinol and cannabidiol significantly affected ethanol glucuronidation. Cannabinol increased ethanol glucuronidation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas cannabidiol significantly inhibited EtG formation in a noncompetitive manner (IC(50) = 1.17 mg/l; inhibition constant (K(i)) = 3.1 mg/l). UGT1A9 and 2B7 are the main enzymes involved in ethanol glucuronidation. In addition, our results suggest that cannabinol and cannabidiol could significantly alter ethanol glucuronidation. PMID:23230132

  16. Gyrokinetic Simulations of ETG and ITG Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A; Nevins, W; Shumaker, D; Hammett, G; Dannert, T; Jenko, F; Dorland, W; Leboeuf, J; Rhodes, T; Candy, J; Estrada-Mila, C

    2006-10-03

    Published gyrokinetic continuum-code simulations indicated levels of the electron thermal conductivity {chi}{sub e} due to electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) turbulence large enough to be significant in some tokamaks, while subsequent global particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations gave significantly lower values. We have carried out an investigation of this discrepancy. We have reproduced the key features of the aforementioned PIC simulations using the flux-tube gyrokinetic PIC code, PG3EQ, thereby eliminating global effects and as the cause of the discrepancy. We show that the late-time low-transport state in both of these sets of PIC simulations is a result of discrete particle noise, which is a numerical artifact. Thus, the low value of {chi}{sub e} along with conclusions about anomalous transport drawn from these particular PIC simulations are unjustified. In our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum codes for ETG turbulence at the plasma parameters used above, both produce very large intermittent transport. We have therefore undertaken benchmarks at an alternate reference point, magnetic shear s=0.1 instead of s=0.796, and have found that PIC and continuum codes reproduce the same transport levels. Scans in the magnetic shear show an abrupt transition to a high-{chi}{sub e} state as the shear is increased above s=0.4. When nonadiabatic ions are used, this abrupt transition is absent, and {chi}{sub e} increases gradually reaching values consistent with transport analyses of DIII-D, JET, and JT60-U discharges. New results on the balances of zonal-flow driving and damping terms in late-time quasi-steady ITG turbulence and on real-geometry gyrokinetic simulations of shaped DIII-D discharges are also reported.

  17. Dimensionless parameters, scaling laws, and the implications for ETG

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, G.G.

    1995-04-20

    ETG will be useful in resolving several physical issues relevant to Spherical Tokamak Reactor concepts. First, it will provide a test of whether transport is Bohm or gyro-Bohm in nature. The second point is that ETG will operate in a completely different range of {rho}* space from other high performance machines, opening up a previously inaccessible region of parameter space. ETG is also a (very) high-{beta} machine. It would be the only device that would have all of its parameters except {rho}* similar to those of a Spherical tokamak Reactor. If it turns out that the transport scales definitively as either Bohm or gyro-Bohm, then extrapolation to reactor conditions with significantly lower values of {rho}* would become more credible. It is also shown that in general one cannot obtain a power law relation in the dimensionless variables for the confinement tim from a power law fit to the engineering variables. It is shown, however, that if T{sub i}/T{sub e} and n{sub i}/n{sub e} are constant or if a modified definition of certain dimensionless variables is adopted, then such a power law conversion is possible.

  18. Structure–Metabolism Relationships in the Glucuronidation of d-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Representative d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitors were subjected to in vitro liver microsomal stability tests in the absence or presence of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDPGA). While carboxylate-based DAAO inhibitors displayed little glucuronidation, most DAAO inhibitors containing α-hydroxycarbonyl moiety exhibited nearly complete glucuronidation within 30 min. The one exception was 6-[2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)ethyl]-4-hydroxypyridazin-3(2H)-one 10, which exhibited some degree of resistance to glucuronidation by liver microsomes from mice, rats, and humans. PMID:25408840

  19. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Frick, Morin M.; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F.; Sammakia, Tarek; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that several classes of glucuronide metabolites, including the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide and the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide, cause toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signalling in vitro and enhanced pain in vivo. Steroid hormones, including estrogens and corticosterone, are also metabolized through glucuronidation. Here we demonstrate that in silico docking predicts that corticosterone, corticosterone-21-glucuronide, estradiol, estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide all dock with the MD-2 component of the TLR4 receptor complex. In addition to each docking with MD-2, the docking of each was altered by pre-docking with (+)-naloxone, a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. As agonist versus antagonist activity cannot be determined from these in silico interactions, an in vitro study was undertaken to clarify which of these compounds can act in an agonist fashion. Studies using a cell line transfected with TLR4, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene revealed that only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide increased reporter gene product, indicative of TLR4 agonism. Finally, in in vivo studies, each of the 5 drugs was injected intrathecally at equimolar doses. In keeping with the in vitro results, only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide caused enhanced pain. For both compounds, pain enhancement was blocked by the TLR4 antagonist lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, evidence for the involvement in TLR4 in the resultant pain enhancement. These findings have implications for several chronic pain conditions, including migraine and tempromandibular joint disorder, in which pain episodes are more likely in cycling females when estradiol is decreasing and estradiol metabolites are at their highest. PMID:25218902

  20. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Hutchinson, Mark R; Frick, Morin M; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F; Sammakia, Tarek; Rice, Kenner C; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-02-01

    We have recently shown that several classes of glucuronide metabolites, including the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide and the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide, cause toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signaling in vitro and enhanced pain in vivo. Steroid hormones, including estrogens and corticosterone, are also metabolized through glucuronidation. Here we demonstrate that in silico docking predicts that corticosterone, corticosterone-21-glucuronide, estradiol, estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide all dock with the MD-2 component of the TLR4 receptor complex. In addition to each docking with MD-2, the docking of each was altered by pre-docking with (+)-naloxone, a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. As agonist versus antagonist activity cannot be determined from these in silico interactions, an in vitro study was undertaken to clarify which of these compounds can act in an agonist fashion. Studies using a cell line transfected with TLR4, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene revealed that only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide increased reporter gene product, indicative of TLR4 agonism. Finally, in in vivo studies, each of the 5 drugs was injected intrathecally at equimolar doses. In keeping with the in vitro results, only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide caused enhanced pain. For both compounds, pain enhancement was blocked by the TLR4 antagonist lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, evidence for the involvement in TLR4 in the resultant pain enhancement. These findings have implications for several chronic pain conditions, including migraine and temporomandibular joint disorder, in which pain episodes are more likely in cycling females when estradiol is decreasing and estradiol metabolites are at their highest. PMID:25218902

  1. Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by aglycons of natural glucuronides in kampo medicines using SN-38 as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, T; Narita, M; Nagai, E; Hagiwara, H; Aburada, M; Kamataki, T

    1995-10-01

    7-Ethyl-10-[4-(piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11), a potent anticancer agent for lung and gynecological cancers, is metabolized in vivo to the active compound, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), which is subsequently conjugated to SN-38-glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT). Three purified aglycons of natural glucuronides, baicalein, luteolin and glycyrrhetic acid, inhibited UDP-GT activity towards SN-38 as a substrate. The inhibitory potencies of these aglycons toward UDP-GT were similar to that of 1-naphthol. Based on these results, together with our previous finding that the corresponding glucuronides used in the present study strongly inhibited beta-glucuronidase in gut flora, we propose that materials in Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicines containing these aglycons of natural glucuronides could be used in vivo to decrease the enterohepatic circulation of SN-38 and other drugs. PMID:7493919

  2. Autism and Phthalate Metabolite Glucuronidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, T. Peter; Schluter, Margaret D.; Steer, Robert A.; Ming, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals may precipitate autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetically susceptible children. Differences in the efficiency of the glucuronidation process may substantially modulate substrate concentrations and effects. To determine whether the efficiency of this pathway is compromised in children with ASD, we measured

  3. Autism and Phthalate Metabolite Glucuronidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, T. Peter; Schluter, Margaret D.; Steer, Robert A.; Ming, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals may precipitate autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetically susceptible children. Differences in the efficiency of the glucuronidation process may substantially modulate substrate concentrations and effects. To determine whether the efficiency of this pathway is compromised in children with ASD, we measured…

  4. A Preliminary Basic Experiment on the Production and Identification of Toroidal ETG Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Balbaky, Abed; Sen, Amiya K.

    2012-10-01

    Production and identification of the slab branch of the Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode and the measurement of the consequent electron thermal conductivity have been successfully made in a basic experiment in Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) [1,2]. A preliminary experiment on the transition of the slab mode to the toroidal (curvature) branch of ETG mode in CLM is reported. CLM was operated in the mirror configuration with cell length (50cm-100cm) and mirror ratio (1-2.2). The radius of curvature is Rc1.3m and the critical ratio for the transition to toroidal mode has been achieved, k| / 2 ?nk< 0.1 [3]. We first excite the slab ETG mode [1] and gradually increase the magnetic curvature drive by increasing the magnetic mirror ratio, and observe an increase of the ETG mode amplitude up to 2 times and a small change in mode frequency. Alternatively, we can shorten the mirror cell length via moving the mirror coil to increase the bounce average curvature drive and the mode amplitude. [4pt] [1] X.Wei, V.Sokolov, and A.K. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042108 (2010).[0pt] [2] V.Sokolov, and A.K. Sen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 155001 (2011).[0pt] [3] J.Y.Kim and W.Horton, Phys.Fluids B 3, 1167 (1991).

  5. Scaling of Electron Thermal Conductivity during the Transition between Slab and Mixed Slab-Toroidal ETG Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Balbaky, Abed; Sen, Amiya K.

    2015-11-01

    Transition from the slab to the toroidal branch of the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode has been successfully achieved in a basic experiment in Columbia Linear Machine CLM. We found a modest increase in saturated ETG potential fluctuations (~ 2 ×) and a substantial increase in the power density of individual mode peaks (~ 4 - 5 ×) with increased levels of curvature. We have obtained a set of experimental scalings for electron thermal conductivity χ⊥e as a function of the inverse radius of curvature Rc-1 for different fluctuation levels of the initial slab ETG mode. We found that thermal conductivity for pure slab modes is larger than it is for mixed slab-toroidal ETG modes with the same level of mode fluctuation. This effective reduction in diffusive transport can be partly explained by the flute nature of the toroidal ETG mode. This research was supported by the Department of Electrical Engineering of Columbia University.

  6. Buprenorphine metabolites, buprenorphine-3-glucuronide and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide, are biologically active

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah M.; Holtzman, Michael; Kim, Thomas; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The long-lasting high affinity opioid buprenorphine has complex pharmacology including ceiling effects with respect to analgesia and respiratory depression. Plasma concentrations of the major buprenorphine metabolites norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-3-glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide approximate or exceed those of the parent drug. Buprenorphine glucuronide metabolites pharmacology is undefined. This investigation determined binding and pharmacological activity of the two glucuronide metabolites, and in comparison with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Methods Competitive inhibition of radioligand binding to human mu, kappa, delta opioid and nociceptin receptors was used to determine glucuronide binding affinities for these receptors. Common opiate effects were assessed in vivo in Swiss Webster mice. Antinociception was assessed using a tail-flick assay, respiratory effects were measured using unrestrained whole-body plethysmography, and sedation was assessed by inhibition of locomotion measured by open-field testing. Results Buprenorphine-3-glucuronide had high affinity for human mu (Ki = 4.9±2.7 pM), delta (Ki = 270±0.4 nM), and nociceptin (Ki = 36±0.3 μM) but not kappa receptors. Norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide had affinity for human kappa (Ki = 300±0.5 nM) and nociceptin (Ki= 18±0.2 μM) but not mu or delta receptors. At the dose tested, buprenorphine-3-glucuronide had a small antinociceptive effect. Neither glucuronide had significant effects on respiratory rate, but norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide decreased tidal volume. Norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide also caused sedation. Conclusions Both glucuronide metabolites of buprenorphine are biologically active at doses relevant to metabolite exposures which occur after buprenorphine. Activity of the glucuronides may contribute to the overall pharmacology of buprenorphine. PMID:22037640

  7. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like substance) in your blood. Icosapent ... ethyl may work by decreasing the amount of triglycerides and other fats made in the liver.

  8. Occurrence of orally administered curcuminoid as glucuronide and glucuronide/sulfate conjugates in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Asai, A; Miyazawa, T

    2000-10-27

    Curcuminoids, curcumin and its structurally related compounds, constitute the phenolic yellowish pigment of turmeric. We investigated the absorption and metabolism of orally administered curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) in rats. HPLC and LC-MS analyses after enzymatic hydrolyses showed that the predominant metabolites in plasma following administration were glucuronides and glucuronide/sulfates (conjugates with both glucuronide and sulfate) of curcuminoids. The plasma concentrations of conjugated curcuminoids reached a maximum one hour after administration. The conjugative enzyme activities for glucuronidation and sulfation of curcumin were found in liver, kidney and intestinal mucosa. These results indicate that orally administered curcuminoids are absorbed from the alimentary tract and present in the general blood circulation after largely being metabolized to the form of glucuronide and glucuronide/sulfate conjugates. PMID:11105995

  9. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  11. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  12. Ethyl carbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl carbamate ; CASRN 51 - 79 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  13. Lithocholate glucuronide is a cholestatic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Oelberg, D.G.; Chari, M.V.; Little, J.M.; Adcock, E.W.; Lester, R.

    1984-06-01

    Lithocholic acid and its taurine, glycine, and sulfate derivatives are potent cholestatic agents. (3 beta-/sup 3/H)lithocholate 3-O-beta-D-glucuronide was synthesized, and chemical and radiochemical purity were established. The aqueous solubility of lithocholate glucuronide was determined and found to be greater than that of lithocholic acid or several of its derivatives. In the range of concentrations examined, calcium ions precipitated lithocholate glucuronide stoichiometrically. The material was administered to rats prepared with an external biliary fistula. When 17-25 micrograms quantities were administered, 89.1 +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SEM) of the radiolabel was secreted in bile within the first 20 h after administration, the major fraction being secreted in less than 20 min. Four-fifths of the radiolabeled material in bile was the administered unaltered parent compound, while a minor fraction consisted of a more polar derivative(s). We showed that increasing biliary concentrations of more polar derivatives were observed with milligram doses of (3H)lithocholate glucuronide, and with time after the administration of these loading doses. Milligram doses of (3H)lithocholate glucuronide resulted in partial or complete cholestasis. When induced cholestasis was partial, secretion in bile remained the primary excretory route (82.5-105.6% recovery in bile), while, when complete cholestasis was induced, wide tissue distribution of radiolabel was observed. Cholestasis developed rapidly during infusion of (3H)lithocholate glucuronide. Bile flow was diminished within 10-20 min of the start of an infusion of 0.05 mumol, 100 g-1 body weight, minute-1, administered concomitantly with an equimolar infusion of taurocholate. The results establish that lithocholate glucuronide exerts cholestatic effects comparable to those exerted by unconjugated lithocholic acid.

  14. Comparison of pulmonary and hepatic glucuronidation and sulphation of ethanol in rat and rabbit in vitro.

    PubMed

    Manautou, J E; Carlson, G P

    1992-11-01

    1. Pulmonary and hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase and sulphotransferase activities in subcellular fractions from rats and rabbits were determined, comparing ethanol with known substrates for these enzymes. 2. No ethyl glucuronide formation was detected with either hepatic or pulmonary microsomal incubations. 3. Chromatographic, autoradiographic and scintillation counting analysis indicated that ethanol is sulphated by rat and rabbit pulmonary cytosol, although this activity was approx. 2-6% of that in liver. 4. Rat hepatic and pulmonary sulphotransferase activities with beta-naphthol were approx. 13 and 60 times higher than with ethanol, respectively. 5. Rabbit hepatic and pulmonary sulphotransferase activities with both substrates were higher than those in rat. PMID:1492423

  15. Determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Pyo, Jae Sung

    2016-03-15

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a simpler and less time consuming analytical method for determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample, by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study uses propofol glucuronide, a major metabolite of propofol, as a marker for propofol abuse. The hair sample was digested in sodium hydroxide solution and loaded in mixed-mode anion cartridge for solid phase extraction. Water and ethyl acetate were used as washing solvents to remove interfering substances from the hair sample. Consequently, 2% formic acid in ethyl acetate was employed to elute propofol glucuronide from the sorbent of mixed-mode anion cartridge, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, LOD, LLOQ, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect were also tested. The linearity of calibration curves showed good correlation, with correlation coefficient 0.998. The LOD and LLOQ of the propofol glucuronide were 0.2pg/mg and 0.5pg/mg, respectively. The intra and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable within 15%. The mean values of recovery and matrix effect were in the range of 91.7-98.7% and 87.5-90.3%, respectively, signifying that the sample preparation, washing and extraction procedure were efficient, and there was low significant hair matrix effect for the extraction of propofol glucuronide from hair sample on the mixed mode anion cartridge. To evaluate the suitability of method, the hair of propofol administered rat was successfully analyzed with this method. PMID:26946424

  16. Fate of glucuronide conjugated estradiol in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive hormone, 17ß-estradiol (E2), is made more water soluble (polar) in the body by attachment of glucuronide acid to E2, facilitating urinary elimination. The fate of this potentially more mobile polar form of E2 is not well understood. Soil sorption studies were conducted using [14C] 1...

  17. The Role of ITG/TEM/ETG Cross-Scale Coupling in Explaining Experimental Electron Heat Flux and Profile Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. T.

    2015-11-01

    Anomalous electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas is the ``great unsolved problem of tokamak transport physics'' [Batchelor Plasma Sci. Tec. 2007]. For years it has been speculated that short wavelength ETG turbulence plays a key role, but simulation capturing both ion and electron-scale turbulence simultaneously had never been tested quantitatively against experiment due to extreme computational requirements. Only recently have gyrokinetic codes and supercomputing resources together been able to capture the physics of cross-scale coupling between long wavelength ITG/TEM and short wavelength ETG turbulence. In C-Mod, long wavelength simulations often under-predict electron heat flux. As a result, dedicated experiments have been performed in L-mode plasmas to validate multi-scale nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. In this talk, the first set of full-physics, multi-scale simulations of a tokamak plasma performed with the GYRO code are compared to experiment. The simulations include coupled ITG/TEM/ETG turbulence (kθρs < 48 . 0) at realistic mass ratio (mi/me = 3600), with experimental inputs for impurities, geometry, ExB shear, and collisions. 100M CPU hours were required for six simulations to scan the ITG and ETG drive terms (a/LTi and a/LTe) within experimental error bars. The multi-scale simulations show for the first time that ETG streamers coexist and nonlinearly couple with ITG and zonal flows. This nonlinear cross-scale coupling enhances both ion and electron heat fluxes by up to a factor of 10 above standard, long wavelength simulation, resulting in simulations that simultaneously match experimental ion and electron heat fluxes and electron profile stiffness. The new physics of ITG/ETG/zonal flow coupling has important implications for predictions of ITER performance and may be linked to phenomena such as confinement transitions and rotation reversals. This work was supported by DOE contract - DE-FC02-99ER54512-CMOD.

  18. AGN feedback and star formation in ETGs: negative and positive feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Luca; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Novak, Greg; Negri, Andrea; Pellegrini, Silvia; Posacki, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    AGN feedback from supermassive black holes at the center of Early Type Galaxies is commonly invoked as the explanation for the quenching of star formation in these systems, that after this phase are considered “red and dead”. The situation is by far more complicated, due to the significant amount of mass injected in the galaxy by the evolving stellar population over cosmological times. In absence of feedback, this mass would lead to unobserved galactic cooling flows, and to central black holes two orders of magnitude more massive than observed. I will present the results of state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations with radiative transport and star formation of the “passive” evolution of ETGs, focusing in particular on highly structured spatial and temporal nature of the intermittent AGN feedback, that is not only negative (shutting down the cooling episodes of the ISM), but also positive, inducing star formation in the inner regions of the host galaxy.

  19. Disposition of Naringenin via Glucuronidation Pathway Is Affected by Compensating Efflux Transporters of Hydrophilic Glucuronides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Kulkarni, Kaustubh H.; Singh, Rashim; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Stephen W.J.; Tam, Vincent H.; Hu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate how efflux transporters and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) affect the disposition of naringenin. A rat intestinal perfusion model with bile duct cannulation was used along with rat intestinal and liver microsomes. In the intestinal perfusion model, both absorption and subsequent excretion of naringenin metabolites were rapid and site-dependent (p < 0.05). Naringenin was absorbed the most in colon and its glucuronides were excreted the most in duodenum. In metabolism studies, the intrinsic clearance value of naringenin glucuronidation was the highest in jejunum microsomes, followed by liver, ileal and colonic microsomes. The rapid metabolism in microsomes did not always translate into more efficient excretion in the rat perfusion model, however, because of presence of rate-limiting efflux transporters. When used separately, MK-571 (an inhibitor of multidrug resistance-related protein 2 or Mrp2) or dipyridamole (an inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein or Bcrp1) did not affect excretion of naringenin glucuronides, but when used together, they significantly (p < 0.05) decreased intestinal and biliary excretion of naringenin glucuronides. In conclusion, efflux transporters Mrp2 and Bcrp1 are shown to compensate for each other and enable the intestinal excretion of flavonoid (i.e., naringenin) glucuronides. PMID:19736994

  20. Determination of menthol and menthol glucuronide in human urine by gas chromatography using an enzyme-sensitive internal standard and flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Kaffenberger, R M; Doyle, M J

    1990-04-27

    The rate of peppermint oil absorption and excretion, following peroral administration, was determined by measuring urinary levels of menthol glucuronide. Menthol, a major component of peppermint oil, was liberated from its glucuronide metabolite by treating raw urine with beta-D-glucuronidase (Patella vulgata). Phenyl glucuronide was employed as an enzyme-sensitive internal standard. Menthol and phenol were recovered by ethyl acetate extraction and quantitated by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. Standard curves were linear between 25 and 250 micrograms/ml with a detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 2) of 0.25 microgram/ml. Assay precision was shown to be +/- 1.2% relative standard deviation. PMID:2365793

  1. Measurement of bisphenol A, bisphenol A ß-d-glucuronide, genistein, and genistein 4′-ß-d-glucuronide via SPE and HPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Janis L.; Winnik, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic industrial reactant used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, and genistein is a natural phytoestrogen abundant in the soybean. Current studies investigating the endocrinedisrupting effects of concomitant exposures to BPA and genistein have warranted the development of an analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of BPA and genistein, as well as their primary metabolites, bisphenol A ß-d-glucuronide (BPA gluc) and genistein 4′-ß-d-glucuronide (genistein gluc), respectively. All four analytes were extracted from rat plasma via solid phase extraction (SPE). Three SPE cartridges and four elution schemes were tested. Plasma extraction using Bond Elut Plexa cartridges with sequential addition of ethyl acetate, methanol, and acetonitrile yielded optimal average recoveries of 98.1±1.8% BPA, 94.9±8.0% genistein, 91.4±6.1% BPA gluc, and 103±6.1% genistein gluc. Identification and quantification of the four analytes were performed by a validated HPLC-MS/MS method using electrospray ionization and selective reaction monitoring. This novel analytical method should be applicable to the measurement of BPA, genistein, BPA gluc, and genistein gluc in urine, cultures, and tissue following in vivo exposures. While reports of the determination of BPA and genistein independently exist, the simultaneous optimized extraction and detection of BPA, genistein, BPA gluc, and genistein gluc have not previously been reported. PMID:21667348

  2. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  3. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  4. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  5. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  6. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  7. Glucuronidation, a new metabolic pathway for pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Qi; Yang, Li; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Yong; Fong, Alan; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Lu, Yan-Liu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2010-03-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) possess significant hepatotoxicity to humans and animals after metabolic activation by liver P450 enzymes. Metabolism pathways of PAs have been studied for several decades, including metabolic activation, hydroxylation, N-oxidation, and hydrolysis. However, the glucuronidation of intact PAs has not been investigated, although glucuronidation plays an important role in the elimination and detoxication of xenobiotics. In this study, PAs glucuronidation was investigated, and three important points were found. First, we demonstrated that senecionine (SEN)-a representative hepatotoxic PA-could be conjugated by glucuronic acid via an N-glucuronidation reaction catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase in human liver microsomes. Second, glucuronidation of SEN was catalyzed not only by human but also other animal species and showed significant species differences. Rabbits, cattle, sheep, pigs, and humans showed the significantly higher glucuronidation activity than mice, rats, dogs, and guinea pigs on SEN. Kinetics of SEN glucuronidation in humans, pigs, and rabbits followed the one-site binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation, while cattle and sheep followed the two-sites binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Third, besides SEN, other hepatotoxic PAs including monocrotaline, adonifoline, and isoline also underwent N-glucuronidation in humans and several animal species such as rabbits, cattle, sheep, and pigs. PMID:20092275

  8. IFU Spectroscopy of 10 ETG nuclei: Properties of the circumnuclear gas emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, T. V.

    2015-09-01

    LINERs are galactic nuclei containing spectra with prominence of low-ionization lines. Several ionization sources are able to produce a LINER-like spectra (e.g. shocks, low-luminosity AGNs, pAGB stars). In this work, we will present an analysis performed on a sample of 10 massive ETGs with distances up to 30 Mpc. This sample was observed with the GMOS-IFU installed on the Gemini-South Telescope. The data cubes of the galaxies have a FOV of 3.5 - 5 arcsec2 and a spatial resolution of about 0.6 -- 1.0 arcsec. After subtracting the stellar component of the galaxies by means of spectral synthesis, we studied the emission lines all over the FOV of the data cubes. In galaxies where an AGN was clearly detected, we found ionized gaseous discs and also a low-velocity extended emission perpendicular to the gas discs. We concluded that only ionizing photons emerging from the AGNs are not enough to photoionize the gaseous discs of the galaxies. On the other hand, it seems to be responsible for the photoionization of the low-velocity extended gas perpendicular to the discs. We propose a scheme where some collimating agent, somehow aligned to the gaseous discs, may be present in some LINER-like AGNs in the local universe.

  9. Non-linear Dynamics in ETG Mode Saturation and Beam-Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.

    Non-linear mechanisms arise frequently in plasmas and beam-plasma systems resulting in dynamics not predicted by linear theory. The non-linear mechanisms can influence the time evolution of plasma instabilities and can be used to describe their saturation. Furthermore time and space averaged non-linear fields generated by instabilities can lead to collisionless transport and plasma heating. In the case of beam-plasma systems counter-intuitive beam defocusing and scaling behavior which are interesting areas of study for both Low-Temperature and High Energy Density physics. The non-linear mode interactions in form of phase coupling can describe energy transfer to other modes and can be used to describe the saturation of plasma instabilities. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical model was formulated to explain the saturation mechanism of Slab Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode observed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM), based on experimental time-series data collected through probe diagnostics [1]. ETG modes are considered to be a major player in the unexplained high levels of electron transport observed in tokamak fusion experiments and the saturation mechanism of these modes is still an active area of investigation. The data in the frequency space indicated phase coupling between 3 modes, through a higher order spectral correlation coefficient known as bicoherence. The resulting model is similar to [2], which was a treatment for ITG modes observed in the CLM and correctly predicts the observed saturation level of the ETG turbulence. The scenario is further supported by the fact that the observed mode frequencies are in close alignment with those predicted theoretical dispersion relations. Non-linear effects arise frequently in beam-plasma systems and can be important for both low temperature plasma devices commonly used for material processing as well as High Energy Density applications relevant to inertial fusion. The non-linear time averaged fields generated by beam-plasma instabilities can be responsible for defocusing and distorting beams propagating in background plasma. This can be problematic in inertial fusion applications where the beam is intended to propagate ballistically as the background plasma neutralizes the beam space charge and current. We used particle-in-cell (PIC) code LSP to numerically investigate the defocusing effects in an ion beam propagating in background plasma experiences as it is exposed to the non-linear fields generated by Two-Stream instability between beam ions and plasma electrons. Supported by theory and benchmarked by the numerical solutions of governing E&M equations, the simulations were used to find and check scaling laws for the defocusing forces in the parameter space of beam and plasma density as well as the beam ion mass. A transition region where the defocusing fields peak has been identified, which should be avoided in the design of experimental devices. We further proposed a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of the two-stream instability in a system with parameters similar to the National Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX-II) and conducted proof-of concept simulations. In the case of electron beam propagating in background plasma instability driven collisionless scattering and plasma heating is observed. 1-D simulations conducted in EDIPIC were benchmarked in LSP to study the excitation and time-evolution of electron-electron Two-Stream instability. Coupling of electron dynamics via non-linear ponderomotive force created by instability generated fields with ion cavities and Ion-Acoustic mode excitation was observed. Furthermore 2-D simulations of an electron-beam in a background plasma was performed. Many of the effects in observed in 1-D simulations were replicated. Morever generation of oblique modes with transverse wave numbers were observed in the simulations, which resulted in significant transverse scattering of beam electrons and the time evolution of the turbulent spectrum was studied via Fourier techniques. It is plausible that the modes excited might be interacting non-linearly via mode-coupling, however further theoretical and numerical investigation of the turbulent spectrum is needed. The study of the more realistic 2-D system and the spectrum is important for the understanding of collisionless heating of plasmas by beams and the underlying energy delivery which can have important applications in especially low temperature plasma systems used primarily in etching and materials processing.

  10. Detection of pentachlorophenol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in fish bile and exposure water

    SciTech Connect

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1988-08-01

    The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pentachlorophenol (PCP) that were present in the bile and exposure water of goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used to develop methodology to quantify PCP and its metabolites. Reverse phase HPLC with radioactivity detection separated PCP and its metabolites, and was used to verify a method of quantification that used differential extraction and scintillation counting. Extractions of aqueous phase at pH 2 or 8, with butanol, ethyl acetate, or ether indicated that ether at pH 8 best separated PCP from its metabolites. The sulfate conjugate of PCP was the major metabolite produced when goldfish were exposed to 125 micrograms UC-PCP/l. It was present primarily in the exposure water, but also appeared in the bile.

  11. Deconjugation of soy isoflavone glucuronides needed for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Bekele, R; Vanden Berg, J H J; Kuswanti, Y; Thapa, O; Soltani, S; van Leeuwen, F X R; Rietjens, I M C M; Murk, A J

    2015-06-01

    Soy isoflavones (SIF) are present in the systemic circulation as conjugated forms of which the estrogenic potency is not yet clear. The present study provides evidence that the major SIF glucuronide metabolites in blood, genistein-7-O-glucuronide (GG) and daidzein-7-O-glucuronide (DG), only become estrogenic after deconjugation. The estrogenic potencies of genistein (Ge), daidzein (Da), GG and DG were determined using stably transfected U2OS-ERα, U2OS-ERβ reporter gene cells and proliferation was tested in T47D-ERβ cells mimicking the ERα/ERβ ratio of healthy breast cells and inT47D breast cancer cells. In all assays applied, the estrogenic potency of the aglycones was significantly higher than that of their corresponding glucuronides. UPLC analysis revealed that in U2OS and T47D cells, 0.2-1.6% of the glucuronides were deconjugated to their corresponding aglycones. The resulting aglycone concentrations can account for the estrogenicity observed upon glucuronide exposure. Interestingly, under similar experimental conditions, rat breast tissue S9 fraction was about 30 times more potent in deconjugating these glucuronides than human breast tissue S9 fraction. Our study confirms that SIF glucuronides are not estrogenic as such, and that the small % of deconjugation in the cell is enough to explain the slight bioactivity observed for the SIF-glucuronides. Species differences in deconjugation capacity should be taken into account when basing risk-benefit assessment of these SIF for the human population on animal data. PMID:25661160

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic-electrospray mass spectrometric determination of morphine and its 3- and 6-glucuronides: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, R; Pichini, S; Altieri, I; Caronna, A; Passa, A R; Zuccaro, P

    1995-02-17

    A rapid and selective assay of morphine and its 3- and 6-glucuronides in serum, based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry has been developed. The analytes and the internal standard, codeine or naltrexone, were subjected to solid-phase extraction, using ethyl solid-phase extraction columns, prior to chromatography. A reversed-phase column and a gradient mobile phase consisting of water and methanol were used. The mass spectrometer was operated in the selected-ion monitoring mode. The following ions were used: m/z 286 for morphine, m/z 300 for codeine, m/z 342 for naltrexone, and m/z 462 for morphine 3- and 6-glucuronides. The limit of quantitation observed with this method was 10 ng/ml morphine, 50 ng/ml morphine-6-glucuronide and 100 ng/ml morphine-3-glucuronide. The present method proved useful for the determination of serum levels of the parent drug and its metabolites in pain patients, heroin addicts and in morphine-treated mice. PMID:7780584

  13. Stereoselective Glucuronidation of Bupropion Metabolites In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Lu, Jessica Bo Li; Metzger, Ingrid F; Jones, David R; Desta, Zeruesenay

    2016-04-01

    Bupropion is a widely used antidepressant and smoking cessation aid in addition to being one of two US Food and Drug Administration-recommended probe substrates for evaluation of cytochrome P450 2B6 activity. Racemic bupropion undergoes oxidative and reductive metabolism, producing a complex profile of pharmacologically active metabolites with relatively little known about the mechanisms underlying their elimination. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed to simultaneously separate and detect glucuronide metabolites of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydroxybupropion, (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydrobupropion (threo) and (S,R)- and (R,S)-hydrobupropion (erythro), in human urine and liver subcellular fractions to begin exploring mechanisms underlying enantioselective metabolism and elimination of bupropion metabolites. Human liver microsomal data revealed marked glucuronidation stereoselectivity [Clint, 11.4 versus 4.3 µl/min per milligram for the formation of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydroxybupropion glucuronide; and Clmax, 7.7 versus 1.1 µl/min per milligram for the formation of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydrobupropion glucuronide], in concurrence with observed enantioselective urinary elimination of bupropion glucuronide conjugates. Approximately 10% of the administered bupropion dose was recovered in the urine as metabolites with glucuronide metabolites, accounting for approximately 40%, 15%, and 7% of the total excreted hydroxybupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, and threo-hydrobupropion, respectively. Elimination pathways were further characterized using an expressed UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) panel with bupropion enantiomers (both individual and racemic) as substrates. UGT2B7 catalyzed the stereoselective formation of glucuronides of hydroxybupropion, (S,S)-hydrobupropion, (S,R)- and (R,S)-hydrobupropion; UGT1A9 catalyzed the formation of (R,R)-hydrobupropion glucuronide. These data systematically describe the metabolic pathways underlying bupropion metabolite disposition and significantly expand our knowledge of potential contributors to the interindividual and intraindividual variability in therapeutic and toxic effects of bupropion in humans. PMID:26802129

  14. Impact of intestinal glucuronidation on the pharmacokinetics of raloxifene.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Keigo; Sakai, Norifumi; Endo, Yuya; Fukuhara, Yuga; Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Minoru; Ohtsuka, Tatsuyuki; Kino, Ichiro; Tanimoto, Tomohiko; Takeba, Naomi; Takahashi, Masakatsu; Kume, Toshiyuki

    2011-09-01

    Raloxifene is extensively glucuronidated in humans, effectively reducing its oral bioavailability (2%). It was also reported to be glucuronidated in preclinical animals, but its effects on the oral bioavailability have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, raloxifene and its glucuronides in the portal and systemic blood were monitored in Gunn rats deficient in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A, Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBRs), which hereditarily lack multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2, and wild-type rats after oral administration. The in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) of four UGT substrates (raloxifene, biochanin A, gemfibrozil, and mycophenolic acid) in rats was also evaluated. In Gunn rats, the product of fraction absorbed and intestinal availability and hepatic availability of raloxifene were 0.63 and 0.43, respectively; these values were twice those observed in wild-type Wistar rats, indicating that raloxifene was glucuronidated in both the liver and intestine. The ratio of glucuronides to unchanged drug in systemic blood was substantially higher in EHBRs (129-fold) than in the wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats (10-fold), suggesting the excretion of raloxifene glucuronides caused by MRP2. The IVIVC of the other UGT substrates in rats displayed a good relationship, but the oral clearance values of raloxifene and biochanin A, which were extensively glucuronidated by rat intestinal microsomes, were higher than the predicted clearances using rat liver microsomes, suggesting that intestinal metabolism may be a great contributor to the first-pass effect. Therefore, evaluation of intestinal and hepatic glucuronidation for new chemical entities is important to improve their pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:21646435

  15. 3-O-Hydroxytyrosol glucuronide and 4-O-hydroxytyrosol glucuronide reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Elena; Dangles, Olivier; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Baracchini, Silvia; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is important for atherosclerosis development and is mediated by the unfolded protein response (UPR). In this work, we synthesized two among the most physiologically-prominent hydroxytyrosol HT hepatic metabolites, i.e. 3-O-HT glucuronide and 4-O-HT glucuronide and we tested their activities on ER stress (in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells), to gain further insight into the cardiopreventive properties of HT, extra virgin olive oil, and the Mediterranean diet. We report that 3-O-HT glucuronide and 4-O-HT glucuronide inhibit tunicamycin-induced ER stress. As compared with the effects of the parent molecule, 3-O-HT glucuronide and 4-O-HT glucuronide at 10 μM and 25 μM alone induced a milder change in mRNA expression levels of both CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose regulated protein GRP78 immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP). In conclusion, we add further evidence to the hypothesis that the HT intake might be atheroprotective and reiterate the usefulness to preferably use high-quality, high-(poly)phenol extra virgin olive oil as a prominent condiment. PMID:26238415

  16. Synthesis, hydrolysis and stability of psilocin glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Lehr, Matthias; Köhler, Helga

    2014-04-01

    A two-step synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), the main metabolite of psilocin, with methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-isobutyryl-1-O-trichloroacetimidoyl-α-d-glucopyranuronate is reported. With the synthesized PCG, hydrolysis conditions in serum and urine were optimized. Escherichia coli proved to be a better enzyme source for β-glucuronidase than Helix pomatia. It was essential to add ascorbic acid to serum samples to protect psilocin during incubation. Furthermore the stability of PCG and psilocin was compared as stability data are the basis for forensic interpretation of measurements. PCG showed a greater long-term stability after six months in deep frozen serum and urine samples than psilocin. The short-term stability of PCG for one week in whole blood at room temperature and in deep frozen samples was also better than that of psilocin. Therefore, PCG can be considered to be more stable than the labile psilocin and should always be included if psilocin is analyzed in samples. PMID:24513688

  17. Testosterone sulphation and glucuronidation in the human liver: interindividual variability.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, G M; Gucci, A; Giuliani, L

    1997-01-01

    Presystemic sulphation and glucuronidation at OH-C17 limits the bioavailability of testosterone; the aim of this investigation was to describe the variability in testosterone sulphation and glucuronidation rates in the human liver. Liver samples were obtained from 61 women and 40 men of similar age (mean 53 and 55 years, respectively) submitted to surgery. The mean rate of testosterone sulphation was significantly (P = 0.002) higher in men (22.4 pmol/min/mg) than in women (17.5 pmol/min/mg), was not age-dependent, followed bimodal distribution and varied over 7-fold in men and women. There was a weak, but significant negative correlation (r = -0.380; P = 0.003), between the rate of testosterone glucuronidation and age in the liver of women but not in that of men. The mean rate (pmol/min/mg) of testosterone glucuronidation was 155 (men) and 105 (women) (NS) and varied over 20-fold. When the rate of testosterone glucuronidation was expressed on the basis of g liver equivalent, the mean estimates were significantly (P = 0.003) greater in men (3323 pmol/min/g) than in women (1841 pmol/min/g). The present findings are consistent with the view that the hepatic activities of sulphotransferase and glucuronosyltransferase are higher in men than in women and that they vary in the human liver. PMID:9358207

  18. The role of glucuronidation in drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Mazerska, Zofia; Mróz, Anna; Pawłowska, Monika; Augustin, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The final therapeutic effect of a drug candidate, which is directed to a specific molecular target strongly depends on its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). The disruption of at least one element of ADME may result in serious drug resistance. In this work we described the role of one element of this resistance: phase II metabolism with UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). UGT function is the transformation of their substrates into more polar metabolites, which are better substrates for the ABC transporters, MDR1, MRP and BCRP, than the native drug. UGT-mediated drug resistance can be associated with (i) inherent overexpression of the enzyme, named intrinsic drug resistance or (ii) induced expression of the enzyme, named acquired drug resistance observed when enzyme expression is induced by the drug or other factors, as food-derived compounds. Very often this induction occurs via ligand binding receptors including AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) PXR (pregnane X receptor), or other transcription factors. The effect of UGT dependent resistance is strengthened by coordinate action and also a coordinate regulation of the expression of UGTs and ABC transporters. This coupling of UGT and multidrug resistance proteins has been intensively studied, particularly in the case of antitumor treatment, when this resistance is "improved" by differences in UGT expression between tumor and healthy tissue. Multidrug resistance coordinated with glucuronidation has also been described here for drugs used in the management of epilepsy, psychiatric diseases, HIV infections, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Proposals to reverse UGT-mediated drug resistance should consider the endogenous functions of UGT. PMID:26808161

  19. Fenoterol metabolism in man: sulphation versus glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, R; Wagner, B; Preiss-Nowzohour, K; Gundert-Remy, U

    1994-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of fenoterol (F) and its conjugate metabolites were determined in healthy female subjects and in pregnant women treated for preterm labour. Sulphate (S) and glucuronide (G) conjugates could be quantified. 2. In the healthy volunteers, AUC of both the metabolites was half that of parent compound (AUC-S/AUC-F: 0.42; 0.14-1.16) (AUC-G/AUC-F: 0.49; 0.18-0.86) during i.v. administration of the drug and was several fold that of parent drug (AUC-S/AUC-F: 116.9; 36.4-353.3, AUC-G/AUC-F: 19.9; 5.1-57.5) after p.o. administration indicating extensive presystemic elimination. 3. In the healthy subjects, the AUC ratio of G:S was 1.1 (0.5-2.6) and 0.16 (0.10-0.27) after i.v. and p.o. administration, respectively, thus indicating that sulphation is the prevailing metabolic pathway in the presystemic elimination. 4. In patients, concentration ratios were used for the analysis. During continuous i.v. treatment, Css-S/Css-F was 3.8 (2.5-4.8) and Css-G/Css-F was 1.5 (0.7-2.1). During p.o. treatment Csstrough S/Csstrough-F was 69.4 (32.1-145.7) and Csstrough-G/Csstrough-F 9.4 (5.6-13.2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8165823

  20. Morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronide pharmacokinetics in newborn infants receiving diamorphine infusions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, D A; Barker, D P; Rutter, N; Pawula, M; Shaw, P N

    1996-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) were studied in 19 ventilated newborn infants (24-41 weeks gestation) who were given a loading dose of 50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1 of diamorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 15 micrograms kg-1 h-1 of diamorphine. Plasma concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G were measured during the accrual to steady-state and at steady state of the diamorphine infusion. 2. Following both the 50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1 loading doses the mean steady-state plasma concentration (+/- s.d.) of morphine, M3G and M6G were 86 +/- 52 ng ml-1, 703 +/- 400 ng ml-1 and 48 +/- 28 ng ml-1 respectively and morphine clearance was found to be 4.6 +/- 3.2 ml min-1 kg-1. 3. M3G formation clearance was estimated to be 2.5 +/- 1.8 ml min-1 kg-1, and the formation clearance of M6G was estimated to be 0.46 +/- 0.32 ml min-1 kg-1. 4. M3G metabolite clearance was 0.46 +/- 0.60 ml min-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 11.1 +/- 11.3 h and the volume of distribution was 0.55 +/- 1.13 l kg-1. M6G metabolite clearance was 0.71 +/- 0.36 ml min-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 18.2 +/- 13.6 h and the volume of distribution was 1.03 +/- 0.88 l kg-1. 5. No significant effect of the loading dose (50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1) on the plasma morphine or metabolite concentrations or their derived pharmacokinetic parameters was found. 6. We were unable to identify correlations between gestational age of the infants and any of the determined pharmacokinetic parameters. 7. M3G: morphine and M6G: morphine steady-state plasma concentration ratios were 11.0 +/- 10.8 and 0.8 +/- 0.8, respectively. 8. The metabolism of morphine in neonates, in terms of the respective contributions of each glucuronide pathway, was similar to that in adults. PMID:8799518

  1. A rapid and specific derivatization procedure to identify acyl-glucuronides by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Alfin D N; Wang, Wei Wei; Bessire, Andrew J; Sharma, Raman; Hagen, Anne E

    2010-07-30

    A simple procedure is described to identify acyl-glucuronides by coupled liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization to a hydroxamic acid with hydroxylamine. The reaction specificity obviates the need for isolation of the acyl-glucuronide from an extract. Glucuronides derived from carbamic acids, and alkyl- and aromatic amines, are inert to the derivatization reaction conditions, making the hydroxamic acid derivative a fingerprint for acyl-glucuronides. PMID:20552710

  2. Diethylstilbestrol can effectively accelerate estradiol-17-O-glucuronidation, while potently inhibiting estradiol-3-O-glucuronidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liangliang; Xiao, Ling; Xia, Yangliu; Zhou, Kun; Wang, Huili; Huang, Minyi; Ge, Guangbo; Wu, Yan; Wu, Ganlin; Yang, Ling

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study investigates the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a widely used toxic synthetic estrogen, on estradiol-3- and 17-O- (E2-3/17-O) glucuronidation, via culturing human liver microsomes (HLMs) or recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) with DES and E2. DES can potently inhibit E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM, a probe reaction for UGT1A1. Kinetic assays indicate that the inhibition follows a competitive inhibition mechanism, with the Ki value of 2.1 ± 0.3 μM, which is less than the possible in vivo level. In contrast to the inhibition on E2-3-O-glucuronidation, the acceleration is observed on E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM, in which cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide is generated. In the presence of DES (0–6.25 μM), K{sub m} values for E2-17-O-glucuronidation are located in the range of 7.2–7.4 μM, while V{sub max} values range from 0.38 to 1.54 nmol/min/mg. The mechanism behind the activation in HLM is further demonstrated by the fact that DES can efficiently elevate the activity of UGT1A4 in catalyzing E2-17-O-glucuronidation. The presence of DES (2 μM) can elevate V{sub max} from 0.016 to 0.81 nmol/min/mg, while lifting K{sub m} in a much lesser extent from 4.4 to 11 μM. Activation of E2-17-O-glucuronidation is well described by a two binding site model, with K{sub A}, α, and β values of 0.077 ± 0.18 μM, 3.3 ± 1.1 and 104 ± 56, respectively. However, diverse effects of DES towards E2-3/17-O-glucuronidation are not observed in liver microsomes from several common experimental animals. In summary, this study issues new potential toxic mechanisms for DES: potently inhibiting the activity of UGT1A1 and powerfully accelerating the formation of cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide by UGT1A4. - Highlights: • E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM is inhibited when co-incubated with DES. • E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM is stimulated when co-incubated with DES. • Acceleration of E2-17-O-glucuronidationin in HLM by DES is via activating the activity of UGT1A4.

  3. Quantitation of Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine, Buprenorphine Glucuronide, Norbuprenorphine Glucuronide, and Naloxone in Urine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stephanie J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Buprenorphine is an opioid drug that has been used to treat opioid dependence on an outpatient basis, and is also prescribed for managing moderate to severe pain. Some formulations of buprenorphine also contain naloxone to discourage misuse. The major metabolite of buprenorphine is norbuprenorphine. Both compounds are pharmacologically active and both are extensively metabolized to their glucuronide conjugates, which are also active metabolites. Direct quantitation of the glucuronide conjugates in conjunction with free buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone in urine can distinguish compliance with prescribed therapy from specimen adulteration intended to mimic compliance with prescribed buprenorphine. This chapter quantitates buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, their glucuronide conjugates and naloxone directly in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Urine is pretreated with formic acid and undergoes solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. PMID:26660175

  4. Deconjugation kinetics of glucuronidated phase II flavonoid metabolites by beta-glucuronidase from neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Bartholomé, Roger; Haenen, Guido; Hollman, C H; Bast, Aalt; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Roos, Dirk; Keijer, Jaap; Kroon, Paul A; Needs, Paul W; Arts, Ilja C W

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids are inactivated by phase II metabolism and occur in the body as glucuronides. Mammalian beta-glucuronidase released from neutrophils at inflammatory sites may be able to deconjugate and thus activate flavonoid glucuronides. We have studied deconjugation kinetics and pH optimum for four sources of beta-glucuronidase (human neutrophil, human recombinant, myeloid PLB-985 cells, Helix pomatia) with five flavonoid glucuronides (quercetin-3-glucuronide, quercetin-3'-glucuronide, quercetin-4'-glucuronide, quercetin-7-glucuronide, 3'-methylquercetin-3-glucuronide), 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and para-nitrophenol-glucuronide. All substrate-enzyme combinations tested exhibited first order kinetics. The optimum pH for hydrolysis was between 3.5-5, with appreciable hydrolysis activities up to pH 5.5. At pH 4, the K(m) ranged 44-fold from 22 microM for quercetin-4'-glucuronide with Helix pomatia beta-glucuronidase, to 981 microM for para-nitrophenol-glucuronide with recombinant beta-glucuronidase. V(max) (range: 0.735-24.012 micromol x min(-1) x unit(-1) [1 unit is defined as the release of 1 microM 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide per min]) and the reaction rate constants at low substrate concentrations (k) (range: 0.002-0.062 min(-1) x (unit/L)(-1) were similar for all substrates-enzyme combinations tested. In conclusion, we show that beta-glucuronidase from four different sources, including human neutrophils, is able to deconjugate flavonoid glucuronides and non-flavonoid substrates at fairly similar kinetic rates. At inflammatory sites in vivo the pH, neutrophil and flavonoid glucuronide concentrations seem favorable for deconjugation. However, it remains to be confirmed whether this is actually the case. PMID:20814159

  5. Fate of glucuronide conjugated estradiol in the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate and transport of conjugated reproductive hormones, which are polar compared to parent hormones, are little understood. Laboratory bench-scale soil (Hamar; Sandy, mixed, frigid typic Endoaquolls) sorption studies were conducted using [14C] 17ß-estradiol-3-glucuronide for a range of concentra...

  6. Morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronide pharmacokinetics in newborn infants receiving diamorphine infusions

    PubMed Central

    BARRETT, D. A.; BARKER, D. P.; RUTTER, N.; PAWULA, M.; SHAW, P. N.

    1996-01-01

    1The pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) were studied in 19 ventilated newborn infants(24–41 weeks gestation) who were given a loading dose of 50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1 of diamorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 15 μg kg−1 h−1 of diamorphine. Plasma concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G were measured during the accrual to steady-state and at steady state of the diamorphine infusion. 2Following both the 50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1 loading doses the mean steady-state plasma concentration (±s.d.) of morphine, M3G and M6G were 86±52 ng ml−1, 703±400 ng ml−1 and 48±28 ng ml−1 respectively and morphine clearance was found to be 4.6±3.2 ml min−1 kg−1. 3M3G formation clearance was estimated to be 2.5±1.8 ml min−1 kg−1, and the formation clearance of M6G was estimated to be 0.46±0.32 ml min−1 kg−1. 4M3G metabolite clearance was 0.46±0.60 ml min−1 kg−1, the elimination half-life was 11.1±11.3 h and the volume of distribution was 0.55±1.13 l kg−1. M6G metabolite clearance was 0.71±0.36 ml min−1 kg−1, the elimination half-life was 18.2±13.6 h and the volume of distribution was 1.03±0.88 l kg−1. 5No significant effect of the loading dose (50 μg kg−1 or 200 μg kg−1) on the plasma morphine or metabolite concentrations or their derived pharmacokinetic parameters was found. 6We were unable to identify correlations between gestational age of the infants and any of the determined pharmacokinetic parameters. 7M3G:morphine and M6G:morphine steady-state plasma concentration ratios were 11.0±10.8 and 0.8±0.8, respectively. 8The metabolism of morphine in neonates, in terms of the respective contributions of each glucuronide pathway, was similar to that in adults. PMID:8799518

  7. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 009 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE ( CAS No . 78 - 93 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been r

  8. Chlorimuron-ethyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorimuron - ethyl ; CASRN 90982 - 32 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  9. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  10. In Vitro Stability of Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoids in Urine Following Controlled Smoked Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Lee, Dayong; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Analyte stability is an important factor in urine test interpretation, yet cannabinoid stability data are limited. A comprehensive study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide stabilities in authentic urine was completed. Urine samples after ad libitum cannabis smoking were pooled to prepare low and high pools for each study participant; baseline concentrations were measured within 24h at room temperature (RT), 4°C and −20°C. Stability at RT, 4°C and −20°C was evaluated by Friedman tests for up to 1 year. THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide were quantified in baseline pools. RT THCCOOH baseline concentrations were significantly higher than −20°C, but not 4°C baseline concentrations. After 1 week at RT, THCCOOH increased, THCCOOH-glucuronide decreased, but THC-glucuronide was unchanged. In RT low pool, total THCCOOH (THCCOOH+THCCOOH-glucuronide) was significantly lower after 1 week. At 4°C, THCCOOH was stable 2 weeks, THCCOOH-glucuronide 1 month and THC-glucuronide for at least 6 months. THCCOOH was stable frozen for 1 year, but 6 months high pool results were significantly higher than baseline; THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide were stable for 6 months. Total THCCOOH was stable 6 months at 4°C, and frozen 6 months (low) and 1 year (high). THC, cannabidiol and cannabinol were never detected in urine; although not detected initially, 11-OH-THC was detected in 2 low and 3 high pools after one week at RT. Substantial THCCOOH-glucuronide deconjugation was observed at RT and 4°C. Analysis should be conducted within 3 months if non-hydrolyzed THCCOOH or THCCOOH-glucuronide quantification is required. PMID:24292435

  11. Behavioural sensitization in mice induced by morphine-glucuronide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Handal, Marte; Ripel, Ase; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Mørland, Jørg

    2008-10-01

    Sensitization is thought to be involved in central aspects of drug addiction. Both morphine-3-glucuronid (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronid (M6G) are rapidly formed in high concentrations shortly after heroin and morphine consumption. Their role in the development of sensitization has not previously been studied. In our study, mice received three injections of M6G or morphine at six day intervals. M6G induced locomotor sensitization comparable to morphine as early as the first injection. In a second experiment two injections of M6G or morphine were given, separated by 6, 12, 18, 24 or 30 days. A sensitized response was observed for both morphine and M6G up to 18 days after the first injection. In a third experiment with two injections, the first with M6G and the second with morphine, or the opposite sequence, M6G did not induce cross-sensitization to morphine although morphine induced cross-sensitization to M6G. Finally, pretreatment with M3G induced sensitization of morphine locomotor activity but not M6G. In conclusion M6G induced long-lasting sensitization similar but not identical to morphine. M3G was shown to sensitize morphine induced locomotor activity in a similar way to morphine pretreatment. This suggests that morphine-glucuronide metabolites may play a role in the development of addiction to morphine. PMID:18555521

  12. Ethyl N-phenyloxamate.

    PubMed

    García-Báez E, Efrén V; Gómez-Castro, Carlos Z; Höpfl, Herbert; Martínez-Martínez, Francisco J; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I

    2003-10-01

    The oxamate group in the title compound, C(10)H(11)NO(3), is almost coplanar with the phenyl ring because of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions, and the structure can be described as an anilide single bonded to an ethyl carboxylate group. The supramolecular structure is achieved through intermolecular hard N-H...O and soft C-H...X (X = O and phenyl) hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:14532664

  13. ETG-dominated transport regimes in near-edge DIII-D L-mode plasmas: Validation of multiscale gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiser, Tom; Jenko, Frank; Schmitz, Lothar; Told, Daniel; Banon Navarro, Alejandro; Carter, Troy; Yan, Zheng; McKee, George

    2015-11-01

    A prerequisite for the development of a self-consistent theoretical description of the L-H transition is the ability to quantitatively characterize near-edge L-mode plasmas. It is shown here for the first time that regimes exist in the L-mode near-edge that appear to be dominated by sub-ion-scale turbulence driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes. These are results of gyrokinetic simulations of a DIII-D L-mode discharge in the near edge region (r/a = 0.8) with the GENE code (www.genecode.org). Instructed by a linear analysis, we performed nonlinear simulations of ITG and ETG turbulence, pointing to a dominance of ETG turbulence regarding the anomalous radial heat flux. Direct comparison with experimental data is encouraging. Respective multi-scale simulations, covering both ion and electron scales are underway and will be presented. Implications for L-H transition modeling will also be discussed. Work supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under DE-FG02-08ER54984 and DE-FC02-04ER54698, as well as NERSC, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  14. Glucuronide directed molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction: isolation of testosterone glucuronide from its parent drug in urine.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Serena; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; De Lorenzi, Ersilia; Sellergren, Borje

    2012-01-01

    Two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) that we recently described to be class-selective for glucuronides have been successfully exploited for the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of testosterone glucuronide (TG) from its parent drug (T) in urine. Both sorbents targeted the glucuronate fragment but feature different functional groups for binding the carboxylate anion, MIP1, a neutral 1,3-diarylurea group, and MIP2, a cationic imidazolium functionality. MISPE-HPLC-UV methods developed using both sorbents allowed the extraction of TG from its parent compound in urine samples spiked at 150, 300 or 600 ng mL(-1) for TG and at 50 ng mL(-1) for T. By comparing the performance of the two sorbents it came out that MIP1 is a more suitable SPE packing than MIP2, since it isolated the glucuronide with a higher precision (RSD 2-5%, n = 3) and with an enhanced enrichment factor (EF = 4.2). On the basis of these results, the imprinted receptor MIP1 can be applied for the direct extraction of TG in doping and clinical analysis and to selectively capture any other relevant glucuronated metabolite avoiding tedious deconjugation steps prior to quantification. PMID:22034618

  15. A membrane-potential dependent ABC-like transporter mediates the vacuolar uptake of rye flavone glucuronides: regulation of glucuronide uptake by glutathione and its conjugates.

    PubMed

    Klein, M; Martinoia, E; Hoffmann-Thoma, G; Weissenböck, G

    2000-02-01

    In this paper we present results on the vacuolar uptake mechanism for two flavone glucuronides present in rye mesophyll vacuoles. In contrast to barley flavone glucosides (Klein et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 29666-29671), the flavones luteolin 7-O-diglucuronyl-4'-O-glucuronide (R1) and luteolin 7-O-diglucuronide (R2) were taken up into vacuoles isolated from rye via a directly energized mechanism. Kinetic studies suggested that the vacuolar glucuronide transport system is constitutively expressed throughout rye primary leaf development. Competition experiments argued for the existence of a plant MRP-like transporter for plant-specific and non-plant glucuronides such as beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) (E217G). The interaction of ATP-dependent vacuolar glucuronide uptake with glutathione and its conjugates turned out to be complex: R1 transport was stimulated by dinitrobenzene-GS and reduced glutathione but was inhibited by oxidized glutathione in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, R2 uptake was not increased in the presence of reduced glutathione. Thus, the transport system for plant-derived glucuronides differed from the characteristic stimulation of vacuolar E217G uptake by glutathione conjugates but not by reduced glutathione (Klein et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 262-270). Using tonoplast vesicles isolated with an artificial K+ gradient, we demonstrate for the first time for plant MRPs that the ATP-dependent uptake of R1 is membrane-potential dependent. We discuss the kinetic capacity of the ABC-type glucuronide transporter to explain net vacuolar flavone glucuronide accumulation in planta during rye primary leaf development and the possibility of an interaction of potential substrates at both the substrate binding and allosteric sites of the MRP transporter regulating the activity towards a certain substrate. PMID:10758480

  16. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tom S. Wilson, John X.; Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia; Poon, Raymond; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2008-11-01

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

  17. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A6 and 1A10 catalyze reduced menadione glucuronidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Takahito; Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Inoue, Yuu; Kishi, Takehiko; Ogura, Kenichiro; Hiratsuka, Akira

    2008-06-27

    Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquine), also known as vitamin K3, has been widely used as a model compound in the field of oxidative stress-related research. The metabolism of menadione has been studied, and it is known that menadione undergoes a two-electron reduction by NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) after which the reduced form of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthalenediol, menadiol) is glucuronidated and excreted in urine. To investigate which human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms participate in the glucuronidation of menadiol reduced by NQO1 from menadione, we first constructed heterologously expressed NQO1 in Sf9 cells and tested the menadiol glucuronidating activity of 16 human recombinant UGT isoforms. Of the 16 UGT isoforms, UGTs 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 catalyzed menadiol glucuronidation, and, of these, UGTs 1A6 and 1A10 catalyzed menadiol glucuronidation at much higher rates than the other UGTs. Menadiol was regioselectively glucuronidated in the manner of 4-position > 1-position by UGTs 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10. In contrast to these UGTs, only UGT1A6 exhibited 1-menadiol-preferential glucuronidating activity. The results suggest possible detoxification pathways for quinones via NQO1 reduction followed by UGT glucuronidation.

  18. Glucuronidation and sulphation of paracetamol in HIV-positive patients and patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, W M; Pezzullo, J C; Di Girolamo, A; Tsoukas, C M; Wainer, I W

    1999-01-01

    Aims To gauge the effect of disease state and disease progression on the glucuronidation and sulphation of paracetamol (APAP) among HIV-positive patients and patients with AIDS. Methods The extent of APAP glucuronidation and APAP sulphation was assessed using a spot urine sample collected 4 h after the oral administration of 500 mg of APAP to 108 patients with AIDS or HIV infection. The molar concentrations of APAP and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites were determined using a validated h.p.l.c. method and glucuronidation and sulphation indices were constructed using APAP metabolite/APAP molar concentration ratios. Results No effect of disease state, AIDS vs asymptomatic HIV positive vs control, on APAP glucuronidation or sulphation was observed. The patient population was studied over time and disease progression also did not significantly alter the calculated glucuronidation and sulphation indices. The effect of the concomitant administration of other therapeutic agents was assessed and in the cross sectional portion of the study dapsone appeared to significantly decrease APAP sulphation as did lamivudine. In the longitudinal portion of the study the latter effect was not observed but zidovudine was seen to increase APAP glucuronidation. The data also indicates that APAP glucuronidation may be reduced in patients who are >10% below their ideal body weight. PMID:10594484

  19. Structure-Dependent Deconjugation of Flavonoid Glucuronides by Human ?-Glucuronidase - In Vitro and In Silico Analyses.

    PubMed

    Untergehrer, Monika; Bcherl, Daniel; Wittmann, Hans-Joachim; Strasser, Andrea; Heilmann, Jrg; Jrgenliemk, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Flavonoid glycosides are extensively metabolized to glucuronidated compounds after oral intake. Recently, a cleavage of quercetin glucuronides by ?-glucuronidase has been found. To characterize the deglucuronidation reaction and its structural prerequisites among the flavonoid subtypes more precisely, four flavonol glucuronides with varying glucuronidation positions, five flavone 7-O-glucuronides with varying A- and B-ring substitution as well as one flavanone- and one isoflavone-7-O-glucuronide were analyzed in a human monocytic cell line. Investigation of the deglucuronidation rates by HPLC revealed a significant influence of the glucuronidation position on enzyme activity for flavonols. Across the flavonoid subtypes, the C-ring saturation also showed a significant influence on deglucuronidation, whereas A- and B-ring variations within the flavone-7-O-glucuronides did not affect the enzymes' activity. Results were compared to computational binding studies on human ?-glucuronidase. Additionally, molecular modeling and dynamic studies were performed to obtain detailed insight into the binding and cleavage mode of the substrate at the active site of the human ?-glucuronidase. PMID:26018917

  20. [Pharmacokinetics of naltrexone hydrochloride and naltrexone glucuronide in the dog].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Zhao, S F; Wang, N; Ge, Z H

    1996-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of naltrexone hydrochloride (NTX) and naltrexone glucuronide was studied in the dog using HPLC-electrochemical detection with naloxone as internal standard. After iv 5 mg or po 10 mg NTX, the plasma concentration-time curves of NTX were found to fit to a two-compartment model and a single compartment with first-order absorption. The elimination half-lives of NTX were 78 +/- 6 min and 74 +/- 6 min, respectively. Although NTX could be absorbed rapidly in the dog after po administration, the plasma concentration of the parent drug was very low and its absolute bioavailability was 15.8%. The experiments showed that the major metabolite of NTX in dog plasma was beta-glucuronidase-hydrolyzable conjugate. Dosing NTX intravenously and orally, the plasma levels of the conjugate were 1.3 and 23 times as high as that of the parent drug, the elimination half-lives of the glucuronide from plasma were 3.4 h and 12.6 h, respectively. The results indicate that NTX is subjected to a marked first-pass effect in the dog after oral administration. PMID:9208648

  1. In vitro stability of free and glucuronidated cannabinoids in urine following controlled smoked cannabis.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Lee, Dayong; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    Analyte stability is an important factor in urine test interpretation, yet cannabinoid stability data are limited. A comprehensive study of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide stabilities in authentic urine was completed. Urine samples after ad libitum cannabis smoking were pooled to prepare low and high pools for each study participant; baseline concentrations were measured within 24 h at room temperature (RT), 4 °C and -20 °C. Stability at RT, 4 °C and -20 °C was evaluated by Friedman tests for up to 1 year. THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide were quantified in baseline pools. RT THCCOOH baseline concentrations were significantly higher than -20 °C, but not 4 °C baseline concentrations. After 1 week at RT, THCCOOH increased, THCCOOH-glucuronide decreased, but THC-glucuronide was unchanged. In RT low pool, total THCCOOH (THCCOOH + THCCOOH-glucuronide) was significantly lower after 1 week. At 4 °C, THCCOOH was stable 2 weeks, THCCOOH-glucuronide 1 month and THC-glucuronide for at least 6 months. THCCOOH was stable frozen for 1 year, but 6 months high pool results were significantly higher than baseline; THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide were stable for 6 months. Total THCCOOH was stable 6 months at 4 °C, and frozen 6 months (low) and 1 year (high). THC, cannabidiol and cannabinol were never detected in urine; although not detected initially, 11-OH-THC was detected in 2 low and 3 high pools after 1 week at RT. Substantial THCCOOH-glucuronide deconjugation was observed at RT and 4 °C. Analysis should be conducted within 3 months if non-hydrolyzed THCCOOH or THCCOOH-glucuronide quantification is required. PMID:24292435

  2. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  3. HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide as new T-2 toxin metabolite: enzymatic synthesis, analysis, and species specific formation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides by rat, mouse, pig, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Tanja; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-10-10

    Glucuronides of the mycotoxin T-2 toxin and its phase I metabolite HT-2 toxin are important phase II metabolites under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Since standard substances are essential for the direct quantitation of these glucuronides, a method for the enzymatic synthesis of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides employing liver microsomes was optimized. Structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry revealed that besides T-2 toxin glucuronide and HT-2 toxin 3-glucuronide also the newly identified isomer HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide was formed. Glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in liver microsomes of rat, mouse, pig, and human was compared and metabolites were analyzed directly by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A distinct, species specific pattern of glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin was observed with interesting interindividual differences. Until recently, glucuronides have frequently been analyzed indirectly by quantitation of the aglycone after enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides by β-glucuronidase. Therefore, the hydrolysis efficiencies of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides using β-glucuronidases from Helix pomatia, bovine liver, and Escherichia coli were compared. PMID:22967261

  4. Dietary green and white teas suppress UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B17 mediated testosterone glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Carl; Petroczi, Andrea; Barker, James; Naughton, Declan P

    2012-05-01

    The anabolic steroid testosterone can be used by athletes to enhance athletic performance and muscle growth. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT2B17) is the key enzyme involved in the glucuronidation of testosterone to testosterone glucuronide, which also serves as a marker for the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio used to detect testosterone abuse in sport. Inhibitors of testosterone glucuronidation could have an impact on circulating testosterone levels, thus aiding performance, as well as potentially affecting the urinary T/E ratio and therefore masking testosterone abuse. Previous reports have revealed that non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac and ibuprofen, inhibit the UGT2B17 enzyme. The aim of this study is to analyse dietary tea samples for inhibition of testosterone glucuronidation and, where inhibition is present, to identify the active compounds. Analysis of testosterone glucuronidation was conducted by performing UGT2B17 assays with detection of un-glucuronidated testosterone using high performance liquid chromatography. The results from this study showed that testosterone glucuronidation was inhibited by the green and white tea extracts, along with specific catechin compounds, notably: epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and catechin gallate. The IC50 inhibition value for EGCG was determined, using a Dixon plot, to be 64 μM, equalling the most active NSAID inhibitor diclofenac. Thus, common foodstuffs and their constituents, for the first time, have been identified as inhibitors of a key enzyme involved in testosterone glucuronidation. Whilst these common compounds are not substrates of the UGT2B17 enzyme, we showed that they inhibit testosterone glucuronidation which may have implications on current doping control in sport. PMID:22429924

  5. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay for 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate and 6-hydroxymelatonin glucuronide in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, P.L.; Leone, A.M.; Young, I.M.; Stovell, P.; Silman, R.E.

    1987-04-01

    Circulating melatonin is hydroxylated to 6-hydroxymelatonin and excreted in urine as the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. We extracted these two compounds from urine by using octadecylsilane-bonded silica cartridges to eliminate most of the urea and electrolytes, and silica cartridges to separate the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. After hydrolyzing the separated conjugates enzymically, we determined the free hydroxymelatonin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though recoveries were low and variable, we were able to quantify the analyte in the original sample by adding deuterated sulfate and glucuronide conjugates to the urines before extraction.

  6. Glucuronidation and Sulfation Kinetics of Diflunisal in Man.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewen, Gordon Rapheal

    Diflunisal is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of arthritis and musculoskeletal pain. Diflunisal exhibits concentration- and dose-dependent kinetics, the mechanism of which has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for non-linear disposition of diflunisal and to examine environmental factors which may affect the elimination of diflunisal. The metabolites of diflunisal, including a new metabolite, the sulphate conjugate, were purified by column and semi-preparative high pressure liquid chromatography. Assays for the quantitation of diflunisal and conjugates in urine and diflunisal in plasma were developed. Plasma protein binding of diflunisal in blank plasma and in plasma obtained following multiple doses of diflunisal was determined by equilibrium dialysis. Total body clearance of diflunisal decreased when dose increased from 100 to 750 mg. Total clearance increased when dose increased from 750 to 1000 mg. The percent of recovered dose eliminated as the acyl glucuronide decreased and the percent eliminated as the sulphate increased with increasing dose of diflunisal. Plasma protein binding of diflunisal was concentration dependent over a range of diflunisal plasma concentrations of 3 to 257 mug/ml. Total clearance, and to a lesser degree, unbound clearance of diflunisal were decreased following multiple dose administration of 250 and 500 mg diflunisal. Percent of recovered dose eliminated as the acyl glucuronide decreased and percent eliminated as the sulphate conjugate increased following multiple dosing. Plasma protein binding of diflunisal was similar in blank plasma and plasma obtained at steady state. Unbound clearance of diflunisal exceeded liver plasma flow. Frequency distributions of the elimination of the conjugates of diflunisal were normally distributed. Sex, smoking, and use of vitamins or oral contraceptives were identified as factors which may affect the elimination of diflunisal.

  7. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of serum androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3α, 17β diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Bertin, Jonathan; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Dury, Alain Y; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Quantification of steroidal glucuronide conjugates by the indirect methods of immunoassay and GC-MS/MS may underestimate some conjugates since hydrolysis is needed in sample processing. In the present work, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous direct quantification of androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3α, 17β diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women's serum. The quantification limits are 0.1ng/mL for 3α-diol-17G and 4ng/mL for both ADT-G and Etio-G, respectively, with an extraction from 200μL serum while the total run time is less than 6min for all three glucuronides. In this method, solid phase extraction is used for sample preparation. The assay has been validated in compliance with EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method development and validation. The recovery of glucuronides in stripped serum is consistent with that in unstripped serum, where the average difference in stripped and unstripped is less than 10%. A linear regression model fits well the standard curves of all three compounds with R≥0.99 where the weighting factor is 1/X. Interday accuracy and CV for all levels of QCs are within the range of 15% in both stripped and unstripped serum while all calibration curves are within the range of 6% except for LLOQs, which are within the range of 9%. Other parameters have also been assessed such as selectivity, matrix, lipemic and hemolysis effects as well as stabilities in solution and matrix. Incurred sample reanalysis has been performed with a result of over 93% within 20% of the original values. This reliable, sensitive and fast method is ready for large-scale clinical sample assays. PMID:25701608

  8. Optimization to eliminate the interference of migration isomers for measuring 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide without extensive chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y-J; Akinsanya, J Billy; Raghavan, Nirmala; Zhang, Donglu

    2008-01-01

    A highly selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method has been investigated for the determination of muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide in animal and human plasma without chromatographic separation of this naturally formed acyl glucuronide from its migration isomers. In the ion source or the collision cell, glucuronides are often prone to lose the dehydrated glucuronic acid (176 Da) and convert back into the parent drug (aglycone). The extent of loss of the glucuronide moiety can differ among glucuronides. For the naturally occurring muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide, or its synthetic anomer 1-O-alpha-glucuronide, the loss of the glucuronide moiety was a major fragment ion. The loss of the glucuronide moiety was greater for the 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide than the 1-O-alpha-anomer. In addition, the loss of the glucuronide moiety was insignificant (less than 0.01%) with the other glucuronide isomers (2-, 3- or 4-O, alpha or beta). Given the fact that the 1-O-alpha-anomer was a minor impurity in the muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide reference standard, and not either a conversion product of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide or endogenously formed, the SRM transition corresponding to the loss of the glucuronide moiety was very specific for 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide, and practically free from interference of the other isomers under optimized collision-cell conditions. As a result, extensive chromatographic separation of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide from its migration isomers was not required. The use of this specific SRM transition effectively reduced the separation time from 12.0 min of a long-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to 2.5 min by use of a shorter column. The standard curve performance and analysis results of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide incubation samples showed that the short-column method could produce equivalent results to the long-column method but with a 4.5-fold improvement in sample throughput. This approach may be useful for other 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide measurements with proper tuning of collision energy. The generation of a breakdown curve (abundance vs. collision energy) helps to define whether appropriate conditions may be selected for specific MRM transitions. PMID:18059002

  9. Effect of intestinal glucuronidation in limiting hepatic exposure and bioactivation of raloxifene in humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Dalvie, Deepak; Kang, Ping; Zientek, Michael; Xiang, Cathie; Zhou, Sue; Obach, R Scott

    2008-12-01

    Raloxifene (Evista) is a second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator used in the treatment of osteoporosis and for chemoprevention of breast cancer. It is bioactivated to reactive intermediates, which covalently bind to proteins and form GSH conjugates upon incubation with NADPH and GSH-supplemented human and rat liver microsomes. Despite these in vitro findings, no major raloxifene-related toxic events have been reported upon its oral administration to humans. This disconnect between safety of raloxifene and its in vitro bioactivation is attributed to its presystemic metabolism via glucuronidation. Current studies investigated the effect of hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation in modulating hepatic availability of raloxifene and its subsequent bioactivation, in vitro. The study design involved preincubation of raloxifene with intestinal microsomes followed by a sequential incubation with liver microsomes. The degree of bioactivation of raloxifene was assessed from the percentage of GSH conjugate formed in liver microsomal incubations or the amount of covalent binding of raloxifene-related material to liver microsomal proteins. The results indicated that human intestinal glucuronidation limited the hepatic exposure of raloxifene that underwent bioactivation in the liver. Similar experiments with rat microsomal preparations showed very little effect of intestinal glucuronidation. This effect of intestinal glucuronidation and the observed species difference were explained by comparing the efficiency (Cl(int)) of glucuronidation and oxidation in the two species. These findings suggested that even though the rate of bioactivation in the two species was similar, the Cl(int) of glucuronidation was 7.5-fold higher in the human intestine as compared to rats. These results support the hypothesis that intestinal glucuronidation modulates the amount of raloxifene undergoing bioactivation by liver and corroborate the importance of assessing other competitive metabolic pathways and species differences in metabolism prior to extrapolation of bioactivation results from rats to humans. PMID:19548350

  10. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Scale-Up of Milk Thistle Flavonolignan Glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Graf, Tyler N; Paguigan, Noemi D; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-11-01

    Plant-based therapeutics, including herbal products, continue to represent a growing facet of the contemporary health care market. Mechanistic descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of constituents composing these products remain nascent, particularly for metabolites produced following herbal product ingestion. Generation and characterization of authentic metabolite standards are essential to improve the quantitative mechanistic understanding of herbal product disposition in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Using the model herbal product, milk thistle, the objective of this work was to biosynthesize multimilligram quantities of glucuronides of select constituents (flavonolignans) to fill multiple knowledge gaps in the understanding of herbal product disposition and action. A partnership between clinical pharmacology and natural products chemistry expertise was leveraged to optimize reaction conditions for efficient glucuronide formation and evaluate alternate enzyme and reagent sources to improve cost effectiveness. Optimized reaction conditions used at least one-fourth the amount of microsomal protein (from bovine liver) and cofactor (UDP glucuronic acid) compared with typical conditions using human-derived subcellular fractions, providing substantial cost savings. Glucuronidation was flavonolignan-dependent. Silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B generated five, four, four, and three monoglucuronides, respectively. Large-scale synthesis (40 mg of starting material) generated three glucuronides of silybin A: silybin A-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (15.7 mg), silybin A-5-O-β-D-glucuronide (1.6 mg), and silybin A-4´´-O-β-D-glucuronide (11.1 mg). This optimized, cost-efficient method lays the foundation for a systematic approach to synthesize and characterize herbal product constituent glucuronides, enabling an improved understanding of mechanisms underlying herbal product disposition and action. PMID:26316643

  11. Characterization of in vitro glucuronidation clearance of a range of drugs in human kidney microsomes: comparison with liver and intestinal glucuronidation and impact of albumin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Katherine L; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of the addition of albumin for characterization of hepatic glucuronidation in vitro; however, no reports exist on the effects of albumin on renal or intestinal microsomal glucuronidation assays. This study characterized glucuronidation clearance (CL(int, UGT)) in human kidney, liver, and intestinal microsomes in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for seven drugs with differential UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B7 specificity, namely, diclofenac, ezetimibe, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, naloxone, propofol, and telmisartan. The impact of renal CL(int, UGT) on accuracy of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of glucuronidation clearance was investigated. Inclusion of 1% BSA for acidic drugs and 2% for bases/neutral drugs in incubations was found to be suitable for characterization of CL(int, UGT) in different tissues. Although BSA increased CL(int, UGT) in all tissues, the extent was tissue- and drug-dependent. Scaled CL(int, UGT) in the presence of BSA ranged from 2.22 to 207, 0.439 to 24.4, and 0.292 to 23.8 ml · min(-1) · g tissue(-1) in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes. Renal CL(int, UGT) (per gram of tissue) was up to 2-fold higher in comparison with that for liver for UGT1A9 substrates; in contrast, CL(int, UGT) for UGT2B7 substrates represented approximately one-third of hepatic estimates. Scaled renal CL(int, UGT) (in the presence of BSA) was up to 30-fold higher than intestinal glucuronidation for the drugs investigated. Use of in vitro data obtained in the presence of BSA and inclusion of renal clearance improved the IVIVE of glucuronidation clearance, with 50% of drugs predicted within 2-fold of observed values. Characterization and consideration of kidney CL(int, UGT) is particularly important for UGT1A9 substrates. PMID:22275465

  12. Characterization of In Vitro Glucuronidation Clearance of a Range of Drugs in Human Kidney Microsomes: Comparison with Liver and Intestinal Glucuronidation and Impact of Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine L.; Houston, J. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of the addition of albumin for characterization of hepatic glucuronidation in vitro; however, no reports exist on the effects of albumin on renal or intestinal microsomal glucuronidation assays. This study characterized glucuronidation clearance (CLint, UGT) in human kidney, liver, and intestinal microsomes in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for seven drugs with differential UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B7 specificity, namely, diclofenac, ezetimibe, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, naloxone, propofol, and telmisartan. The impact of renal CLint, UGT on accuracy of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of glucuronidation clearance was investigated. Inclusion of 1% BSA for acidic drugs and 2% for bases/neutral drugs in incubations was found to be suitable for characterization of CLint, UGT in different tissues. Although BSA increased CLint, UGT in all tissues, the extent was tissue- and drug-dependent. Scaled CLint, UGT in the presence of BSA ranged from 2.22 to 207, 0.439 to 24.4, and 0.292 to 23.8 ml · min−1 · g tissue−1 in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes. Renal CLint, UGT (per gram of tissue) was up to 2-fold higher in comparison with that for liver for UGT1A9 substrates; in contrast, CLint, UGT for UGT2B7 substrates represented approximately one-third of hepatic estimates. Scaled renal CLint, UGT (in the presence of BSA) was up to 30-fold higher than intestinal glucuronidation for the drugs investigated. Use of in vitro data obtained in the presence of BSA and inclusion of renal clearance improved the IVIVE of glucuronidation clearance, with 50% of drugs predicted within 2-fold of observed values. Characterization and consideration of kidney CLint, UGT is particularly important for UGT1A9 substrates. PMID:22275465

  13. Separation of substrates and closely related glucuronide metabolites using various chromatographic modes.

    PubMed

    Romand, Stéphanie; Rudaz, Serge; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-02-26

    The aim of this study was to assess the retention and selectivity of a cocktail of 10 substrates of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) and their respective glucuronides using four chromatographic approaches. For this purpose, seven different stationary phases were employed in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), two in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), one in aqueous normal phase chromatography (ANPC) and four in subcritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Highly orthogonal separations were achieved with these chromatographic modes. Hydrophobic interactions mainly governed the retention of the substrates and their polar glucuronides in RPLC despite the use of different chemical stationary phase bonding, involving additional possible interactions. In ANPC, atypical separations and poor peak shapes were observed with the selected compounds. In HILIC and SFC conditions, the metabolites were more retained than the substrates because of the polarity increase related to the glucuronic acid moiety. For the latter, a very high proportion of organic solvent (up to 80%) was required to elute the glucuronides that often displayed poor peak shapes. Finally, the selectivity of nine chromatographic systems was compared for the separation of isomeric and diastereoisomeric compounds. The stationary phases used in RPLC mode were more selective towards the two positional isomers of morphine glucuronides since they possess distinct lipophilicity. HILIC and SFC columns were found to be promising for the separation of a critical diastereoisomers pair, namely epitestosterone-glucuronide and testosterone-glucuronide. PMID:26818236

  14. Identification of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms responsible for the glucuronidation of glycyrrhetinic acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Xijing; Li, Ning; Fu, Feifei; He, Jiake; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Lingli; Zheng, Yi; Qiu, Zhixia; Yu, Xue; Han, Deen; Wu, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active metabolite of glycyrrhizin, is primarily eliminated by glucuronidation reaction in vivo. In spite of the widespread clinical use of glycyrrhizin, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms involved in the glucuronidation of this drug are still unknown. This report identifies and characterizes the UGT isoforms responsible for glycyrrhetinic acid glucuronidation. In the enzymatic kinetic experiment performed with pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs), K(m) was 39.4 microM and V(max) was 609.2 pmol/min/mg protein. Of the baculosomes expressing 12 recombinant UGTs investigated, UGT1A1, 1A3, 2B4 and 2B7 showed catalytic activity and UGT1A3 exhibited the highest activity. K(m) values of recombinant UGT1A3 and 2B7 were 3.4 and 4.4 microM, respectively. Both imipramine (typical substrate of UGT1A3 and 1A4) and flurbiprofen (typical substrate of UGT2B7) inhibit the glucuronidation of glycyrrhetinic acid. Estimated IC(50) values were 138 microM for flurbiprofen and 207 microM for imipramine in the inhibition of the glucuronidation of glycyrrhetinic acid in HLMs. These results suggest that glycyrrhetinic acid glucuronidation is primarily mediated by UGT1A1, 1A3, 2B4 and 2B7. PMID:20045987

  15. Glucuronidation of Drugs and Drug-Induced Toxicity in Humanized UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuno, Yuki; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze glucuronidation of various drugs. Although experimental rodents are used in preclinical studies to predict glucuronidation and toxicity of drugs in humans, species differences in glucuronidation and drug-induced toxicity have been reported. Humanized UGT1 mice in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus (hUGT1 mice) were recently developed. In this study, acyl-glucuronidations of etodolac, diclofenac, and ibuprofen in liver microsomes of hUGT1 mice were examined and compared with those of humans and regular mice. The kinetics of etodolac, diclofenac, and ibuprofen acyl-glucuronidation in hUGT1 mice were almost comparable to those in humans, rather than in mice. We further investigated the hepatotoxicity of ibuprofen in hUGT1 mice and regular mice by measuring serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels. Because ALT levels were increased at 6 hours after dosing in hUGT1 mice and at 24 hours after dosing in regular mice, the onset pattern of ibuprofen-induced liver toxicity in hUGT1 mice was different from that in regular mice. These data suggest that hUGT1 mice can be valuable tools for understanding glucuronidations of drugs and drug-induced toxicity in humans. PMID:24764149

  16. Morphine-6beta-glucuronide modulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Lysle, D T; Carrigan, K A

    2001-08-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of morphine are well established; however, suprisingly little is known about the immunomodulatory properties of the major metabolites of morphine. The present study tests the hypothesis that expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is modulated by the administration of the morphine metabolite, morphine-6beta-glucuronide. The initial study using rats shows that morphine-6beta-glucuronide administration (0, 1.0, 3.163, 10 mg/kg s.c.) results in a pronounced reduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of iNOS (inducible nitricoxide synthease) in spleen, lung, and liver tissue as measured by western blotting. Morphine-6beta-glucuronide also produces a reduction in the level of plasma nitrite/nitrate, the more stable end-product of nitric oxide degradation. In a subsequent study, administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg) prior to the injection of morphine-6beta-glucuronide (10 mg/kg) blocks the morphine-6beta-glucuronide induced reduction of iNOS expression and plasma nitrite/nitrite levels indicating that the effect is mediated via the opioid-receptor. This study provides the first evidence that morphine-6beta-glucuronide alters the expression of iNOS. PMID:11580103

  17. Bisphenol A-glucuronide measurement in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Harthé, Catherine; Rinaldi, Sabina; Achaintre, David; de Ravel, Marc Rolland; Mappus, Elisabeth; Pugeat, Michel; Déchaud, Henri

    2012-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is one of the most abundant endocrine disruptors that are present in our environment, and has been repeatedly detected in most human biological samples. As it has been suggested that part of the BPA measured in human samples is due to contamination during samples collection or laboratory measurements, we have developed a specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), the main endogenous metabolite of BPA in urine. We used a polyclonal anti-BPA antibody which has a 95% cross reactivity with BPA-G, and insignificant cross reactivity with most analogous BPA phenolic structures. To eliminate unconjugated BPA from urine samples, an extraction step with dichloromethane was required. The method proved to be valid, precise and accurate in the range of 0.05 μg/L to 5 μg/L. With this method, we measured BPA-G in 163 urine samples from a hospital population. We detected BPA-G in all samples, with mean values of 4.64 μg/L. In conclusion, the present radioimmunoassay is a useful tool for the screening of BPA exposure in human populations encompassing the problem of eventual contamination from laboratory manipulation. PMID:23141357

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic enantioselective assay for the measurement of ketoprofen glucuronidation by liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Chakir, S; Maurice, M H; Magdalou, J; Leroy, P; Dubois, N; Lapicque, F; Abdelhamid, Z; Nicolas, A

    1994-03-18

    A stereoselective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to study the in vitro glucuronidation of ketoprofen enantiomers by liver microsomes. The HPLC system consisted of a Superspher 100 RP 18 end-capped column eluted with a mixture of acetonitrile and 10 mM tetrabutylammonium bromide in 1 mM potassium phosphate adjusted to pH 4.3 (30:70, v/v). Ultraviolet detection was performed at a wavelength of 254 nm. The capacity factors of S-ketoprofen glucuronide, R-ketoprofen glucuronide and R,S-ketoprofen were 12.8, 14.5 and 18.1, respectively. Sample pretreatment consisted of protein precipitation in microsomal incubation suspensions and further purification on a Sep Pak C18 cartridge before injection onto the HPLC system. Quantitation was performed with standard glucuronides biosynthetized with immobilized microsomes and purified by semi-preparative HPLC. The linearity of the method between 1.25 and 25.0 micrograms ml-1 (coefficient of correlation greater than 0.999), the repeatability (coefficient of variation = 1.2%; n = 5), and recovery (within 85%) were tested. The limit of detection was 10 ng for each glucuronide injected. The in vitro glucuronidation of R- and S-ketoprofen was measured in liver microsomes from man and from various animal species (dog, rat, rabbit). For both enantiomers, dog presented the highest specific activity. In contrast, the lowest activity was found in rabbit. On the other hand, the formation ratio of the S- and R-glucuronides of ketoprofen was close to 1 in man, rat and rabbit, but was 4.5 in dog, thus indicating that the reaction was stereoselective in this species. PMID:8004244

  19. Human hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 are glucuronidated and sulfated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio; Zheng, Xiaobo; Ryden, Andreas; Marsh, Goran; Maho, Walid; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were used worldwide as additive flame retardants and are classified as persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic environmental pollutants. In humans, the hydroxylated metabolites of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) formed in vitro have also been detected in vivo. To further characterize the metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 and to identify candidate markers for monitoring the human exposure to PBDEs using non-invasive approaches, glucuronidation and sulfation of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were investigated using human liver microsomes and cytoplasm, respectively. The formed Phase II metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a novel approach to develop analytical methods in absence of authentic standards. All available standards for hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were glucuronidated and sulfated, showing that glucuronidation and sulfation are part of the metabolism pathway of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in vitro. The major glucuronidated and sulfated analogs of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 were (a) 2,4-DBP-Gluc and 5-Gluc-BDE-47, and (b) 2'-Sulf-BDE-28, 4-Sulf-BDE-42 and 3-Sulf-BDE-47, respectively. The major glucuronidated and sulfated analogs of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-99 were (a) 2,4,5-TBP-Gluc and 6'-Gluc-BDE-99, and (b) 3'-Sulf-BDE-99 and 5'-Sulf-BDE-99, respectively. Apparent Km values associated with the formation of sulfated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were ten times lower than those of the corresponding glucuronidated metabolites, suggesting that sulfated rather than glucuronidated metabolites of OH-PBDEs might be used as markers of human exposure to PBDEs using a non-invasive approach based on urine sample collection. PMID:25956475

  20. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 mainly contributes to the glucuronidation of trovafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Sumida, Kyohei; Kutsuno, Yuki; Sakamoto, Masaya; Itoh, Tomoo

    2015-02-01

    Identification of drug-metabolizing enzyme(s) responsible for the metabolism of drugs is an important step to understand not only interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics but also molecular mechanisms of metabolite-related toxicity. While it was reported that the major metabolic pathway of trovafloxacin, which is an antibiotic, was glucuronidation, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoform(s) responsible for the trovafloxacin glucuronidation has not been identified yet. In the present study, among the functional human UGT members, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, and UGT1A9 exhibited higher trovafloxacin acyl-glucuronidation activities. While other UGT members such as UGT1A8, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15 showed glucuronidation activity toward trovafloxacin, the metabolic velocity was extremely low. In human liver microsomes, trovafloxacin acyl-glucuronidation followed the Hill equation with S50 value of 95 μM, Vmax value of 243 pmol/min per mg, and a Hill coefficient of 2.0, while the UGT1A1-expressing system displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a substrate inhibition, with Km value of 759 μM and Vmax value of 1160 pmol/min per mg. In human liver microsomes prepared from poor metabolizers (UGT1A1*28/*28), significantly reduced trovafloxacin acyl-glucuronide formation activity was observed, indicating that UGT1A1 mainly, while other UGT members such as UGT1A3 and UGT1A9 partially, contributes to the glucuronidation of trovafloxacin. PMID:25760534

  1. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  2. S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    S - Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate ( EPTC ) ; CASRN 759 - 94 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  3. Direct radioimmunoassay of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Miyakawa, I.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1980-06-15

    Assays measuring immunoreactive estrone glucuronide (E/sub 1/G), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-3G), estradiol-17..beta..-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-17G), estriol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-3G), estriol-16..cap alpha..-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-16G), and pregnanediol-3..cap alpha..-glucuronide (Pd-3G) directly in diluted urine were developed and validated. These estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronide fractions were measured in aliquots of 24-hour and overnight samples of urine collected daily from seven women for one menstrual cycle. Urinary hormone excretion was correlated with daily serum estradiol (E/sub 2/), progesterone (P), and lutenizing hormonee (LH) levels. A sharp midcycle LH peak preceded by a preovulatory rise in serum E/sub 2/ and followed by luteal phase serum P levels were noted in each of the seven apparently ovulatory cycles. Twenty-four-hour and overnight urinary excretion patterns of estrogen glucuronides were similar to those of serum E/sub 2/. Of the five estrogen glucuronide fractions tested, excretion of E/sub 2/-17G exhibited the earliest and steepest ascending slope of the preovulatory estrogen surge and correlated best with serum E/sub 2/ levels. Urinary excretion of E/sub 1/-G, E/sub 2/-3G, and E/sub 3/-16G also showed an early and steep preovulatory rise and preceded that of E/sub 3/-3G, whereas urinary excretion of E/sub 3/-3G exhibited the poorest correlation with serum E/sub 2/ concentrations. The urinary excretion of Pd-3G rose parallel to serum P levels and was markedly elevated 2 to 3 days after the midcycle LH peak in both 24-hour and overnight collections of urine. These results indicate that among the urinary estrogen conjugate fractions tested, E/sub 2/-17G is the one that most suitably predicts ovulation.

  4. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials. PMID:19918373

  5. Separation and purification of two flavone glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R(2) > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials. PMID:19918373

  6. The gusBC Genes of Escherichia coli Encode a Glucuronide Transport System

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wei-Jun; Wilson, Kate J.; Xie, Hao; Knol, Jan; Suzuki, Shun'ichi; Rutherford, Nicholas G.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Jefferson, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Two genes, gusB and gusC, from a natural fecal isolate of Escherichia coli are shown to encode proteins responsible for transport of β-glucuronides with synthetic [14C]phenyl-1-thio-β-d-glucuronide as the substrate. These genes are located in the gus operon downstream of the gusA gene on the E. coli genome, and their expression is induced by a variety of β-d-glucuronides. Measurements of transport in right-side-out subcellular vesicles show the system has the characteristics of secondary active transport energized by the respiration-generated proton motive force. When the genes were cloned together downstream of the tac operator-promoter in the plasmid pTTQ18 expression vector, transport activity was increased considerably with isopropylthiogalactopyranoside as the inducer. Amplified expression of the GusB and GusC proteins enabled visualization and identification by N-terminal sequencing of both proteins, which migrated at ca. 32 kDa and 44 kDa, respectively. Separate expression of the GusB protein showed that it is essential for glucuronide transport and is located in the inner membrane, while the GusC protein does not catalyze transport but assists in an as yet unknown manner and is located in the outer membrane. The output of glucuronides as waste by mammals and uptake for nutrition by gut bacteria or reabsorption by the mammalian host is discussed. PMID:15774881

  7. New Flavonol Glucuronides from the Flower Buds of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Su; Lee, Chan Kyu; Sezirahiga, Jurdas; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Choi, Jung-Hye; Jang, Dae Sik

    2016-04-20

    Repeated chromatography of the EtOAc-soluble fraction from the 70% EtOH extract of the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) led to the isolation and characterization of four new flavonol glucuronides, rhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (1), rhamnazin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (2), rhamnazin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide-6″-methyl ester (3), and rhamnocitrin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide-6″-methyl ester (4), together with 15 flavonoids (5-19) having previously known chemical structures. The structures of the new compounds 1-4 were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data, particularly by 1D- and 2D-NMR studies. Six flavonoids (6, 7, 9, 14, 18, and 19) were isolated from the flower buds of S. aromaticum for the first time in this study. The flavonoids were examined for their cytotoxicity against human ovarian cancer cells (A2780) using MTT assays. Among the isolates, pachypodol (19) showed the most potent cytotoxicity on A2780 cells with an IC50 value of 8.02 μM. PMID:27045836

  8. Identification of hydroxyropivacaine glucuronide in equine urine by ESI+/MS/MS.

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, J D; Karpiesiuk, W; Tobin, T; Dirikolu, L; Lehner, A F

    2000-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a local anesthetic that has a high potential for abuse in racing horses. It can be recovered from urine collected after administration as a hydroxylated metabolite following beta-glucuronidase treatment of the urine. Based on these findings, it has been inferred that ropivacaine is present in equine urine as a glucuronide metabolite; however, these metabolites have never been directly identified. Using ESI+/MS/MS, the presence of a [M+H]+ molecular ion of m/z 467 was demonstrated in urine corresponding to the calculated mass of a hydroxyropivacaine glucuronide +1. The abundance of this ion diminished after glucuronidase treatment with concomitant appearance of a m/z 291 peak, which is consistent with its hydrolysis to hydroxyropivacaine. In further work, the m/z 467 material was fragmented in the MS/MS system, yielding fragments interpretable as hydroxyropivacaine glucuronide. These data are consistent with the presence of a hydroxyropivacaine glucuronide in equine urine and constitute the first direct demonstration of a specific glucuronide metabolite in equine urine. PMID:10935884

  9. Effects of modulation of sulphation and glucuronidation on chlorpropham metabolism and cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, G; Lamboeuf, Y; Pipy, B; Alary, J; Melgar, M J

    1995-12-01

    After modulation of sulphation and glucuronidation, the relationship between the changes in metabolism and cytotoxicity of chloropropham (CIPC), a widely used herbicide, was investigated in isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions. Under physiological conditions, CIPC had a cytolytic effect, modified membrane permeability and reduced intracellular ATP level. CIPC was metabolized by hepatocytes mainly into 4-OH chlorpropham sulphate (37%) and glucuronide conjugates (18%). Inhibition of sulphation, by omitting sulphate from the isolation and incubation media, did not affect the cytotoxicity of CIPC, since there was a 2.5-fold compensatory increase in 4-OH CIPC glucuronide. Inhibition of glucuronidation by adding 4 mM D-galactosamine in the incubation medium led to a 66% decrease of glucuronide conjugate and simultaneously to a 32% decrease of sulphate conjugate. In that case, concentrations of free 4-OH CIPC in both hepatocytes and incubation medium were markedly increased, while those of 3-chloroaniline and 3-chloroacetanilide were slightly modified and remained low. This alteration of metabolism was accompanied by modification of cell permeability and reduction in ATP synthesis. The cytolytic effect was due to CIPC itself, whereas the effect on energetic metabolism was attributed to a metabolite. Results demonstrated for the first time a partial inhibition of sulphation by D-galactosamine (4 mM), probably due to the effect of D-galactosamine on intracellular ATP levels. PMID:8588294

  10. Desorption chemical ionization and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric studies of the glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine.

    PubMed

    Lay, J O; Korfmacher, W A; Miller, D W; Siitonen, P; Holder, C L; Gosnell, A B

    1986-11-01

    Three glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine succinate were collected in a single fraction using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the urine of dosed male Fischer 344 rats. The metabolites were then separated using an additional HPLC step into fractions containing predominantly a single glucuronide metabolite. Analysis of the metabolites by methane and ammonia desorption chemical ionization, with and without derivatization, revealed fragment ions suggestive of a hydroxylated doxylamine moiety. Identification of the metabolites as glucuronides of doxylamine, desmethyldoxylamine and didesmethyldoxylamine was accomplished, based on determination of the molecular weight and exact mass of each metabolite using fast atom bombardment (FAB) ionization. This assignment was confirmed by the fragmentation observed in FAB mass spectrometric and tandem mass spectrometric experiments. Para-substitution of the glucuronide on the phenyl moiety was observed by 500-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. A fraction containing all three glucuronide metabolites, after a single stage of HPLC separation, was also analysed by FAB mass spectrometry, and the proton- and potassium-containing quasimolecular ions for all three metabolites were observed. PMID:2948588

  11. Genetic and environmental factors associated with variation of human xenobiotic glucuronidation and sulfation.

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, B; Coughtrie, M W

    1997-01-01

    Glucuronidation and sulfation are phase 2 metabolic reactions catalyzed by large families of different isoenzymes in man. The textbook view that glucuronidation and sulfation lead to the production of harmless conjugates for simple excretion is not valid. Biologically active and toxic sulfates and glucuronides are produced and leed to adverse drug reactions, including immune hypersensitivity. Considerable variation in xenobiotic conjugation is observed as a result of altered expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (STs). Recent cloning and expression of human cDNA encoding UGTs and STs has facilitated characterization of isoform substrate specificity, which has been further validated using specific antibodies and human tissue fractions. The availability of cloned/expressed human enzymes and specific antibodies has enabled the investigation of xenobiotic induction and metabolic disruption leeding to adverse responses. Genetic polymorphisms of glucuronidation and sulfation are known to exist although the characterization and assessment of the importance of these variations are hampered by appropriate ethical studies in men with suitable safe model compounds. Genetic analysis has allowed molecular identification of defects in well-known hyperbilirubinemias. However, full characterization of the specific functional roles of human UGTs and STs requires rigorous kinetic and molecular analyses of the role of each enzyme in vivo through the use of specific antibodies and inhibitors. This will leed to the better prediction of variation of xenobiotic glucuronidation and sulfation in man. PMID:9255555

  12. A novel method for the determination of the site of glucuronidation by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Atsushi; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Chiba, Masato

    2012-08-01

    Glucuronidation not only plays a detoxifying role in living body, but it also can complicate pharmacological and toxicological profiles of new drug candidates by forming active and reactive conjugated metabolites. The opportunity to elucidate structure of conjugated metabolites has increased in drug metabolism studies at the early development stage. General methodologies for the structure elucidation of glucuronide conjugate(s) include liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and NMR spectroscopy. In many cases, LC-MS/MS alone cannot unequivocally identify the site(s) of conjugation in isomeric glucuronidations. In the present study, we established a new strategy for the structure elucidation of glucuronide conjugates using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-mass spectrometry. Linear correlation between calculated collision cross-sections (CCS) and actual drift times from IMS was found for each set of parent compound (raloxifene, losartan, telmisartan, and estradiol) and the corresponding MS/MS product ions. Thus, obtained regression lines accurately and selectively projected the actual drift times of authentic standards of glucuronide conjugate based on the theoretical CCS values. The established method was used for the accurate assignment of predominant formation of phenolic glucuronide conjugate (SCH 60663) in the isomeric (phenolic and benzylic) glucuronidations of ezetimibe in the incubated sample with cryopreserved human hepatocytes. This application demonstrates the potential to facilitate the structure identification of glucuronide conjugates at the early development stage of new drug candidates. PMID:22611068

  13. Synthesis of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol 17-O-glucuronide histaminyl conjugate for immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Vinš, Petr; Černý, Ivan; Mikšátková, Petra; Drašar, Pavel

    2016-05-01

    Simple method of preparation of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol 17-O-glucuronide N-histaminyl amide was developed for the construction of immunoanalytical kit. Improved method of glucuronide derivative synthesis was used, followed by hydroxybenzotriazole-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide coupling with histamine. PMID:26898541

  14. Identification of two glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine via thermospray/mass spectrometry and thermospray/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, W A; Holder, C L; Betowski, L D; Mitchum, R K

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of a high-pressure liquid chromatography fraction containing two urinary glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine by thermospray mass spectrometry (TSP/MS) provided [MH]+ ions for each metabolite. TSP/MS/MS of the [MH]+ ions provided a fragment ion characteristic of these metabolites. The results demonstrate the utility of TSP/MS analysis for biologically derived glucuronide metabolites. PMID:3626532

  15. Glucuronidation of amines and other xenobiotics catalyzed by expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A3.

    PubMed

    Green, M D; King, C D; Mojarrabi, B; Mackenzie, P I; Tephly, T R

    1998-06-01

    Glucuronide conjugation of xenobiotics containing a tertiary amine moiety represents a unique and important metabolic pathway for these compounds in humans. Previously, human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4 was shown to be an important enzyme for the formation of quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronides. UGT1A3 is 93% identical to UGT1A4 in primary amino acid sequence. We show that human UGT1A3, transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, also catalyzes the N-glucuronidation of primary, secondary, and tertiary amine substrates, such as 4-aminobiphenyl, diphenylamine, and cyproheptadine. In contrast to expressed human UGT1A4, which catalyzes the glucuronidation of amines with high efficiency, glucuronidation of amines catalyzed by UGT1A3 exhibited low efficiency, suggesting that UGT1A3 makes only a limited contribution to the metabolic elimination of these compounds. The reactivity of expressed human UGT1A3 toward hydroxylated and carboxylic acid-containing compounds was also examined. In addition to amines, expressed human UGT1A3 catalyzed the glucuronidation of opioids (e.g. morphine and buprenorphine), coumarins, flavonoids (e.g. naringenin and quercetin), anthraquinones, and small phenolic compounds (e.g. 4-nitrophenol). Drugs containing a carboxylic acid moiety, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (e.g. naproxen and ibuprofen) and fibrates (e.g. ciprofibrate), were substrates for human UGT1A3. In contrast, compounds containing an aliphatic hydroxyl group, such as sapogenins, monoterpenoid alcohols (e.g. menthol and borneol), and androgens, were not conjugated by expressed human UGT1A3. Of the compounds tested, scopoletin, naringenin, and norbuprenorphine appeared to be the best xenobiotic substrates for human UGT1A3. PMID:9616184

  16. Comparison of stably expressed rat UGT1.1 and UGT2B1 in the glucuronidation of opioid compounds.

    PubMed

    King, C D; Rios, G R; Green, M D; MacKenzie, P I; Tephly, T R

    1997-02-01

    Opioids are important drugs used as analgesics, antitussives, antidiarrheals, and in the therapy of myocardial infarctions, and as antagonists of opioid intoxication. The glucuronidation of these compounds, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), is well known to be a primary step in their metabolism to hydrophilic products and in their ultimate excretion. The present study was designed to compare the reactivity and relative glucuronidation efficiencies of opioid agonists, antagonists, and partial agonists with two rat UGT isoforms; UGT1.1, which is generally considered the "bilirubin UGT," and UGT2B1, which has previously been shown to catalyze the glucuronidation of testosterone, chloramphenicol, and (-)-morphine. Rat UGT2B1, stably expressed in HK293 cells, exhibited high glucuronidation rates and catalytic efficiencies for many opioids, although values for (-)-morphine and nalorphine were the highest. In contrast, these compounds were very poor substrates for expressed rat UGT1.1. Comparably high glucuronidation rates and efficiencies were found for buprenorphine and diprenorphine with both UGT isoforms. These results suggest that opioids with morphinan-based chemical structures similar to (-)-morphine interact with UGTs differently than those with oripavine-based chemical structures similar to buprenorphine. To investigate the contribution of rat UGT1.1 and UGT2B1 in the overall rate of glucuronidation of buprenorphine in the rat liver, hepatic microsomes from Gunn rats (where UGT1.1 activity is absent) and Wistar rats (where UGT1.1 activity is present) were studied. Buprenorphine glucuronidation activity in Gunn rat liver microsomes exhibit approximately 25% of rates observed in Wistar rat liver microsomes, whereas (-)-morphine, naloxone, and naltrexone glucuronidation rates were not significantly different in microsomal preparations from Gunn and Wistar rats. These data suggest that UGT2B1 is the major hepatic enzyme involved in the glucuronidation of (-)-morphine and naloxone in livers from untreated rats, whereas buprenorphine glucuronidation is preferentially catalyzed by rat UGT1.1. PMID:9029056

  17. Nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester and ethyl diazoacetate to give the alkylating agent and mutagen ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Haorah, James; Chen, Sheng C; Wang, Xiaojie; Kolar, Carol; Lawson, Terence A; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2004-03-01

    Whereas nitrosation of secondary amines produces nitrosamines, amino acids with primary amino groups and glycine ethyl ester were reported to react with nitrite to give unidentified agents that alkylated 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine to produce purple dyes and be direct mutagens in the Ames test. We report here that treatment of glycine ethyl ester at 37 degrees C with excess nitrite acidified with HCl, followed by ether extraction, gave 30-40% yields of a product identified as ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate [ClC(=NOH)COOEt, ECHA] and a 9% yield of ethyl chloroacetate. The ECHA was identical to that synthesized by a known method from ethyl acetoacetate, strongly alkylated nitrobenzylpyridine, and may have arisen by N-nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester to give ethyl diazoacetate, which was C-nitrosated and reacted with chloride to give ECHA. Nitrosation of ethyl diazoacetate also yielded ECHA. Ethyl nitroacetate was not an intermediate as its nitrosation did not produce ECHA. ECHA reacted with aniline to give ethyl (hydroxamino)(phenylimino)acetate [PhN=C(NHOH)CO2Et]. This product was different from ethyl [(phenylamino)carbonyl]carbamate [PhNHC(=O)NHCO2Et], which was synthesized by reacting ethyl isocyanatoformate (OCN.CO2Et) with aniline. ECHA reacted with guanosine to give a derivative, which may have been a guanine-C(=NOH)CO2Et derivative. ECHA showed moderate toxicity and weak but significant mutagenicity without activation in Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 (mean, 1.31 x control value for 12-18 microg/plats) and for V79 mammalian cells (1.5-1.7 x control value for 60-100 microM). In conclusion, gastric nitrosation of glycine derivatives such as peptides with a N-terminal glycine might produce ECHA analogues that alkylate bases of gastric mucosal DNA and thereby initiate gastric cancer. PMID:15025513

  18. Glucuronidation and subsequent biliary excretion of mycophenolic acid in rat sandwich-cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, Kazuhiro; Gerst, Nicolas; Tamura, Kouichi; Masters, Jeffrey N

    2014-01-01

    Rat sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) were used to correlate the in vitro hepatic disposition of mycophenolic acid (MPA) with published in vivo data, as well as mechanistic studies on drug-drug interaction. The major metabolite of MPA in SCH was 7-O-glucuronide (MPAG) followed by acyl-glucuronide (AcMPAG). MPAG and AcMPAG, but not MPA, showed significant in vitro biliary excretion with biliary excretion indexes (BEI) of 40% for MPAG and 45% for AcMPAG. While these BEIs were similar, the biliary excretion amount (BEA) of MPAG (120 pmol/mg protein) was orders of magnitude higher than that of AcMPAG (0.34 pmol/mg protein). Since MPAG is the major metabolite in in vivo bile, we propose that BEA is a better qualifier of biliary excretion. Quercetin inhibited MPAG and AcMPAG production, while chrysin inhibited only MPAG production, showing that chrysin is not a pan-glucuronidation inhibitor. Cyclosporin A (CysA) reduced the BEI of MPAG and increased intracellular MPA accumulation without changing MPAG amounts. These results suggest that CysA causes inhibition of biliary excretion of MPAG, as well as a mixed inhibition of glucuronidation of MPA and sinusoidal efflux of MPA/MPAG. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a good agreement of hepatic MPA disposition between SCH and in vivo rats. PMID:24025987

  19. Comparison of inhibition potentials of drugs against zidovudine glucuronidation in rat hepatocytes and liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yuji; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2007-04-01

    Hepatocytes and liver microsomes are considered to be useful for investigating drug metabolism catalyzed mainly via glucuronidation. However, there have been few reports comparing the glucuronidation inhibition potentials of drug in hepatocytes to those in liver microsomes. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) glucuronidation (AZTG) is the major metabolic pathway for AZT. In this study, the inhibition potentials of drugs against UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-catalyzed AZTG in the hepatocytes and liver microsomes of rats are compared. The AZTG inhibition potentials of diclofenac, diflunisal, fluconazole, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, niflumic acid, and valproic acid in liver microsomes and hepatocytes were investigated using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Diflunisal (inhibition type: noncompetitive) inhibited AZTG most potently in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) with an IC(50) value of 34 microM. The IC(50) values of diclofenac, fluconazole, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, niflumic acid, and valproic acid against AZTG in RLMs ranged from 34 to 1791 microM. Diclofenac, diflunisal, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, and valproic acid inhibited AZTG in hepatocytes with IC(50) values of 58, 37, 88, 361, 486, and 281 microM, respectively. These values were similar to those obtained in RLMs. In conclusion, the AZT glucuronidation inhibition potentials of drugs in the hepatocytes and liver microsomes of rats were found to be similar, and liver microsomes can be useful for evaluating UGT isozyme inhibition potentials. PMID:17267620

  20. Age-related increases in F344 rat intestine microsomal quercetin glucuronidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to establish the extent age modifies intestinal quercetin glucuronidation capacity. Pooled microsomal fractions of three equidistant small intestine (SI) segments from 4, 12, 18, and 28 mo male F344 rats (n=8/group) were employed to model the enzyme kinetics of UDP-gl...

  1. Prediction of glucuronidated drug clearance in pediatrics (≤5 years): An allometric approach.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar

    2015-03-01

    Children are not small adults. The differences between children of different age groups and adults are not merely due to body weight, but also due to physiological and biochemical differences resulting in different rates of drug metabolism or renal clearance. Glucuronidation is an important pathway of drug metabolism. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of several allometric exponents in children of ≤5 years for the total clearance of drugs which are mainly metabolized by glucuronidation. Four exponents (0.75, 1.0, 1.2, or 1.4) on the body weights and an allometric model developed from adults were evaluated. The four exponents and the allometric model were examined to determine the suitability of the method(s) to predict the clearances of drugs which are glucuronidated in children ≤5 years of age. Based on the analysis of ten drugs, it was noted that the combination of two allometric exponents 1.2 (for children ≤3 months) and 1.0 (for children ≥3 months ≤5 years) can be used to predict mean clearances of drugs which are mainly metabolized by glucuronidation. The suggested approach may be used to estimate a first-in-pediatric dose to initiate a pediatric clinical trial. PMID:24519316

  2. Profiling serum bile acid glucuronides in humans: gender divergences, genetic determinants and response to fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Jocelyn; Perreault, Martin; Rudkowska, Iwona; Levy, Cynthia; Dallaire-Theroux, Amélie; Verreault, Mélanie; Caron, Patrick; Staels, Bart; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Straka, Robert J.; Barbier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Glucuronidation, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes detoxifies cholestatic bile acids (BAs). We aimed at i) characterizing the circulating BA-glucuronide (-G) pool composition in humans, ii) evaluating how sex and UGT polymorphisms influence this composition, and iii) analyzing the effects of lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate on the circulating BA-G profile in 300 volunteers and 5 cholestatic patients. Eleven BA-Gs were determined in pre- and post-fenofibrate samples. Men exhibited higher BA-G concentrations, and various genotype/BA-G associations were discovered in relevant UGT genes. The chenodeoxycholic acid-3G concentration was associated with the UGT2B7 802C>T polymorphism. Glucuronidation assays confirmed the predominant role of UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 in CDCA-3G formation. Fenofibrate exposure increased the serum levels of 5 BA-G species, including CDCA-3G, and up-regulated expression of UGT1A4, but not UGT2B7, in hepatic cells. This study demonstrates that fenofibrate stimulates BA glucuronidation in humans, and thus reduces bile acid toxicity in the liver. PMID:23756370

  3. URINARY PHARMACOKINETICS OF THE GLUCURONIDE AND SULFATE CONJUGATES OF GENISTEIN AND DAIDZEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of soybean-rich diets is thought to provide to provide significant health benefits such as prevention of cancer, primarily because of the high contents of factors such as the isoflavones genistein and diadzein. Isoflavones circulate and are excreted into the urine mainly as glucuronide ...

  4. Postmortem distribution pattern of morphine and morphine glucuronides in heroin overdose.

    PubMed

    Skopp, G; Lutz, R; Ganssmann, B; Mattern, R; Aderjan, R

    1996-01-01

    The postmortem distribution of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in four cases of heroin overdose to evaluate some of the factors that influence intravasal blood concentrations. Variables included were the chemical stability of morphine conjugates, hemoconcentration, incomplete distribution of the drug and diffusion processes. Blood samples from different sampling sites including the aorta, the infra- and suprarenal portion of the inferior vena cava, the superior vena cava, the femoral and subclavian veins, and the right and left ventricles were examined for morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide, hematocrit and water content. Drug concentrations were determined by HPLC based on the native fluorescence of the analytes. Morphine glucuronides proved to be stable for a time period of 72 h. The water content ranged from 65 to 83% and hematocrit values from 25 to 75%, and were seen as contributory factors to the dramatic differences observed for drug concentrations from different sampling sites. The differences could neither be attributed to incomplete distribution during life-time nor to a diffusion process following the different distribution volumes of morphine and its conjugates. A definite relationship between the ratio of the molar concentrations of morphine and its glucuronides, as assessed in pharmacokinetical studies after morphine dosing, could not be established. For a better understanding more cases and changes over time and tissue concentrations should be analysed. PMID:8956984

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic The effect of age on glucuronidation and sulphation of paracetamol by human liver fractions.

    PubMed

    Herd, B; Wynne, H; Wright, P; James, O; Woodhouse, K

    1991-12-01

    Glucuronidation and sulphation were studied in vitro in human liver samples from 22 subjects aged 40-89 years using paracetamol as substrate. There was no significant correlation with age for the activity of either enzyme pathway. These results provide further evidence that age per se does not have a major effect on the activities of hepatic metabolising enzymes. PMID:1768573

  6. The effect of age on glucuronidation and sulphation of paracetamol by human liver fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Herd, B; Wynne, H; Wright, P; James, O; Woodhouse, K

    1991-01-01

    Glucuronidation and sulphation were studied in vitro in human liver samples from 22 subjects aged 40-89 years using paracetamol as substrate. There was no significant correlation with age for the activity of either enzyme pathway. These results provide further evidence that age per se does not have a major effect on the activities of hepatic metabolising enzymes. PMID:1768573

  7. Separation of glucuronide, sulfate and glutathione conjugates of benzo(a)pyrene by HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, B.A.; Selkirk, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    This study reports the chromatographic properties of sulfate, glucuronide and GSH conjugates on a Dupont C-8 column by HPLC. The analytical conditions were developed with standard BaP conjugates and were utilized to chromatograph aqueous-soluble metabolites from HEF metabolism after removal of organic-soluble metabolites. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and....1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b) The ingredient meets...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  13. Separation and characterization of carboxyl-linked glucuronides of bile acids in incubation mixture of rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Goto, J; Murao, N; Nakada, C; Motoyama, T; Oohashi, J; Yanagihara, T; Niwa, T; Ikegawa, S

    1998-04-01

    The carboxyl-linked 24-glucuronides of common bile acids have been identified by means of liquid chromatography (LC)/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-mass spectrometry (MS) in an incubation mixture with a male Wistar rat liver microsomal fraction. The authentic specimens of bile acid 24-glucuronide acetate-methyl esters were synthesized unequivocally using the Mitsunobu reaction, and the APCI-mass spectrometric properties of these glucuronide derivatives were also characterized. After incubation of common unconjugated bile acids with hepatic microsomes, glucuronides were extracted and purified with a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge and lipophilic ion exchange gel, piperidino-hydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20, and then derivatized into the acetate-methyl esters. Subsequent resolution into alpha- and beta-isomers at the glucuronosyl linkage was attained by LC on Cosmosil 5C8 and Sumichiral OA-2500 columns using 200 mM ammonium acetate (pH 7.0)-methanol (1:4, v/v), where 24-glucuronides were monitored with characteristic positive ions [M + NH4]+. The 24-glucuronides of lithocholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic, ursodeoxycholic and cholic acid were definitely characterized, in contrast to no formation of corresponding 3-glucuronides. PMID:9589552

  14. Luminal accumulation of newly synthesized morphine-3-glucuronide in rat liver microsomal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Révész, Katalin; Tóth, Blanka; Staines, Adam G; Coughtrie, Michael W H; Mandl, József; Csala, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    Morphine is converted to morphine 3-β-D-glucuronide (M3G) by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase Ugt2b1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of rat liver. Because of its luminal localization, UGT activity requires UDP-glucuronate import and glucuronide export across the ER membrane. The former transport is generally considered to be rate limiting and to explain the latency of UGT activities in intact microsomal vesicles. However, some observations indicate that the release of bulky glucuronides, such as M3G, might also be rate limiting for glucuronidation. This assumption was tested by characterizing the transport of M3G and its distribution between the intra- and extravesicular spaces during synthesis in rat liver microsomes. The amount of vesicle-associated M3G was measured using rapid filtration and LC-MS measurement. Our results reveal a remarkable accumulation of newly synthesized M3G in the microsomal lumen above the equilibrium. The transport showed a linear concentration-dependence in a wide range (5-200 μM). Therefore, the build-up of high (about 20 μM) luminal M3G concentration could adjust the rate of release to that of synthesis (44.85 ± 4.08 pmol/min/mg protein) during the conjugation of 100 μM morphine. These data can explain earlier findings indicative of separate intracellular pools of M3G in rat liver. Accumulation of bulky glucuronides in the ER lumen might also play an important role in their targeting and in the control of biliary excretion. PMID:23281118

  15. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Leads to Deconjugation of Quercetin Glucuronides in Inflammatory Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Satomi; Shiba, Yuko; Minekawa, Shoko; Nishikawa, Tomomi; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Kawai, Yoshichika

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids, such as quercetin, have long been recognized to protect blood vessels from atherogenic inflammation by yet unknown mechanisms. We have previously discovered the specific localization of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a phase II metabolite of quercetin, in macrophage cells in the human atherosclerotic lesions, but the biological significance is poorly understood. We have now demonstrated the molecular basis of the interaction between quercetin glucuronides and macrophages, leading to deconjugation of the glucuronides into the active aglycone. In vitro experiments showed that Q3GA was bound to the cell surface proteins of macrophages through anion binding and was readily deconjugated into the aglycone. It is of interest that the macrophage-mediated deconjugation of Q3GA was significantly enhanced upon inflammatory activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Zymography and immunoblotting analysis revealed that ?-glucuronidase is the major enzyme responsible for the deglucuronidation, whereas the secretion rate was not affected after LPS treatment. We found that extracellular acidification, which is required for the activity of ?-glucuronidase, was significantly induced upon LPS treatment and was due to the increased lactate secretion associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ?-glucuronidase secretion, which is triggered by intracellular calcium ions, was also induced by mitochondria dysfunction characterized using antimycin-A (a mitochondrial inhibitor) and siRNA-knockdown of Atg7 (an essential gene for autophagy). The deconjugated aglycone, quercetin, acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the stimulated macrophages by inhibiting the c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, whereas Q3GA acts only in the presence of extracellular ?-glucuronidase activity. Finally, we demonstrated the deconjugation of quercetin glucuronides including the sulfoglucuronides in vivo in the spleen of mice challenged with LPS. These results showed that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the deconjugation of quercetin glucuronides in macrophages. Collectively, this study contributes to clarifying the mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of dietary flavonoids within the inflammation sites. PMID:24260490

  16. Biotransformation of Bisphenol AF to Its Major Glucuronide Metabolite Reduces Estrogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 μM in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings. PMID:24349450

  17. Mass spectrometric characterization of glucuronides formed by a new concept, combining Cunninghamella elegans with TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Rydevik, Axel; Bondesson, Ulf; Thevis, Mario; Hedeland, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    A new concept for the production of drug glucuronides is presented and the products formed were characterized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). Glucuronic acid conjugates are important phase II metabolites of a wide range of drugs. There is a lack of commercially available glucuronides and classic synthetic methods are tedious and expensive. Thus, new methods of glucuronide synthesis are needed. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) of the aryl propionamide class were used as model compounds and were incubated with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans which was previously known to conjugate drugs with glucose. The resulting glucoside metabolites were then oxidized with tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO). UPLC-HRMS analysis showed that the peaks corresponding to the glucosides had disappeared after the reaction and were replaced by peaks with m/z consistent with the corresponding glucuronic acid conjugates. The MS/MS spectra of the reaction products were investigated and the observed fragment ion pattern corroborated the suggested structural change. A comparison in terms of retention times and product ion spectra between the glucuronides formed by the new method and those produced by liver microsomes indicated that the conjugates from the two different sources were identical, thus demonstrating the human relevance of the presented technique. Furthermore, the glucuronides formed by the presented method were readily hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase which further gave evidence as to the fact that they were of β configuration. The investigated method was easy to perform, required a low input of work and had a low cost. PMID:23867089

  18. Glucuronidation and Covalent Protein Binding of Benoxaprofen and Flunoxaprofen in Sandwich-Cultured Rat and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jennifer Q.

    2009-01-01

    Benoxaprofen (BNX), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that was withdrawn because of hepatotoxicity, is more toxic than its structural analog flunoxaprofen (FLX) in humans and rats. Acyl glucuronides have been hypothesized to be reactive metabolites and may be associated with toxicity. Both time- and concentration-dependent glucuronidation and covalent binding of BNX, FLX, and ibuprofen (IBP) were determined by exposing sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes to each NSAID. The levels of glucuronide and covalent protein adduct measured in cells followed the order BNX > FLX > IBP. These results indicate that 1) BNX-glucuronide (G) is more reactive than FLX-G, and 2) IBP-G is the least reactive metabolite, which support previous in vivo studies in rats. The proportional increases of protein adduct formation for BNX, FLX, and IBP as acyl glucuronidation increased also support the hypothesis that part of the covalent binding of all three NSAIDs to hepatic proteins is acyl glucuronide-dependent. Moreover, theses studies confirmed the feasibility of using sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes for studying glucuronidation and covalent binding to hepatocellular proteins. These studies also showed that these in vitro methods can be applied using human tissues for the study of acyl glucuronide reactivity. More BNX-protein adduct was formed in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes than FLX-protein adduct, which not only agreed with its relative toxicity in humans but also was consistent with the in vitro findings using rat hepatocyte cultures. These data support the use of sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes as an in vitro screening model of acyl glucuronide exposure and reactivity. PMID:19773537

  19. Identification of glucuronides as in vivo liver conjugates of seven cannabinoids and some of their hydroxy and acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Harvey, D J; Martin, B R; Paton, W D

    1977-02-01

    Glucuronide conjugates of cannabidiol (CBD), 7-hydroxy-CBD, propyl-CBD, cannabinol (CBN), 7-hydroxy-CBN, CBN-7-oic acid, propyl CBN and cannabichromene have been identified as major metabolites of CBD, CBN and their propyl homologues and of cannabichromene in mouse liver. Trace amounts of the glucuronide conjugates of delta1- and delta1(6)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were also detected. Identification was made by combined gas-liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies of the trimethylsilyl (TMS), d9-TMS and methyl ester-TMS derivatives of the glucuronides and the TMS derivatives of the product of the reduction of the metabolites with lithium aluminium deuteride. PMID:847285

  1. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  2. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  3. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  4. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  5. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  6. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  7. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  8. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl...

  9. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl...

  10. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl...

  11. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl...

  12. Characterisation and identification of the human N+-glucuronide metabolite of cediranib.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Eva M; Spear, Michael; Drake, C; Pollard, Christopher R J; Ward, Michelle; Schulz-Utermoehl, Timothy; Harrison, Mike

    2010-11-01

    Cediranib (4-[(4-fluoro-2-methyl-1H-indol-5-yl)oxy]-6-methoxy-7-[3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)propoxy]quinazoline; RECENTIN), a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of all three VEGF receptors, is currently in Phase III clinical trials for the first-line treatment of colorectal cancer and the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. During its clinical development a unique human metabolite, an N(+)-glucuronide, was identified as a major circulating metabolite and one of the major metabolites excreted into faeces. Given the possibility of four sites for the conjugation of the glucuronic acid moiety, determination of the location of the conjugation site on cediranib was warranted. A small quantity of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite of cediranib was initially generated using recombinant human uridine glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 (UGT1A4) enzymes. The metabolite generated was characterised by HPLC-UV and mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS(n)) detection and confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. However, the exact site of conjugation could not be determined without generating more of the metabolite. Hence a subsequent biosynthetic scale-up experiment was devised to generate a sufficiently large quantity for full structural characterisation by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The identity of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite generated in the UGT1A4 scale-up experiment was confirmed by HPLC-MS(n) and displayed the same retention time, molecular mass and mass fragmentation data as the metabolite generated in previous human liver microsomal and hepatocyte incubations. (1)H NMR spectroscopy clearly showed the characteristic anomeric doublet at approximately 4.7 ppm, which, following irradiation during selective Rotating frame Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments, enabled the site of glucuronidation to be confirmed on the pyrrolidine nitrogen. With the exception of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite, all other human metabolites of cediranib were observed following incubation with hepatocytes from rat and cynomolgus monkey, the species used for toxicology testing of the drug [6]. As the N(+)-glucuronide was not detected in the preclinical species, it is suggested that its formation is more likely in human and higher primates (great apes), a finding widely supported in the literature. PMID:20409669

  13. Identification of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase responsible for bucolome N-glucuronide formation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, H; Okada, K; Mohri, K

    2010-11-01

    Bucolome N-glucuronide (BCP-NG), a major metabolite of bucolome (BCP), is the first unique N-glucuronide of barbituric acid derivatives to be reported. The purpose of the present study was to identify the UGT isoform(s) responsible for BCP-NG formation in rats. A pharmacokinetic study of BCP and the biliary excretion of BCP-NG was carried out in Wistar rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB) (PB-pretreated rats), and the results were compared with those of Wistar rats not pretreated with PB (untreated rats). BCP N-glucuronidation activities were studied using hepatic microsomes prepared from Wistar rats pretreated with PB (primarily induces UGT1A1, 1A6 and 2B1) or with clofibric acid (CF, primarily induces UGT1A1 and 1A6), and from Gunn rats (deficiency of UGT1A family), and the results were compared with those of untreated rat microsomes.The plasma elimination clearance value of BCP in PB-pretreated rats was approximately 1.4 times greater than that of untreated rats. The cumulative amount (20.4 +/- 5.9 % of dose) of BCP-NG excreted in PB-pretreated rat bile was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that (13.4 +/- 2.5% of dose) in untreated rat bile, and BCP-NG (5.9 +/- 3.0%) and BCP (3.0 +/- 2.6%) excreted in PB-pretreated rat urine were approximately 3.0- and 1.8-fold higher than those in untreated rat urine (BCP-NG: 2.0 +/- 1.4%; BCP: 1.7 +/- 1.3%), respectively.BCP N-glucuronidation activities in PB- and CF-pretreated microsomes were approximately 1.5- and 1.6-fold higher than in untreated microsomes, respectively. BCP N-glucuronidation activity in the microsomes of Gunn rats was markedly reduced by approximately 8.5% in untreated rat microsomes. The results suggest that UGT 1A1 is primarily responsible for BCP N-glucuronide formation in rats. PMID:21155392

  14. Post-mortem levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, morphine and morphine glucuronides in a series of codeine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Frost, Joachim; Løkken, Trine Nordgård; Helland, Arne; Nordrum, Ivar Skjåk; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-05-01

    This article presents levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), norcodeine, morphine and the morphine metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in post-mortem blood (peripheral and heart blood), vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue in a series of 23 codeine-related fatalities. CYP2D6 genotype is also determined and taken into account. Quantification of codeine, C6G, norcodeine, morphine, M3G and M6G was performed with a validated solid phase extraction LC-MS method. The series comprise 19 deaths (83%) attributed to mixed drug intoxication, 4 deaths (17%) attributed to other causes of death, and no cases of unambiguous monointoxication with codeine. The typical peripheral blood concentration pattern in individual cases was C6G≫codeine≫norcodeine>morphine, and M3G>M6G>morphine. In matrices other than blood, the concentration pattern was similar, although in a less systematic fashion. Measured concentrations were generally lower in matrices other than blood, especially in brain and fat, and in particular for the glucuronides (C6G, M3G and M6G) and, to some extent, morphine. In brain tissue, the presumed active moieties morphine and M6G were both below the LLOQ (0.0080mg/L and 0.058mg/L, respectively) in a majority of cases. In general, there was a large variability in both measured concentrations and calculated blood/tissue concentration ratios. There was also a large variability in calculated ratios of morphine to codeine, C6G to codeine and norcodeine to codeine in all matrices, and CYP2D6 genotype was not a reliable predictor of these ratios. The different blood/tissue concentration ratios showed no systematic relationship with the post-mortem interval. No coherent degradation or formation patterns for codeine, morphine, M3G and M6G were observed upon reanalysis in peripheral blood after storage. PMID:26986973

  15. Characterization of raloxifene glucuronidation. Potential role of UGT1A8 genotype on raloxifene metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dongxiao; Jones, Nathan R; Manni, Andrea; Lazarus, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Raloxifene is a 2nd-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is extensively metabolized by glucuronidation to form raloxifene-6-glucuronide (ral-6-Gluc) and raloxifene-4?-glucuronide (ral-4?-Gluc). The goal of the present study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in active UGTs could play a role in altered raloxifene glucuronidation in vivo. Using homogenates from HEK293 UGT-overexpressing cell lines, raloxifene was shown to be glucuronidated primarily by the hepatic UGTs 1A1 and 1A9 and the extra-hepatic UGTs 1A8 and 1A10; no detectable raloxifene glucuronidation activity was found for UGT2B enzymes. Functional UGT1A1 transcriptional promoter genotypes were significantly (ptrend=0.005) associated with ral-6-Gluc formation in human liver microsomes, and, consistent with the decreased raloxifene glucuronidation activities observed in vitro with cell line over-expressing UGT1A8 variants, the UGT1A8*2 variant was significantly (p=0.023) correlated with total raloxifene glucuronide formation in human jejunum homogenates. While ral-4?-Gluc exhibited 1/100th the anti-estrogenic activity of raloxifene itself as measured by binding to the estrogen receptor, raloxifene glucuronides comprised ?99% of the circulating raloxifene dose in raloxifene-treated subjects, with ral-4?-Gluc comprising ?70% of raloxifene glucuronides. Plasma ral-6-Gluc (ptrend=0.0025), ral-4?-Gluc (ptrend=0.001), and total raloxifene glucuronides (ptrend=0.001) were increased in raloxifene-treated subjects who were predicted slow metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*3)] vs intermediate metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*1) or UGT1A8 (*1/*2)] vs fast metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*2/*2). These data suggest that raloxifene metabolism may be dependent on UGT1A8 genotype and that UGT1A8 genotype may play an important role in overall response to raloxifene. PMID:23682072

  16. Characterization of raloxifene glucuronidation: potential role of UGT1A8 genotype on raloxifene metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongxiao; Jones, Nathan R; Manni, Andrea; Lazarus, Philip

    2013-07-01

    Raloxifene is a second-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is extensively metabolized by glucuronidation to form raloxifene-6-glucuronide (ral-6-Gluc) and raloxifene-4'-glucuronide (ral-4'-Gluc). The goal of the present study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in active UGTs could play a role in altered raloxifene glucuronidation in vivo. Using homogenates from HEK293 UGT-overexpressing cell lines, raloxifene was shown to be glucuronidated primarily by the hepatic UGTs 1A1 and 1A9 and the extra-hepatic UGTs 1A8 and 1A10; no detectable raloxifene glucuronidation activity was found for UGT2B enzymes. Functional UGT1A1 transcriptional promoter genotypes were significantly (Ptrend = 0.005) associated with ral-6-Gluc formation in human liver microsomes, and, consistent with the decreased raloxifene glucuronidation activities observed in vitro with cell lines overexpressing UGT1A8 variants, the UGT1A8*2 variant was significantly (P = 0.023) correlated with total raloxifene glucuronide formation in human jejunum homogenates. While ral-4'-Gluc exhibited 1:100th the anti-estrogenic activity of raloxifene itself as measured by binding to the estrogen receptor, raloxifene glucuronides comprised about 99% of the circulating raloxifene dose in raloxifene-treated subjects, with ral-4'-Gluc comprising ~70% of raloxifene glucuronides. Plasma ral-6-Gluc (Ptrend = 0.0025), ral-4'-Gluc (Ptrend = 0.001), and total raloxifene glucuronides (Ptrend = 0.001) were increased in raloxifene-treated subjects who were predicted slow metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*3)] versus intermediate metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*1) or UGT1A8 (*1/*2)] versus fast metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*2/*2). These data suggest that raloxifene metabolism may be dependent on UGT1A8 genotype and that UGT1A8 genotype may play an important role in overall response to raloxifene. PMID:23682072

  17. Soy isoflavone metabolism in cats compared with other species: urinary metabolite concentrations and glucuronidation by liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Redmon, Joanna M; Shrestha, Binu; Cerundolo, Rosario; Court, Michael H

    2016-05-01

    1. Soybean is a common source of protein in many pet foods. Slow glucuronidation of soy-derived isoflavones in cats has been hypothesized to result in accumulation with adverse health consequences. Here, we evaluated species' differences in soy isoflavone glucuronidation using urine samples from cats and dogs fed a soy-based diet and liver microsomes from cats compared with microsomes from 12 other species. 2. Significant concentrations of conjugated (but not unconjugated) genistein, daidzein and glycitein, and the gut microbiome metabolites, dihydrogenistein and dihydrodaidzein, were found in cat and dog urine samples. Substantial amounts of conjugated equol were also found in cat urine but not in dog urine. 3. β-Glucuronidase treatment showed that all these compounds were significantly glucuronidated in dog urine while only daidzein (11%) and glycitein (37%) showed any glucuronidation in cat urine suggesting that alternate metabolic pathways including sulfation predominate in cats. 4. Glucuronidation rates of genistein, daidzein and equol by cat livers were consistently ranked within the lowest 3 out of 13 species' livers evaluated. Ferret and mongoose livers were also ranked in the lowest four species. 5. Our results demonstrate that glucuronidation is a minor pathway for soy isoflavone metabolism in cats compared with most other species. PMID:26366946

  18. Hormonal monitoring of early pregnancy by a direct radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides in first morning urine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendizabal, A.F.; Quiroga, S.; Farinati, Z.; Lahoz, M.; Nagle, C.

    1984-11-01

    The usefulness of the direct 4-hour radioimmunoassay of estriol-16-glucuronide (E/sub 3/G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (P/sub 2/G) in first morning urine (FMU) for establishing a prognosis of the early pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 106 patients that became pregnant. Microaliquots of FMU were serially assayed from day 3 of the conception cycle until day 80 of pregnancy. The E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G profiles of 19 pregnancies which terminated in spontaneous abortion with either a diagnosis of the blighted ovum syndrome (n = 11) or presumption of a corpus luteum/trophoblast failure (n = 8) have been compared with those of clinically normal pregnancies (n = 87). Normal pregnancies displayed typical patterns of E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G development, while variations were observed in abortive events that reflected changes of the fetoplacental unit.

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Ambar K; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated compared to the anti-oxidant activity of curcumin. PMID:26783957

  20. A new glucuronide saponin from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis.

    PubMed

    Sagesaka, Y M; Uemura, T; Watanabe, N; Sakata, K; Uzawa, J

    1994-11-01

    A new glucuronide saponin (1) was isolated as its methyl ester (2) from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis. On the basis of its spectral data and the results of chemical degradation, the structure was elucidated to be 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->3)]- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-21-O-cinnamoyl-16,22-di-O-acetylbarr ingtogenol C. PMID:7765596

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated compared to the anti-oxidant activity of curcumin. PMID:26783957

  2. Hesperidin metabolite hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, but not hesperetin-3'-O-glucuronide, exerts hypotensive, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Jokura, Hiroko; Hashizume, Koujiro; Ominami, Hideo; Shibuya, Yusuke; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2013-09-01

    Orally ingested hesperidin (HES) is hydrolyzed into hesperetin in the gastrointestinal tract and conjugated during absorption. Hesperetin conjugates are the main circulating metabolites in human and rat plasma. We previously reported that glucosyl hesperidin (GHES), a water-soluble HES derivative, prevents hypertension via improvement of endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although these hesperetin conjugates seem to be responsible for hypotensive and endothelium-dependent vasodilatory activities of dietary GHES, little is known about the mechanisms of action of these conjugated metabolites. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hesperetin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (HPT7G) and hesperetin-3'-O-β-d-glucuronide (HPT3'G), which are the predominant HES metabolites in rat plasma, on blood pressure and endothelial function. Intravenous administration of HPT7G (5 mg kg(-1)) decreased blood pressure in anesthetized SHRs. HPT7G enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, but had no effect on endothelium-independent vasodilation in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in aortas isolated from SHRs. HPT7G decreased hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expression in rat aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, HPT3'G had little effect on these parameters. In conclusion, HPT7G exerted hypotensive, vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities, similar to hesperetin and these effects are associated, in part, with the activity of GHES and HES to improve hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23831969

  3. Preparation and separation of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of thyroxine and triiodothyronine

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.T.; Hsu, L.

    1987-01-01

    An enzymatic method for synthesis of labelled thyroxine glucuronide (T4G) and triiodothyronine glucuronide (T3G) from labelled thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) is presented. The synthetic glucuronides are completely digested by beta-glucuronidase, with recovery of the parent T4 or T3. They have distinctive elution patterns on HPLC and on Sephadex G25 chromatography, and can be clearly separated from T4 and T3 as well as from synthetic T4 sulfate (T4S) and T3 sulfate (T3S). On LH 20 chromatography, elution of T4G and T3G is intermediate between that of T4 and T3 and that of T4S and T3S. T3G can be well separated from other thyronines by HPLC alone, but T4G coelutes with rT3 on HPLC; these are then separated by adding a Sephadex G25 chromatography step. Biosynthetic /sup 131/I-T3G and /sup 125/I-T4G from the bile of a cat given /sup 131/I-T3 and /sup 125/I-T4 had similar HPLC chromatographic patterns to those of synthetic T3G and T4G. That the identified peaks from analysis of the bile were indeed T3G and T4G was confirmed by recovery of the parent T3 and T4 after beta-glucuronidase digestion.

  4. Activators of the farnesoid X receptor negatively regulate androgen glucuronidation in human prostate cancer LNCAP cells.

    PubMed

    Kaeding, Jenny; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Bélanger, Julie; Caron, Patrick; Chouinard, Sarah; Verreault, Mélanie; Larouche, Olivier; Pelletier, Georges; Staels, Bart; Bélanger, Alain; Barbier, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Androgens are major regulators of prostate cell growth and physiology. In the human prostate, androgens are inactivated in the form of hydrophilic glucuronide conjugates. These metabolites are formed by the two human UGT2B15 [UGT (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) 2B15] and UGT2B17 enzymes. The FXR (farnesoid X receptor) is a bile acid sensor controlling hepatic and/or intestinal cholesterol, lipid and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we report the expression of FXR in normal and cancer prostate epithelial cells, and we demonstrate that its activation by chenodeoxycholic acid or GW4064 negatively interferes with the levels of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 mRNA and protein in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. FXR activation also causes a drastic reduction of androgen glucuronidation in these cells. These results point out activators of FXR as negative regulators of androgen-conjugating UGT expression in the prostate. Finally, the androgen metabolite androsterone, which is also an activator of FXR, dose-dependently reduces the glucuronidation of androgens catalysed by UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 in an FXR-dependent manner in LNCaP cells. In conclusion, the present study identifies for the first time the activators of FXR as important regulators of androgen metabolism in human prostate cancer cells. PMID:17988216

  5. The effect of various drugs on the glucuronidation of zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Sim, S M; Back, D J; Breckenridge, A M

    1991-01-01

    1. Zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine; AZT) is the drug of proven efficacy available for the treatment of patients with AIDS or ARC. It is eliminated mainly by hepatic glucuronidation. Therefore, interference with this metabolic pathway may lead to enhancement of AZT effect or to increased toxicity of the drug. We have examined the effect of a number of drugs which themselves undergo glucuronidation on AZT conjugation by human liver microsomes in vitro. 2. AZT glucuronidation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km and Vmax values (mean +/- s.d., n = 5), were 2.60 +/- 0.52 mM and 68.0 +/- 23.4 nmol h-1 mg-1, respectively, as determined from Eadie-Hofstee plots. 3. Dideoxyinosine, sulphanilamide and paracetamol were essentially non-inhibitory at concentrations up to 10 mM (4 times the concentration of AZT in the incubation). The most marked inhibitory effects were seen with indomethacin, naproxen, chloramphenicol, probenecid and ethinyloestradiol, with enzyme activity decreased by 97.7, 94.9, 88.7, 83.4% and 79.0%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 mM. Other compounds producing some inhibition of AZT conjugation were oxazepam, salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid. 4. Further studies are necessary to characterise the inhibition observed but the method described enables a screen of potentially important drug interactions to be carried out. PMID:1909542

  6. Sulphation and glucuronidation of ritodrine in human foetal and adult tissues.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, G M; Kubrich, M; Giuliani, L; de Vries, M; Rane, A

    1993-01-01

    Ritodrine is a beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist used for the management of preterm labour. It is inactivated by conjugation with sulphate and glucuronic acid. There is more ritodrine sulphate than ritodrine glucuronide in urine from the newborn whereas equal amounts of ritodrine glucuronide and sulphate are excreted in maternal urine [Clin. Pharmacol. Ther 44, 634-641, 1988]. We show that, in the mid-gestational human fetal liver, ritodrine sulphotransferase is well expressed, whereas the glucuronidation of ritodrine is little developed compared to the adult liver. The average sulphotransferase activity was 308 pmol.min-1 per mg protein in fetal (N = 48) and 145 pmol.min-1 per mg protein in adult (N = 32) liver. The rates of ritodrine sulphation in fetal gut, lung and kidney were higher than in the corresponding adult tissues. The development and tissue distribution patterns of ritodrine sulphotransferase are consistent with those of dopamine sulphotransferase. Ritodrine and dopamine are sulphated by thermolabile enzymes. The activity of glucuronyl transferase was measurable in only 5 of the 48 foetal livers assayed, and in those in which could be assayed, the average activity was 44.6 pmol.min-1 per mg protein, one-tenth of that in adult livers (524 pmol.min-1 per mg protein). PMID:8491241

  7. Effect of dose on the glucuronidation and sulphation kinetics of diflunisal in man: single dose studies.

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, G R; Herman, R J; Ross, S G; Verbeeck, R K

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of dose (100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg and 1000 mg) on the glucuronidation and sulphation of diflunisal was studied in six healthy volunteers. 2. Total urinary recovery ranged from 78.9 +/- 11.9% to 91.5 +/- 18.7% of the administered dose. Urinary recovery (normalized for total urinary recovery) of diflunisal sulphate (DS) significantly increased with dose from 9.3 +/- 3.7% to 18.1 +/- 4.8%. 3. Normalized urinary recovery for diflunisal phenolic glucuronide (DPG) was unaffected by dose (range: 30.6 +/- 3.8% to 40.6 +/- 6.6%). Normalized urinary recovery for the acyl glucuronide (DAG) significantly decreased from 52.3 +/- 4.6% to 40.2 +/- 3.4% as the dose increased. 4. Total plasma clearance of diflunisal significantly decreased from 14.4 +/- 1.4 ml min-1 to 8.7 +/- 1.4 ml min-1 as the dose increased from 100 mg to 750 mg. A further increase in dose to 1000 mg resulted in an unexplained increase in total plasma clearance to 10.3 +/- 1.8 ml min-1. 5. Dose-dependent plasma clearance of diflunisal was caused mainly by saturation of the formation of DAG, whereas the formation of DS and DPG were relatively unaffected by dose. PMID:3203058

  8. Rapid and sensitive determination of propofol glucuronide in hair by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seung; Cheong, Jae Chul; Lee, Jae Il; In, Moon Kyo

    2013-11-01

    A fast, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection and quantitation of propofol glucuronide in human hair has been developed and validated. Propofol glucuronide was extracted from 10mg of hair using a simple methanol extraction method, with recovery greater than 91% at 3 quality control samples (15, 100, 4000 pg/mg). A reversed phase column (C8) was used to analyze and the mobile phase was composed of ammonium formate and acetonitrile gradient at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 5 pg/mg and the assay was linear to 5000 pg/mg. The intra- and inter-day precision (% CV, coefficient of variation) ranged from 1.26 to 4.50% while the accuracy (% RE, relative error) were -4.24 to 4.4%. The matrix effects were monitored at 3 different concentrations and the %CV of the results for these concentrations was less than 10.6%. Propofol glucuronide was stable during processing and analysis in human hair. The procedure was validated and applied to the analysis of hair samples in human subjects previously administered in propofol. PMID:23872469

  9. Effect of Glucuronidation on the Potential of Kaempferol To Inhibit Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Beekmann, Karsten; de Haan, Laura H J; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2016-02-17

    To study the effect of metabolic conjugation of flavonoids on the potential to inhibit protein kinase activity, the inhibitory effects of the dietary flavonol kaempferol and its major plasma conjugate kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide on protein kinases were studied. To this end, the inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of recombinant protein kinase A (PKA) and of cell lysate from the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 on 141 putative serine/threonine phosphorylation sites derived from human proteins was assessed. Glucuronidation reduced the inhibitory potency of kaempferol on the phosphorylation activity of PKA and HepG2 lysate on average about 16 and 3.5 times, respectively, but did not appear to affect the target selectivity for kinases present in the lysate. The data demonstrate that, upon glucuronidation, kaempferol retains part of its intrinsic kinase inhibition potential, which implies that K3G does not necessarily need to be deconjugated to the aglycone for a potential inhibitory effect on protein kinases. PMID:26808477

  10. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  11. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  12. Ethyl benzene from ethane and benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Pogue, R.

    1996-10-01

    A new process to produce ethyl benzene for styrene production by employing a new zeolite catalyst starting with ethane and benzene. The demand for styrene is projected to growth due to new polymer technology under development.

  13. Enzymatic production of bile Acid glucuronides used as analytical standards for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses.

    PubMed

    Caron, Patrick; Trottier, Jocelyn; Verreault, Mélanie; Bélanger, Julie; Kaeding, Jenny; Barbier, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports a novel method for the production and purification of analytical standards of glucuronide conjugates of bile acids, chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), lithocholic, (LCA) and hyodeoxycholic (HDCA) acids. CDCA-3G (CDCA-3-glucuronide) and -24G, LCA-3G and -24G, and HDCA-6G and -24G were enzymatically formed by using microsomes from human liver, purified by liquid chromatography, digested with recombinant beta-glucuronidase, and quantified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS). The position of the glucuronosyl moiety on the bile acids was determined by analyzing the susceptibility to hydrolysis under elevated pH and temperature conditions of the standards. By using the purified analytical standards, a LC-ESI/MS/MS method was developed for the determination of these glucuronide conjugates in in vitro assays. The linearity of the assay ranged from 0.5 to 40 ng/mL for the six glucuronides, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precisions and accuracy values were all lower than 10.2%. Furthermore, processed sample stability analyses revealed that the six standards were stable at 4 degrees C for more than 24 h. This method was successfully used for the quantification of CDCA, LCA, and HDCA glucuronides formed by human liver or hepatoma HepG2 cells. In conclusion, such a method allows the purification of high-quality analytical standards of glucuronide derivatives and may easily be used for the quantification of other endo- and xenobiotics that are glucuronidated. PMID:16749861

  14. Disposition of Flavonoids via Enteric Recycling: Enzyme Stability Affects Characterization of Prunetin Glucuronidation across Species, Organs, and UGT Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Tiby B.; Wang, Stephen W.J.; Liu, Xing; Kulkarni, Kaustubh H.; Wang, Jingrong; Xu, Haiyan; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the in vitro glucuronidation of prunetin, a prodrug of genistein that is a highly active cancer prevention agent. Metabolism studies were conducted using expressed human UGT isoforms and microsomes/S9 fractions prepared from intestine and liver of rodents and humans. The results indicated that human intestinal microsomes were more efficient than liver microsomes in glucuronidating prunetin, but rates of metabolism were dependent on time of incubation at 37°C. Human liver and intestinal microsomes mainly produced metabolite 1 (prunetin-5-O-glucuronide) and metabolite 2 (prunetin-4’-O-glucuronide), respectively. Using 12 human UGT isoforms, we showed that UGT1A7, UGT1A8 and 1A9 were mainly responsible for the formation of metabolite 1 whereas UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 were mainly responsible for the formation of metabolite 2. This isoform specific metabolism was consistent with earlier results obtained using human liver and intestinal microsomes, as the former (liver) is UGT1A9-rich whereas the latter is UGT1A10-rich. Surprisingly, we found that thermo stability of the microsomes were isoform- and organ-dependent. For example, human liver microsomal UGT activities were much more heat (37°C) stable than intestinal microsomal UGT activities, consistent with the finding that human UGT1A9 is much more thermo stable than human UGT1A10 and UGT1A8. The organ-specific thermo stability profiles were also evident in rat microsomes and mouse S9 fractions, even though human intestinal glucuronidation of prunetin differ significantly from its rodent intestinal glucuronidation. In conclusion, prunetin glucuronidation is species-, organ- and UGT-isoform dependent, all of which may be impacted by thermo stability of specific UGT isoforms involved in the metabolism. PMID:18052087

  15. Simultaneous Quantification of Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoids in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug of abuse and is commonly quantified during urine drug testing. We conducted a controlled drug administration studies investigating efficacy of urinary cannabinoid glucuronide metabolites for documenting recency of cannabis intake and for determining stability of urinary cannabinoids. Methods A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated quantifying Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide in 0.5 ml human urine via supported-liquid extraction. Chromatography was performed on an Ultra Biphenyl column with a gradient of 10 mmol/l ammonium acetate, pH 6.15 and 15% methanol in acetonitrile at 0. 4ml/min. Analytes were monitored by positive and negative mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Results Linear ranges were 0.5–50 ng/ml for THC-glucuronide, 1–100 ng/ml for THCCOOH, 11-OH-THC and cannabidiol, 2–100 ng/ml for THC and cannabinol, and 5–500 ng/ml for THCCOOH-glucuronide (R2>0.99). Mean extraction efficiencies were 34–73% with analytical recovery (bias) 80.5–118.0% and total imprecision 3.0–10.2% coefficient of variation. Conclusion This method simultaneously quantifies urinary cannabinoids and phase II glucuronide metabolites, and enables evaluation of urinary cannabinoid glucuronides for documenting recency of cannabis intake and cannabinoid stability. The assay is applicable for routine urine cannabinoid testing. PMID:22771478

  16. The Contribution of Common Genetic Variation to Nicotine and Cotinine Glucuronidation in Multiple Ethnic/Racial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yesha M.; Stram, Daniel O.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Park, Sung-Shim L.; Henderson, Brian E.; Marchand, Loic Le; Haiman, Christopher A.; Murphy, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The lung cancer risk of smokers varies by race/ethnicity even after adjustment for smoking. Evaluating the role of genetics in nicotine metabolism is likely important in understanding these differences, as disparities in risk may be related to differences in nicotine dose and metabolism. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study in search of common genetic variants that predict nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation in a sample of 2,239 smokers (437 European Americans, 364 African Americans, 453 Latinos, 674 Japanese Americans and 311 Native Hawaiians) in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Urinary concentration of nicotine and its metabolites were determined. Results Among 11,892,802 variants analyzed, 1,241 were strongly associated with cotinine glucuronidation, 490 of which were also associated with nicotine glucuronidation (p<5×10−8). The vast majority were within chromosomal region 4q13, near UGT2B10. Fifteen independent and globally significant SNPs explained 33.2% of the variation in cotinine glucuronidation, ranging from 55% for African Americans to 19% for Japanese Americans. The strongest single SNP association was for rs115765562 (p=1.60×10−155). This SNP is highly correlated with a UGT2B10 splice site variant, rs116294140, which together with rs6175900 (Asp67Tyr) explain 24.3% of the variation. The top SNP for nicotine glucuronidation (rs116224959, p=2.56×10−43) was in high LD (r2=.99) with rs115765562. Conclusions Genetic variation in UGT2B10 contributions significantly to nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation but not to nicotine dose. Impact The contribution of genetic variation to nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation varies significantly by racial/ethnic group, but is unlikely to contribute directly to lung cancer risk. PMID:25293881

  17. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10595 - Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10595 Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy... chemical substance identified as octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1) (PMN...

  20. Biosynthesis and identification of an N-oxide/N-glucuronide metabolite and first synthesis of an N-O-glucuronide metabolite of Lu AA21004.

    PubMed

    Uldam, Henriette Kold; Juhl, Martin; Pedersen, Henrik; Dalgaard, Lars

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the biosynthesis and identification of a new class of metabolites, a piperazine N-oxide/N-glucuronide metabolite 4-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-1-β-D-glucuronic acid-piperazine 1-oxide (4). The metabolite was found in urine and plasma from humans and animals dosed with 1-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazine hydrobromide (Lu AA21004, 1), as a novel multimodal antidepressant under development for treatment of depression. Human liver microsomes in combination with uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid were used as an in vitro system to generate enough material of 4 to perform one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR experiments for structure elucidation. Based on rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy NMR experiments, the distance correlation between a piperazine proton and the anomeric proton of the glucuronic acid moiety is of a magnitude similar to that of the H-3' and H-5' protons and can only be explained by proximity in space and the postulated structure (4). The structural analog, the N-O-glucuronic acid conjugate 6-{4-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazin-1-yloxy}-1-β-D-glucuronic acid (3) was also observed in biological samples from humans and animals and the first organic synthesis and structural identification of this metabolite is also reported. Treatment of the glucuronide metabolites 3 and 4 with β-glucuronidase gave mainly the expected hydrolysis product, the hydroxyl amine 4-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazin-1-ol (2). PMID:21896789

  1. The detection and quantification of lorazepam and its 3-O-glucuronide in fingerprint deposits by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Goucher, Edward; Kicman, Andrew; Smith, Norman; Jickells, Sue

    2009-07-01

    The use of fingerprints as an alternative biological matrix to test for the presence of drugs and/or their metabolites is a novel area of research in analytical toxicology. This investigation describes quantitative analysis for the benzodiazepine lorazepam and its 3-O-glucuronide conjugate in fingerprints following the oral administration of a single 2 mg dose of lorazepam to five volunteers. Creatinine was also measured to investigate whether the amount of drug relative to that of creatinine would help to account for the variable amount of secretory material deposited. Fingerprints were deposited on glass cover slips and extracted by dissolving them in a solution of dichloromethane/methanol, containing tetradeuterated lorazepam as an internal standard. The samples were evaporated, reconstituted with mobile phase and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Chromatography was achieved using an RP (C18) column for the analysis of lorazapem and its glucuronide, and a hydrophilic interaction column (HILIC) for the analysis of creatinine. Lorazepam and its glucuronide were only detected where ten prints had been combined, up to 12 h following drug administration. In every case, the amount of lorazepam glucuronide exceeded that of lorazepam, the peak amounts being 210 and 11 pg, respectively. Adjusting for creatinine smoothed the elimination profile. To our knowledge, this represents the first time a drug glucuronide has been detected in deposited fingerprints. PMID:19569106

  2. Pivaloylcodeine, a new codeine derivative, for the inhibition of morphine glucuronidation. An in vitro study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Antonilli, Letizia; Togna, Anna Rita; Sabatini, Giovanna; Venditti, Alessandro; Guarcini, Laura; Togna, Giuseppina I; Nicoletti, Rosario; Sanasi, Filomena; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Nencini, Paolo

    2013-12-15

    We have previously found that phenanthrenic opioids, including codeine, modulate morphine glucuronidation in the rat. Here codeine and five of its derivatives were compared in their effects on the synthesis of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) from morphine by rat liver microsomal preparations, and by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes previously incubated for 72 h with either codeine or its derivatives. Acetylcodeine and pivaloylcodeine shared the capability of the parent compound of inhibiting the synthesis of M3G by liver microsomes through a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Their IC50 were 3.25, 2.27, and 4.32 μM, respectively. Dihydrocodeine, acetyldihydrocodeine, and lauroylcodeine were ineffective. In all the experimental circumstances M6G was undetectable in the incubation medium. In primary hepatocyte cultures codeine only inhibited M3G formation, but with a lower efficacy than that observed with microsomes (IC50 20.91 vs 4.32 μM). Preliminary results show that at micromolar concentrations codeine derivatives exhibit a low rate of affinity for μ opiate receptors. In conclusion, acetyl and pivaloyl derivatives of codeine noncompetitively inhibit liver glucuronidation of morphine interacting with microsomes. This study further strengths the notion that phenanthrenic opioids can modulate morphine glucuronidation independently from their effects on μ opiate receptors. PMID:24183585

  3. Stereoselective Inhibition of Methotrexate Excretion by Glucuronides of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs via Multidrug Resistance Proteins 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Taiki; Egashira, Sachiko; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Combined administration of methotrexate (MTX) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can result in a decreased systemic clearance of MTX. To date, inhibition of renal uptake via organic anion transporters and efflux via multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRPs) by NSAIDs has been recognized as possible sites of drug interaction between MTX and NSAIDs. Although most NSAIDs are glucuronidated in kidney tissue and excreted mainly as glucuronide conjugates, it is not fully known whether the glucuronides of NSAIDs (NSAIDs-Glu) inhibit MTX excretion via MRP2 and MRP4. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of the glucuronides of several NSAIDs (diclofenac, R- and S-ibuprofen, R- and S-flurbiprofen, and R- and S-naproxen), as well as the parent NSAIDs on MTX uptake using human MRP2- and MRP4-expressing inside-out vesicles. Results confirm that all NSAIDs and NSAIDs-Glu examined exhibited stereoselective and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on MTX uptake via MRP2 and MRP4. Notably, NSAIDs-Glu potently inhibited MTX uptake via MRP2 and MRP4 compared with the corresponding parent NSAIDs except for naproxen in MRP2 and S-flurbiprofen in MRP4. The present results support that the glucuronides of NSAIDs, as well as the parent NSAIDs, are involved in the inhibition of urinary excretion of MTX via MRP2 and MRP4. PMID:26659924

  4. Assessment of rat liver slices as a suitable model system for studying the simultaneous sulphation and glucuronidation of phenolic xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Oddy, E A; Manchee, G R; Coughtrie, M W

    1997-04-01

    1. In most mammals, the xenobiotic 1-naphthol undergoes conjugation to produce predominantly the sulphate and glucuronide metabolites. 2. Using 1-naphthol, we established and validated rat liver slices as a model system to assess simultaneously the relative contributions of sulphation and glucuronidation to the metabolism of simple phenolic xenobiotics. 3. Determination of kinetic parameters for 1-naphthol sulphation showed identical affinity (Km approximately 5 microM) in rat liver slices and in rat liver cytosol. 4. In liver slices, at low substrate concentrations (10 microM 1-naphthol), sulphation was the predominant pathway but was readily saturated, whereas at high concentrations of 1-naphthol (100 microM) glucuronidation predominated. 5. In subcellular fractions, the Km for sulphation of 1-naphthol (5 microM) by liver cytosol was substantially lower than the Km for glucuronidation of 1-naphthol (48 microM) in liver microsomes, indicating saturation of sulphation by acceptor substrate was principally responsible for the shift towards glucuronidation at higher concentrations of 1-naphthol. PMID:9149376

  5. Systematic Studies of Sulfation and Glucuronidation of 12 Flavonoids in the Mouse Liver S9 Fraction Reveals both Unique and Shared Positional Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lan; Zhou, Juan; Yang, Cai-Hua; Xia, Bi-Jun; Hu, Ming; Liu, Zhong-Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Sulfation and glucuronidation are the principal metabolic pathways of flavonoids, and extensive phase II metabolism is the main reason for their poor bioavailabilities. The purpose of this study was to compare the similarities and differences in the positional preference of glucuronidation versus sulfation in the mouse liver S9 fraction. The conjugating rates of seven mono-hydroxyflavones (HFs) (i.e., 2’-, 3’-, 4’-, 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-HF), and five di-hydroxyflavones (diHFs), (i.e., 6,7-, 4’,7-, 3,7-, 5,7-, and 3,4’-diHF) were determined in three separate enzymatic reaction systems: (A) sulfation only, (B) glucuronidation only, or (C) simultaneous sulfation and glucuronidation (i.e., Sult-Ugt co-reaction). In general, glucuronidation rates were much faster than the sulfation rates. Among the HFs, 7-HF was the best substrate for both conjugation reactions, whereas 3-HF was rapidly glucuronidated but was not sulfated. As a result, the rank order of sulfation was very different from that of glucuronidation. Among the diHFs, regiospecific glucuronidation was limited to 7-OH and 3-OH positions, whereas regiospecific sulfation was limited to 7-OH and 4’-OH positions. Other positions (i.e., 6-OH and 5-OH) in diHFs were not conjugated. The positional preferences were essentially maintained in a Sult-Ugt co-reaction system, although sulfation was surprisingly enhanced. Lastly, sulfation and glucuronidation displayed different regiospecific- and substrate-dependent characteristics. In conclusion, glucuronidation and sulfation shared the same preference for 7-OH position (of flavonoids) but displayed unique preference in other positions in that glucuronidation preferred 3-OH position whereas sulfation preferred 4’-OH position. PMID:22352802

  6. The effect of glucuronidation on isoflavone induced estrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? mediated coregulator interactions.

    PubMed

    Beekmann, Karsten; de Haan, Laura H J; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Houtman, Ren; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2015-11-01

    Non-prenylated isoflavone aglycones are known to have phyto-estrogenic properties and act as agonistic ligands on ER? and ER? due to their structural resemblance to 17?-estradiol (E2). Genistein and daidzein are the two main dietary isoflavones; upon uptake they are extensively metabolized and exist nearly exclusively as their conjugated forms in biological fluids. Little is known about the effect of conjugation on the intrinsic estrogenic activities of these isoflavones. To characterize and compare the intrinsic estrogenic activities of genistein and daidzein, and their respective 7-O-glucuronide metabolites a cell-free assay system was employed that determines the ligand-induced changes in ER?- and ER?-ligand binding domain (LBD) interactions with 154 different binding motifs derived from 66 different nuclear receptor coregulators. The glucuronides were 8 to 4400 times less potent than their respective aglycones to modulate ER?-LBD and ER?-LBD-coregulator interactions. Glucuronidation changed the preferential activation of genistein from ER?-LBD to ER?-LBD and further increased the slightly preferential activation of daidzein for ER?-LBD. The tested isoflavone compounds were less potent than E2 (around 5 to 1580 times for the aglycones) but modulated the LBD-coregulator interactions in a manner similar to E2. Our results show that genistein and daidzein remain agonistic ligands of ER?-LBD and ER?-LBD in their conjugated form with a higher relative preference for ER?-LBD than the corresponding aglycones. This shift in receptor preference is of special interest as the preferential activation of ER? is considered one of the possible modes of action underlying the supposed beneficial instead of adverse health effects of isoflavones. PMID:26361015

  7. Effect of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) on in vivo sulphation and glucuronidation of paracetamol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yeung, J H; Chiu, L C; Ooi, V E

    1995-01-01

    The effect of polysaccharide peptide (PSP), an immunomodulator isolated from Coriolus versicolor COV-1, on the disposition of paracetamol was investigated in the rat. PSP (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 30 min before a moderate dose (100 mg/kg, i.v.) of paracetamol was given. Plasma and bile concentrations of paracetamol, paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetics of paracetamol (100 mg/kg) alone was consistent with those reported previously, using a one-compartment model. PSP (200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the clearance (controls, 19.06 +/- 2.74 ml/min/kg: PSP treated, 26.22 +/- 0.84 ml/min/kg) and volume of distribution (controls, 1.35 +/- 0.11 l/kg: PSP treated, 1.61 +/- 0.04 l/kg) of paracetamol by 37% and 21%, respectively. These changes were associated with concomitant increases in the glucuronide and sulphate metabolites in plasma, with significant increases in the Cmax and Tmax for both metabolites. The biliary excretion rate of paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate were also measured. The Cmax values of paracetamol sulphate were significantly (P < 0.01) increased by 2.4-fold from 907.8 +/- 157.7 micrograms/ml (controls) to 3061 +/- 331 micrograms/ml after PSP treatment. The lower dose of PSP (100 mg/kg) had no significant effect on the disposition of paracetamol in this study, which agreed with previous reports that a low dose of PSP (100-200 mg/kg, i.p.) was less effective in the protection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. The time course of the increase in paracetamol sulphate in plasma and bile in this study coincided with the transient perturbation of glutathione (GSH) turnover by a similar dose range of PSP previously described, such that more cysteine was available for oxidation to inorganic sulphate. This increase in sulphate conjugation by PSP would, in part, contribute to the increase in disposition of paracetamol and may be related to the ability of PSP to decrease the covalent binding of paracetamol to microsomal proteins previously reported. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanism(s) involved in the PSP-induced increases in paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate formation and biliary excretion. PMID:8983934

  8. The effect of age and gender on glucuronidation and sulphation in rat liver: a study using paracetamol as a model substrate.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, K; Herd, B

    1993-01-01

    The effect of age and sex on glucuronidation and sulphation was studied in vitro in rat liver fractions, using paracetamol (acetaminophen) as substrate. Glucuronidation was more rapid in females; sulphation in males. Age was not a determinant of either metabolic pathway in either sex. PMID:15374341

  9. Determination of tapentadol and tapentadol-O-glucuronide in human serum samples by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hillewaert, Vera; Pusecker, Klaus; Sips, Luc; Verhaeghe, Tom; de Vries, Ronald; Langhans, Manfred; Terlinden, Rolf; Timmerman, Philip

    2015-02-15

    Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with 2 mechanisms of action, MOR agonism and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibition in a single molecule. It is the first member of a new therapeutic class, MOR-NRI. A high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of tapentadol and its O-glucuronide metabolite in human serum. Simultaneous quantification was deemed to be challenging because of the large difference in concentrations between tapentadol and its O-glucuronide metabolite in clinical samples. Therefore, a method was established using a common processed sample, but with different injection volumes and chromatographic conditions for each analyte. Tapentadol and tapentadol-O-glucuronide were determined by protein precipitation of 0.100ml of the samples with acetonitrile. The internal standards used are D₆-tapentadol and D₆-tapentadol-O-glucuronide. The validated concentration range was 0.200-200 ng/ml (tapentadol) and 10.0-10,000 ng/ml (tapentadol-O-glucuronide). Chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (1.7 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm) column, with mobile phase consisting of 0.01 M ammonium formate (adjusted to pH 4 using formic acid) (A) and methanol (B). A separate injection was done for measurement of each analyte, with a different gradient and run time. The analytes were detected by using an electrospray ion source on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive ionization mode. The run time was 1.6 min for tapentadol and 1.5 min for tapentadol-O-glucuronide. The high sensitivity and acceptable performance of the assay allowed its application to the analysis of serum samples in clinical trials. The validated method was used for analysis of tapentadol in over 17,000 samples. PMID:25600054

  10. Identification of Recent Cannabis Use: Whole-Blood and Plasma Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics following Controlled Smoked Cannabis Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schwope, David M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most frequently observed illicit drug in investigations of accidents and driving under the influence of drugs. THC-glucuronide has been suggested as a marker of recent cannabis use, but there are no blood data following controlled THC administration to test this hypothesis. Furthermore, there are no studies directly examining whole-blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics, although this matrix is often the only available specimen. METHODS Participants (9 men, 1 woman) resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. We quantified THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide directly in whole blood and plasma by liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry within 24 h of collection to obviate stability issues. RESULTS Median whole blood (plasma) observed maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 50 (76), 6.4 (10), 41 (67), 1.3 (2.0), 2.4 (3.6), 89 (190), and 0.7 (1.4) μg/L 0.25 h after starting smoking for THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, CBD, CBN, and THCCOOH-glucuronide, respectively, and 0.5 h for THC-glucuronide. At observed Cmax, whole-blood (plasma) detection rates were 60% (80%), 80% (90%), and 50% (80%) for CBD, CBN, and THC-glucuronide, respectively. CBD and CBN were not detectable after 1 h in either matrix (LOQ 1.0 μg/L). CONCLUSIONS Human whole-blood cannabinoid data following cannabis smoking will assist whole blood and plasma cannabinoid interpretation, while furthering identification of recent cannabis intake. PMID:21836075

  11. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  13. Identification of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 as the Major Isozyme Responsible for the Glucuronidation of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; He, Chunyong; Fang, Lianxiang; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-01-01

    20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the representative aglycones of ginsenosides, has a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. Although phase I metabolism has been investigated extensively, information regarding phase II metabolism of this compound remains to be elucidated. Here, a glucuronidated metabolite of PPD in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and rat liver microsomes (RLMs) was unambiguously identified as PPD-3-O-β-d-glucuronide by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. The chemical inhibition and recombinant human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms assay showed that the PPD glucuronidation was mainly catalyzed by UGT1A4 in HLM, whereas UGT1A3 showed weak catalytic activity. In conclusion, PPD-3-O-β-d-glucuronide was first identified as the principal glucuronidation metabolite of PPD in HLMs, which was catalyzed by UGT1A4. PMID:27005621

  14. Synthesis and Antitumor Properties of BQC-Glucuronide, a Camptothecin Prodrug for Selective Tumor Activation.

    PubMed

    Prijovich, Zeljko M; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Chou, Hua-Cheng; Huang, Ping-Ting; Chen, Kai-Chuan; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Leu, Yu-Lin; Roffler, Steve R

    2016-04-01

    Major limitations of camptothecin anticancer drugs (toxicity, nonselectivity, water insolubility, inactivation by human serum albumin) may be improved by creating glucuronide prodrugs that rely on beta-glucuronidase for their activation. We found that the camptothecin derivative 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[de]quinoline-camptothecin (BQC) displays greater cytotoxicity against cancer cells than the clinically used camptothecin derivatives SN-38 and topotecan even in the presence of human serum albumin. We synthesized the prodrug BQC-glucuronide (BQC-G), which was 4000 times more water soluble and 20-40 times less cytotoxic than BQC. Importantly, even in the presence of human serum albumin, BQC-G was efficiently hydrolyzed by beta-glucuronidase and produced greater cytotoxicity (IC50 = 13 nM) than camptothecin, 9-aminocamptothecin, SN-38, or topotecan (IC50 > 3000, 1370, 48, and 28 nM, respectively). BQC-G treatment of mice bearing human colon cancer xenografts with naturally or artificially elevated beta-glucuronidase activity produced significant antitumor activity, showing that BQC-G is a potent prodrug suitable for selective intratumoral drug activation. PMID:26824303

  15. The effect of multiple dosage on the kinetics of glucuronidation and sulphation of diflunisal in man.

    PubMed Central

    Verbeeck, R K; Loewen, G R; MacDonald, J I; Herman, R J

    1990-01-01

    1. The single (250 and 500 mg) and multiple dose (250 and 500 mg twice daily for 15 days) pharmacokinetics of diflunisal were compared in young volunteers. 2. The plasma clearance of diflunisal was lowered significantly after multiple dose administration (5.2 +/- 1.2 and 4.2 +/- 0.7 ml min-1 for the 250 and 500 mg twice daily regimens, respectively) as compared with single dose administration 11.4 +/- 3.1 and 9.9 +/- 2.0 ml min-1 for the 250 and 500 mg single doses, respectively). 3. The partial metabolic clearances of diflunisal by acyl and phenolic glucuronide formation were lowered significantly (greater than 50%) after multiple dose administration. 4. The urinary recovery of diflunisal sulphate increased as a function of dose: 6.1 +/- 2.8 and 9.1 +/- 3.5% following the 250 and 500 mg single dose, respectively, and 10.9 +/- 3.1 and 15.9 +/- 3.6% following the 250 and 500 mg twice daily regimens. The partial metabolic clearance of diflunisal by sulphate conjugation was unchanged following multiple dose administration. 5. The plasma protein binding of diflunisal was concentration-dependent. Analysis of unbound plasma clearances of diflunisal showed that its total plasma clearance following 500 mg twice daily was affected by both saturable glucuronidation and concentration-dependent plasma binding. PMID:2328191

  16. In vitro glucuronidation of 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol by microsomes and hepatocytes from rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Rad, Golriz; Hoehle, Simone I; Kuester, Robert K; Sipes, I Glenn

    2010-06-01

    2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP) is a brominated flame retardant used in unsaturated polyester resins. In a 2-year bioassay BMP was shown to be a multisite carcinogen in rats and mice. Because glucuronidation is the key metabolic transformation of BMP by rats, in this study the in vitro hepatic glucuronidation of BMP was compared across several species. In addition, the glucuronidation activities of human intestinal microsomes and specific human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes for BMP were determined. To explore other possible routes of metabolism for BMP, studies were conducted with rat and human hepatocytes. Incubation of hepatic microsomes with BMP in the presence of UDP-glucuronic acid resulted in the formation of a BMP monoglucuronide. The order of hepatic microsomal glucuronidation activity of BMP was rats, mice > hamsters > monkeys > humans. The rate of glucuronidation by rat hepatic microsomes was 90-fold greater than that of human hepatic microsomes. Human intestinal microsomes converted BMP to BMP glucuronide at a rate even lower than that of human hepatic microsomes. Among the human UGT enzymes tested, only UGT2B7 had detectable glucuronidation activity for BMP. BMP monoglucuronide was the only metabolite formed when BMP was incubated with suspensions of freshly isolated hepatocytes from male F-344 rats or with cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Glucuronidation of BMP in human hepatocytes was extremely low. Overall, the results support in vivo studies in rats in which BMP glucuronide was the only metabolite found. The poor glucuronidation capacity of humans for BMP suggests that the pharmacokinetic profile of BMP in humans will be dramatically different from that of rodents. PMID:20200232

  17. In Vitro Glucuronidation of 2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol by Microsomes and Hepatocytes from Rats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Golriz; Hoehle, Simone I.; Kuester, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP) is a brominated flame retardant used in unsaturated polyester resins. In a 2-year bioassay BMP was shown to be a multisite carcinogen in rats and mice. Because glucuronidation is the key metabolic transformation of BMP by rats, in this study the in vitro hepatic glucuronidation of BMP was compared across several species. In addition, the glucuronidation activities of human intestinal microsomes and specific human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes for BMP were determined. To explore other possible routes of metabolism for BMP, studies were conducted with rat and human hepatocytes. Incubation of hepatic microsomes with BMP in the presence of UDP-glucuronic acid resulted in the formation of a BMP monoglucuronide. The order of hepatic microsomal glucuronidation activity of BMP was rats, mice ≫ hamsters > monkeys ⋙ humans. The rate of glucuronidation by rat hepatic microsomes was 90-fold greater than that of human hepatic microsomes. Human intestinal microsomes converted BMP to BMP glucuronide at a rate even lower than that of human hepatic microsomes. Among the human UGT enzymes tested, only UGT2B7 had detectable glucuronidation activity for BMP. BMP monoglucuronide was the only metabolite formed when BMP was incubated with suspensions of freshly isolated hepatocytes from male F-344 rats or with cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Glucuronidation of BMP in human hepatocytes was extremely low. Overall, the results support in vivo studies in rats in which BMP glucuronide was the only metabolite found. The poor glucuronidation capacity of humans for BMP suggests that the pharmacokinetic profile of BMP in humans will be dramatically different from that of rodents. PMID:20200232

  18. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-02-15

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected {pi}{sup *} shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  19. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  20. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  1. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  2. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... 0.05 percent in baked goods as defined in § 170.3(n)(1) of this chapter; 0.04 percent in chewing...

  4. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  5. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  6. Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl p - nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate ( EPN ) ; CASRN 2104 - 64 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Ha

  7. Efflux Transport Characterization of Resveratrol Glucuronides in UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 Transfected HeLa Cells: Application of a Cellular Pharmacokinetic Model to Decipher the Contribution of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Feng; Quan, Enxi; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2016-04-01

    Resveratrol undergoes extensive metabolism to form biologically active glucuronides in humans. However, the transport mechanisms for resveratrol glucuronides are not fully established. Here, we aimed to characterize the efflux transport of resveratrol glucuronides using UGT1A1-overexpressing HeLa cells (HeLa1A1 cells), and to determine the contribution of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 4 to cellular excretion of the glucuronides. Two glucuronide isomers [i.e., resveratrol 3-O-glucuronide (R3G) and resveratrol 4'-O-glucuronide (R4'G)] were excreted into the extracellular compartment after incubation of resveratrol (1-100 μM) with HeLa1A1 cells. The excretion rate was linearly related to the level of intracellular glucuronide, indicating that glucuronide efflux was a nonsaturable process. MK-571 (a dual inhibitor of UGT1A1 and MRPs) significantly decreased the excretion rates of R3G and R4'G while increasing their intracellular levels. Likewise, short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of MRP4 caused a significant reduction in glucuronide excretion but an elevation in glucuronide accumulation. Furthermore, β-glucuronidase expressed in the cells catalyzed the hydrolysis of the glucuronides back to the parent compound. A cellular pharmacokinetic model integrating resveratrol transport/metabolism with glucuronide hydrolysis/excretion was well fitted to the experimental data, allowing derivation of the efflux rate constant values in the absence or presence of shRNA targeting MRP4. It was found that a large percentage of glucuronide excretion (43%-46%) was attributed to MRP4. In conclusion, MRP4 participated in cellular excretion of R3G and R4'G. Integration of mechanistic pharmacokinetic modeling with transporter knockdown was a useful method to derive the contribution percentage of an exporter to overall glucuronide excretion. PMID:26758854

  8. Human and Rat ABC Transporter Efflux of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol A Glucuronide: Interspecies Comparison and Implications for Pharmacokinetic Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant interspecies differences exist between human and rodent with respect to absorption, distribution, and excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and its primary metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G). ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter enzymes play important roles in these physi...

  9. Stereoselective glucuronidation and hydroxylation of etodolac by UGT1A9 and CYP2C9 in man.

    PubMed

    Tougou, K; Gotou, H; Ohno, Y; Nakamura, A

    2004-05-01

    1. In vitro metabolic studies with etodolac were performed. S- and R-etodolac were converted to the acylglucuronide and hydroxylated metabolites by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and cytochrome P450 in microsomes. However, the stereoselectivities of UGT and P450 for the isomers were opposite. S-etodolac was glucuronidated preferentially than R-etodolac by UGT. In contrast, R-etodolac was hydroxylated preferentially than S-etodolac by P450. 2. Of several human P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 had the greatest activity for hydroxylation of R-etodolac. Sulfaphenazole, an inhibitor of CYP2C9, and anti-CYP2C9 antibody inhibited the hydroxylation of R-etodolac in human liver microsomes. CYP2C9 therefore contributes to the stereoselective hydroxylation of R-etodolac. 3. Of several human UGT enzymes, UGT1A9 had the greatest activity for glucuronidation of S-etodolac. Propofol and thyroxine, inhibitors of UGT1A9, inhibited the glucuronidation of S-etodolac in human liver microsomes. Therefore, UGT1A9 is mainly responsible for the stereoselective glucuronidation of S-etodolac. 4. Because S-etodolac was metabolized more rapidly than R-etodolac in human cryopreserved hepatocytes, the stereoselectivities of UGT1A9 for etodolac substantially influenced the overall metabolism of S- and R-etodolac in man. PMID:15370961

  10. HPLC with laser-induced native fluorescence detection for morphine and morphine glucuronides from blood after immunoaffinity extraction.

    PubMed

    Hupka, Y; Beike, J; Roegener, J; Brinkmann, B; Blaschke, G; Köhler, H

    2005-05-01

    A new immunoaffinity solid phase extraction of morphine and its phase II metabolites, morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide and morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide is described. An immunoadsorber was applied which was created for the first time by the immobilisation of specific antibodies (polyclonal, host: rabbit) by the sol-gel method. The extraction method in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence determination has been validated and shown to be applicable to blood samples of heroin victims in a low concentration range. Blood extracts were essentially free of interfering matrix components when compared to C8-extracts. Additionally, a novel, sensitive and selective detection system for wavelength-resolved analysis of laser-induced fluorescence coupled to HPLC was developed. The analytes were excited with a frequency tripled Ti:Sa laser (lambda=244 nm quasi cw). The total emission spectrum was recorded with a detection system consisting of an imaging spectrograph and a back-illuminated CCD camera. This technique of detection, combined with an extended optical path (at least 6 mm could be illuminated by the laser), resulted in an optimal fluorescence intensity of the analytes. The method permitted the analysis of morphine, morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide and morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide in a low concentration range and could be applied to a complex matrix such as postmortem blood samples because analyte peaks could be discriminated from matrix peaks by their characteristic emission spectra. PMID:15657745

  11. High-Throughput LC-MS/MS Method for Direct Quantification of Glucuronidated, Sulfated, and Free Enterolactone in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Nørskov, Natalja P; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2016-03-01

    Sulfation and glucuronidation constitute a major pathway in humans and may play an important role in biological activity of metabolites including the enterolignan, enterolactone. Because the aromatic structure of enterolactone has similarities to steroid metabolites, it was hypothesized that enterolactone may protect against hormone-dependent cancers. This led to numerous epidemiological studies. In this context, there has been a demand for rapid, sensitive, high-throughput methods to measure enterolactone in biofluids. Different methods have been developed using GC-MS, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and a fluoroimmunoassay; however, most of these methods measure the total concentration of enterolactone, without any specification of its conjugation pattern. Here for the first time we present a high-throughput LC-MS/MS method to quantify enterolactone in its intact form as glucuronide, sulfate, and free enterolactone. The method has shown good accuracy and precision at low concentration and very high sensitivity, with LLOQ for enterolactone sulfate at 16 pM, enterolactone glucuronide at 26 pM, and free enterolactone at 86 pM. The short run time of 2.6 min combined with simple sample clean up and high sensitivity make this method attractive for the high-throughput of samples needed for epidemiological studies. Finally, we have adapted the new method to quantify enterolactone and its conjugates in 3956 plasma samples from an epidemiological study. We found enterolactone glucuronide to be the major conjugation form and that conjugation pattern was similar between men and women. PMID:26809233

  12. The capillary-isotachophoretic analysis of reactants and products of glucuronidation. A new method for the assay of UDPGlucuronosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Brunner, G; Holloway, C J

    1980-01-01

    UDPglucuronosyltransferase competes with a nucleotide pyrophosphatase for UDPglucuronate as a substrate. Both enzyme systems are located in the microsomal fraction of mammalian liver homogenates, and the pyrophosphatase is present in all but the purest preparations of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, since solubilisation procedures yield both activities in the 100 000 x g supernatant. In glucuronidation studies, it is important to be able to ascertain the degree of hydrolysis of the substrate UDPglucuronate due to the pyrophosphatase activity. A new method is reported using analytical capillary isotachophoresis whereby reactants and products of both glucuronidation and hydrolysis can be assayed simultaneously. The example presented in this paper is the glucuronidation of paracetamol (4-acetamidophenol) an important phenolic drug of toxicological interest. Rabbit liver microsomes glucuronidate this substance much more slowly than other phenolic compounds, so that hydrolysis of the donor molecule UDPglucuronic acid becomes of primary importance. Furthermore, the ionic mobility of 4-acetamidophenyl glucuronoside is much less than the other constitutents of assay mixtures under the analytical conditions employed, so that a well-defined separation from other reaction species is afforded. PMID:6102075

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF TWO GLUCURONIDE METABOLITES OF DOXYLAMINE VIA THERMOSPRAY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AND THERMOSPRAY/MASS SPECTROMETRY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of a high-pressure liquid chromatography fraction containing two urinary glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine by thermospray mass spectrometry (TSP/MS) provided (MH)+ ions for each metabolite. TSP/MS/MS of the (MH)+ ions provided a fragment ion characteristic of these m...

  14. Multiple UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases in Human Liver Microsomes Glucuronidate Both R- and S-7-Hydroxywarfarin into Two Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, C. Preston; Pouncey, Dakota L; Hartman, Jessica H.; Nshimiyimana, Robert; Desrochers, Linda P.; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Boysen, Gunnar; Miller, Grover P.

    2014-01-01

    The widely used anticoagulant Coumadin (R/S-warfarin) undergoes oxidation by cytochromes P450 into hydroxywarfarins that subsequently become conjugated for excretion in urine. Hydroxywarfarins may modulate warfarin metabolism transcriptionally or through direct inhibition of cytochromes P450 and thus, UGT action toward hydroxywarfarin elimination may impact levels of the parent drugs and patient responses. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about conjugation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in warfarin metabolism. Herein, we identified probable conjugation sites, kinetic mechanisms and hepatic UGT isoforms involved in microsomal glucuronidation of R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin. Both compounds underwent glucuronidation at C4 and C7 hydroxyl groups based on elution properties and spectral characteristics. Their formation demonstrated regio- and enantioselectivity by UGTs and resulted in either Michaelis-Menten or substrate inhibition kinetics. Glucuronidation at the C7 hydroxyl group occurred more readily than at the C4 group, and the reaction was overall more efficient for R-7-hydroxywarfarin due to higher affinity and rates of turnover. The use of these mechanisms and parameters to model in vivo clearance demonstrated that contributions of substrate inhibition would lead to underestimation of metabolic clearance than that predicted by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Lastly, these processes were driven by multiple UGTs indicating redundancy in glucuronidation pathways and ultimately metabolic clearance of R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin. PMID:25447818

  15. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  18. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  19. Raloxifene glucuronidation in liver and intestinal microsomes of humans and monkeys: contribution of UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Naoki; Takasuka, Akane; Kokawa, Yuki; Isobe, Takashi; Taguchi, Maho; Shigeyama, Masato; Murata, Mikio; Suno, Manabu; Hanioka, Nobumitsu

    2016-04-01

    1. Raloxifene is an antiestrogen that has been marketed for the treatment of osteoporosis, and is metabolized into 6- and 4'-glucuronides by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. In this study, the in vitro glucuronidation of raloxifene in humans and monkeys was examined using liver and intestinal microsomes and recombinant UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9). 2. Although the Km and CLint values for the 6-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes were similar between humans and monkeys, and species differences in Vmax values (liver microsomes, humans > monkeys; intestinal microsomes, humans < monkeys) were observed, no significant differences were noted in the Km or S50, Vmax and CLint or CLmax values for the 4'-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes between humans and monkeys. 3. The activities of 6-glucuronidation in recombinant UGT enzymes were UGT1A1 > UGT1A8 >UGT1A9 for humans, and UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 for monkeys. The activities of 4'-glucuronidation were UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 in humans and monkeys. 4. These results demonstrated that the profiles for the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene by microsomes were moderately different between humans and monkeys. PMID:26247833

  20. Glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites of the flavonoid quercetin prevent endothelial dysfunction but lack direct vasorelaxant effects in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Lodi, Federica; Jimenez, Rosario; Moreno, Laura; Kroon, Paul A; Needs, Paul W; Hughes, David A; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana; Cogolludo, Angel; Lopez-Sepulveda, Rocío; Duarte, Juan; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an inverse association between dietary flavonoid intake and mortality for ischemic heart disease. Quercetin reduces blood pressure and restores endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive animals. However, quercetin (aglycone) is usually not present in plasma, but it is rapidly metabolized during absorption by methylation, glucuronidation and sulfation. We have analyzed the vasorelaxant effects and the role on NO bioavailability and endothelial function of quercetin and its conjugated metabolites (quercetin-3-glucuronide, isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3'-sulfate) in rat aorta. Thoracic aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats were mounted for isometric force recording and endothelial function was tested by measuring the vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine. NADPH-enhanced O(2)(-) release was quantified in homogenates from cultured aortic smooth muscle cells using lucigenin chemiluminescence. Unlike quercetin, the conjugated metabolites had no direct vasorelaxant effect, and did not modify endothelial function or the biological activity of NO. However, all metabolites (at 10 micromol/L) prevented, at least partially, the impairment of endothelial-derived NO response under conditions of high oxidative stress induced by the SOD inhibitor DETCA. Furthermore, they protected the biological activity of exogenous NO when impaired by DETCA. Quercetin and quercetin-3'-sulfate (>or=10 micromol/L) or quercetin-3-glucuronide (100 micromol/L) inhibited NADPH oxidase-derived O(2)(-) release. Quercetin and quercetin-3-glucuronide (1 micromol/L) prevented the endothelial dysfunction induced by incubation with ET-1. These data indicate, for the first time, that the conjugated metabolites could be responsible for the in vivo protective activity of quercetin on endothelial dysfunction. PMID:18801486

  1. Determination of raloxifene and its glucuronides in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay.

    PubMed

    Trdan, Tina; Roškar, Robert; Trontelj, Jurij; Ravnikar, Matjaž; Mrhar, Aleš

    2011-08-01

    A selective, sensitive, accurate and precise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of raloxifene and its three glucuronides: raloxifene-6-β-glucuronide (M1), raloxifene-4'-β-glucuronide (M2), raloxifene-6,4'-diglucuronide (M3) in urine samples is presented in this paper. To our knowledge the developed analytical method is the first fully validated method capable of simultaneous determination of raloxifene and its glucuronides in real urine samples. Moreover, for the first time a method for determination of raloxifene diglucuronide in relevant biological samples was introduced. Metabolites were obtained by a bioconversion process of raloxifene to its glucuronides using the microorganism Streptomyces sp. and were used as standards for validation. Urine samples were introduced to a simple solid phase extraction prior to the analysis by LC-MS/MS. The method was linear in a wide range with high determination coefficient (r(2) > 0.997). The limits of quantification achieved were 1.01, 1.95, 2.83 and 4.69 nM for raloxifene, M1, M2 and M3, respectively. The recoveries were higher than 92.5%, the accuracy was within 100 ± 8.8% and the precision was better than 12% for all compounds. The developed method was successfully applied to the real urine samples and showed to be appropriate for use in further research of still not completely discovered raloxifene pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, the presented method could also serve for a potential application in anti-doping analysis. PMID:21752732

  2. Quantitative Profiling of Human Renal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and Glucuronidation Activity: A Comparison of Normal and Tumoral Kidney Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Margaillan, Guillaume; Rouleau, Michèle; Fallon, John K.; Caron, Patrick; Villeneuve, Lyne; Turcotte, Véronique; Smith, Philip C.; Joy, Melanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Renal metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes is central to the clearance of many drugs. However, significant discrepancies about the relative abundance and activity of individual UGT enzymes in the normal kidney prevail among reports, whereas glucuronidation in tumoral kidney has not been examined. In this study, we performed an extensive profiling of glucuronidation metabolism in normal (n = 12) and tumor (n = 14) kidneys using targeted mass spectrometry quantification of human UGTs. We then correlated UGT protein concentrations with mRNA levels assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and with conjugation activity for the major renal UGTs. Beyond the wide interindividual variability in expression levels observed among kidney samples, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and UGT1A6 are the most abundant renal UGTs in both normal and tumoral tissues based on protein quantification. In normal kidney tissues, only UGT1A9 protein levels correlated with mRNA levels, whereas UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 quantification correlated significantly with their mRNA levels in tumor kidneys. Data support that posttranscriptional regulation of UGT2B7 and UGT1A6 expression is modulating glucuronidation in the kidney. Importantly, our study reveals a significant decreased glucuronidation capacity of neoplastic kidneys versus normal kidneys that is paralleled by drastically reduced UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 mRNA and protein expression. UGT2B7 activity is the most repressed in tumors relative to normal tissues, with a 96-fold decrease in zidovudine metabolism, whereas propofol and sorafenib glucuronidation is decreased by 7.6- and 5.2-fold, respectively. Findings demonstrate that renal drug metabolism is predominantly mediated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 and is greatly reduced in kidney tumors. PMID:25650382

  3. The in vivo glucuronidation of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Moody, David E; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2006-04-01

    The opioid partial agonist medication, buprenorphine (BUP), and its primary metabolite, norbuprenorphine (NBUP), are extensively glucuronidated. Sensitive analytical methods that include determination of buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (BUPG) and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide (NBUPG) are needed to more fully understand the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine. A method has now been developed that uses solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. BUP-d4, NBUP-d3, and morphine-3-glucuronide-d3 were used as internal standards. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 and 0.5 ng/mL for each of the analytes in 1-mL of human plasma and urine, respectively, except for NBUP in urine in which it was 2.5 ng/mL. The analytes were stable under the following conditions: plasma and urine at room temperature, up to 20 hours; plasma and urine at -20 degrees C for 119 and 85 days, respectively; plasma freeze-thaw, up to 3 cycles; processed sample, up to 96 hours at -20 degrees C and up to 48 hours on the autosampler; stock solutions at room temperature and at -20 degrees C, up to 6 hours and 128 days, respectively. In plasma collected from 5 subjects on maintenance daily sublingual doses of 16 mg BUP and 4 mg naloxone, respective 0- to 24-hour areas under the curve were 32, 88, 26, and 316 ng/mL x h for BUP, NBUP, BUPG, and NBUPG. In urine samples respective percent of daily dose excreted in the 24-hour urine were 0.014%, 1.89%, 1.01%, and 7.76%. This method allowed us to determine that NBUPG is a major metabolite present in plasma and urine of BUP. Because urinary elimination is limited ( approximately 11% of daily dose), the role of NBUPG in total clearance of buprenorphine is not yet known. PMID:16628138

  4. Glucuronidation of paracetamol by human liver microsomes in vitro / enzyme kinetic parameters and interactions with short-chain aliphatic alcohols and opiates.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Petra; Rothschild, Markus A; Kaeferstein, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    In this study, glucuronidation of paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) by human liver microsomes and the effects of aliphatic alcohols and opiates were investigated. Paracetamol glucuronidation was optimised for various incubation conditions. Ten different aliphatic alcohols and the opiates morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine were analysed as inhibitors of paracetamol glucuronidation. Furthermore, the effects of paracetamol on morphine-3 and codeine glucuronidation were investigated. Enzyme kinetic analysis was carried out via determination of the parameters Km, Vmax, Ki and the type of inhibition. Except for methanol and ethanol, all Investigated alcohols inhibited glucuronidation of paracetamol. Ki values ranged between 4.59 mmol/l (n-pentanol) and 340.54 mmol/l (2-propanol). Extent of inhibition strongly depended on the structure and clearly increased with the length of the alkyl chain. All tested opiates inhibited paracetamol glucuronidation with Ki values between 4.02 mmol/l (dihydrocodeine) and 11.44 mmol/l (morphine). Paracetamol itself turned out to be an inhibitor of opiate glucuronidation. The apparent Ki values were 4.62 mmol/l (inhibition of morphine-3 glucuronidation) and 9.44 mmol/l (inhibition of codeine glucuronidation). A mixed inhibition type was determined for all substances. The in vitro studies show a great inhibition potential for the analysed substances. Transferring the results to the in vivo situation, a higher liver toxicity of paracetamol can be assumed, if concomitantly a lot of alcoholic beverages with congener alcohols--e.g. fruit schnapps or whisky--are drunk or if opiates--as analgesics or narcotics--are taken in higher doses. PMID:18380412

  5. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Wakabayashi, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Yajima, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Aruto

    2013-11-29

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin. PMID:24216107

  6. Identifying and applying a highly selective probe to simultaneously determine the O-glucuronidation activity of human UGT1A3 and UGT1A4

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Liang, Si-Cheng; Wang, Chao; Ge, Guang-Bo; Huo, Xiao-Kui; Qi, Xiao-Yi; Deng, Sa; Liu, Ke-Xin; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Glucuronidation mediated by uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase is an important detoxification pathway. However, identifying a selective probe of UDP- glucuronosyltransferase is complicated because of the significant overlapping substrate specificity displayed by the enzyme. In this paper, desacetylcinobufagin (DACB) 3-O- and 16-O-glucuronidation were found to be isoform-specific probe reactions for UGT1A4 and UGT1A3, respectively. DACB was well characterized as a probe for simultaneously determining the catalytic activities of O-glucuronidation mediated by UGT1A3 and UGT1A4 from various enzyme sources, through a sensitive analysis method. PMID:25884245

  7. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Schoonen, W.G.; Lambert, J.G.; Van den Hurk, R.; Van Oordt, P.G.

    1987-06-01

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with (/sup 3/H)pregnenolone, (/sup 3/H)dehydroepiandrosterone, (/sup 3/H)17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, (/sup 3/H)androstenedione, (/sup 14/C)11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and (/sup 3/H)testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin.

  8. Urinary bromophenol glucuronide and sulfate conjugates: Potential human exposure molecular markers for polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ka-Lok; Yau, Man-Shan; Murphy, Margaret B; Wan, Yi; Fong, Bonnie M-W; Tam, Sidney; Giesy, John P; Leung, Kelvin S-Y; Lam, Michael H-W

    2015-08-01

    One possible source of urinary bromophenol (BP) glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in mammalian animal models and humans is polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of additive flame-retardants found ubiquitously in the environment. In order to study the correlation between levels of PBDEs in human blood plasma and those of the corresponding BP-conjugates in human urine, concentrations of 17 BDE congeners, 22 OH-BDE and 13 MeO-BDE metabolites, and 3 BPs in plasma collected from 100 voluntary donors in Hong Kong were measured by gas chromatograph tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Geometric mean concentration of ΣPBDEs, ΣOH-BDEs, ΣMeO-BDEs and ΣBPs in human plasma were 4.45 ng g(-1) lw, 1.88 ng g(-1) lw, 0.42 ng g(-1) lw and 1.59 ng g(-1) lw respectively. Concentrations of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in paired samples of urine were determined by liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). BP-conjugates were found in all of the parallel urine samples, in the range of 0.08-106.49 μg g(-1)-creatinine. Correlations among plasma concentrations of ΣPBDEs/ΣOH-BDEs/ΣMeO-BDEs/ΣBPs and BP-conjugates in urine were evaluated by multivariate regression and Pearson product correlation analyses. These urinary BP-conjugates were positively correlated with ΣPBDEs in blood plasma, but were either not or negatively correlated with other organobromine compounds in blood plasma. Stronger correlations (Pearson's r as great as 0.881) were observed between concentrations of BDE congeners having the same number and pattern of bromine substitution on their phenyl rings in blood plasma and their corresponding BP-conjugates in urine. PMID:25817024

  9. Resveratrol glucuronides as the metabolites of resveratrol in humans: characterization, synthesis, and anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Xi; Heredia, Alonso; Song, Haijing; Zhang, Zhaojun; Yu, Biao; Davis, Charles; Redfield, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Resveratrol is a natural product with diverse biological activities. We have previously reported that resveratrol possesses potent synergistic inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in combination with nucleoside analogs (Heredia et al. 2000. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 25:246-255). As a part of our program in developing resveratrol as a component for anti-HIV chemotherapy, we describe in this article the characterization, chemical synthesis, and biological effects of the human metabolites of resveratrol. We found that resveratrol was metabolized in humans into two metabolites, which were characterized as resveratrol-3-O- and 4'-O-glucuronides. For further biological studies, we reported two simple, alternative methods for the synthesis of the metabolites. The cytotoxic and antiviral activities of resveratrol and its metabolites were compared in cell culture experiments using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Whereas resveratrol was cytotoxic at > or =30 microM, no cytotoxicity was observed for the metabolites at concentrations as high as 300 microM. However, resveratrol showed strong synergistic anti-HIV activity with didanosine at 10 microM, but no synergistic effects were observed for either of the metabolites at up to 300 microM. Nevertheless, the in vitro activity of the metabolites (resveratrol glucuronides) may not necessarily reflect their in vivo function, given the fact that the ubiquitously existing human beta-glucuronidase could convert the metabolites back to resveratrol locally or systematically in vivo. The present studies have implications for future development of resveratrol and/or its derivatives as a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:15349955

  10. Simultaneous modelling of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of paracetamol sulphation and glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Reith, David; Medlicott, Natalie J; Kumara De Silva, Rohana; Yang, Lin; Hickling, Jeremy; Zacharias, Mathew

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to perform an in vivo estimation of the Michaelis-Menten constants of the major metabolic pathways of paracetamol (APAP). 2. A two-occasion, single-dose cross-over trial was performed using 60 and 90 mg/kg doses of APAP in healthy patients undergoing third molar dental extraction. Plasma samples were collected over 24 h and urine was collected for 8 h after dosing. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study and complete data for plasma and urine were available for both doses for 13 volunteers who were included in the analysis; seven of the volunteers were men, the median age (range) was 22 years (19-31) and the median weight (range) was 68 kg (50-86). 3. The mean (95% CI) k(m) for APAP glucuronidation was 6.89 mmol/L (3.57-10.22) and the V(max) was 0.97 mmol/h per kg (0.65-1.28). The k(m) for APAP sulphation was 0.097 mmol/L (0.041-0.152) and the V(max) was 0.011 mmol/h per kg (0.009-0.013). For the combined excretion of APAP-cysteine and APAP-mercapturate, the k(m) was 0.303 mmol/L (0.131-0.475) and the V(max) was 0.004 mmol/h per kg (0.002-0.005). 4. The estimates for in vivo Michaelis-Menten constants for APAP glucuronidation and sulphation were in the order of those reported previously using in vitro methods. PMID:18759860

  11. Uremic toxins inhibit renal metabolic capacity through interference with glucuronidation and mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Mutsaers, H A M; Wilmer, M J G; Reijnders, D; Jansen, J; van den Broek, P H H; Forkink, M; Schepers, E; Glorieux, G; Vanholder, R; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2013-01-01

    During chronic kidney disease (CKD), drug metabolism is affected leading to changes in drug disposition. Furthermore, there is a progressive accumulation of uremic retention solutes due to impaired renal clearance. Here, we investigated whether uremic toxins can influence the metabolic functionality of human conditionally immortalized renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) with the focus on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and mitochondrial activity. Our results showed that ciPTEC express a wide variety of metabolic enzymes, including UGTs. These enzymes were functionally active as demonstrated by the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-OHC; K(m) of 12±2μM and a V(max) of 76±3pmol/min/mg) and p-cresol (K(m) of 33±13μM and a V(max) of 266±25pmol/min/mg). Furthermore, a wide variety of uremic toxins, including indole-3-acetic acid, indoxyl sulfate, phenylacetic acid and kynurenic acid, reduced 7-OHC glucuronidation with more than 30% as compared with controls (p<0.05), whereas UGT1A and UGT2B protein expressions remained unaltered. In addition, our results showed that several uremic toxins inhibited mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (i.e. complex II) activity with more than 20% as compared with controls (p<0.05). Moreover, indole-3-acetic acid decreased the reserve capacity of the electron transport system with 18% (p<0.03). In conclusion, this study shows that multiple uremic toxins inhibit UGT activity and mitochondrial activity in ciPTEC, thereby affecting the metabolic capacity of the kidney during CKD. This may have a significant impact on drug and uremic retention solute disposition in CKD patients. PMID:23017367

  12. Ethyl pyruvate decreases HMGB1 release and ameliorates murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Davé, Shaival H; Tilstra, Jeremy S; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Li, Fengling; DeMarco, Richard A; Beer-Stolz, Donna; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Fink, Mitchell P; Lotze, Michael T; Plevy, Scott E

    2009-09-01

    Signals from stressed cells and the enteric microbiota activate macrophages and dendritic cells and mediate intestinal inflammation. HMGB1 serves as an immunogenic stimuli causing release of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits secretion of HMGB1 and improves survival in models of endotoxemia and hemorrhagic shock. We reasoned that ethyl pyruvate may be protective in colitis, which involves similar inflammatory pathways. In IL-10(-/-) mice with established chronic colitis, ethyl pyruvate administration ameliorated colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. IL-10(-/-) mice demonstrated increased intestinal HMGB1 expression and decreased expression of RAGE compared with wild-type mice. Fecal HMGB1 levels were decreased in ethyl pyruvate-treated mice. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 expression in intestinal tissue. In TNBS-induced colitis, intrarectal administration of ethyl pyruvate resulted in amelioration of colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. In LPS-activated murine macrophages, ethyl pyruvate decreased expression of IL-12 p40 and NO production but did not affect IL-10 levels. Ethyl pyruvate did not inhibit nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB family members but attenuated NF-kappaB DNA binding. Additionally, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and HO-1 promoter activation. Moreover, ethyl pyruvate prevented nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1. In conclusion, the HMGB1/RAGE pathway has pathophysiologic and diagnostic significance in experimental colitis. Ethyl pyruvate and other strategies to inhibit HMGB1 release and function represent promising interventions in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:19454652

  13. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  14. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... percent in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6), hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25), and...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... percent in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6), hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25), and...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... percent in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6), hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25), and...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... percent in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6), hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25), and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  20. The binding of ethyl isocyanide to ferroperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Charles; Antonini, Eraldo; Brunori, Maurizio

    1972-01-01

    The equilibrium and kinetics of ethyl isocyanide binding to ferroperoxidase were studied. At pH9.1 the results of both studies are consistent with a single-process model with an affinity constant of 95m−1 and combination and dissociation constants of 2.2×103m−1·s−1 and 23s−1 respectively. Ethyl isocyanide is not bound significantly at pH values lower than 6.0, and in this behaviour and the pH-dependence of the affinity constant, similarities exist between isocyanide and cyanide binding. The enthalpy of the process measured by equilibrium methods is −59kJ/mol (−14kcal/mol). At pH values below 9, the ethyl isocyanide adduct changes in a slow time-dependent manner, giving rise to a new species. These changes are reversible on increasing the pH. The results are discussed in relation to other known information about ligand binding to ferroperoxidase and to myoglobin. PMID:5084796

  1. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  2. Estimation of measurement uncertainty for the quantification of 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and its glucuronide in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwon, Woonyong; Kim, Hee Seung; Suh, Sungill; In, Moon Kyo

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the estimation of the measurement uncertainty has become a significant issue in the quality control of forensic drug testing. In the present study, the uncertainty of the measurement was calculated for the quantification of 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) and its glucuronide conjugate (THC-COOH-glu) in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The procedure was based on liquid-liquid extraction of a volume of urine (800 µL) with ethyl acetate. The sources of uncertainty were identified and classified into four major categories as follows: standard preparation, calibration curve, method precision and bias. The overall contribution of combined standard uncertainty on THC-COOH increased in the order of standard preparation (0.9%), method precision (10.4%), calibration curve (30.3%) and bias (58.4%) and, while calibration curve (53.0%) and bias (40.4%) gave the bigger contributions to the combined standard uncertainty for THC-COOH-glu than method precision and standard preparation, which accounted for 6.3 and 0.3%, respectively. The reliability of a measurement was expressed by stating the expanded uncertainty of the measurement result at 95% confidence level. The concentrations of THC-COOH and THC-COOH-glu in the urine sample with their expanded uncertainties were 10.20 ± 1.14 ng/mL and 25.42 ± 5.01 ng/mL, respectively. PMID:24519562

  3. In vivo chronic exposure to heroin or naltrexone selectively inhibits liver microsome formation of estradiol-3-glucuronide in the rat.

    PubMed

    Antonilli, Letizia; Brusadin, Valentina; Milella, Michele S; Sobrero, Fabrizia; Badiani, Aldo; Nencini, Paolo

    2008-09-01

    We have previously found that repeated exposure to heroin reduces liver synthesis of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and increases the production of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), which normally is not formed in the rat. By contrast repeated exposure to naltrexone does not activate M6G synthesis but increases the V(max) of M3G formation. M3G synthesis depends on the activity of two isoforms of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), UGT1A1 and UGT2B1. These isozymes also activate the formation of estradiol-3-glucuronide (E3G) and estradiol-17-glucuronide (E17G), respectively. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of UGT1A1 and UGT2B1 in the effects of heroin and naltrexone by determining their influence on the synthesis of E3G and E17G. Estradiol glucuronidation was performed using microsomes of rats treated daily, for 10 days, with saline, heroin (10mg/kg, i.p.), or naltrexone (40mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, liver expression of both UGT1A1 and UGT2B1 was studied in the same experimental conditions by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Kinetic analysis showed that the V(max) for E3G formation was significantly reduced by both heroin (168.82+/-9.73nmol/mg/min) and naltrexone (194.60+/-16.6) relative to saline (624.60+/-17.6). Moreover, homotropic kinetic of E3G formation (Hill coefficient: 1.8) was transformed in Michaelis-Menten kinetic by both heroin (0.88) and naltrexone (1.15). The synthesis of E17G was not affected by either opioid. The expression of liver UGT1A1 and UGT2B1 did not differ across groups. The present results suggest that heroin and naltrexone can reduce estradiol glucuronidation via a specific interaction with UGT1A1 isoform. PMID:18639530

  4. Confirmation of diosmetin 3-O-glucuronide as major metabolite of diosmin in humans, using micro-liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silvestro, Luigi; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Dulea, Constanta; Attili, Nageswara Rao B N; Ciuca, Valentin; Peru, Dan; Rizea Savu, Simona

    2013-10-01

    Diosmin is a flavonoid often administered in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, and related affections. Diosmin is rapidly hydrolized in the intestine to its aglicone, diosmetin, which is further metabolized to conjugates. In this study, the development and validations of three new methods for the determination of diosmetin, free and after enzymatic deconjugation, and of its potential glucuronide metabolites, diosmetin-3-O-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide, and diosmetin-3,7-O-glucuronide from human plasma and urine are presented. First, the quantification of diosmetin, free and after deconjugation, was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, on an Ascentis RP-Amide column (150 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm), in reversed-phase conditions, after enzymatic digestion. Then glucuronide metabolites from plasma were separated by micro-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry on a HALO C18 (50 × 0.3 mm, 2.7 μm, 90 Å) column, after solid-phase extraction. Finally, glucuronides from urine were measured using a Discovery HSF5 (100 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) column, after simple dilution with mobile phase. The methods were validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, low limit of quantification, selectivity, extraction recovery, stability, and matrix effects; results in agreement with regulatory (Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency) guidelines acceptance criteria were obtained in all cases. The methods were applied to a pharmacokinetic study with diosmin (450 mg orally administered tablets). The mean C max of diosmetin in plasma was 6,049.3 ± 5,548.6 pg/mL. A very good correlation between measured diosmetin and glucuronide metabolites concentrations was obtained. Diosmetin-3-O-glucuronide was identified as a major circulating metabolite of diosmetin in plasma and in urine, and this finding was confirmed by supplementary experiments with differential ion-mobility mass spectrometry. PMID:23949323

  5. Regioselectivity of Human UDP-Glucuronsyltransferase 1A1 in the Synthesis of Flavonoid Glucuronides Determined by Metal Complexation and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Barry D; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2008-01-01

    A three-part tandem mass spectrometric strategy that entails MSn analysis and a post-column LC-MS cobalt complexation method is developed to identify flavonoid monoglucuronide metabolites synthesized using the 1A1 isozyme of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Ten flavonoid aglycons were used as substrates, spanning the subclasses of flavones, flavonols and flavanones. The products were characterized by LC-MS and LC-MSn, with post-column cobalt complexation employed to pinpoint the specific sites of conjugation. The dissociation of complexes of the form [Co(II) (flavonoid glucuronide – H) (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)2]+ allowed identification of the products and differentiation of isomers. The correlation between glycosylation site and elution order is used to provide additional structural confirmation. Flavonoids lacking a 3′ hydroxyl group were glucuronidated only at position 7, while those containing this functionality also formed 3′-O-glucuronides and sometimes 4′-O-glucuronides, thus supporting the conclusion that the presence or absence of the 3′-OH group is the major determinant of the regioselectivity of glucuronidation. Moreover, the specific distribution of multiple glucuronide products (7-O, 3′-O, 4′-0) is governed by the subclass of flavonoid. PMID:18083528

  6. Identification of Flavone Glucuronide Isomers by Metal Complexation and Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Regioselectivity of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Isozymes in the Biotransformation of Flavones

    PubMed Central

    Robotham, Scott A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Flavone Glucuronide isomers of five flavones (chrysin, apigenin, luteolin, baicalein, and scutellarein) were differentiated by collision induced dissociation (CID) of [Co(II) (flavone-H) (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)2]+ complexes. The complexes were generated via post-column addition of a metal/ligand solution after separation of the glucuronide products generated upon incubation of each flavone with an array of UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT) isozymes. Elucidation of the glucuronide isomers allowed a systematic investigation of the regioselectivity of twelve human UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT) isozymes, including eight UGT1A and four UGT2B isozymes. Glucuronidation of the 7-OH position was the preferred site for all the flavones except for luteolin, which possessed adjacent hydroxyl groups on the B ring. For all flavones and UGT isozymes, glucuronidation of the 5-OH position was never observed. As confirmed by the metal complexation/MS/MS strategy, glucuronidation of the 6-OH position only occurred for baicalein and scutellarein when incubated with three of the UGT isozymes. PMID:23362992

  7. Identification of flavone glucuronide isomers by metal complexation and tandem mass spectrometry: regioselectivity of uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase isozymes in the biotransformation of flavones.

    PubMed

    Robotham, Scott A; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2013-02-20

    Flavone glucuronide isomers of five flavones (chrysin, apigenin, luteolin, baicalein, and scutellarein) were differentiated by collision-induced dissociation of [Co(II) (flavone-H) (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(2)](+) complexes. The complexes were generated via postcolumn addition of a metal-ligand solution after separation of the glucuronide products generated upon incubation of each flavone with an array of uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozymes. Elucidation of the glucuronide isomers allowed a systematic investigation of the regioselectivity of 12 human UGT isozymes, including 8 UGT1A and 4 UGT2B isozymes. Glucuronidation of the 7-OH position was the preferred site for all the flavones except for luteolin, which possessed adjacent hydroxyl groups on the B ring. For all flavones and UGT isozymes, glucuronidation of the 5-OH position was never observed. As confirmed by the metal complexation/MS/MS strategy, glucuronidation of the 6-OH position only occurred for baicalein and scutellarein when incubated with three of the UGT isozymes. PMID:23362992

  8. Hepatocellular Shuttling and Recirculation of Sorafenib-Glucuronide Is Dependent on Abcc2, Abcc3, and Oatp1a/1b.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Aksana; Durmus, Selvi; Li, Lie; Wagenaar, Els; Hu, Shuiying; Gibson, Alice A; Panetta, John C; Mani, Sridhar; Sparreboom, Alex; Baker, Sharyn D; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2015-07-01

    Recently, an efficient liver detoxification process dubbed "hepatocyte hopping" was proposed on the basis of findings with the endogenous compound, bilirubin glucuronide. According to this model, hepatocytic bilirubin glucuronide can follow a liver-to-blood shuttling loop via Abcc3 transporter-mediated efflux and subsequent Oatp1a/1b-mediated liver uptake. We hypothesized that glucuronide conjugates of xenobiotics, such as the anticancer drug sorafenib, can also undergo hepatocyte hopping. Using transporter-deficient mouse models, we show here that sorafenib-glucuronide can be extruded from hepatocytes into the bile by Abcc2 or back into the systemic circulation by Abcc3, and that it can be taken up efficiently again into neighboring hepatocytes by Oatp1a/1b. We further demonstrate that sorafenib-glucuronide excreted into the gut lumen can be cleaved by microbial enzymes to sorafenib, which is then reabsorbed, supporting its persistence in the systemic circulation. Our results suggest broad relevance of a hepatocyte shuttling process known as "hepatocyte hopping"-a novel concept in clinical pharmacology-for detoxification of targeted cancer drugs that undergo hepatic glucuronidation, such as sorafenib. PMID:25952649

  9. Synthesis and characterization of quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronide metabolites of drugs with an aliphatic tertiary amine group.

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Hawes, E M; McKay, G; Midha, K K

    1992-11-01

    A synthetic approach was developed to make the quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronide metabolites of compounds with an aliphatic tertiary amine group. The key step involved quaternization of the compound with methyl (2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide)uronate and sodium bicarbonate in a two-phase system of water and an organic solvent. The synthetic approach successfully yielded quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronides of 20 drugs and two of their phase I metabolites. The drugs were from various pharmacological classes: H1 antihistamines, antipsychotic agents, and tricyclic antidepressants. Physical data such as HPLC retention times, and diagnostic fast-atom bombardment mass spectra and 1H NMR spectra were obtained. These should aid in the characterization of compounds in samples isolated from biological media. PMID:1447708

  10. Identification of brain-targeted bioactive dietary quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a novel intervention for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lap; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Janle, Elsa M; Wang, Jun; Gong, Bing; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Lobo, Jessica; Cooper, Bruce; Wu, Qing Li; Talcott, Stephen T; Percival, Susan S; Simon, James E; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies indicate that polyphenol intake from moderate consumption of red wines may lower the relative risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. There is limited information regarding the specific biological activities and cellular and molecular mechanisms by which wine polyphenolic components might modulate AD. We assessed accumulations of polyphenols in the rat brain following oral dosage with a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine and tested brain-targeted polyphenols for potential beneficial AD disease-modifying activities. We identified accumulations of select polyphenolic metabolites in the brain. We demonstrated that, in comparison to vehicle-control treatment, one of the brain-targeted polyphenol metabolites, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, significantly reduced the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides by primary neuron cultures generated from the Tg2576 AD mouse model. Another brain-targeted metabolite, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, had no detectable effect on Aβ generation. Moreover, in an in vitro analysis using the photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) technique, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide is also capable of interfering with the initial protein-protein interaction of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) that is necessary for the formation of neurotoxic oligomeric Aβ species. Lastly, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide treatment, compared to vehicle-control treatment, significantly improved AD-type deficits in hippocampal formation basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation, possibly through mechanisms involving the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Brain-targeted quercetin-3-O-glucuronide may simultaneously modulate multiple independent AD disease-modifying mechanisms and, as such, may contribute to the benefits of dietary supplementation with red wines as an effective intervention for AD. PMID:23097297

  11. Dimerization of human uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase allozymes 1A1 and 1A9 alters their quercetin glucuronidation activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Qing; Yuan, Ling-Min; Gao, Zhang-Zhao; Xiao, Yong-Sheng; Sun, Hong-Ying; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su

    2016-01-01

    Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) is a major phase II drug-metabolism enzyme superfamily involved in the glucuronidation of endobiotics and xenobiotics in humans. Many polymorphisms in UGT1A genes are reported to inhibit or decrease UGT1A activity. In this study, two UGT1A1 allozymes, UGT1A1 wild-type and a splice mutant, as well as UGT1A9 wild-type and its three UGT1A9 allozymes, UGT1A9*2(C3Y), UGT1A9*3(M33T), and UGT1A9*5(D256N) were single- or double-expressed in a Bac-to-Bac expression system. Dimerization of UGT1A1 or UGT1A9 allozymes was observed via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation analysis. SNPs of UGT1A altered the ability of protein-protein interaction, resulting in differential FRET efficiencies and donor-acceptor r distances. Dimerization changed the chemical regioselectivity, substrate-binding affinity, and enzymatic activity of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 in glucuronidation of quercetin. These findings provide molecular insights into the consequences of homozygous and heterozygous UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 allozymes expression on quercetin glucuronidation. PMID:27025983

  12. Bioanalytical LC-MS Method for the Quantification of Plasma Androgens and Androgen Glucuronides in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalogera, Eleni; Pistos, Constantinos; Provatopoulou, Xeni; Christophi, Costas A; Zografos, George C; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Gounaris, Antonia

    2016-04-01

    The physiological and pathological development of the breast is strongly affected by the hormonal milieu consisting of steroid hormones. Mass spectrometry (MS) technologies of high sensitivity and specificity enable the quantification of androgens and consequently the characterization of the hormonal status. The aim of this study is the assessment of plasma androgens and androgen glucuronides, in the par excellence hormone-sensitive tissue of the breast, through the application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A simple and efficient fit-for-purpose method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (A4), androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) and androstane-3α, 17β-diol-17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G) in human plasma was developed and validated. The presented method permits omission of derivatization, requires a single solid-phase extraction procedure and the chromatographic separation can be achieved on a single C18 analytical column, for all four analytes. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of 191 human plasma samples from postmenopausal women with benign breast disease (BBD), lobular neoplasia (LN), ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). DHEAS plasma levels exhibited significant differences between LN, IDC and BBD patients (P < 0.05). Additionally, ADTG levels were significantly higher in patients with LN compared with those with BBD (P < 0.05). PMID:26762957

  13. Simultaneous determination of phenolphthalein and phenolphthalein glucuronide from dog serum, urine and bile by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, J A; Bailey, L C; Shepard, T A; Venturella, V S

    1992-07-24

    A procedure is described to simultaneously quantitate phenolphthalein and its glucuronide metabolite from dog serum, urine and bile using high-performance liquid chromatography. The major advantages of this over pre-existing methods include direct analysis of the parent compound and glucuronide metabolite without enzymatic hydrolysis, increased sensitivity and the potential for automation of a large number of samples. Analytes were extracted from serum and urine using a combination of liquid- and solid-phase extraction methodology. Bile samples were analyzed directly after a twenty-fold dilution with mobile phase. The components plus internal standard were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using step gradient elution and quantitated by the absorbance of ultraviolet light at 230 nm. Limits of detection from 1 ml of serum, 0.1 ml of urine and 0.05 ml of bile were 0.1, 0.5 and 10 microgram/ml for phenolphthalein and 0.1, 10 and 50 microgram/ml for phenolphthalein glucuronide, respectively. PMID:1400802

  14. An immunoassay for the detection of triclosan-O-glucuronide, a primary human urinary metabolite of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Anupama; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-09-01

    Triclosan-O-glucuronide (TCSG) is one of the primary urinary metabolites of the antibacterial compound triclosan or TCS that is found in many personal care products and consumer goods. We have developed a competitive, indirect heterologous ELISA for the detection of the target TCSG in urine. Such an ELISA for TCSG could be developed as a useful tool to measure this important biomarker of human exposure to TCS. Immunogens were prepared by conjugating TCSG to thyroglobulin, via heterobifunctional cross-linkers AEDP or 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithio] propionic acid•hydrochloride and TFCS or N-[ε-trifluoroacetylcaproyloxy]succinimide ester. The coating antigen was prepared by the direct conjugation of TCSG to bovine serum albumin. Antibodies raised in rabbits 2619, 2621 (immunogen TCSG-AEDP-Thy), and 2623 (immunogen TCSG-TFCS-Thy), and the coating antigen were screened and characterized to determine their optimal concentrations. The optimized ELISA, developed with antibody 2621, gave an IC50 value of 2.85 ng/mL, with the linear range (IC20-IC80) determined to be 2.6-24.8 ng/mL. Selectivity of the assay was assessed by measuring cross-reactivity of antibody 2621 to related congeners such as the aglycone TCS, triclosan-O-sulfate, triclocarban, a polybrominated diphenyl ether derivative, and 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol glucuronide. There was virtually no recognition by antibody 2621 to any of these cross-reactants. Graphical Abstract Urinary biomarker analysis of triclosan glucuronide. PMID:26255293

  15. Dimerization of human uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase allozymes 1A1 and 1A9 alters their quercetin glucuronidation activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Qing; Yuan, Ling-Min; Gao, Zhang-Zhao; Xiao, Yong-Sheng; Sun, Hong-Ying; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su

    2016-01-01

    Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) is a major phase II drug-metabolism enzyme superfamily involved in the glucuronidation of endobiotics and xenobiotics in humans. Many polymorphisms in UGT1A genes are reported to inhibit or decrease UGT1A activity. In this study, two UGT1A1 allozymes, UGT1A1 wild-type and a splice mutant, as well as UGT1A9 wild-type and its three UGT1A9 allozymes, UGT1A9*2(C3Y), UGT1A9*3(M33T), and UGT1A9*5(D256N) were single- or double-expressed in a Bac-to-Bac expression system. Dimerization of UGT1A1 or UGT1A9 allozymes was observed via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation analysis. SNPs of UGT1A altered the ability of protein-protein interaction, resulting in differential FRET efficiencies and donor-acceptor r distances. Dimerization changed the chemical regioselectivity, substrate-binding affinity, and enzymatic activity of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 in glucuronidation of quercetin. These findings provide molecular insights into the consequences of homozygous and heterozygous UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 allozymes expression on quercetin glucuronidation. PMID:27025983

  16. Molecular mechanism of hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, the main circulating metabolite of hesperidin, involved in osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Trzeciakiewicz, Anna; Habauzit, Veronique; Mercier, Sylvie; Barron, Denis; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Manach, Claudine; Offord, Elizabeth; Horcajada, Marie-Noelle

    2010-01-13

    Citrus fruit hesperidin is hydrolyzed by gut microflora into aglycone form (hesperetin) and then conjugated mainly into glucuronides. We previously demonstrated that hesperetin enhanced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the effect of hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide (Hp7G) on primary rat osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. The impact of Hp7G on specific bone signaling pathways was explored. Osteoblasts were exposed to physiological concentrations of 1 (Hp7G1) and 10 (Hp7G10) microM of conjugate. The glucuronide did not affect proliferation but enhanced differentiation by significantly increasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity from day 14 of exposure. Hp7G significantly induced mRNA expression of ALP, Runx2, and Osterix after 48 h of exposure. Moreover, phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was enhanced by Hp7G, while ERK1/2 remained unchanged after 48 h. Hp7G decreased RANKL gene expression. These results suggest that Hp7G may regulate osteoblast differentiation through Runx2 and Osterix stimulation, and might be implicated in the regulation of osteoblast/osteoclast communication. PMID:19921838

  17. Hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters as precursors to ethylphenols in wine.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Josh L; Sleep, Nicola R; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Curtin, Christopher D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-03-01

    A method for determining ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate in wine using GC-MS with deuterium-labeled analogues has been developed and used to measure the evolution of these two esters during the production of two commercial monovarietal red wines, cv. Grenache and Shiraz. During fermentation, the concentration of ethyl coumarate rose from low levels to 0.4 mg/L in Grenache and 1.6 mg/L in Shiraz wines. These concentrations then increased further during barrel aging to 1.4 and 3.6 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of ethyl ferulate was much lower, reaching a maximum of only 0.09 mg/L. Conversion of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate to their corresponding ethylphenols was observed during fermentations of a synthetic medium with two strains of Dekkera bruxellensis (AWRI 1499 and AWRI 1608), while a third (strain AWRI 1613) produced no ethylphenols at all from these precursors. Strains AWRI 1499 and 1608 produced 4-ethylphenol from ethyl coumarate in 68% and 57% yields, respectively. The corresponding yields of 4-ethylguaiacol from ethyl ferulate were much lower, 7% and 3%. Monitoring of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate concentration during the Dekkera fermentations showed that the selectivity for ethylphenol production according to yeast strain and the precursor was principally a result of variation in esterase activity. Consequently, ethyl coumarate can be considered to be a significant precursor to 4-ethylphenol in wines affected by these two strains of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeast, while ethyl ferulate is not an important precursor to 4-ethylguaiacol. PMID:22324721

  18. Chiral separation of (+)/(-)-catechin from sulfated and glucuronidated metabolites in human plasma after cocoa consumption.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Christina; Zimmermann, Benno F; Galensa, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Cocoa is well-known to be rich in flavan-3-ols. Previous analyses have established that alkaline treatment of cocoa beans results in epimerization of (-)-epicatechin to (-)-catechin and (+)-catechin to (+)-epicatechin. Now, the question is whether both epimers can be absorbed by the human organism. This paper describes sample preparation and an HPLC method for chiral determination of (+)/(-)-catechin from sulfated and glucuronidated metabolites in human plasma. The sample preparation includes enzymatic hydrolysis of the catechin metabolites, and solid-phase extraction (SPE). A PM-gamma-cyclodextrin column is used with a coulometric electrode-array detection (CEAD) system. The recovery of catechin ranges from 89.9 to 96.8%. The limit of detection is 5.9 ng mL(-1) for (-)-catechin and 6.8 ng mL(-1) for (+)-catechin, and the limit of quantification is 12.8 ng mL(-1) for (-)-catechin and 16.9 ng mL(-1) for (+)-catechin. The relative standard deviation of the method ranges from 0.9 to 1.5%. This method was successfully applied to human plasma after consumption of a cocoa drink. In one human self-experiment, (+)-catechin and (-)-catechin were found in human plasma, but metabolism of the two enantiomers differed. PMID:20213173

  19. UHPLC-MS/MS quantification of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, and glucuronide conjugates in umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amy Redmond; Carmical, Jennifer; Shah, Darshan; Pryor, Jason; Brown, Stacy

    2015-10-01

    Opioid use during pregnancy can result in the newborn being physically dependent on the substance, thus experiencing drug withdrawal, termed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Buprenorphine and methadone are two drugs used to treat opioid withdrawal and are approved for use in pregnancy. Quantification of these compounds in umbilical cord plasma would help assess in utero exposure of neonates in cases of buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. An LC-MS/MS method using solid-phase extraction sample preparation was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and glucuronide metabolites in umbilical cord plasma. The average accuracy (percentage error) and precision (relative standard deviation) were <15% for each validated concentration. Our data establishes a 2 week maximum freezer storage window in order to achieve the most accurate cord plasma concentrations of these analytes. Additionally, we found that the umbilical cord tissue analysis was less sensitive compared with analysis with umbilical cord blood plasma, indicating that this may be a more appropriate matrix for determination of buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of cord blood from women with known buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. PMID:25808363

  20. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Wakabayashi, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Yajima, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Aruto

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXRα. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXRα activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin.

  1. Blood-brain barrier permeability to morphine-6-glucuronide is markedly reduced compared with morphine.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Kang, Y S; Bickel, U; Pardridge, W M

    1997-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) is measured under identical conditions using an intravenous injection method in the rat and HPLC separation of morphine from its metabolites. The brain uptake of M6G expressed as %ID/g was 32-fold lower than that of morphine, and the BBB permeability surface area product (PS) of M6G was 57-fold lower as compared with that of morphine. Consistent with these in vivo data, the 1-octanol/buffer partition study showed the liposolubility of M6G was 187-fold lower than that of morphine. The CNS origin of M6G analgesia after peripheral administration was confirmed because the analgesia was completely blocked by naloxone, which crosses BBB, but not by naloxone methiodide, which does not enter brain from blood. In conclusion, the BBB permeability to M6G is markedly reduced as compared with morphine, consistent with the much lower lipid solubility of M6G relative to morphine. PMID:9193881

  2. Quantitative Determination of Common Urinary Odorants and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Wagenstaller, Maria; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study on the identification of common odorants and their conjugates in human urine demonstrated that this substance fraction is a little-understood but nonetheless a promising medium for analysis and diagnostics in this easily accessible physiological medium. Smell as an indicator for diseases, or volatile excretion in the course of dietary processes bares high potential for a series of physiological insights. Still, little is known today about the quantitative composition of odorous or volatile targets, as well as their non-volatile conjugates, both with regard to their common occurrence in urine of healthy subjects, as well as in that of individuals suffering from diseases or other physiological misbalancing. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to develop a highly sensitive and selective approach to determine the common quantitative composition of selected odorant markers in healthy human subjects, as well as their corresponding glucuronide conjugates. We used one- and two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution assays to quantify commonly occurring and potent odorants in human urine. The studies were carried out on both native urine and on urine that had been treated by glucuronidase assays, with analysis of the liberated odor-active compounds using the same techniques. Analytical data are discussed with regard to their potential translation as future diagnostic tool. PMID:24958143

  3. Interindividual variability in the glucuronidation and sulphation of ethinyloestradiol in human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Temellini, A; Giuliani, L; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    1. Glucuronidation and sulphation of ethinyloestradiol (EE2) was studied in human liver. Microsomal glucuronyltransferase activity was measured in 110 livers whose donors were 71 women and 39 men. Enzyme activity ranged between 12.6 and 242 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, i.e. over a 19-fold range and the mean (+/- s.d.) glucuronyltransferase activity was 96.8 +/- 47.9 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. 2. Cytosolic sulphotransferase activity was measured in 138 livers whose donors were 90 women and 48 men. Enzyme activity ranged between 14.4 and 98.2 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, i.e. over a 7-fold range, and the mean (+/- s.d.) sulphotransferase activity was 43.7 +/- 18.6 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. 3. Human liver glucuronyltransferase and sulphotransferase activities showed a unimodal distribution pattern. Enzyme activities were neither sex-related nor age-dependent. Sulphotransferase activity did not correlate with glucuronyltransferase activity (n = 80) suggesting that the two enzymes are independently regulated. The ratio of specific glucuronyltransferase to sulphotransferase activity ranged between 0.15 and 8.0 (mean +/- s.d., 2.44 +/- 1.51) and was unimodally distributed. PMID:1907838

  4. Interindividual variability in the glucuronidation and sulphation of ethinyloestradiol in human liver.

    PubMed

    Temellini, A; Giuliani, L; Pacifici, G M

    1991-06-01

    1. Glucuronidation and sulphation of ethinyloestradiol (EE2) was studied in human liver. Microsomal glucuronyltransferase activity was measured in 110 livers whose donors were 71 women and 39 men. Enzyme activity ranged between 12.6 and 242 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, i.e. over a 19-fold range and the mean (+/- s.d.) glucuronyltransferase activity was 96.8 +/- 47.9 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. 2. Cytosolic sulphotransferase activity was measured in 138 livers whose donors were 90 women and 48 men. Enzyme activity ranged between 14.4 and 98.2 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, i.e. over a 7-fold range, and the mean (+/- s.d.) sulphotransferase activity was 43.7 +/- 18.6 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. 3. Human liver glucuronyltransferase and sulphotransferase activities showed a unimodal distribution pattern. Enzyme activities were neither sex-related nor age-dependent. Sulphotransferase activity did not correlate with glucuronyltransferase activity (n = 80) suggesting that the two enzymes are independently regulated. The ratio of specific glucuronyltransferase to sulphotransferase activity ranged between 0.15 and 8.0 (mean +/- s.d., 2.44 +/- 1.51) and was unimodally distributed. PMID:1907838

  5. Transmembrane transport of steviol glucuronide and its potential interaction with selected drugs and natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiyu; Qi, Huixin; Li, Jiajun; Xu, Yunting; Zhang, Hongjian

    2015-12-01

    Steviol glucuronide (SVG) is the major metabolite derived from steviol, the aglycone of stevioside and rebaudioside A. After the ingestion of stevioside and rebaudioside A, SVG is formed and excreted into the urine in humans. In the present study, transporter mediated efflux and uptake of SVG was investigated in order to understand molecular mechanisms underlying its renal clearance. Results showed that SVG was not a substrate of efflux transporters BCRP, MRP2, MATE1 or P-gp. In contrast, OAT3 played a predominant role in the uptake of SVG in comparison to OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or OATP2B1. Quercetin, telmisartan, diclofenac, and mulberrin displayed a relatively strong inhibition against OAT3 mediated uptake of SVG with IC50 values of 1.8, 2.9, 8.0, and 10.0 μM, respectively. Because OAT3 is a major uptake transporter in the kidney, inhibition of OAT3 activity may alter SVG's renal clearance by drugs and natural compounds that are used concomitantly with stevia leaf extracts. PMID:26525112

  6. Nasal administration of morphine-6-glucuronide in sheep--a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Illum, L; Davis, S S; Pawula, M; Fisher, A N; Barrett, D A; Farraj, N F; Shaw, P N

    1996-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) after both intravenous dosing and nasal administration were studied in sheep. The nasal formulation consisted of M6G in combination with an absorption promoting delivery system in the form of chitosan. The mean half-life of M6G after intravenous administration was 51.0 +/- 8.2 min and that after intranasal dosing was 45.0 +/- 5.5 min. M6G clearance and volume of distribution were 5.4 +/- 1.5 mL min-1 kg-1 and 0.4 +/- 0.1 L kg-1 respectively. The plasma profile after nasal administration demonstrated rapid absorption of M6G. The bioavailability of M6G in the chitosan formulation was found to be 31.4%. These results suggest that M6G administered in combination with the chitosan delivery system may be considered as a suitable non-parenteral means of administering this analgesic. PMID:8950049

  7. Identification of brain-targeted bioactive dietary quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a novel intervention for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lap; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Janle, Elsa M.; Wang, Jun; Gong, Bing; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Lobo, Jessica; Cooper, Bruce; Wu, Qing Li; Talcott, Stephen T.; Percival, Susan S.; Simon, James E.; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies indicate that polyphenol intake from moderate consumption of red wines may lower the relative risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. There is limited information regarding the specific biological activities and cellular and molecular mechanisms by which wine polyphenolic components might modulate AD. We assessed accumulations of polyphenols in the rat brain following oral dosage with a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine and tested brain-targeted polyphenols for potential beneficial AD disease-modifying activities. We identified accumulations of select polyphenolic metabolites in the brain. We demonstrated that, in comparison to vehicle-control treatment, one of the brain-targeted polyphenol metabolites, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, significantly reduced the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides by primary neuron cultures generated from the Tg2576 AD mouse model. Another brain-targeted metabolite, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, had no detectable effect on Aβ generation. Moreover, in an in vitro analysis using the photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) technique, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide is also capable of interfering with the initial protein-protein interaction of Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 that is necessary for the formation of neurotoxic oligomeric Aβ species. Lastly, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide treatment, compared to vehicle-control treatment, significantly improved AD-type deficits in hippocampal formation basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation, possibly through mechanisms involving the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Brain-targeted quercetin-3-O-glucuronide may simultaneously modulate multiple independent AD disease-modifying mechanisms and, as such, may contribute to the benefits of dietary supplementation with red wines as an effective intervention for AD.—Ho, L., Ferruzzi, M. G., Janle, E. M., Wang, J., Gong, B., Chen, T.-Y., Lobo, J., Cooper, B., Wu, Q. L., Talcott, S. T., Percival, S. S., Simon, J. E., Pasinetti, G. M. Identification of brain-targeted bioactive dietary quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a novel intervention for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23097297

  8. Ethyl pyruvate decreases HMGB1 release and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Shaival H.; Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Li, Fengling; DeMarco, Richard A.; Beer-Stolz, Donna; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Fink, Mitchell P.; Lotze, Michael T.; Plevy, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Signals from stressed cells and the enteric microbiota activate macrophages and dendritic cells and mediate intestinal inflammation. HMGB1 serves as an immunogenic stimuli causing release of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits secretion of HMGB1 and improves survival in models of endotoxemia and hemorrhagic shock. We reasoned that ethyl pyruvate may be protective in colitis, which involves similar inflammatory pathways. In IL-10−/− mice with established chronic colitis, ethyl pyruvate administration ameliorated colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. IL-10−/− mice demonstrated increased intestinal HMGB1 expression and decreased expression of RAGE compared with wild-type mice. Fecal HMGB1 levels were decreased in ethyl pyruvate-treated mice. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 expression in intestinal tissue. In TNBS-induced colitis, intrarectal administration of ethyl pyruvate resulted in amelioration of colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. In LPS-activated murine macrophages, ethyl pyruvate decreased expression of IL-12 p40 and NO production but did not affect IL-10 levels. Ethyl pyruvate did not inhibit nuclear translocation of NF-κB family members but attenuated NF-κB DNA binding. Additionally, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and HO-1 promoter activation. Moreover, ethyl pyruvate prevented nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1. In conclusion, the HMGB1/RAGE pathway has pathophysiologic and diagnostic significance in experimental colitis. Ethyl pyruvate and other strategies to inhibit HMGB1 release and function represent promising interventions in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:19454652

  9. Transport of estradiol-17β-glucuronide, estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: evidence for different transport systems.

    PubMed

    Wlcek, Katrin; Hofstetter, Lia; Stieger, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Important reactions of drug metabolism, including UGT mediated glucuronidation and steroidsulfatase mediated hydrolysis of sulfates, take place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes. Consequently, UGT generated glucuronides, like estradiol-17β-glucuronide, have to be translocated back into the cytoplasm to reach their site of excretion. Also steroidsulfatase substrates, including estrone-3-sulfate, have to cross the ER membrane to reach their site of hydrolysis. Based on their physicochemical properties such compounds are not favored for passive diffusion and therefore likely necessitate transport system(s) to cross the ER membrane in either direction. The current study aims to investigate the transport of taurocholate, estradiol-17β-glucuronide, and estrone-3-sulfate in smooth (SER) and rough (RER) endoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles isolated from Wistar and TR(-) rat liver. Time-dependent and bidirectional transport was demonstrated for taurocholate, showing higher uptake rates in SER than RER vesicles. For estradiol-17β-glucuronide a fast time-dependent efflux with similar efficiencies from SER and RER but no clear protein-mediated uptake was shown, indicating an asymmetric transport system for this substrate. Estrone-3-sulfate uptake was time-dependent and higher in SER than in RER vesicles. Inhibition of steroidsulfatase mediated estrone-3-sulfate hydrolysis decreased estrone-3-sulfate uptake but had no effect on taurocholate or estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport. Based on inhibition studies and transport characteristics, three different transport mechanisms are suggested to be involved in the transport of taurocholate, estrone-3-sulfate and estradiol-17β-glucuronide across the ER membrane. PMID:24406246

  10. Glucuronidation of bavachinin by human tissues and expressed UGT enzymes: Identification of UGT1A1 and UGT1A8 as the major contributing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xia; Hou, Jie; Xia, Yang-Liu; Ning, Jing; He, Gui-Yuan; Wang, Ping; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xiu, Zhi-Long; Yang, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Bavachinin (BCI), a major bioactive compound in Chinese herbal Psoralea corylifolia, possesses a wide range of biological activities. In this study, the glucuronidation pathway of BCI was characterized for the first time, by using pooled human liver microsomes (HLM), pooled human intestine microsomes (HIM) and recombinant human UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs). One mono-glucuronide was detected in HLM in the presence of uridine-diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDPGA), and it was biosynthesized and well-characterized as BCI-4'-O-glucuronide (BCIG). Reaction phenotyping assay showed that UGT1A1, UGT1A3 and UGT1A8 were involved in BCI-4'-O-glucuronidation, while UGT1A1 and UGT1A8 displayed the higher catalytic ability among all tested UGT isoforms. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that BCI-4'-O-glucuronidation in both HLM and UGT1A1 followed sigmoidal kinetic behaviors and displayed much close Km values (12.4 μM in HLM & 9.7 μM in UGT1A1). Both chemical inhibition assays and correlation analysis demonstrated that UGT1A1 displayed a predominant role in BCI-4'-O-glucuronidation in HLM. Both HIM and UGT1A8 exhibited substrate inhibition at high concentrations, and Km values of HIM and UGT1A8 were 3.6 and 2.3 μM, respectively. Similar catalytic efficiencies were observed for HIM (199.3 μL/min/mg) and UGT1A8 (216.2 μL/min/mg). These findings suggested that UGT1A1 and UGT1A8 were the primary isoforms involved in BCI-4'-O-glucuronidation in HLM, and HIM, respectively. PMID:26320626

  11. Effect of MRP2 and MRP3 Polymorphisms on Anastrozole Glucuronidation and MRP2 and MRP3 Gene Expression in Normal Liver Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edavana, Vineetha Koroth; Penney, Rosalind B; Yao- Borengasser, Aiwei; Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Kadlubar, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anastrozole is an aromatase inhibitor (AI) used as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Anastrozole is subject to direct glucuronidation catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A4 (UGT1A4). Interindividual variability in anastrozole glucuronidation may be affected by UGT1A4 SNPs. Interplay between drug metabolizing genes such as UGT1A4 and transporter genes may also be affected by genetic variability. Thus, we hypothesize that genetic variability in MRPs could influence anastrozole glucuronidation. The correlation between UGT1A4 and MRP2 or MRP3 transporter gene expressions and the correlation between MRP2 or MRP3 mRNA and anastrozole glucuronidation were analyzed in normal human liver samples. MRP2 and MRP3 mRNA levels were significantly correlated with UGT1A4 mRNA, with anastrozole glucuronidation and with each other (p<0.05). The data also demonstrated that MRP2 SNPs are positively correlated with MRP2 mRNA expression, while there was no association between MRP3 SNPs from this study and MRP3 expression. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between certain MRP2 SNPs (3972C>T, 2366C>T and −24C>T) and anastrozole glucuronidation were observed. There were no observed correlations between MRP3 SNPs and anastrozole glucuronidation. MRP2 polymorphisms have been identified as playing a role in the disposition of other drugs, and the data presented here indicate for the first time that MRP2 SNPs could influence anastrozole metabolism and contribute to interindividual variation in treatment responses. PMID:26985457

  12. Raloxifene glucuronidation in human intestine, kidney, and liver microsomes and in human liver microsomes genotyped for the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Trdan Lusin, Tina; Trontelj, Jurij; Mrhar, Ales

    2011-12-01

    Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, exhibits quite large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In women, raloxifene is metabolized extensively by different isoforms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) to its glucuronides. To gain an insight into intestine, kidney, liver, and lung glucuronidation of raloxifene, human microsomes of all tested organs were used. Raloxifene-6-β-glucuronide (M1) formation followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics in intestinal, kidney, and liver microsomes; meanwhile, raloxifene-4'-β-glucuronide (M2) formation followed the substrate inhibition kinetics. Human lung microsomes did not show any glucuronidation activity. The tissue intrinsic clearances for kidney, intestine, and liver were 3.4, 28.1, and 39.6 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively. The aim of our in vitro study was to explain the mechanism behind the observed influence of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism on raloxifene pharmacokinetics in a small-sized in vivo study (Br J Clin Pharmacol 67:437-444, 2009). Incubation of raloxifene with human liver microsomes genotyped for UGT1A1*28 showed a significantly reduced metabolic clearance toward M1 in microsomes from donors with *28 allele. On the contrary, no significant genotype influence was observed on the formation of M2 because of the high variability in estimated apparent kinetic parameters, although a clear trend toward lower glucuronidation activities was observed when UGT1A1*28 polymorphism was present. The liver intrinsic clearances of both homozygotes differed significantly, whereas the clearance of heterozygotes did not differ from the wild-type and the mutated homozygotes. In conclusion, our results show the high importance of the liver and intestine in raloxifene glucuronidation. Moreover, the significant influence of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism on metabolism of raloxifene was confirmed. PMID:21937736

  13. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  14. 40 CFR 180.483 - O-[2-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-5-pyrimidinyl] O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.483 O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues. Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide O-...

  15. The gelation of oil using ethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Pinhas, M; Barbut, S; Marangoni, A G

    2015-03-01

    The characterization of the thermo-gelation mechanism and properties of ethyl cellulose/canola oil oleogels was performed using rheology and thermal analysis. Thermal analysis detected no evidence for thermal transitions contributed to secondary conformational changes, suggesting a gelation mechanism that does not involve secondary ordered structure formation. Rheological analysis demonstrated a relationship between the polymer molecular weight and the final gel strength, the cross-over behavior as well as the gel point temperature. Increasing polymer molecular weight led to an increase in final gel strength, the modulus at cross-over, and the gel point temperature. Cooling/heating rates affect gel modulus only for the low molecular weight samples. A decrease in gel strength with increasing cooling rate was detected. The cross-over temperature was not affected by the cooling/heating rates. Cooling rate also affected the gelation setting time where slow cooling rates produced a stable gel faster. PMID:25498711

  16. Disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats by microsomal enzyme inducers is not due to enhanced thyroxine glucuronidation

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-10-01

    Microsomal enzyme inducers (MEI) that increase UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are thought to increase glucuronidation of thyroxine (T{sub 4}), thus reducing serum T{sub 4}, and subsequently increasing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6 mediate T{sub 4} glucuronidation. Therefore, this experiment determined the involvement of Ugt1a enzymes in increased T{sub 4} glucuronidation, decreased serum T{sub 4}, and increased TSH after MEI treatment. Male Wistar and Ugt1a-deficient Wistar (Gunn) rats were fed a control diet or diet containing pregnenolone-16{alpha}-carbonitrile (PCN; 800 ppm), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 200 ppm), or Aroclor 1254 (PCB; 100 ppm) for 7 days. Serum T{sub 4}, triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and TSH concentrations, hepatic T{sub 4}/T{sub 3} glucuronidation, and thyroid histology and follicular cell proliferation were investigated. PCN, 3-MC, and PCB treatments decreased serum T{sub 4}, whereas serum T{sub 3} was maintained in both Gunn and Wistar rats (except for PCB treatment). TSH was increased in Wistar and Gunn rats after PCN (130 and 277%) or PCB treatment (72 and 60%). T{sub 4} glucuronidation in Wistar rats was increased after PCN (298%), 3-MC (85%), and PCB (450%), but was extremely low in Gunn rats, and unchanged after MEI. T{sub 3} glucuronidation was increased after PCN (121%) or PCB (58%) in Wistar rats, but only PCN increased T{sub 3} glucuronidation in Gunn rats (43%). PCN treatment induced thyroid morphological changes and increased follicular cell proliferation in both strains. These data demonstrate that T{sub 4} glucuronidation cannot be increased in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats. Thus, the decrease in serum T{sub 4}, increase in TSH, and increase in thyroid cell proliferation after MEI are not dependent on increased T{sub 4} glucuronidation, and cannot be attributed to Ugt1a enzymes.

  17. Quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronidation of trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, by human liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kenichiro; Ishikawa, Yuko; Kaku, Teppei; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Muro, Kei; Hiratsuka, Akira

    2006-04-28

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a nonsteroidal antiestrogen, is the most widely used drug for chemotherapy of hormone-dependent breast cancer in women. Trans-4-hydroxy-TAM (trans-4-HO-TAM), one of the TAM metabolites in humans, has been considered to be an active metabolite of TAM because of its higher affinity toward estrogen receptors (ERs) than the parent drug and other side-chain metabolites. In the present study, we found a new potential metabolic pathway of trans-4-HO-TAM and its geometrical isomer, cis-4-HO-TAM, via N-linked glucuronic acid conjugation for excretion in humans. N+-Glucuronides of 4-HO-TAM isomers were isolated along with O-glucuronides from a reaction mixture consisting of trans- or cis-4-HO-TAM and human liver microsomes fortified with UDP-glucuronic acid and identified with their respective synthetic specimens by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although N- and O-glucuronidating activities of human liver microsomes toward trans-4-HO-TAM were nearly comparable, O-glucuronidation was predominant for cis-4-HO-TAM conjugation. Only UGT1A4 catalyzed the N-linked glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM among recombinant human UGT isoforms (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17) expressed in insect cells. In contrast, all UGT isoforms, except for UGT1A3 and UGT1A4, catalyzed O-glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM. Although O-glucuronidation of 4-HO-TAM greatly decreased binding affinity for human ERs, 4-HO-TAM N+-glucuronide still had binding affinity similar to 4-HO-TAM itself, suggesting that N+-glucuronide might contribute to the biological activity of TAM in vivo. PMID:16480962

  18. Fragmentation dynamics of the ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide cations: a velocity-map imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Sara H; Karsili, Tolga N V; Lipciuc, M Laura; Wilman, Edward; Ashfold, Michael N R; Vallance, Claire

    2014-02-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide cations (C2H5Br(+) and C2H5I(+)) have been studied. Ethyl halide cations were formed through vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of the respective neutral parent molecules at 118.2 nm, and were photolysed at a number of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis wavelengths, including 355 nm and wavelengths in the range from 236 to 266 nm. Time-of-flight mass spectra and velocity-map images have been acquired for all fragment ions and for ground (Br) and spin-orbit excited (Br*) bromine atom products, allowing multiple fragmentation pathways to be investigated. The experimental studies are complemented by spin-orbit resolved ab initio calculations of cuts through the potential energy surfaces (along the RC-Br/I stretch coordinate) for the ground and first few excited states of the respective cations. Analysis of the velocity-map images indicates that photoexcited C2H5Br(+) cations undergo prompt C-Br bond fission to form predominantly C2H5(+) + Br* products with a near-limiting 'parallel' recoil velocity distribution. The observed C2H3(+) + H2 + Br product channel is thought to arise via unimolecular decay of highly internally excited C2H5(+) products formed following radiationless transfer from the initial excited state populated by photon absorption. Broadly similar behaviour is observed in the case of C2H5I(+), along with an additional energetically accessible C-I bond fission channel to form C2H5 + I(+) products. HX (X = Br, I) elimination from the highly internally excited C2H5X(+) cation is deemed the most probable route to forming the C2H4(+) fragment ions observed from both cations. Finally, both ethyl halide cations also show evidence of a minor C-C bond fission process to form CH2X(+) + CH3 products. PMID:24317740

  19. Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saerens, S M G; Delvaux, F; Verstrepen, K J; Van Dijck, P; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  20. Determination of glucuronide conjugates of hydroxyl triphenyl phosphate (OH-TPHP) metabolites in human urine and its use as a biomarker of TPHP exposure.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Yu, Hongxia; Gooden, David M; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-04-01

    In vitro studies using avian hepatocytes or human liver microsomes suggest that hydroxylation is an important pathway in the metabolism of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), a chemical used as a flame retardant and plasticizer. TPHP metabolism can lead to the formation of para(p)- and meta(m)-hydroxyl-(OH-)TPHP products as well as their glucuronide conjugates. To determine whether the TPHP hydroxylation and depuration pathway also occurs in vivo in humans, the present study developed a sensitive method for quantification of p- and m-OH-TPHP glucuronides in human urine samples. In n = 1 pooled urine sample and n = 12 individual urine samples collected from four human volunteers from Ottawa (ON, Canada), p- and m-OH-TPHP glucuronides were detectable in 13 and 9 of the 13 analyzed samples and at concentrations ranging from glucuronide and diphenyl phosphate concentrations (DPHP, a known dealkylated metabolite of TPHP). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that TPHP hydroxylation and conjugation occurs in vivo in humans, and further suggests that p-OH-TPHP glucuronide can be used as a specific biomarker of TPHP exposure in humans. PMID:26874059

  1. Signal enhancement of glucuronide conjugates in LC-MS/MS by derivatization with the phosphonium propylamine cation tris(trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium propylamine, for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Turfus, Sophie C; Halket, John M; Parkin, Mark C; Cowan, David A; Braithwaite, Robin A; Kicman, Andrew T

    2014-05-01

    Although chemical derivatization for signal enhancement in drug testing is most often associated with gas chromatography, it also has the potential to improve the detection of analytes poorly ionized by atmospheric pressure ionization techniques, such as electrospray ionization used in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A number of acidic compounds, namely drug glucuronides (e.g. conjugates of temazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, morphine, testosterone, epitestosterone, 5-α-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, p-nitrophenol, and paracetamol) were successfully derivatized with tris(trimethoxyphenyl) phosphoniumpropylamine to introduce a quaternary cation functionality to the analytes. Benzodiazepine glucuronides were more specifically investigated, and following positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, average improvements to peak areas as a result of derivatization were 67-, 6-, and 7- fold for temazepam, oxazepam, and lorazepam glucuronides. Average improvements to the signal-to-noise ratios for temazepam, oxazepam, and lorazepam glucuronides were 1336-, 371- and 217-fold, respectively. The values obtained for the derivatized conjugate were also typically higher than those for the underivatized parent drug. Urine containing benzodiazepine glucuronides was also successfully derivatized. The data indicates potential for the use of charge derivatization to improve the detection of molecules with acidic functionalities by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques in certain scenarios. PMID:24753456

  2. 1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide as the major aqueous pyrene metabolite in tissue and gut fluid from the marine deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Giessing, Anders M B; Mayer, Lawrence M; Forbes, Thomas L

    2003-05-01

    Both 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide are identified as the primary phase I and phase II metabolites of the four-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in the marine deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Identification of pyrene and primary metabolites was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection and fluorescence detection (HPLC/DAD/F) and an ion-trap mass spectrometer for positive identification of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide, the HPLC/F trace of tissue samples from pyrene-exposed worms showed three additional low-intensity peaks that may be related to pyrene metabolism based on similar excitation/emission wavelengths. The peaks were all too low in intensity to be positively identified. Of the total PAH in tissue, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide, 1-hydroxypyrene, and pyrene constituted 73%, 2%, and 25% respectively. Gut elimination of metabolic products is supported by the identification of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in both gut fluid and defecation water. Being the only phase I metabolite of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene becomes a useful marker for PAH exposure, and it may serve as a valuable model compound for assessing species-specific PAH metabolic capabilities. PMID:12729221

  3. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K69 key comparison: Testosterone glucuronide in human urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fong-Ha; Mackay, Lindsey; Murby, John

    2010-01-01

    The CCQM-K69 key comparison of testosterone glucuronide in human urine was organized under the auspices of the CCQM Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG). The National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA) acted as the coordinating laboratory for the comparison. The samples distributed for the key comparison were prepared at NMIA with funding from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). WADA granted the approval for this material to be used for the intercomparison provided the distribution and handling of the material were strictly controlled. Three national metrology institutes (NMIs)/designated institutes (DIs) developed reference methods and submitted data for the key comparison along with two other laboratories who participated in the parallel pilot study. A good selection of analytical methods and sample workup procedures was displayed in the results submitted considering the complexities of the matrix involved. The comparability of measurement results was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs. Only the key comparison data were used to estimate the key comparison reference value (KCRV), using the arithmetic mean approach. The reported expanded uncertainties for results ranged from 3.7% to 6.7% at the 95% level of confidence and all results agreed within the expanded uncertainty of the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, F.V.; Palmour, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of (/sup 3/H)-etorphine, (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM.

  5. Elucidation of the Mechanisms through Which the Reactive Metabolite Diclofenac Acyl Glucuronide Can Mediate Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Scialis, Renato J; Manautou, José E

    2016-04-01

    We have previously reported that mice lacking the efflux transporter Mrp3 had significant intestinal injury after toxic diclofenac (DCF) challenge, and proposed that diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DCF-AG), as a substrate of Mrp3, played a part in mediating injury. Since both humans and mice express the uptake transporter OATP2B1 in the intestines, OATP2B1 was characterized for DCF-AG uptake. In vitro assays using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-OATP2B1 cells demonstrated that DCF-AG was a substrate with a maximal velocity (Vmax) and Km of 17.6 ± 1.5 pmol/min per milligram and 14.3 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Another key finding from our in vitro assays was that DCF-AG was more cytotoxic compared with DCF, and toxicity occurred within 1-3 hours of exposure. We also report that 1 mM DCF-AG caused a 6-fold increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 3 hours. Investigation of oxidative stress through inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) revealed that DCF-AG had 100% inhibition of SOD at the highest tested dose of 1 mM. The SOD and ROS results strongly suggest DCF-AG induced oxidative stress in vitro. Lastly, DCF-AG was screened for pharmacologic activity against COX-1 and COX-2 and was found to have IC50 values of 0.620 ± 0.105 and 2.91 ± 0.36 μM, respectively, which represents a novel finding. Since cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition can lead to intestinal ulceration, it is plausible that DCF-AG can also contribute to enteropathy via COX inhibition. Taken in context, the work presented herein demonstrated the multifactorial pathways by which DCF-AG can act as a direct contributor to toxicity following DCF administration. PMID:26869668

  6. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  7. Determination of sulfates and glucuronides of endogenic steroids in biofluids by high-performance liquid chromatography/orbitrap mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenistaya, E. N.; Virus, E. D.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    the possibility of selective determination of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry using solid phase microextraction on a meps cartridge was studied. the effect of the biological matrix on the spectra of conjugated steroids can be taken into account by using the spectra of conjugates recorded for urine samples after hydrolysis as reference spectra. the conditions of fragmentation in the ion source were optimized for separate analytes. this method was used for analyzing real samples with different testosterone/epitestosterone ratios. variations in conjugate contents and qualitative changes in the steroid profile of endogenic compounds were observed.

  8. 17alpha- and 17beta-boldenone 17-glucuronides: synthesis and complete characterization by 1H and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Casati, Silvana; Ottria, Roberta; Ciuffreda, Pierangela

    2009-02-01

    Boldenone is an androgenic anabolic steroid intensively used for growth promoting purposes in animals destined for meat production and as a performance enhancer in athletics. Therefore its use is officially banned either in animals intended for consumption or in humans. Because most anabolic steroids are completely metabolized and usually no parent steroid is excreted, metabolite identification is crucial to detect the illegal use of anabolic steroids either in humans or in livestock. 17alpha- and 17beta-boldenone 17-glucuronides were synthesized, purified and characterized in order to provide suitable standards for the identification and quantification of these metabolites. PMID:19071152

  9. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  10. Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 is the Primary Enzyme Responsible for the N-glucuronidation of N-hydroxy-PhIP in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2004-04-06

    UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A proteins (UGT1A) catalyze the glucuronidation of many endogenous and xenobiotic compounds including heterocyclic amines and their hydroxylated metabolites (the main topic of this study). Studies have shown that in humans UGT1A mediated glucuronidation is an important pathway in the detoxification of food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines. The biotransformation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, is highly dependent on cytochrome P4501A2 hydroxylation followed by UGT catalyzed glucuronidation of the N-hydroxy-PhIP reactive intermediate. To determine which UGT1A proteins are involved in the glucuronidation of N-hydroxy-PhIP, microsomal preparations from baculovirus infected insect cells that express all of the known functional human UGT1A isozymes (UGT1A1, -1A3, -1A4, -1A6, -1A7, -1A8, -1A9, -1A10) were exposed to N-hydroxy-PhIP and the reaction products were isolated by HPLC. All UGT1A proteins except UGT1A6 showed some degree of activity towards N-hydroxy-PhIP. The formation of both N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide and N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide was both time and substrate concentration dependent in all the microsomal incubations that showed appreciable activity. UGT1A1 was the most efficient in converting N-hydroxy-PhIP to both conjugates producing 5 times more of the N{sup 2}-conjugate than UGT1A4, the next active UGT, and 286 times more than UGT1A7, the least active UGT. With an apparent Km of 52 {micro}M and a K{sub cat} of 114 min-1, UGT1A1 was also the most catalytically efficient in forming N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Catalytic constants for UGT1A4, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9 were 52 min-1, 35 min{sup -1} and 3.7 min{sup -1}, respectively. The catalytic efficiency for N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide formation was 8, 10, and 6 times lower for UGT1A1, -1A4, and -1A8, respectively, when compared to the k{sub cat} values for N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide formation. These results clearly show that UGT1A1 is mainly responsible for glucuronidating N-hydroxy-PhIP. Polymorphic expression resulting in decreased UGT1A1 activity in humans can cause reduced rates of glucuronidation which can change the metabolic ratio between bioactivation and detoxification to favor bioactivation. This change will increase the susceptibility to the deleterious effects from PhIP exposure because the capacity to form nontoxic N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide conjugates will be diminished.

  11. The role of human UDP-glucuronyltransferases on the formation of the methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) phase II metabolites R- and S-3-methoxymethamphetamine 4-O-glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-11-01

    Different pharmacokinetic properties have been observed for the two enantiomers of the entactogen 3,4-methylendioxy-methamphetamine, most probably a result of enantioselective metabolism. The aim of the present work was to study the involvement of human UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) isoforms in the glucuronidation of the enantiomers of its major metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA). First, the reference standards of R- and S-HMMA-O-glucuronide were synthesized semipreparatively using the enzymes of rat liver microsomes, followed by isolation with semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography and identification using mass spectrometry and NMR. Racemic HMMA was then incubated using heterologously expressed human UGTs and pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs), and the glucuronides were quantified by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17 were involved in the glucuronidation of HMMA. UGT2B15, UGT2B17, and HLM revealed classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics, whereas UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 showed sigmoidal curves and the respective Eadie-Hofstee plots indicated autoactivation kinetics. UGT2B15 showed the highest affinity and activity. UGT2B15, UGT2B17, and HLMs were not considerably enantioselective but showed slight preferences for S-HMMA. Marked enantioselectivity could only be observed for UGT1A9 with respect to the S-enantiomer and for UGT2B7 with respect to the R-enantiomer. In conclusion, the O-glucuronidation of HMMA in vivo should not be expected to be enantioselective, and the different pharmacokinetic properties may not be caused directly by glucuronidation. PMID:19666989

  12. Effect of naloxone-3-glucuronide and N-methylnaloxone on the motility of the isolated rat colon after morphine.

    PubMed

    Reber, Peter; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Flogerzi, Beatrice; Batista, Catarina; Netzer, Peter; Scheurer, Ulrich

    2007-02-01

    The effect of the opioid antagonists naloxone-3-glucuronide and N-methylnaloxone on rat colon motility after morphine stimulation was measured. The rat model consisted of the isolated, vascularly perfused colon. The antagonists (10(-4) M, intraluminally) and morphine (10(-4) M, intra-arterially) were administered from 20 to 30 and from 10 to 50 min, respectively. Colon motility was determined by the luminal outflow. The antagonist concentrations in the luminal and venous outflow were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Naloxone-3-glucuronide and N-methylnaloxone reversed the morphine-induced reduction of the luminal outflow to baseline within 10 and 20 min, respectively. These antagonists were then excreted in the luminal outflow and could not be found in the venous samples. Naloxone, produced by hydrolysis or demethylation, was not detectable. In conclusion, highly polar naloxone derivatives peripherally antagonize the motility-lowering effect of morphine in the perfused isolated rat colon, are stable, and are not able to cross the colon-mucosal blood barrier. PMID:17211696

  13. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the biosynthesis of flavonoid-O-glucuronides and flavonoid-O-galactoside.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Hye Rin; Park, Kwang-Su; Kim, Bong-Gyu; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Most flavonoids are glycosylated and the nature of the attached sugar can strongly affect their physiological properties. Although many flavonoid glycosides have been synthesized in Escherichia coli, most of them are glucosylated. In order to synthesize flavonoids attached to alternate sugars such as glucuronic acid and galactoside, E. coli was genetically modified to express a uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) specific for UDP-glucuronic acid (AmUGT10 from Antirrhinum majus or VvUGT from Vitis vinifera) and UDP-galactoside (PhUGT from Petunia hybrid) along with the appropriate nucleotide biosynthetic genes to enable simultaneous production of their substrates, UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-galactose. To engineer UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis, the araA gene encoding UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose formyltransferase/UDP-glucuronic acid C-4″ decarboxylase, which also used UDP-glucuronic acid as a substrate, was deleted in E. coli, and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (ugd) gene was overexpressed to increase biosynthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid. Using these strategies, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide were biosynthesized to levels of 300 and 687 mg/L, respectively. For the synthesis of quercetin 3-O-galactoside, UGE (encoding UDP-glucose epimerase from Oryza sativa) was overexpressed along with a glycosyltransferase specific for quercetin and UDP-galactose. Using this approach, quercetin 3-O-galactoside was successfully synthesized to a level of 280 mg/L. PMID:25515812

  14. Time-Dependent Metabolism of Luteolin by Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Its Intestinal First-Pass Glucuronidation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lili; Liu, Junjin; Han, Weichao; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yu, Xiaoming; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Shuwen; Tang, Lan

    2015-10-01

    Luteolin is a well-known flavonoid with various pharmacological properties but has low bioavailability due to glucuronidation. This study investigated the time-course of luteolin glucuronidation by 12 human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and its intestinal first-pass metabolism in mice. Six metabolites, including two novel abundant diglucuronides [3',7-O-diglucuronide (diG) and 4',7-diG] and four known ones, were identified. UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 generated almost only monoglucuronides (G's). The production of 3',7-diG followed a sequential time-dependent process along with decrease of 3'-G mainly by UGT1A1, indicating that 3',7-diG was produced from 3'-G. Metabolism in mice intestine differed from that in humans. Probenecid, a nonspecific UGT inhibitor, did not affect absorption but significantly inhibited production of 7-, 4'-, and 3'-G, and enhanced the formation of another novel metabolite, 5-G, in mice. In conclusion, diglucuronide formation is time-dependent and isoform-specific. UGT1A1 preferentially generates diG, whereas UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 share a preference for G production. PMID:26377048

  15. Quantification of phenol, phenyl glucuronide, and phenyl sulfate in blood of unanesthetized rainbow trout by online microdialysis sampling.

    PubMed

    Nichols, John W; Hoffman, Alex D; Fitzsimmons, Patrick N; Lien, Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Free concentrations of phenol (PH), phenyl glucuronide (PG), and phenyl sulfate (PS) were measured in the bloodstream of unanesthetized rainbow trout by online microdialysis (MD) sampling. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize the MD system and evaluate three retrodialysis calibration standards: p-nitrophenyl glucuronide (PNPG), p-nitrophenyl sulfate (PNPS), and [(14)C]-phenol ((14)C-PH). PG and PNPG exhibited nearly identical dialyzing properties in vitro (saline and plasma) and in vivo (muscle tissue and dorsal aorta). A similar result was obtained for PS and PNPS. In vivo studies were therefore performed using PNPG, PNPS, and (14)C-PH as retrodialysis calibrators for PG, PS, and PH, respectively. The utility of MD sampling for kinetic studies with fish was investigated by implanting MD probes into the dorsal aorta of spinally transected rainbow trout. Each fish was then exposed to PH in water in a respirometer-metabolism chamber. The free concentration of PH in blood reached a steady-state level within 12 h of initiating the exposure. A steady state for PS was generally established within 24 h, while free concentrations of PG tended to increase throughout the exposure. Terminal plasma samples were dialyzed using the same probe employed in each experiment. Analyte concentrations determined in this manner were in good agreement with calculated in vivo values. The methods described in this study can be used to collect kinetic data sets of high temporal resolution while eliminating artifacts often associated with conventional blood sampling methods. PMID:20020864

  16. Effects of morphine glucuronides on the function of opioid receptors in human SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Baker, L; Dye, A; Ratka, A

    2000-03-01

    Morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) are active metabolites of morphine. The effects of M3G and M6G on the opioid receptor transduction system has not yet been fully elucidated. Formation of cAMP after treatment with various doses of morphine, M3G, and M6G was studied. M6G and morphine, but not M3G, showed a dose dependent inhibition of cAMP accumulation. Naloxone blocked the inhibitory effect of M6G, M3G, and morphine. Pretreatment with M3G did not change the effects of morphine and M6G. The G-protein inhibitor PTX, prevented morphine, M3G, and M6G effects on cAMP. M3G and M6G vary in their ability to interact with the opioid receptor effector system. Inhibition of cAMP evoked by activation of opioid receptors and inhibitory G-proteins may play a role in the actions of M6G and M3G. PMID:10686401

  17. Screening of 4-androstenedione misuse in cattle by LC-MS/MS profiling of glucuronide and sulfate steroids in urine.

    PubMed

    Anizan, Sebastien; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Di Nardo, Domenica; Monteau, Fabrice; Cesbron, Nora; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2011-10-30

    The use of anabolic agents in food producing animals is prohibited within the European Union since 1988. The illegal use of natural steroid hormones control is however still a current challenge, especially regarding the limitations of existing screening methods. In this context, the present study aimed to develop a new screening approach based on the emerging 'untargeted profiling' concept, but with a special emphasis on steroids phase II conjugated metabolites, in the scope of revealing potential biomarkers signing a fraudulent administration of 4-androstenedione. After extraction and separation of the urinary glucuronide and sulfate steroid fractions, each one was analyzed separately by UPLC-MS/MS using the precursor ion scan acquisition mode. This approach was carried out in order to monitor product ion characteristic of sulfate (m/z 97) and glucuronide (m/z 113) functional groups, and then to fish for any potential conjugated steroid leading to these ionic species after fragmentation. After statistical analysis, 86 metabolites (33 from steroid compounds and 53 from other unknown substances) were highlighted as potential biomarkers of 4-androstenedione abuse. After application of several robustness criteria, 26 metabolites (whom 5 were unambiguously structurally identified), were finally selected to build a statistical model which could be used as new diagnostic tool for screening purposes. PMID:22063529

  18. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium.

    PubMed

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0-110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  19. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium

    PubMed Central

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26–34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0–110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  20. Piperine-mediated inhibition of glucuronidation activity in isolated epithelial cells of the guinea-pig small intestine: evidence that piperine lowers the endogeneous UDP-glucuronic acid content.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Dubey, R K; Atal, C K

    1986-02-01

    Piperine (1-peperoyl piperidine), a major component of the Piper species was reported recently by us to inhibit the activities of rat hepatic monooxygenases and UDP-glucuronyltransferase. This study explores further the basis of inhibition of glucuronidation. The effect of piperine on the rate of glucuronidation of 3-hydroxybenzo(a) pyrene and UDP-glucuronic acid content in the intact isolated epithelial cells of the guinea-pig small intestine was studied. The cells offered a fairly good system to study the modulation of glucuronidation activity. Glucuronidation of 3-hydroxybenzo(a) pyrene was dependent on the time of incubation, cellular protein and substrate concentration. From the kinetics of glucuronidation of 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in the isolated cell preparation the Vmax of 0.5 nmol of BP-3-glucuronide formed per min/mg of protein and Km of 25 microM were observed. The endogeneous concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid observed was 1.6 to 2.3 nmol/mg of cellular protein. Piperine caused a concentration-related decrease in UDP-glucuronic acid content and the rate of glucuronidation in the cells. It required much lower concentrations of piperine than D-galactosamine to diminish the endogeneous level of UDP-glucuronic acid. Rate of glucuronidation of 3-hydroxybenzo (a) pyrene was dependent on the endogeneous level of UDP-glucuronic acid. At 50 microM piperine, the rate of glucuronidation was reduced to about 50% of the basal rate. Piperine caused noncompetitive inhibition of hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase with Ki of 70 microM. The studies demonstrate that piperine modifies the rate of glucuronidation by lowering the endogeneous UDP-glucuronic acid content and also by inhibiting the transferase activity. PMID:3080587

  1. Characterization of Dibenzo[a,l ]pyrene-trans-11,12-diol (Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) Glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristine C.; Sun, Dongxiao; Chen, Gang; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; Ropson, Ira J.; Spratt, Thomas E.; Lazarus, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) is a highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that has been identified in tobacco smoke and is found in our environment due to incomplete combustion of organic matter. Its metabolites are known to form stable DNA adducts in bacteria and mammalian cells, and can lead to tumors in animal models. Glucuronidation of major metabolites of DB[a,l]P by the uridine-5’-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) family of enzymes is an important route of detoxification of this pro-carcinogen. The focus of the current study was to characterize the glucuronidation of the pro-carcinogenic enantiomers DB[a,l]P-(+)-trans-11S,12S–diol and DB[a,l]P-(−)-trans-11R,12R–diol. Glucuronidation assays with HEK293 cell lines over-expressing individual human UGT enzymes demonstrated that UGTs 1A1, 1A4, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, 1A10, and 2B7 glucuronidated one or both DB[a,l]P-trans-11,12-diol enantiomers. Three glucuronide conjugates were observed in activity assays with UGTs 1A1 and 1A10, while two glucuronides were formed by UGTs 1A7, 1A8, and 1A9, and one glucuronide was made by UGT1A4 and UGT2B7. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that UGT1A9 was the most efficient UGT at forming both the (+)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc and (−)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc products while UGTs 1A1 and 1A10 were the most efficient at forming the (+)-DB[a,l]P-12-Gluc product (as determined by the kcat/KM). Incubations with human liver microsomes showed formation of three diastereomeric glucuronide products: (+)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc, (+)-DB[a,l]P-12-Gluc, and (−)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc, with an average overall ratio of 31 : 32 : 37 in four liver specimens. Human bronchus and trachea tissue homogenates demonstrated glucuronidation activity against both DB[a,l]P-trans-11,12-diol enantiomers, with both tissues producing the (+)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc and (+)-DB[a,l]P-12-Gluc with little or no formation of (−)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc. These results indicate that multiple UGTs are involved in the stereospecific glucuronidation of DB[a,l]P-trans-11,12-diol in a pattern consistent with their expression in respiratory tract tissues, and that glucuronidation may be an important first-line detoxification mechanism of DB[a,l]P metabolites. PMID:21780761

  2. Residual behavior of quizalofop ethyl on onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Gurmail; Kumar, Rajinder; Chahil, G S; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-02-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide, is used for postemergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the dissipation kinetics of quizalofop ethyl on onion for two seasons. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in onion and soil was developed and validated. The recoveries of quizalofop ethyl residues from onion and soil at different spiking level range from 84.81 to 92.68 %. The limit of quantification of this method was found to be 0.01 μg g(-1). The risk assessment through consumption of the onion in comparison to its acceptable daily intake which is an important parameter for the safety of the consumer was also evaluated. Standardized methodology supported by recovery studies was adopted to estimate residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil. The average initial deposits of quizalofop ethyl on onion were observed to be 0.25 and 0.33 mg kg(-1), following single application of the herbicide at 50 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The half-life values (T (1/2)) of quizalofop ethyl on onion crop were worked out to be 0.85 and 0.79 days, respectively, during 2009 and 2010. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods. PMID:22572798

  3. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  4. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  5. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  6. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  7. [In vitro characterization of glucuronosyl- and sulfotransferases involved in the conjugation of ethanol].

    PubMed

    Stachel, Nicole; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are minor metabolites of ethanol; for some years, both compounds have been used as direct biomarkers of alcohol consumption in forensic and clinical settings as well as in traffic medicine. Drinking experiments showed individual variations of the formation of EtG and EtS. At present, our knowledge on enzymes involved in the conjugation of ethanol is incomplete and partly inconsistent. The purpose of the present study was to characterize those enzymes that are capable of catalyzing glucuronidation and sulfation of ethanol including some potential inhibitors. Following optimization of incubation conditions, the formation rates of EtG and EtS from ethanol via recombinant glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs, hepatic) and sulfotransferases (SULTs, hepatic, intestinal), the kinetics and the inhibitory potential of polyphenols such as quercetin, kaempferol and resveratrol were determined. Analysis was performed following either solid phase extraction due to severe ion suppression of EtG or direct injection of the EtS-containing incubation mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Deuterated analogues were used as internal standards. All UGTs were capable of metabolizing ethanol through glucuronidation; UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 exhibited the highest formation rates. All SULTs showed ethanol-sulfating activity with SULT1A1 being most active. Data for all enzymes could best be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. All polyphenols inhibited the conjugation of ethanol except UGT2B 15. Inhibition was reversible and competitive for most enzymes; mechanism-based inhibition was evident for UGT2B7 and SULT2A1 with regard to quercetin and for SULT1E1 with regard to kaempferol. These results suggest an influence on the formation rates of EtG and EtS by common food ingredients beside known polymorphisms of UGT and SULT family members. Further studies should be conducted to achieve a better understanding of the extent and significance of this influence. PMID:26419090

  8. Is urine an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol?

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Dufaux, Bertin; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Nadulski, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    This study attempts to assess the utility of the urine matrix as an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol for driving licence re-granting in 1026 cosmetically treated hair samples and 33 262 urine routine samples. No significant difference was observed between the percentage positive samples in cosmetically treated hair to those in urine at both the 95% and 99% significance level for amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, and methadone. Significant difference was found between the positivity rates of cannabinoids in cosmetically treated hair and that in urine indicating urine to be a better alternative to the use of the hair matrix even when cosmetically treated. The opposite was observed for the alcohol consumption marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for which the positivity rate in cosmetically treated hair was twice that in urine samples. Particularly for alcohol abstinence monitoring, as for the rehabilitative driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) programme in Germany, it seems that ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair presents a much better alternative than urine testing, even when cosmetically treated hair is analyzed. Moreover, segmentation is an additional advantage of hair testing which can provide additional useful information. PMID:24817057

  9. Meconium Indicators of Maternal Alcohol Abuse during Pregnancy and Association with Patient Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Goecke, Tamme W.; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A.; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Pragst, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. Methods. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. Results. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P < 0.01). This association was inverse in cases with EtG value above 120 ng/g. These values indicate women with most severe alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Conclusion. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established. PMID:24800249

  10. Metabolism and disposition of resveratrol in the isolated perfused rat liver: role of Mrp2 in the biliary excretion of glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Hagenauer, Birigt; Reznicek, Gottfried; Szekeres, Thomas; Thalhammer, Theresia; Jäger, Walter

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the hepatic metabolism and transport system for resveratrol was examined in isolated perfused livers from Wistar and Mrp2-deficient TR(-) rats. Based on extensive metabolism to six glucuronides and sulfates (M1-M6), the hepatic extraction ratio and clearance of resveratrol was very high in Wistar and TR(-) rats (E: 0.998 vs. 0.999; Cl: 34.9 mL/min vs. 36.0 mL/min). However, biliary excretion and efflux of conjugates differs greatly in TR(-) rats. While cumulative biliary excretion of the glucuronides M1, M2, M3, and M5 dropped dramatically to 0-6%, their efflux into perfusate increased by 3.6-, 1.8-, 2.5-, and 1.5-fold. In contrast, biliary secretion of the sulfates M4 and M6 was partially maintained in the Mrp2-deficient rats (61% and 39%) with a concomitant decline of their efflux into perfusate by 33.2% and 78.1%. This indicates that Mrp2 exclusively mediates the biliary excretion of resveratrol glucuronides but only partly that of sulfates. Cumulative secretion of unconjugated resveratrol into bile of TR(-) rats was only reduced by 40%, and into perfusate by 19%, suggesting only a minor role of Mrp2 in resveratrol elimination. In summary, resveratrol was dose-dependently metabolized to several conjugates whereby the canalicular transporter Mrp2 selectively mediated the biliary excretion of glucuronides. PMID:17724663

  11. Tentative Structural Assignment of a Glucuronide Metabolite of Methyltestosterone in Tilapia Bile by Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nishshanka, Upul; Chu, Pak-Sin; Evans, Eric; Reimschuessel, Renate; Hasbrouck, Nicholas; Amarasinghe, Kande; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi

    2015-06-24

    Methyltestosterone (MT), a strong androgenic steroid, is not approved for use in fish aquaculture in the United States. It is used in the U.S. under an investigational new animal drug exemption (INAD) only during the early life stages of fish. There is a possibility that farmers feed fish with MT to enhance production for economic gains. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods for the detection of MT and its metabolite residues in fish tissue for monitoring purposes. Previously, our laboratory developed a liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF) method for characterization of 17-O-glucuronide metabolite (MT-glu) in bile of tilapia dosed with MT. The system used was an Agilent 6530 Q-TOF equipped with electrospray jet stream technology, operating in positive ion mode. Retrospective analysis of the data generated in that experiment by a feature-finding algorithm, combined with a search against an in-house library of possible MT-metabolites, resulted in the discovery of a major glucuronide metabolite of MT in the bile extracts. Preliminary data indicate it to be a glucuronide of a hydroxylated MT (OHMT-glu) which persists in tilapia bile for at least 2 weeks after dosing. We present the tentative structural assignment of the OHMT-glu in tilapia bile and time course of development. This glucuronide can serve as a marker to monitor illegal use of MT in tilapia culture. PMID:25980472

  12. Expanding analytical possibilities concerning the detection of stanozolol misuse by means of high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometric detection of stanozolol glucuronides in human sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Schänzer, Wilhelm; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Opfermann, Georg; Geyer, Hans; Thevis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) represent one of the most frequently detected classes of prohibited substances in doping controls. Due to their long-lasting beneficial effects on athletic performance, utmost retrospectivity via urine analysis is desirable and accomplished by targeting long-term metabolites of the respective drugs. In case of stanozolol, a substantial variety of metabolites has enabled the identification of numerous adverse analytical findings in the past, and recent studies concerning complementary phase-I and phase-II metabolites has further expanded the windows of opportunity for detecting the abuse of stanozolol. In this study, the utility of liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of 3'-OH-stanozolol glucuronide in sports drug testing is presented and the identification of two additional and so far unreported metabolites is shown. The structures of the complementary glucuronic acid conjugates were attributed to stanozolol-N-glucuronide and 17-epistanozolol-N-glucuronide. By means of chemical synthesis, stanozolol-N-glucuronide was prepared and used to corroborate the suggested structures. The 3'-OH-stanozolol glucuronide and the newly identified target compounds were implemented into routine sports drug test assays consisting of direct injection LC-MS/MS or solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by LC-MS/MS. A considerably expanded detection window for stanozolol abuse was demonstrated compared to the use of conventional phase-I metabolites and methodologies based on, for example, low resolution LC-MS/MS or gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The commercial availability of 3'-OH-stanozolol glucuronide has been of great value for confirmatory purposes, and 17-epistanozolol-N-glucuronide was found to be a favourable long-term metabolite for doping controls as it was observed up to 28 days post-administration of the drug. Applying the established methodology over a period of six months to 659 routine sports drug testing samples, a total of 85 adverse analytical findings was uncovered, 72 of which would have remained undetected using earlier employed GC-MS/MS approaches. PMID:23873860

  13. Glucuronidation of catechol estrogens by expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) 1A1, 1A3, and 2B7.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z; Rios, G R; King, C D; Coffman, B L; Green, M D; Mojarrabi, B; Mackenzie, P I; Tephly, T R

    1998-09-01

    Catechol estrogens are major estrogen metabolites in mammals and are the most potent naturally occurring inhibitors of catecholamine metabolism. These estrogen compounds have been implicated in carcinogenic activity and the 4/2-hydroxyestradiol concentration has been shown to be elevated in neoplastic human mammary tissue compared to normal human breast tissue. Three human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, UGT2B7, UGT1A1, and UGT1A3, have been shown to catalyze the glucuronidation of catechol estrogens and lead to their enhanced elimination via urine or bile. The present study was designed to study the kinetic interaction of expressed human UGT2B7(Y) or (H), UGT1A1, and UGT1A3 toward 2- and 4-hydroxycatechol estrogens. cDNAs encoding UGT2B7(Y) or (H), UGT1A1, and UGT1A3 were expressed in HK293 cells, and cell homogenates or membrane preparations were used to determine their glucuronidation ability. UGT2B7(Y) reacted with higher efficiency toward 4-hydroxyestrogenic catechols, whereas UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 showed higher activities toward 2-hydroxyestrogens. UGT2B7(H) catalyzed estrogen catechol glucuronidation with efficiencies similar to UGT2B7(Y). Flunitrazepam (FNZ), a competitive inhibitor of morphine glucuronidation in hepatic microsomes, competitively inhibited catechol estrogen glucuronidation catalyzed by UGT2B7(Y), UGT1A1, and UGT1A3. Buprenorphine, an opioid substrate that reacts at high efficiency with each of these UGTs, was also studied. FNZ competitively inhibited buprenorphine glucuronidation with UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 but had no inhibitory activity toward UGT1A3. This suggests that buprenorphine and 2-hydroxycatechol estrogens react with separate active sites of UGT1A3. A catecholamine, norepinephrine, did not inhibit UGT2B7(Y)-, UGT1A1-, and UGT1A3-catalyzed glucuronidation of catechol estrogens. These results also suggest that drug-endobiotic interactions are possible in humans and may have implication in carcinogenesis. PMID:9848110

  14. A high-throughput U-HPLC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of mycophenolic acid and its major metabolites mycophenolic acid glucuronide and mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Klepacki, Jacek; Klawitter, Jelena; Bendrick-Peart, Jamie; Schniedewind, Bjorn; Heischmann, Svenja; Shokati, Touraj; Christians, Uwe; Klawitter, Jost

    2012-02-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is used as an immunosuppressant after organ transplantation and for the treatment of immune diseases. There is increasing evidence that therapeutic drug monitoring and plasma concentration-guided dose adjustments are beneficial for patients to maintain immunosuppressive efficacy and to avoid toxicity. The major MPA metabolite that can be found in high concentrations in plasma is MPA glucuronide (MPAG). A metabolite usually present at lower concentrations, MPA acyl-glucuronide (AcMPAG), has been implicated in some of the adverse effects of MPA. We developed and validated an automated high-throughput ultra-high performance chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS/MS) assay using liquid-handling robotic extraction for the quantification of MPA, MPAG, and AcMPAG in human EDTA plasma and urine. The ranges of reliable response were 0.097 (lower limit of quantitation) to 200 μg/mL for MPA and MPAG and 0.156-10 μg/mL for AcMPAG in human urine and plasma. The inter-day accuracies were 94.3-104.4%, 93.8-105.0% and 94.4-104.7% for MPA, MPAG and AcMPAG, respectively. Inter-day precisions were 0.7-7.8%, 0.9-6.9% and 1.6-8.6% for MPA, MPAG and AcMPAG. No matrix interferences, ion suppression/enhancement and carry-over were detected. The total assay run time was 2.3 min. The assay met all predefined acceptance criteria and the quantification of MPA was successfully cross-validated with an LC-MS/MS assay routinely used for clinical therapeutic drug monitoring. The assay has proven to be robust and reliable during the measurement of samples from several pharmacokinetics trials. PMID:21839692

  15. Cremophor EL-based nanoemulsion enhances transcellular permeation of emodin through glucuronidation reduction in UGT1A1-overexpressing MDCKII cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianpeng; Dong, Dong; Lu, Danyi; Wang, Shuai; Wu, Baojian

    2016-03-30

    Oral emodin, a natural anthraquinone and active component of many herbal medicines, is poorly bioavailable because of extensive first-pass glucuronidation. Here we aimed to prepare emodin nanoemulsion (EMO-NE) containing cremophor EL, and to assess its potential for enhancing transcellular absorption of emodin using UGT1A1-overexpressing MDCKII cells (or MDCK1A1 cells). EMO-NE was prepared using a modified emulsification technique and subsequently characterized by particle size, morphology, stability, and drug release. MDCKII cells were stably transfected with UGT1A1 using the lentiviral transfection approach. Emodin transport and metabolism were evaluated in Transwell-cultured MDCK1A1 cells after apical dosing of EMO-NE or control solution. The obtained EMO-NE (116±6.5nm) was spherical and stable for at least 2 months. Emodin release in vitro was a passive diffusion-driven process. EMO-NE administration increased the apparent permeability of emodin by a 2.3-fold (p<0.001) compared to the pure emodin solution (1.2×10(-5)cm/s vs 5.3×10(-6)cm/s). Further, both apical and basolateral excretion of emodin glucuronide (EMO-G) were significantly decreased (≥56.5%, p<0.001) in EMO-NE group. This was accompanied by a marked reduction (57.4%, p<0.001) in total emodin glucuronidation. It was found that the reduced glucuronidation was due to inhibition of cellular metabolism by cremophor EL. Cremophor EL inhibited UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation of emodin using the mixed-type inhibition mechanism. In conclusion, cremophor EL-based nanoemulsion greatly enhanced transcellular permeation of emodin through inhibition of UGT metabolism. This cremophor EL-based nanoformulation may be a promising strategy to improve the oral bioavailability of emodin. PMID:26850314

  16. A review of the genetic effects of ethyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A

    1984-01-01

    Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) is a monofunctional ethylating agent that has been found to be mutagenic in a wide variety of genetic test systems from viruses to mammals. It has also been shown to be carcinogenic in mammals. Alkylation of cellular, nucleophilic sites by EMS occurs via a mixed SN1/SN2 reaction mechanism. While ethylation of DNA occurs principally at nitrogen positions in the bases, because of the partial SN1 character of the reaction, EMS is also able to produce significant levels of alkylation at oxygens such as the O6 of guanine and in the DNA phosphate groups. Genetic data obtained using microorganisms suggest that EMS may produce both GC to AT and AT to GC transition mutations. There is also some evidence that EMS can cause base-pair insertions or deletions as well as more extensive intragenic deletions. In higher organisms, there is clear-cut evidence that EMS is able to break chromosomes, although the mechanisms involved are not well understood. An often cited hypothesis is that DNA bases ethylated by EMS (mostly the N-7 position of guanine) gradually hydrolyze from the deoxyribose on the DNA backbone leaving behind an apurinic (or possibly an apyrimidinic) site that is unstable and can lead to single-strand breakage of the DNA. Data also exist that suggest that ethylation of some chromosomal proteins in mouse spermatids by EMS may be an important factor in causing chromosome breakage. PMID:6390190

  17. The Impact of Glucuronidation on the Bioactivation and DNA Adduction of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Ubick, E A; Felton, J S

    2005-03-31

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glucuronidation of many different chemicals. Glucuronidation is especially important for detoxifying reactive intermediates from metabolic reactions, which otherwise can be biotransformed into highly reactive cytotoxic or carcinogenic species. Detoxification of certain food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) is highly dependent on UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant carcinogenic HA found in well-done cooked meat, is extensively glucuronidated by UGT1A proteins. In humans, CYP1A2 catalyzed N-hydroxylation and subsequent UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation is a dominant pathway in the metabolism of PhIP. Therefore, changes in glucuronidation rates could significantly alter PhIP metabolism. To determine the importance of UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation in the biotransformation of PhIP, UGT1A proficient Wistar and UGT1A deficient Gunn rats were exposed to a single 100 {micro}g/kg oral dose of [{sup 14}C]-PhIP. Urine was collected over 24 h and the PhIP urinary metabolite profiles were compared between the two strains. After the 24 h exposure, livers and colon were removed and analyzed for DNA adduct formation by accelerator mass spectrometry. Wistar rats produced several PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides that accounted for {approx}25% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. In the Gunn rats, PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides were reduced by 68-92%, compared to the Wistar rats, and comprised only 4% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. PhIP-DNA adduct analysis from the Gunn rats revealed a correlation between reduced PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide levels in the urine and increased hepatic DNA adducts, compared to the Wistar rats. These results indicate that UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation of PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP is an important pathway for PhIP detoxification. Failure to form glucuronide conjugates results in increases in PhIP bioactivation and DNA adduct formation, which can potentially lead to increases in tumor formation. Therefore, diminished UGT1A activity could pose a significant risk for the development of certain cancers from exposure to PhIP.

  18. Effect of proglycosyn and other phenolic compounds on glycogen metabolism in isolated hepatocytes. Potential role of glucuronidated metabolites.

    PubMed

    Van Schaftingen, E; de Hoffmann, E

    1993-12-01

    The mechanism by which proglycosyn (LY 177,507) stimulates glycogen synthesis in isolated hepatocytes [Harris, R. A., Yamanouchi, K., Roach, P. J., Yen, T. T., Dominiani, S. J. & Stephens, T. W. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13674-13680] has been investigated. When incubated in the presence of hepatocytes, proglycosyn was metabolized to an O-demethylated glucuronidated derivative, as determined by fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry and enzymic analysis. This metabolite accumulated almost linearly inside the cells to reach a concentration of approximately 3 mumol/g protein after 50 min, without apparent release into the medium. In confirmation of previous work, proglycosyn decreased the level of phosphorylase a and increased that of synthase a in hepatocytes. Washing of cells incubated with proglycosyn for 30 min considerably decreased the concentration of the drug without significantly modifying the intracellular concentration of the metabolite and the activation state of glycogen synthase. Several compounds bearing structural analogy with proglycosyn were also tested for their effect on glycogen metabolism. At millimolar or submillimolar concentrations, resorcinol, m-anisidine, phenol, 3-hydroxyacetophenone, and 3-acetamidophenol, although not 4-acetamidophenol, stimulated the incorporation of [14C]glucose into glycogen, decreased the level of phosphorylase a and increased the level of synthase a. In the case of phenol, the effect on the glycogen enzymes paralleled the intracellular accumulation of phenylglucuronide. Furthermore, ethanol and D-galactosamine, which decreased the conversion of phenol to phenylglucuronide and the intracellular concentration of phenylglucuronide, counteracted the effect of phenol on the synthase and on the phosphorylase. From these results, it is suggested that the effect of proglycosyn and of simpler phenol derivatives is mediated by glucuronidated metabolites, which act on an intracellular target. PMID:8269965

  19. Patterns of free (unconjugated) buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their glucuronides in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Davis, Rebecka; Carlisle, Heidi; Clark, Chantry; Marin, Stephanie J; Moody, David E

    2012-03-01

    Patterns of buprenorphine and metabolites were examined in 1946 positive urine samples analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for free (unconjugated) buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (quantitative, 2 to 1000 ng/mL) and buprenorphine-glucuronide (B3G) and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (N3G) (semi-quantitative, 5 to 1000 ng/mL). Two distribution patterns predominated with 49.1% positive for norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G and 41.6% positive for buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G. Buprenorphine, positive in 45.5% of samples, was mostly < 5 ng/mL (median 6.1 ng/mL), but 9.8% were > 1000 ng/mL. Norbuprenorphine, B3G, and N3G had semi-Gaussian distributions with medians of 64.7, 108, and 432 ng/mL, respectively. With buprenorphine < 100 ng/mL (767 samples) or ≥ 100 ng/mL (19 quantifiable samples), the respective median metabolic ratios (free norbuprenorphine/free buprenorphine) were 25.0 and 0.15. In 12 retested "> 1000 ng/mL" buprenorphine samples, free buprenorphine was 4160 to 39,400 ng/mL and free naloxone 2140 to 9560 ng/mL. In 87 subsequent samples with buprenorphine < 20 ng/mL, naloxone concentrations were < 50 ng/mL. Concentrations of buprenorphine > 100 ng/mL (particularly with low metabolite concentrations) are suspect of urine adulteration with medication (4% in the database) that can be checked in most cases by concurrent analysis for naloxone. PMID:22337776

  20. Glucuronidation of edaravone by human liver and kidney microsomes: biphasic kinetics and identification of UGT1A9 as the major UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoform.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liping; Sun, Jianguo; Peng, Ying; Zhang, Rong; Shao, Feng; Hu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Jianping; Wang, Xiaojin; Cheng, Xuefang; Zhu, Yinci; Wan, Ping; Feng, Dong; Wu, Hui; Wang, Guangji

    2012-04-01

    Edaravone was launched in Japan in 2001 and was the first neuroprotectant developed for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Edaravone is mainly eliminated as glucuronide conjugate in human urine (approximately 70%), but the mechanism involved in the elimination pathway remains unidentified. We investigated the glucuronidation of edaravone in human liver microsomes (HLM) and human kidney microsomes (HKM) and identified the major hepatic and renal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved. As we observed, edaravone glucuronidation in HLM and HKM exhibited biphasic kinetics. The intrinsic clearance of glucuronidation at high-affinity phase (CL(int1)) and low-affinity phase (CL(int2)) were 8.4 ± 3.3 and 1.3 ± 0.2 μl · min(-1) · mg(-1), respectively, for HLM and were 45.3 ± 8.2 and 1.8 ± 0.1 μl · min(-1) · mg(-1), respectively, for HKM. However, in microsomal incubations contained with 2% bovine serum albumin, CL(int1) and CL(int2) were 16.4 ± 1.2 and 3.7 ± 0.3 μl · min(-1) · mg(-1), respectively, for HLM and were 78.5 ± 3.9 and 3.6 ± 0.5 μl · min(-1) · mg(-1), respectively, for HKM. Screening with 12 recombinant UGTs indicated that eight UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, and UGT2B17) produced a significant amount of glucuronide metabolite. Thus, six UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and UGT2B17) expressed in human liver or kidney were selected for kinetic studies. Among them, UGT1A9 exhibited the highest activity (CL(int1) = 42.4 ± 9.5 μl · min(-1) · mg(-1)), followed by UGT2B17 (CL(int) = 3.3 ± 0.4 μl · min(-1) · mg(-1)) and UGT1A7 (CL(int) = 1.7 ± 0.2 μl · min(-1) · mg(-1)). Inhibition study found that inhibitor of UGT1A9 (propofol) attenuated edaravone glucuronidation in HLM and HKM. In addition, edaravone glucuronidation in a panel of seven HLM was significantly correlated (r = 0.9340, p = 0.0021) with propofol glucuronidation. Results indicated that UGT1A9 was the main UGT isoform involved in edaravone glucuronidation in HLM and HKM. PMID:22238289

  1. Nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis. The alkylation of N-7 of guanine of nucleic acids of the rat by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate

    PubMed Central

    Swann, P. F.; Magee, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    1. The extent of ethylation of N-7 of guanine in the nucleic acids of rat tissue in vivo by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate was measured. 2. All compounds produced measurable amounts of 7-ethyl-guanine. 3. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea produced tumours of the kidney in the rat. Three doses of ethyl methanesulphonate produced kidney tumours, but a single dose did not. 4. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine produced twice as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in DNA of kidney as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A single dose of both compounds induced kidney tumours, although of a different histological type. 5. A single dose of ethyl methanesulphonate produced ten times as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in kidney DNA as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea without producing tumours. 6. The relevance of these findings to the hypothesis that alkylation of a cellular component is the mechanism of induction of tumours by nitroso compounds is discussed. PMID:5145908

  2. 2-Ethyl-3,5,6-triphenyl-pyrazine.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, N; Thiruvalluvar, A; Chitra, S; Devanathan, D; Butcher, R J

    2012-10-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C(24)H(20)N(2), the pyrazine ring is significantly distorted from planarity, presumably due to steric crowding, and its conformation is well described as a flattened twist-boat. The benzene ring adjacent to the ethyl group forms dihedral angles of 53.79?(13) and 85.47?(12) with the other benzene rings; the dihedral angle between adjacent benzene rings is 57.90?(12). The ethyl group is disordered over two positions; the site-occupancy factor of the major component is 0.546?(4). No hydrogen bonds are found in the crystal structure. PMID:23125775

  3. Dissociation of the Ethyl Radical: An Exercise in Computational Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassabeh, Nahal; Tran, Mark; Fleming, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A set of exercises for use in a typical physical chemistry laboratory course are described, modeling the unimolecular dissociation of the ethyl radical to form ethylene and atomic hydrogen. Students analyze the computational results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative structural changes are compared to approximate predicted values…

  4. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  5. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... tolerance table for trinexapac-ethyl that was published in the Federal Register on March 2, 2012 (77 FR... Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this proposed rule has been exempted from..., Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001). This proposed rule does not contain any...

  6. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The

  7. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as

  8. Synthesis and degradation behavior of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) was synthesized using N, N'-dimethyl-p-toulidine (DMPT) as an initiator through anionic/zwitterionic pathway. The degradability and the degradation mechanism of the prepared polymers were carefully examined from various points of views. It was found that the polymers were...

  9. Enantioselective Metabolism of Quizalofop-Ethyl in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Shen, Zhigang; Liu, Hui; Jia, Zhixin; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and distribution of the enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid were studied in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The two pairs of enantiomers were determined using a validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. Animals were administered quizalofop-ethyl at 10 mg kg−1 orally and intravenously. It was found high concentration of quizalofop-acid in the blood and tissues by both intragastric and intravenous administration, and quizalofop-ethyl could not be detected through the whole study which indicated a quick metabolism of quizalofop-ethyl to quizalofop-acid in vivo. In almost all the samples, the concentrations of (+)-quizalofop-acid exceeded those of (−)-quizalofop-acid. Quizalofop-acid could still be detected in the samples even at 120 h except in brain due to the function of blood-brain barrier. Based on a rough calculation, about 8.77% and 2.16% of quizalofop-acid were excreted through urine and feces after intragastric administration. The oral bioavailability of (+)-quizalofop-acid and (−)-quizalofop-acid were 72.8% and 83.6%. PMID:24964043

  10. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  11. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate: Diffusion effects on enantioselectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yongkui; Wang, Jian; LeBlond, C.

    1996-07-01

    Enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate over cinchona-alkaloid-modified Pt has been studied. Kinetic studies indicated different mechanisms in different reaction regimes. Solution hydrogen concentration strongly corrrelated with reaction rates and enantioselectivity. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Dissociation of the Ethyl Radical: An Exercise in Computational Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassabeh, Nahal; Tran, Mark; Fleming, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A set of exercises for use in a typical physical chemistry laboratory course are described, modeling the unimolecular dissociation of the ethyl radical to form ethylene and atomic hydrogen. Students analyze the computational results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative structural changes are compared to approximate predicted values

  13. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. PMID:20237722

  14. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Register of June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35801) (FRL-8831- 3), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408...- ethyl. C. Revisions to Petitioned-for Tolerances In the Federal Register of December 8, 2010 (75 FR..., entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, ] October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blended with polyethylene or with one or more olefin copolymers complying with § 177.1520 or with a... content of the blend does not exceed 8 percent by weight, or unless it is used in a coating complying with... exceed 8 percent by weight of the finished coating. (c) Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers or the...

  16. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  17. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  18. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  19. Utility of coloured hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the utility of coloured hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol in a large statistically significant population. The positivity rate, the 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of five amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, four opiates, methadone, buprenorphine, seven benzodiazepines, and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in 9488 non-treated and 1026 cosmetically treated (dyed or bleached) authentic hair samples was compared. Analytical methods used were accredited for forensic purposes at the cut-offs defined by the German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. Considering only the drug classes for which at least 10 positive samples were detected, the positivity rate in non-treated hair was highest for alcohol (4.50%; measured using EtG at concentrations ≥ 7 pg/mg hair), followed by THC (2.00%), cocaine (1.75%), and amphetamine (0.59%). While the 1st to 99th percentile range was significantly lower for drugs in treated, compared to non-treated hair, no significant change was observed for EtG. Additionally, no significant difference in the positivity rate was observed between treated hair and non-treated hair for both drugs and EtG. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the influence of cosmetic treatment, mainly dying, on the positivity rate for both drugs and EtG in hair samples submitted routinely for abstinence testing and the first to indicate that dyed and eventually bleached hair is not necessarily useless in detecting drugs and/or alcohol consumption, thus making coloured hair analysis still useful, often being the only possibility to prove such misuse. PMID:24817056

  20. Metabolism and cytotoxicity of chlorpropham (CIPC) and its essential metabolites in isolated rat hepatocytes during a partial inhibition of sulphation and glucuronidation reactions: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Carrera, G; Alary, J; Melgar, M J; Lamboeuf, Y; Pipy, B

    1998-07-01

    The changes in metabolism and cytotoxicity of chlorpropham (CIPC) and its major metabolites, 4-hydroxychlorpropham (4-OH CIPC), 3-chloroaniline, and 3-chloroacetanilide were investigated in isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions after a partial inhibition of sulphation and glucuronidation and the two reactions combined in an attempt to assess the part of each of them in the enhanced CIPC toxicity observed in vivo after D-galactosamine treatment. With sulphation and glucuronidation effective, CIPC has a cytolytic effect and reduces intracellular ATP and K+ level while 4-OH CIPC has a weak cytolytic effect but modifies ATP and K+ level in a greater extent than CIPC. Inhibition of sulphation does not affect the cytotoxicity of CIPC or 4-OH CIPC because there is a compensatory increase in the amount of 4-OH CIPC glucuronide formed and the level of free 4-OH CIPC always remain low. In contrast, when incubations are carried out with either CIPC or 4-OH CIPC, the presence of D-galactosamine leads to a decrease of glucuronide and sulphate conjugates accompanied, respectively, by a 3.6-fold and 6. 9-fold increase of the free 4-OH CIPC level in the culture medium. This alteration of the metabolism is followed by a marked reduction of ATP synthesis with a concomitant modification of cell permeability. The cytolytic effect is due to CIPC itself, whereas the effect on energy supply was attributed to free 4-OH CIPC. The results demonstrate a combined effect of free 4-OH CIPC and D-galactosamine on intracellular ATP level that could account for the partial inhibition of sulphation. This change in the CIPC metabolism could explain the increased CIPC toxicity observed in vivo after D-galactosamine pretreatment. PMID:9601925

  1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measurement of nicotine N-glucuronide: a marker for human UGT2B10 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Zhou, Diansong; Grimm, Scott W

    2011-07-15

    Nicotine is considered to be a specific substrate for UGT2B10, an isoform of human uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). In the present study, a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for quantification of nicotine N-glucuronide in pooled human liver microsomal incubates was developed and validated. Proteins in a 200μL aliquot of incubation solution were precipitated by adding 40μL 35% perchloric acid. The overall extraction efficiency was greater than 98%. Nicotine N-glucuronide and internal standard were recorded using selected reaction monitoring in positive ion electrospray with ion transitions of m/z 339-163 and m/z 342-166, respectively. The linear calibration curve was obtained over the concentration range of 10-1000nM, with a lower limit of quantification of 10nM. The intra-day and inter-day precision (% CV) and accuracy (% bias) of the method were within 15% at all quality control levels. Nicotine glucuronide in processed samples was stable for 24h at room temperature and 48h at 4°C based on the stability experiments performed in this study. This established method was employed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of five target compounds including amitriptyline, hecogenin, imipramine, lamotrigine, and trifluoperazine on enzymatic activity of UGT2B10. IC(50) values for inhibition of nicotine N-glucuronidation by amitriptyline, imipramine, lamotrigine, and trifluoperazine were calculated. Trifluoperazine was found to be a non-substrate inhibitor for human UGT2B10. PMID:21497036

  2. In Vitro Effects of Bisphenol A β-D-Glucuronide (BPA-G) on Adipogenesis in Human and Murine Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jonathan G.; Boudreau, Adèle; Ahmed, Shaimaa

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to common environmental substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), has been associated with a number of negative health outcomes. In vivo, BPA is rapidly converted to its predominant metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), which has long been believed to be biologically inactive because it lacks estrogenic activity. However, the effects of BPA-G on cellular metabolism have not been characterized. In the present study we examined the effect of BPA-G on adipogenesis. Methods The effect of BPA-G on the differentiation of human and 3T3L1 murine preadipocytes was evaluated in vitro by quantifying lipid accumulation and the expression of adipogenic markers. Results Treatment of 3T3L1 preadipocytes with 10 μM BPA-G induced a significant increase in lipid accumulation, mRNA expression of the adipogenic markers sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (SREBF1) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and protein levels of LPL, aP2, and adipsin. Treatment of primary human preadipocytes with BPA-G also induced adipogenesis as determined by aP2 levels. Co-treatment of cells with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist fulvestrant (ICI) significantly inhibited the BPA-G–induced increase in LPL and aP2 levels, whereas treatment with ICI alone had no effect. Moreover, BPA-G did not display any significant estrogenic activity. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to report that BPA-G induces adipocyte differentiation and is not simply an inactive metabolite. The fact that BPA-G induced adipogenesis and was inhibited by an ER antagonist yet showed no estrogenic activity suggests that it has no classical ER transcriptional activation function and acts through a pathway that remains to be determined. Citation Boucher JG, Boudreau A, Ahmed S, Atlas E. 2015. In vitro effects of bisphenol A β-D-glucuronide (BPA-G) on adipogenesis in human and murine preadipocytes. Environ Health Perspect 123:1287–1293; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409143 PMID:26018136

  3. Isolation and characterization of a β-glucuronide of hydroxylated SARM S1 produced using a combination of biotransformation and chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rydevik, Axel; Lagojda, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2014-09-01

    In this study, using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, it has been confirmed that biotransformation with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans combined with chemical oxidation with the free radical tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO) can produce drug glucuronides of β-configuration. Glucuronic acid conjugates are a common type of metabolites formed by the human body. The detection of such conjugates in doping control and other kinds of forensic analysis would be beneficial owing to a decrease in analysis time as hydrolysis can be omitted. However the commercial availability of reference standards for drug glucuronides is poor. The selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) SARM S1 was incubated with the fungus C. elegans. The sample was treated with the free radical TEMPO oxidizing agent and was thereafter purified by SPE. A glucuronic acid conjugate was isolated using a fraction collector connected to an ultra high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) system. The isolated compound was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and its structure was confirmed as a glucuronic acid β-conjugate of hydroxylated SARM S1 bearing the glucuronide moiety on carbon C-10. PMID:24879518

  4. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  9. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its... established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  14. In Vivo-Formed versus Preformed Metabolite Kinetics of trans-Resveratrol-3-sulfate and trans-Resveratrol-3-glucuronide

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Satish; Iwuchukwu, Otito F.; Canney, Daniel J.; Zimmerman, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolites in safety testing have gained a lot of attention recently. Regulatory agencies have suggested that the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites are comparable. This subject has been a topic of debate. We have compared the kinetics of in vivo-formed with preformed metabolites. trans-3,5,4′-Trihydroxystilbene [trans-resveratrol (RES)] and its two major metabolites, resveratrol-3-sulfate (R3S) and resveratrol-3-glucuronide (R3G) were used as model substrates. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of R3S and R3G were characterized under two situations. First, the pharmacokinetics of R3S and R3G were characterized (in vivo-formed metabolite) after administration of RES. Then, synthetic R3S and R3G were administered (preformed metabolite) and their pharmacokinetics were characterized. PK models were developed to describe the data. A three-compartment model for RES, a two-compartment model for R3S (preformed), and an enterohepatic cycling model for R3G (preformed) was found to describe the data well. These three models were further combined to build a comprehensive PK model, which was used to perform simulations to predict in vivo-formed metabolite kinetics. Comparisons were made between in vivo-formed and preformed metabolite kinetics. Marked differences were observed in the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites. PMID:22807110

  15. In vivo-formed versus preformed metabolite kinetics of trans-resveratrol-3-sulfate and trans-resveratrol-3-glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Satish; Iwuchukwu, Otito F; Canney, Daniel J; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Nagar, Swati

    2012-10-01

    Metabolites in safety testing have gained a lot of attention recently. Regulatory agencies have suggested that the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites are comparable. This subject has been a topic of debate. We have compared the kinetics of in vivo-formed with preformed metabolites. trans-3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene [trans-resveratrol (RES)] and its two major metabolites, resveratrol-3-sulfate (R3S) and resveratrol-3-glucuronide (R3G) were used as model substrates. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of R3S and R3G were characterized under two situations. First, the pharmacokinetics of R3S and R3G were characterized (in vivo-formed metabolite) after administration of RES. Then, synthetic R3S and R3G were administered (preformed metabolite) and their pharmacokinetics were characterized. PK models were developed to describe the data. A three-compartment model for RES, a two-compartment model for R3S (preformed), and an enterohepatic cycling model for R3G (preformed) was found to describe the data well. These three models were further combined to build a comprehensive PK model, which was used to perform simulations to predict in vivo-formed metabolite kinetics. Comparisons were made between in vivo-formed and preformed metabolite kinetics. Marked differences were observed in the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites. PMID:22807110

  16. Transport of the coumarin metabolite 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronide is mediated via multidrug resistance-associated proteins 3 and 4.

    PubMed

    Wittgen, Hanneke G M; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; van den Broek, Petra H H; Siissalo, Sanna; Groothuis, Geny M M; de Graaf, Inge A M; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M

    2012-06-01

    Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) is a natural compound that has been used as a fragrance in the food and perfume industry and could have therapeutic usefulness in the treatment of lymphedema and different types of cancer. Several previous pharmacokinetic studies of coumarin have been performed in humans, which revealed extensive first-pass metabolism of the compound. 7-Hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) and its glucuronide (7-HC-G) are the main metabolites formed in humans, and via this route, 80 to 90% of the absorbed coumarin is excreted into urine, mainly as 7-HC-G. Active transport processes play a role in the urinary excretion of 7-HC-G; however, until now, the transporters involved remained to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether the efflux transporters multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP)1-4, breast cancer resistance protein, or P-glycoprotein play a role in 7-HC and 7-HC-G transport. For this purpose, we measured uptake of the metabolites into membrane vesicles overexpressing these transporters. Our results showed that 7-HC is not transported by any of the efflux transporters tested, whereas 7-HC-G was a substrate of MRP3 and MRP4. These results are in line with the pharmacokinetic profile of coumarin and suggest that MRP3 and MRP4 are the main transporters involved in the excretion of the coumarin metabolite 7-HC-G from liver and kidney. PMID:22415933

  17. Optical on-line method of ethyl mercaptan detection in liquid phase in motor fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    The letter reports on the experimental research of the absorption spectra of ethyl mercaptan in liquid phase in various motor fuels (petrol, kerosene, and diesel fuel). The values of ethyl mercaptan absorption sections were obtained in the above-mentioned fuels in the spectral range of 280–475 nm, and the dependences of ethyl mercaptan absorption coefficients on its part in the analyzed mixture with motor fuels were researched. On the basis of the obtained results we propose an optical on-line method of ethyl mercaptan detection in motor fuels. The optimal spectral ranges for the highest sensitivity of ethyl mercaptan detection in various motor fuels were determined.

  18. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T. E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: brittany.gordon@ncf.edu

    2014-03-20

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  19. Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Hassan; Lavie, Carl J; DiNicolantonio, James J; O’Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V

    2014-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a highly prevalent lipid abnormality and it is associated with atherosclerosis, with a growing body of evidence linking elevated triglycerides (TGs) with cardiovascular disease. The current major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) combination, lowers serum TGs while often increasing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Icosapent ethyl is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with a 96% pure ethyl ester of EPA that has been recently approved for lowering TG levels in patients with very high TGs (≥500 mg/dL), and it does so without significantly affecting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acid therapy for dyslipidemias will be discussed, including the potential pros and cons of EPA alone versus the more common and readily available EPA/DHA combination therapy. PMID:25028554

  20. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. PMID:26297692

  1. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:26506263

  2. Enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl acetoacetate on asymmetric Raney Ni catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zubareva, N.D.; Chernysheva, V.V.; Grigor'ev, Yu.A.; Klabunovskii, E.I.

    1987-09-10

    The properties of Raney nickel catalysts modified by (+)-tartaric acid and active in enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl acetoacetate depend on the chemical and phase compositions of the starting Ni-Al alloys. A decrease of the Ni content in the Ni-Al alloy specimens which corresponds to an increase of the fraction of the NiAl/sub 3/ intermetallic compound in them contributes to an increase of the catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of the action of the obtained catalysts.

  3. Biocompatible hydrogelators based on bile acid ethyl amides.

    PubMed

    Kuosmanen, Riikka; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Willman, Roosa-Maria; Äijäläinen, Ilkka; Galandáková, Adéla; Ulrichová, Jitka; Salo, Hannu; Rissanen, Kari; Sievänen, Elina

    2016-04-01

    Four novel bile acid ethyl amides were synthetized using a well-known method. All the four compounds were characterized by IR, SEM, and X-ray crystal analyses. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested. Two of the prepared compounds formed organogels. Lithocholic acid derivative 1 formed hydrogels as 1% and 2% (w/v) in four different aqueous solutions. This is very intriguing regarding possible uses in biomedicine. PMID:26905616

  4. Fatty acid ethyl esters: current facts and speculations.

    PubMed

    Laposata, M

    1999-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) play a role in ethanol-induced organ damage and may serve as long-term markers of ethanol intake. This report summarizes the current knowledge on the toxicity of FAEE, the enzymes associated with FAEE synthesis, FAEE as fatty acid supplements, the in vivo degradation of orally ingested FAEE and FAEE as markers of ethanol intake. A list of major unanswered questions in each of these categories is also included. PMID:10471114

  5. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  6. Supercritical extraction and desulphurization of Beypazari lignite by ethyl alcohol/NaOH treatment; Effect of ethyl alcohol/coal ratio and NaOH

    SciTech Connect

    Yurum, Y.; Tugluhan, A. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors report an investigation of the solubilization and desulphurization of Beypazari lignite with supercritical ethyl alcohol/NaOH. Supercritical experiments of 60 minutes were done in microreactors of 15 ml at 245{sup 0}C by changing the ethyl alcohol/coal ratio from 3 to 20 under a nitrogen atmosphere. As the ethyl alcohol/coal ratio was increased the yield of solubilization and desulphurization also increased. Higher yields of extraction in the case of ethyl alcohol/NaOH experiments may be due to the fact that alcohols can transfer hydrogen more easily in the presence of bases. The average molecular weights of liquid products obtained in experiments with ethyl alcohol/coal ratios of 3, 6 and 20 were 430, 450 and 465, respectively. In experiments with ethyl alcohol/NaOH system as the ethyl alcohol/coal ratio was increased from 3 to 20 the sulphur content of the coal decreased to 0.75%. In experiments with greater ethyl alcohol/coal ratios mercaptane type sulphur chemicals have been extracted, disulphides were missing in these extracts.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester. 721.10244 Section 721.10244 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721.3152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL...

  9. HPLC/1H NMR spectroscopic studies of the reactive alpha-1-O-acyl isomer formed during acyl migration of S-naproxen beta-1-O-acyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, O; Mortensen, R W; Hansen, S H; Troke, J; Nicholson, J K

    2001-10-01

    A widely held view in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies is that the initial 1-isomer to 2-isomer step in the intramolecular acyl migration of drug ester glucuronides is irreversible, and that alpha-1-O-acyl isomers do not occur under physiological conditions. We investigated this hypothesis using high-performance liquid chromatography directly coupled to proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HPLC/1H NMR) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to probe the migration reactions of S-naproxen beta-1-O-acyl glucuronide, in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, 37 degrees C. We report the first direct observation of the alpha-1-O-acyl isomer of a drug ester glucuronide (S-naproxen) formed in a biosystem via the facile acyl migration of the corresponding pure beta-1-O-acyl glucuronide. The unequivocal identification of the reactive product was achieved using stopped-flow one-dimensional HPLC/1H NMR and two-dimensional 1H-1H total correlation spectroscopy (1H-1H TOCSY). Parallel LC/ion-trap mass spectrometry yielded the confirmatory glucuronide masses. Moreover, "dynamic" stopped-flow HPLC/1H NMR experiments revealed transacylation of the isolated alpha-1-O-acyl isomer to a mixture of alpha/beta-2-O-acyl isomers; the reverse reaction from the isolated alpha/beta-2-O-acyl isomers to the alpha-1-O-acyl isomer was also clearly demonstrated. This application of "dynamic" stopped-flow HPLC/1H NMR allows key kinetic data to be obtained on a reactive metabolite that would otherwise be difficult to follow by conventional HPLC and NMR methods where sample preparation and off-line separations are necessary. These data challenge the widely held view that the alpha-1-O-acyl isomers of drug ester glucuronides do not occur under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the similar formation of alpha-1-O-acyl isomers from zomepirac and diflunisal beta-1-O-acyl glucuronides has recently been confirmed (Corcoran et al., unpublished results). Such reactions are also likely to be widespread for other drugs that form ester glucuronides in biological systems. Ultimately, the presence of significant quantities of the kinetically labile alpha-1-O-acyl glucuronide isomer may also have toxicological implications in terms of reactivity toward cellular proteins. PMID:11599927

  10. Effect of pregnancy or treatment with ethinylestradiol or phenobarbital on the glucuronidation of. beta. -estradiol at the C/sub 3/-OH vs C/sub 17/-OH in female rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The glucuronidation of (/sup 3/H)-estradiol-17..beta.. (E/sub 2/) at the C/sub 3/ vs the C/sub 17/ hydroxyl groups was determined in female Sprague-Dawley rat liver microsomes. An HPLC method was developed to resolve the glucuronide conjugates which were then quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. The rates of formation of 17..beta..-estradiol 3-(..beta..-D-glucuronide) (E/sub 2/3G) and ..beta..-estradiol 17-(..beta..-D-glucuronide) (E/sub 2/17G) were 0.49 +- 0.03 and 0.40 +- 0.02 nmolminmg protein respectively. The apparent K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ of E/sub 2/ glucuronidation were determined in control, pregnant (day 19 of gestation), phenobarbital treated (PB; 80 mgkgday ip for 5 days) and ethinylestradiol treated (EE/sub 2/; 5 mgkgday ip for 5 days) female rats. Two methods were chosen for data analysis and the validity of these methods was compared. The least squares estimates of K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ values as well as the confidence contours of the joint sums of squares for the parameter spaces were calculated

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  12. Glucuronidation does not suppress the estrogenic activity of quercetin in yeast and human breast cancer cell model systems.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Roberta; Calani, Luca; Brighenti, Furio; Crozier, Alan; Ottonello, Simone; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    Several plant-derived molecules, referred to as phytoestrogens, are thought to mimic the actions of endogenous estrogens. Among these, quercetin, one of the most widespread flavonoids in the plant kingdom, has been reported as estrogenic in some occasions. However, quercetin occurs in substantial amounts as glycosides such as quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) in dietary sources. It is now well established that quercetin undergoes substantial phase II metabolism after ingestion by humans, with plasma metabolites after a normal dietary intake rarely exceeding nmol/L concentrations. Therefore, attributing phytoestrogenic activity to flavonoids without taking into account the fact that it is their phase II metabolites that enter the circulatory system, will almost certainly lead to misleading conclusions. With the aim of clarifying the above issue, the goal of the present study was to determine if plant-associated quercetin glycosides and human phase II quercetin metabolites, actually found in human biological fluids after intake of quercetin containing foods, are capable of interacting with the estrogen receptors (ER). To this end, we used a yeast-based two-hybrid system and an estrogen response element-luciferase reporter assay in an ER-positive human cell line (MCF-7) to probe the ER interaction capacities of quercetin and its derivatives. Our results show that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, one of the main human phase II metabolites produced after intake of dietary quercetin, displays ER?- and ER?-dependent estrogenic activity, the functional consequences of which might be related to the protective activity of diets rich in quercetin glycosides. PMID:24657077

  13. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible. PMID:25863436

  14. Plasma 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide in normal children and in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lopes, L A; Catzeflis, C; Cicotti, I; Rey, C; Sizonenko, P C

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase is difficult, although plasma determinations of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), delta 4-androstenedione (delta 4A) and testosterone are helpful. We have studied the usefulness of monitoring plasma 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (3 alpha-AG) in group of 24 CAH patients aged from birth to 18 years. For comparison, normal values for age and pubertal stage were determined in a control group of 115 girls and 118 boys. Mean plasma levels were higher during the first year of life, decreased to a nadir between 1 and 4 years, and increased steadily thereafter, there was also a significant increase with pubertal stage. In 24 pairs of blood samples obtained at the time of venopuncture and 2 h after, 3 alpha-AG levels did not change (p > 0.05) demonstrating that 3 alpha-AG levels were not affected by stress. In the patients with CAH, positive correlations between plasma 3 alpha-AG and delta 4A (females, r = 0.73; males, r = 0.98), 17OHP (females, r = 0.58; males, r = 0.84) and testosterone (females, r = 0.83; males, r = 0.97) were observed. Concordance between 3 alpha-AG and delta 4A was observed in 90% of all samples, and in 91% between 3 alpha-AG and testosterone. Our study demonstrates that 3 alpha-AG is a valid marker of control and its determination appears to be a reliable tool to monitor CAH. PMID:9195208

  15. Intrathecal morphine-3-glucuronide-induced nociceptive behavior via Delta-2 opioid receptors in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takaaki; Katsuyama, Soh; Nagase, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Sakurada, Chikai; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), a major metabolite of morphine without analgesic actions, produces severe hindlimb scratching followed by biting and licking in mice. The M3G-induced behavioral response was inhibited dose-dependently by pretreatment with an antisera against dynorphin. However, the selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-BNI did not prevent the M3G-induced behavioral response. Dynorphin is rapidly degraded by a dynorphin-converting enzyme (cystein protease), to leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK). The M3G-induced behavioral response was inhibited dose-dependently by pretreatment with the antisera against Leu-ENK. We also showed that M3G co-administered with Leu-ENK-converting enzyme inhibitors, phosphoramidon and bestatin produced much stronger behavioral responses than M3G alone. Furthermore, the M3G-induced behavioral responses were inhibited dose-dependently by i.t. co-administration of the non-selective δ-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole or the selective δ2-opioid receptor antagonist, naltriben, whereas the selective δ1-opioid receptor antagonist, BNTX had no effect. An i.t. injection of M3G also produced a definite activation of ERK in the lumbar dorsal spinal cord. Western blotting analysis revealed that antisera against dynorphin, antisera against Leu-ENK, naltrindole or naltriben resulted in a significant blockade of ERK activation induced by M3G in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that M3G-induced nociceptive responses and ERK activation may be triggered via δ2-opioid receptors activated by Leu-ENK, which is formed from dynorphin in the spinal cord. PMID:26476133

  16. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls as inhibitors of the sulfation and glucuronidation of 3-hydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed Central

    van den Hurk, Peter; Kubiczak, Gerhard A; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; James, Margaret O

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be metabolized by cytochromes P450 to hydroxylated biotransformation products. In mammalian studies, some of the hydroxylated products have been shown to be strong inhibitors of steroid sulfotransferases. As a part of ongoing research into the bioavailability of environmental pollutants in catfish intestine, we investigated the effects of a series of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) on two conjugating enzymes, phenol-type sulfotransferase and glucuronosyltransferase. We incubated cytosolic and microsomal samples prepared from intestinal mucosa with 3-hydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene and appropriate cosubstrates and measured the effect of OH-PCBs on the formation of BaP-3-glucuronide and BaP-3-sulfate. We used PCBs with 4, 5, and 6 chlorine substitutions and the phenolic group in the ortho, meta, and para positions. OH-PCBs with the phenolic group in the ortho position were weak inhibitors of sulfotransferase; the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranged from 330 to 526 microM. When the phenol group was in the meta or para position, the IC50 was much lower (17.8-44.3 microM). The OH-PCBs were more potent inhibitors of glucuronosyltransferase, with IC50s ranging from 1.2 to 36.4 microM. The position of the phenolic group was not related to the inhibitory potency: the two weakest inhibitors of sulfotransferase, with the phenolic group in the ortho position, were 100 times more potent as inhibitors of glucuronosyltransferase. Inhibition of glucuronosyltransferase by low concentrations of OH-PCBs has not been reported before and may have important consequences for the bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of other phenolic environmental contaminants. PMID:11940451

  17. Elevated concentrations of morphine 6-beta-D-glucuronide in brain extracellular fluid despite low blood–brain barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Stain-Texier, Frédérique; Boschi, Gabrielle; Sandouk, Pierre; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    This study was done to find out how morphine 6-beta-D-glucuronide (M6G) induces more potent central analgesia than morphine, despite its poor blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. The brain uptake and disposition of these compounds were investigated in plasma and in various brain compartments: extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular space (ICS) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Morphine or M6G was given to rats at 10 mg kg−1 s.c. Transcortical microdialysis was used to assess their distributions in the brain ECF. Conventional tissue homogenization was used to determine the distribution in the cortex and whole brain. These two procedures were combined to estimate drug distribution in the brain ICS. The blood and CSF pharmacokinetics were also determined. Plasma concentration data for M6G were much higher than those of morphine, with Cmax and AUC 4–5 times more higher, Tmax shorter, and VZf−1 (volume of distribution) and CL f−1 (clearance) 4–6 times lower. The concentrations of the compounds in various brain compartments also differed: AUC values for M6G were lower than those of morphine in tissue and CSF and higher in brain ECF. AUC values in brain show that morphine levels were four times higher in ICS than in ECF, whereas M6G levels were 125 higher in ECF than in ICS. Morphine entered brain cells, whereas M6G was almost exclusively extracellular. This high extracellular concentration, coupled with extremely slow diffusion into the CSF, indicates that M6G was predominantly trapped in the extracellular fluid and therefore durably available to bind at opioid receptors. PMID:10556926

  18. Quantitative determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine using labeled BPA glucuronide and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, Cariton; Kosarac, Ivana; Lalonde, Kaela; Foster, Warren G

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastic bottles, food and beverage can linings, thermal receipts, and dental sealants. Animal and human studies suggest that BPA may disrupt normal hormonal function and hence, potentially, have negative effects on the human health. While total BPA is frequently reported, it is recognized that free BPA is the biologically active form and is rarely reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and improved method for the measurement of free and total BPA in human urine. Use of a labeled conjugated BPA (bisphenol A-d6 β-D-glucuronide) allowed for the optimization of the enzymatic reaction and permitted an accurate determination of the conjugated BPA concentration in urine samples. In addition, a (13)C12-BPA internal standard was used to account for the analytical recoveries and performance of the isotope dilution method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with derivatization and analysis using a triple quadrupole GC-EI/MS/MS system achieved very low method detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL. BPA concentrations were measured in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in 36 Canadian women. Total maternal BPA concentrations in urine samples ranged from not detected to 9.40 ng/mL (median, 1.21 ng/mL), and free BPA concentrations ranged from not detected to 0.950 ng/mL (median, 0.185 ng/mL). Eighty-six percent of the women had detectable levels of conjugated BPA, whereas only 22 % had detectable levels of free BPA in their urine. BPA levels measured in this study agreed well with data reported internationally. PMID:24817354

  19. Labeled 1,N6-ethenoadenosine and 3,N4-ethenocytidine in hepatic RNA of mice given[ethyl-1,2(-3)H or ethyl-1(-14)C]ethyl carbamate (urethan).

    PubMed

    Ribovich, M L; Miller, J A; Miller, E C; Timmins, L G

    1982-01-01

    Injection of a single dose of[ethyl-1,2(-3)H]or[ethyl-1(-14C]- ethyl carbamate into 12-day old male[C57BL/6 x C3H/He]F1 mice or of[ethyl-1,2(-3H]ethyl carbamate into adult male A/Jax mice resulted in the formation of labeled 1,N6-ethenoadenosine and 3,N4-ethenocytidine adducts in the hepatic RNA. These adducts were characterized by comigration on h.p.l.c. of 3H or 14C in enzymatic hydrolysates of the RNA with synthetic standards. Both the ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine were further characterized by their conversion to acetylated products that comigrated with acetylated synthetic standards. The ethenoadenosine was also converted by anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid to a product that comigrated with synthetic 1,N6-ethenoadenine. The levels of adducts in the hepatic RNA 12 h after a single injection of 0.5-0.6 mg of ethyl carbamate/g body weight were 6-10 and 2-3 pmol/mg RNA of ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine, respectively. No labeled ethenoadenosine or ethenocytidine could be detected in the hepatic RNA of mice given[1-14C]ethanol, an enzymatic hydrolysis product of ethyl carbamate. These data indicate that ethyl carbamate may be metabolically activated by dehydrogenation to vinyl carbamate and subsequent epoxidation of the latter compound as previously proposed. Vinyl carbamate epoxide may form etheno derivatives in a manner analogous to that demonstrated for chloroethylene oxide, an electrophilic metabolite of vinyl chloride. Vinyl carbamate has been shown to have the same spectrum of tumor induction as ethyl carbamate but to be much more active than the latter carcinogen. PMID:6178529

  20. Thermal Decomposition of Ethyl Formate behind the Reflected Shock Waves in the Temperature Range of 909-1258K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaganesh, M.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.

    Ethyl formate is the simplest model of ethyl esters which are considered as biodiesel. Systematic tests on properties and reactivity of biodiesel have been reported[1, 2]. Methyl and ethyl ester mix can offer improved physical properties. Generally, ethyl esters are slightly more reactive than the methyl esters[3]. Also ethyl formate is an interstellar molecule. It was first detected in interstellar space by Belloche et al.[4]. So studies of this molecule are required to understand the fuel properties and interstellar chemistry.

  1. Glucuronidation and sulfonation, in vitro, of the major endocrine-active metabolites of methoxychlor in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and induction following treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene.

    PubMed

    James, Margaret O; Stuchal, Leah D; Nyagode, Beatrice A

    2008-01-31

    The organochlorine pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), is metabolized in animals to phenolic mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites (OH-MXC and HPTE, respectively) that interact with estrogen receptors and may be endocrine disruptors. The phase II detoxication of these compounds will influence the duration of action of the estrogenic metabolites, but has not been investigated extensively. In this study, the glucuronidation and sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE were investigated in subcellular fractions of liver and intestine from untreated, MXC-treated and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-treated channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. MXC-treated fish were given i.p. injections of 2mg MXC/kg daily for 6 days and sacrificed 24h after the last dose. The 3-MC treatment was a single 10mg/kg i.p. dose 5 days prior to sacrifice. In hepatic microsomes from control fish, the V(max) value (mean+/-S.D., n=4) for glucuronidation of OH-MXC was 270+/-50pmol/min/mg protein, higher than found for HPTE (110+/-20pmol/min/mg protein). For each substrate, the V(max) values observed in intestinal microsomes were approximately twice those found in the liver. The K(m) values for OH-MXC and HPTE glucuronidation in control liver were not significantly different and were 0.32+/-0.04mM for OH-MXC and 0.26+/-0.06mM for HPTE. The K(m) for the co-substrate, UDPGA, was higher in liver (0.28+/-0.09mM) than intestine (0.04+/-0.02mM). Treatment with 3-MC but not MXC increased the V(max) for glucuronidation in liver and intestine. Glucuronidation was a more efficient pathway than sulfonation for both substrates, in both tissues. The V(max) values for sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE, respectively, in liver cytosol were 7+/-3 and 17+/-4pmol/min/mg protein and in intestinal cytosol were 13+/-3 and 30+/-5pmol/min/mg protein. Treatment with 3-MC but not MXC increased rates of sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE and the model substrate, 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene in both intestine and liver. Comparison of the kinetics of the conjugation pathways with those published for the demethylation of MXC showed that formation of the endocrine-active metabolites was more efficient than either conjugation pathway. Residues of OH-MXC and HPTE were detected in extracts of liver microsomes from MXC-treated fish. This work showed that although OH-MXC and HPTE could be eliminated by glucuronidation and sulfonation, the phase II pathways were less efficient than the phase I pathway leading to formation of these endocrine-active metabolites. PMID:18078677

  2. Hesperetin and its sulfate and glucuronide metabolites inhibit TNF-α induced human aortic endothelial cell migration and decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Vallejo, Fernando; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies have reported the protection offered by citrus consumption, mainly orange, against cardiovascular diseases, which is primarily mediated by the antiatherogenic and vasculoprotective effects of the flavanone hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside (hesperidin). However, flavanone aglycones or glycosides are not present in the bloodstream but their derived phase-II metabolites could be the actual bioactive molecules. To date, only a few studies have explored the effects of circulating hesperetin-derived metabolites (glucuronides and sulfates) on endothelial cells. Herein, we describe for the first time the effects of hesperetin 3'-O-glucuronide, hesperetin 7-O-glucuronide, hesperetin 3'-O-sulfate, hesperetin 7-O-sulfate and hesperetin on human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) migration upon pro-inflammatory stimuli as an essential step to angiogenesis. Hesperetin and its derived metabolites, at physiologically relevant concentrations (1-10 μM), significantly attenuated cell migration in the presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (50 ng mL(-1)), which was accompanied and perhaps mediated by a significant decrease in the levels of the thrombogenic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). However, hesperetin metabolites did not counteract the TNF-α-induced production of pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8. We also study here for the first time, the metabolism of hesperetin and its derived metabolites by HAEC with and without a pro-inflammatory stimulus. All these results reinforce the concept according to which circulating phase-II hesperetin metabolites are critical molecules contributing to the cardioprotective effects upon consumption of citrus fruits such as orange. PMID:26456097

  3. A validated hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap LC-MS method for the analysis of morphine and morphine glucuronides applied to opiate deaths.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kerry; Elliott, Simon

    2009-05-30

    A hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionisation ion source coupled to a HPLC system has been used to develop a method which can accurately measure morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in plasma, whole blood and post-mortem blood following solid-phase extraction. The method can also qualitatively detect various other opioids and related compounds including: codeine, dihydrocodeine (and metabolites), noscapine, papaverine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). The method has been favourably compared to an existing laboratory method using a now discontinued radio-immunoassay technique. The advantage of measuring the glucuronides directly rather than following deconjugation by beta-glucuronidase has also been shown. Detection and quantification of compounds was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) incorporating the use of deuterated morphine and M3G as internal standards. Precision and accuracy was determined to be less than 10% at both high and low levels for all analytes and the calibration curve was deemed linear over an acceptable range. Recovery in blood was greater than 90% and ion suppression/enhancement was shown to be less than 15%. This method was applied to over 130 post-mortem cases involving the use of heroin, prescribed morphine and codeine. The range of concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G was large (particularly in heroin and prescribed morphine cases), reflecting the many different factors involved with therapeutic use or fatal opiate poisonings, including tolerance associated with regular use, variable dose regimens and co-administration of other drugs. Detection of other constituents of the opium poppy such as noscapine and papaverine and metabolites of diacetylmorphine in the blood (6-AM) was useful in determining the source of the morphine (i.e. illicit heroin) and the rapidity of death after administration. PMID:19297106

  4. Crystal structure of 3-(di-ethyl-amino)-phenol.

    PubMed

    Golen, James A; McDonald, Kyle J; Manke, David R

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C10H15NO, has two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. Each mol-ecule has a near-planar C8NO unit excluding H atoms and the terminal methyl groups on the di-ethyl-amino groups, with mean deviations from planarity of 0.036 and 0.063?. In the crystal, hydrogen bonding leads to four-membered O-H?O-H?O-H rings. No ?-? inter-actions were observed in the structure. PMID:26870505

  5. Micellar phase boundaries under the influence of ethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Denis E

    2016-03-01

    The Compton spectrum quenching technique is used to monitor the effect of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) additions on phase boundaries in two systems. In toluenic solutions of the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, EtOH shifts the boundary separating the first clear phase from the first turbid phase to higher water:surfactant ratios. In a commonly used scintillant, Ultima Gold AB, the critical micelle concentration is not shifted. The molecular interactions behind the observations and implications for liquid scintillation counting are discussed. PMID:26585642

  6. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the ethyl cyanoacrylate anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Tang, Xin; Bowen, Kit

    2013-09-01

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory have been utilized to study the parent, ethyl cyanoacrylate molecular anion, ECA-. The measured electron affinity (0.9 ± 0.2 eV), vertical detachment energy (1.3 ± 0.1 eV), and anion-to-triplet neutral, photodetachment transition energies (4.0 ± 0.1 eV and 4.5 ± 0.1 eV) all compare well with their calculated values. The relatively high electron affinity of the ECA monomer is responsible for the fact that its “anionic” polymerization mechanism proceeds even with weak nucleophiles, such as water.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3′-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3â²- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3′-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3â²- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3′-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3â²- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3′-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3â²- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3′-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3â²- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3′- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  12. Development of LC-MS/MS methodology for the detection/determination and confirmation of chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide, florfenicol, florfenicol amine and thiamphenicol residues in bovine, equine and porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Fedeniuk, Rick W; Mizuno, Massey; Neiser, Connie; O'Byrne, Collin

    2015-06-01

    A method for the detection and confirmation of organic solvent extractable residues of the neutral, acidic, and basic analytes of the amphenicol class veterinary drugs and selected metabolites was developed and validated. Using a modified QuEChERS extraction with SPE cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis, limits of detection and confirmation for the different analytes in bovine, equine, and porcine liver ranged from 0.1ng/g for chloramphenicol to 1ng/g for florfenicol amine. Tissue homogenization with an ammonium formate/EDTA solution and subsequent analyte partitioning against 7:3 acetonitrile:isopropanol solution and mixed-mode strong-cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge cleanup allowed for the extraction of all compounds from tissues with mean recoveries ranging from 50% (chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide) to 90% (thiamphenicol). Matrix effects ranged from greater than 85% suppression for florfenicol amine to 70% matrix enhancement for chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide. Quantitation and confirmation were accomplished using commercially available penta-deuterated chloramphenicol as internal standard and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two or three transitions per target analyte. Method accuracy was greater than 15% for all compounds except the glucuronide metabolite. Intra-lab method repeatability estimates ranged from 73% RSD for chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide to 14% RSD for chloramphenicol. Only chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide and florfenicol amine at the low end of their calibration ranges (0.25 and 1ng/g, respectively) did not meet AOAC recommended HorRatr guidelines for intra-lab repeatabilities. Preliminary tests show that the method's extraction protocol can be used to recover analytes of the ?-agonists, corticosteroids, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracycline drug classes from the same matrices. Requirements for use in national chemical monitoring programs as a detection/confirmatory (florfenicol amine and chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide) and determinative/confirmatory (chloramphenicol, florfenicol, thiamphenicol) analytical methodology are met. PMID:25913426

  13. Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Munirah; Ismail, Sabariah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms. Materials and Methods: The effects of the above four compounds on the formation of 4-MU glucuronide from 4-MU by rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Results: For rat liver microsomes, ketamine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.21 ± 1.51 μM followed by buprenorphine with an IC50 value of 73.22 ± 1.63 μM. For human liver microsomes, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.32 ± 1.39 μM. For human UGT1A1 isoform, 7-hydroxymitragynine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 7.13 ± 1.16 μM. For human UGT2B7 isoform, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation followed by 7-hydroxymitragynine and ketamine with respective IC50 values of 5.14 ± 1.30, 26.44 ± 1.31, and 27.28 ± 1.18 μM. Conclusions: These data indicate the possibility of drug-drug interaction if 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine, and buprenorphine are co-administered with drugs that are UGT2B7 substrates since these three compounds showed significant inhibition on UGT2B7 activity. In addition, if 7-hydroxymitragynine is to be taken with other drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT1A1, there is a possibility of drug-drug interaction to occur. PMID:26692748

  14. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L. E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  15. Dissociative photoionization of ethyl acrylate: Theoretical and experimental insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanlin; Chen, Jun; Ding, Mengmeng; Wei, Bin; Cao, Maoqi; Shan, Xiaobin; Zhao, Yujie; Huang, Chaoqun; Sheng, Liusi; Liu, Fuyi

    2015-08-01

    The photoionization and dissociation of ethyl acrylate have been investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometer with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source in the range of 9.0-20.0 eV. The photoionization mass spectrum (PIMS) for ethyl acrylate and photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for its major fragment ions: C5H7O2+, C4H5O2+, C3H5O2+, C3H4O+, C3H3O+, C2H5O+, C2H3O+, C2H5+ and C2H4+ have been obtained. The formation channels of main fragments are predicted by Gaussian 09 program at G3B3 level and examined via their dissociation energies from experimental results. Based on our analysis, nine main dissociative photoionization channels are proposed: C5H7O2+ + H, C4H5O2+ + CH3, C3H5O2+ + C2H3, C3H4O+ + C2H4O, C3H3O+ + C2H5O, C2H5O+ + C3H3O, C2H3O+ + C3H5O, C2H5+ + C3H3O2, C2H4+ + C3H4O2, respectively. The results of this work lead to a better understanding of photochemistry in the environment.

  16. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  17. Impact of Trans-Resveratrol-Sulfates and -Glucuronides on Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity, Nitric Oxide Release and Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Ladurner, Angela; Schachner, Daniel; Schueller, Katharina; Pignitter, Marc; Heiss, Elke H.; Somoza, Veronika; Dirsch, Verena M.

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenolic natural product mainly present in grape skin, berries and peanuts. In the vasculature resveratrol is thought to boost endothelial function by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, by enhancing eNOS activity, and by reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Recent studies show that dietary resveratrol is metabolized in the liver and intestine into resveratrol-sulfate and -glucuronide derivatives questioning the relevance of multiple reported mechanistic in vitro data on resveratrol. In this study, we compare side by side different physiologically relevant resveratrol metabolites (resveratrol sulfates- and -glucuronides) and their parent compound in their influence on eNOS enzyme activity, endothelial NO release, and intracellular ROS levels. In contrast to resveratrol, none of the tested resveratrol metabolites elevated eNOS enzyme activity and endothelial NO release or affected intracellular ROS levels, leaving the possibility that not tested metabolites are active and able to explain in vivo findings. PMID:25329867

  18. All-trans-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoyl-beta-D-glucuronide alter the development of axolotl embryos (Ambystoma mexicanum) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krtke, R; Rhl, R; Kirschbaum, F; Nau, H

    2000-05-01

    Retinoids are involved in several physiological processes and are used in the treatment of various skin disorders. Therapy with retinoids during pregnancy may induce severe embryotoxic effects like craniofacial and cardiovascular malformations in the developing embryo. We investigated the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and all-trans-retinoyl-beta-D-glucuronide (ATRAG) in an amphibian embryotoxicity assay with Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) as an alternative in vitro method. Embryos were exposed to various concentrations of ATRA or ATRAG for 48 h beginning with the blastula stage. Kinetic investigations in the embryonic tissue were performed during the exposure period. Both retinoids interfered with the development of the axolotl embryos. Dose-dependent effects observed included growth retardation, craniofacial and cardiovascular malformations, as well as neural tube defects. In the axolotl, ATRA induced slightly more pronounced embryotoxic effects than ATRAG. All-trans-retinal was shown to be a major endogenous retinoid in this species. Endogenous levels of all-trans-retinaldehyde were increased during exposure to both ATRA and ATRAG. The glucuronide, however, was only detected in small amounts after ATRAG exposure. The embryotoxic potential of ATRAG could be explained by deglucuronidation to ATRA. PMID:10877004

  19. Morphine and morphine glucuronides in serum of heroin consumers and in heroin-related deaths determined by HPLC with native fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Aderjan, R; Hofmann, S; Schmitt, G; Skopp, G

    1995-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of serum morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) based on native fluorescence detection is described. For the extraction of drugs and their metabolites, 200 microL serum was applied to 50 mg of a commercially available octylsilan phase. After isocratic separation in two steps (6.5 min) by reversed phase, the compounds were determined at an excitation wavelength of 245 nm and an emission wavelength of 345 nm (the limit of detection was approximately 5 micrograms/L for each compound). The concentrations of morphine, M6G (with respect to its potential analgesic activity), and M3G were investigated in 20 heroin addicts in police custody and in 10 heroin-associated deaths. The ratios between M6G or M3G and the morphine concentrations and between M6G and M3G are related to the morphine concentration and consequently depend on the time elapsed since the last administration of morphine or heroin. Consequently, the M6G values were found to be higher in cases of death than in the living addicts. By considering the M6G/morphine or M3G/morphine ratios, the narcotic effect of heroin as reflected by morphine and its metabolite concentrations in impaired addicts and cases of fatal poisoning can be better assessed than by use of the morphine concentration alone. PMID:7564294

  20. Synthesis and application of resorufin β-D-glucuronide, a low-cost chromogenic substrate for detecting Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Magro, Germinal; Bain, Robert E S; Woodall, Claire A; Matthews, Robert L; Gundry, Stephen W; Davis, Anthony P

    2014-08-19

    The development of low-cost tests for Escherichia coli is hampered by the expense and limited choice of enzyme substrates. Most chromogenic substrates are required in costly amounts, while fluorogenic substrates require an additional apparatus (e.g., an ultraviolet lamp) to be detected. Herein, we propose an alternative chromogenic substrate, resorufin β-d-glucuronide (REG), which is exceptionally sensitive and may be employed in very small amounts. We show that REG can be produced similarly to other simple glucuronides and should therefore be no more expensive. The compound is used by both healthy and injured E. coli, resulting in a pronounced color change from orange to a bright pink. Because the released dye (resorufin) has a high extinction coefficient, substantially lower amounts are needed than for commercially available substrates. The potential of this substrate is demonstrated by a presence/absence test requiring just 0.1 mg of REG/100 mL of water sample, one hundredth of the quantity needed for common chromogenic substrates, with an estimated bulk cost of ≤0.1 U.S. cents/test. REG shows promise as a chromogenic substrate for E. coli detection and should be considered in the development of new water tests, especially for low-income settings. PMID:25035967

  1. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of maackiain and its sulfate and glucuronide in blood: Application to pharmacokinetic and disposition studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Yang, Zhen; Yin, Taijun; You, Ming; Hu, Ming

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous, sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify maackiain and its phase II metabolites, maackiain-sulfate (M-7-S) and maackiain-glucuronide (M-7-G). A Waters BEH C18 column was used with acetonitrile/water as mobile phases. Analysis was performed under negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The one-step protein precipitation by methanol was used to extract the analytes from plasma. The results showed that the linear response range was 5000 - 9.75 nM for maackiain, M-7-S, and M-7-G. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 4.88 nM for these three analytes. The intra-day variance is less than 15% and accuracy is in 85.7102.0 %. The inter-day variance is less than 11.2 % and accuracy is in 89.6122.2 %. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 20 l of blood is needed for analysis due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, maackiain Caco-2 cell culture model experiment, and maackiain glucuronidation/ sulfation metabolism studies. The applications revealed that this method can be used for maackiain, M-7-S, and M-7-G analysis in both bioequivalent buffer and in blood. PMID:21349678

  2. Dietary Dihydromethysticin Increases Glucuronidation of 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol in A/J Mice, Potentially Enhancing Its Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Narayanapillai, Sreekanth C; von Weymarn, Linda B; Carmella, Steven G; Leitzman, Pablo; Paladino, Jordan; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S; Murphy, Sharon E; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-03-01

    Effective chemopreventive agents are needed against lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Results from our previous work showed that dietary dihydromethysticin (DHM) effectively blocked initiation of lung tumorigenesis by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in A/J mice, and it preferentially reduced 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL)-derived DNA adducts in lung. This study explored the mechanism(s) responsible for DHM's differential effects on NNK/NNAL-derived DNA damage by quantifying their metabolites in A/J mice. The results showed that dietary DHM had no effect on NNK or NNAL abundance in vivo, indicating that DHM does not affect NNAL formation from NNK. DHM had a minimal effect on cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5, which catalyzes NNK and NNAL bioactivation in A/J mouse lung), suggesting that it does not inhibit NNAL bioactivation. Dietary DHM significantly increased O-glucuronidated NNAL (NNAL-O-gluc) in A/J mice. Lung and liver microsomes from dietary DHM-treated mice showed enhanced activities for NNAL O-glucuronidation. These results overall support the notion that dietary DHM treatment increases NNAL detoxification, potentially accounting for its chemopreventive efficacy against NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. The ratio of urinary NNAL-O-gluc and free NNAL may serve as a biomarker to facilitate the clinical evaluation of DHM-based lung cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:26744252

  3. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  4. 40 CFR 180.515 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.515 Section 180.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.515 Carfentrazone-ethyl;...

  5. 40 CFR 180.515 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.515 Section 180.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.515 Carfentrazone-ethyl;...

  6. Ethyl levulinate: A potential bio-based diluent for biodiesel which improves cold flow properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physical properties of biodiesel from soybean, canola, cottonseed and poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethyl levulinate with increasing concentration. The effect of adding ethyl levulinate was determined by studying its influence on the acid value, cloud point, pour point...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  11. Solid Dose Form of Metformin with Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid Does Not Improve Metformin Plasma Availability

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Jeffrey H.; Johnson, William D.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid on pharmacokinetics of metformin. Pharmacokinetic profiles of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid when delivered separately or together in solid dose form were investigated and compared to determine whether the solid dose resulted in an altered metforminpharmacokinetics when given with or without food. Methods A single-center, open-label, repeated dose study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metformin when administered in solid dose form with ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid compared to co-administration with icosapent ethyl, an ester of eicosapentaenoic acid and ethyl alcohol used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia with metformin hydrochloride. Non-compartmental PK methods were used to compare area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) between patients randomized to either the ester or separate medications group under both fasting and fed conditions. Results Using these two PK parameters, results showed that metformin availability was higher under fasting conditions when delivered separately from icosapent ethyl. There were no group differences in the fed condition. Conclusions The solid dose form of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid did not improve the pharmacokinetics of metformin in terms of plasma availability, suggesting that little is to be gained over the separate administration of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid and metformin hydrochloride. PMID:26893954

  12. Controlled Degradation of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate-Co-Methyl Methacrylate)(PECA-Co-PMMA) Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for modifying poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) in order to control the degradation and the stability as well as the glass transition temperatures. Copolymers of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PECA-co-PMMA) with various compositions were synthesized by free ...

  13. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    PubMed

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively). PMID:17328558

  14. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  19. Fabrication of polymerized crystalline colloidal array thin film modified β-cyclodextrin polymer for paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl detection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong N; Seo, Seong S

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical chemical sensor for the detection of organophosphate (OP) compounds using a polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) thin film composed of a close-packed colloidal array of polystyrene particles. The PCCA thin film was modified with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymer as a capping cavity for the selective detection of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl chemical agents. The fabrication of the modified PCCA thin film was optimized and the structure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The arrangement of polystyrene particles in the PCCA follows a pattern of the fcc (111) planes with strong diffraction peak in the visible spectral region and pH dependence. The diffraction peak of the β-CD modified PCCA thin film showed a red shift according to the change of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl concentrations at a fast response time (10 s) and high sensitivity with detection limits of 2.0 and 3.4 ppb, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed interaction mechanism of β-CD with paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl in the β-CD modified PCCA thin film were discussed. PMID:24813957

  20. Ethyl carbamate levels in selected fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Canas, B J; Havery, D C; Robinson, L R; Sullivan, M P; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1989-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an animal carcinogen and a by-product of fermentation. Because EC has been found in distilled spirits and wines, a variety of fermented foods and beverages were analyzed to assess its occurrence in other products. Previously described methods using a gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer with a nitrogen converter were modified for each matrix and gave recoveries of greater than 80%, with a limit of detection in the 1-2 micrograms/kg (ppb) range. A total of 152 test samples were analyzed; EC levels ranged from none found to 3 ppb in 15 cheeses, 6 teas, 12 yogurts, and 8 ciders; from none found to 13 ppb in 30 breads and 69 malt beverages; and from none found to 84 ppb in 12 soy sauces. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm EC identity and to quantitate EC in selected food extracts. PMID:2592308

  1. Tension of Ethyl Alcohol and Hexadecane by Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, A. V.; Sosikov, V. A.; Fortov, V. E.

    2006-07-01

    The influences of strain rate and shock wave amplitude on the negative pressure in ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane have been investigated. The method of spall strength measurements was applied and wave profiles were registered by laser interferometer VISAR. Unlike other liquids the process of destruction in methyl alcohol and hexadecane are double staged. At the first stage formation of cavities starts and there is a kinked at free velocity profile was observed. At the second stage the cavity grow rate increases and the spall pulse occurs. The dependence of negative pressure from the strain rate was instigated. The value of the negative pressure correspondent to the kinked at free velocity profile was practically constant and equal to 14MPa for methyl alcohol, and the maximal strength value may be much higher and equal to about 50MPa. Theory of homogeneous bubble nucleation was used to explain the experimental results.

  2. General and cerebral haemodynamic activity of ethyl apovincaminate.

    PubMed

    Kárpáti, E; Szporny, L

    1976-01-01

    Systemic and cerebral haemodynamic effects of ethyl apovincaminate (RGH-4405, Cavinton), a new compound, have been investigated in anaesthetized dogs. The compound was administered i.v. and produced an increase in cerebral blood flow accompanied by a decrease in cerebral vascular resistance which persisted for 15 min. The effective dose was 0.2-0.5 mg/kg. Mean arterial blood pressure, total peripheral resistance and cardiac work were decreased, heart rate and cardiac output were increased. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was enhanced. It is assumed that the compound has a direct effect on cerebral metabolism. RGH-4405 has a weak antiarrhythmic and coronary dilating activity. Its effect on smooth muscle is more marked than that of papaverine. RGH-4405 appears to be a potent cerebral vasodilator enhancing cerebral metabolism. PMID:1037212

  3. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  4. Production of ethyl acetate from dilute ethanol solutions by Candida utilis

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.W.; Martin, S.M.; Yamazaki, H.

    1984-01-01

    The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate has an advantage as a method of ethanol recovery since ethyl acetate is amenable to simple solvent extraction. The potential of Candida utilis in this conversion was studied. The kinetics of accumulation of ethanol and ethyl acetate in glucose-grown C. utilis showed that ester formation resulted from ethanol utilization under appropriate aeration and was inhibited by Fe/sup 3 +/ supplementation. Candida utilis converted ethanol to ethyl acetate optimally at pH 5.0-7.0. The five-hour rate of ester production increased as the ethanol concentration increased to 10 g/L, and rapidly declined to zero at concentrations exceeding 35 g/L. Thus, C. utilis has potential to recover dilute ethanol in the form of ethyl acetate.

  5. Case Report: Mixed Cholestatic/Hepatocellular Liver Injury Induced by the Herbicide Quizalofop-p-ethyl

    PubMed Central

    Elefsiniotis, Ioannis S.; Liatsos, George D.; Stamelakis, Dimitris; Moulakakis, Antonios

    2007-01-01

    Context Quizalofop-p-ethyl is an often applied, slightly toxic herbicide for which no severe toxicity has been reported in humans. Case presentation We present the case of a farmer exposed to quizalofop-p-ethyl who presented with obstructive cholestasis. A complete workup disclosed no other cause of liver pathology, but liver biopsy established drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient was treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and prednisolone, and was recovered fully 70 days after his exposure to the herbicide. The patient was followed for the next 9 months. Conclusion Quizalofop-p-ethyl can induce a mixed cholestatic/hepatocellular liver injury. We discuss possible mechanisms implicated in liver injury after exposure to quizalofop-p-ethyl. Relevance to clinical or professional practice In patients presenting with mixed cholestatic/ hepatocellular liver injury, occupational exposure to quizalofop-p-ethyl in the course of agricultural use should be investigated. PMID:17938739

  6. Fungal degradation of an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in soil.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha; Waseem, Uzma; Varma, R K

    2013-11-01

    Owing to reported phytotoxicity of some sulfonylurea class of herbicides in number of sensitive crops and higher persistence in soil, present study was conducted to isolate and identify pyrazosulfuron-ethyl degrading fungi from soil of rice field. Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger, were isolated and identified from rhizospere soil of rice field, as potent pyrazosulfuron-ethyl degrading fungi. Degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by P. chrysogenum and A. niger, yielded transformation products/metabolites which were identified and characterized by LC/MS/MS. The rate of dissipation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was found higher in soil of rice field and soil inoculated with P. chrysogenum. This showed important route of degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by microbes apart from chemical degradation. PMID:23993642

  7. Lipase-mediated conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel using ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Modi, Mukesh Kumar; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Prasad, R B N

    2007-04-01

    Ethyl acetate was explored as an acyl acceptor for immobilized lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from the crude oils of Jatropha curcas (jatropha), Pongamia pinnata (karanj) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower). The optimum reaction conditions for interesterification of the oils with ethyl acetate were 10% of Novozym-435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) based on oil weight, ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 11:1 and the reaction period of 12h at 50 degrees C. The maximum yield of ethyl esters was 91.3%, 90% and 92.7% with crude jatropha, karanj and sunflower oils, respectively under the above optimum conditions. Reusability of the lipase over repeated cycles in interesterification and ethanolysis was also investigated under standard reaction conditions. The relative activity of lipase could be well maintained over twelve repeated cycles with ethyl acetate while it reached to zero by 6th cycle when ethanol was used as an acyl acceptor. PMID:16822671

  8. High-yield synthesis of bioactive ethyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Chen, Na; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate through esterification of cinnamic acid with ethanol was studied. In order to increase the yield of ethyl cinnamate, several media, including acetone, isooctane, DMSO and solvent-free medium, were investigated in this reaction. The reaction showed a high yield by using isooctane as reaction medium, which was found to be much higher than the yields reported previously. Furthermore, several parameters such as shaking rate, water activity, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio and enzyme loading had important influences on this reaction. For instance, when temperature increased from 10 to 50 °C, the initial reaction rate increased by 18 times and the yield of ethyl cinnamate increased by 6.2 times. Under the optimum conditions, lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate gave a maximum yield of 99%, which was of general interest for developing industrial processes for the preparation of ethyl cinnamate. PMID:26213020

  9. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengyi; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Meilan; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-eth-oxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-di-hydro-1,2,4-oxa-diazol-3-yl)phenyl]benz-yl}-1H-1,3-benzo-diazole-7-carboxyl-ate ethyl acetate hemisolvate), was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z)-2-eth-oxy-1-{(2'-(N'-hy-droxy-carbamimido-yl)-[1,1'-biphen-yl]-4-yl)meth-yl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxyl-ate with diphen-yl carbonate. There are two independent mol-ecules (A and B) with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit. In mol-ecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxa-diazole ring is 59.36 (17); the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15) and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11)°. The corres-ponding dihedral angles in mol-ecule B are 58.45 (18), 50.73 (16) and 85.37 (10)°, respectively. The C-O-C-Cm (m = meth-yl) torsion angles for the eth-oxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in mol-ecules A and B are 93.9 (3) and -174.6 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π-π stacking inter-actions [shortest centroid-centroid separation = 3.536 (3)Å] are also observed. PMID:25878884

  10. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    PubMed

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. PMID:25455446

  11. Identification of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone beta-D-glucuronide as the major metabolite of a strawberry flavour constituent in humans.

    PubMed

    Roscher, R; Koch, H; Herderich, M; Schreier, P; Schwab, W

    1997-08-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]furanone (Furaneol, DMHF) [3658-77-3], an important flavour constituent of strawberry fruit, was administered to four male and two female volunteers using fresh strawberries as a natural DMHF source. The amount excreted was determined by measuring urinary levels of DMHF and DMHF glucuronide. DMHF glucuronide was synthesized and the structure elucidated by mens of 1H, 13C and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, as well as mass spectral data. Identification and quantification of DMHF glucuronide in human urine were achieved after solid phase extraction on XAD-2 using reverse-phase reverse-phase HPLC with either on-line UV/VIS or electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. Male and female volunteers excreted 59-69% and 81-94%, respectively, of the DMHF dose (total of free and glycosidically bound DMHF in strawberries) as DMHF glucuronide in urine within 24 hr. The amount of DMHF excretion was independent of the dose size and the ratio of free to glycosidically bound forms of DMHF in strawberry fruit. DMHF, DMHF glucoside and its 6'-O-malonyl derivative, naturally occurring in strawberries, were not detected in human urine. PMID:9350222

  12. REPEATED INTRAVENOUS DOSES OF ALL-TRANS-RETINOYL BETA-D-GLUCURONIDE IS NOT EFFECTIVE IN THE TREATMENT OF BACTERIAL BRONCHOPNEUMONIA IN LAMBS BUT IS DEVOID OF GROSS AND ACUTE TOXICITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All-trans-retinoyl beta-D-glucuronide is a water-soluble conjugate of all-trans-retinoic acid. It has low toxicity yet high reparative effects on epithelium in many in vitro and in vivo models. In this study we assessed the effect(s) of intravenously-administered all-trans-retinoyl beta-D-glucuron...

  13. Elucidation of the metabolites of the novel psychoactive substance 4-methyl-N-ethyl-cathinone (4-MEC) in human urine and pooled liver microsomes by GC-MS and LC-HR-MS/MS techniques and of its detectability by GC-MS or LC-MS(n) standard screening approaches.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Andreas G; Turcant, Alain; Boels, David; Ferec, Séverine; Lelièvre, Bénédicte; Welter, Jessica; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-05-01

    4-methyl-N-ethcathinone (4-MEC), the N-ethyl homologue of mephedrone, is a novel psychoactive substance of the beta-keto amphetamine (cathinone) group. The aim of the present work was to study the phase I and phase II metabolism of 4-MEC in human urine as well as in pooled human liver microsome (pHLM) incubations. The urine samples were worked up with and without enzymatic cleavage, the pHLM incubations by simple deproteinization. The metabolites were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). Based on the metabolites identified in urine and/or pHLM, the following metabolic pathways could be proposed: reduction of the keto group, N-deethylation, hydroxylation of the 4-methyl group followed by further oxidation to the corresponding 4-carboxy metabolite, and combinations of these steps. Glucuronidation could only be observed for the hydroxy metabolite. These pathways were similar to those described for the N-methyl homologue mephedrone and other related drugs. In pHLM, all phase I metabolites with the exception of the N-deethyl-dihydro isomers and the 4-carboxy-dihydro metabolite could be confirmed. Glucuronides could not be formed under the applied conditions. Although the taken dose was not clear, an intake of 4-MEC should be detectable in urine by the GC-MS and LC-MS(n) standard urine screening approaches at least after overdose. PMID:24953431

  14. Validation of a Rapid and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Determination of Exemestane and Its Metabolites, 17β-Hydroxyexemestane and 17β-Hydroxyexemestane-17-O-β-D-Glucuronide: Application to Human Pharmacokinetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Sok-Hwei; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Lau, Jie-Ying Amelia; Wan, Seow-Ching; Lee, Soo-Chin; Ho, Paul C.; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2015-01-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the evaluation of exemestane pharmacokinetics and its metabolites, 17β-dihydroexemestane (active metabolite) and 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide (inactive metabolite) in human plasma. Their respective D3 isotopes were used as internal standards. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using Thermo Fisher BDS Hypersil C18 analytic HPLC column (100 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was delivered at a rate of 0.5 mL/min by gradient elution with 0.1 % aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. The column effluents were detected by API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive mode. Mass transitions 297 > 121 m/z, 300 > 121 m/z, 299 > 135 m/z, 302 > 135 m/z, 475 > 281 m/z, and 478 > 284 m/z were monitored for exemestane, exemestane-d3, 17β-dihydroexemestane, 17β-dihydroexemestane-d3, 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide, and 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide-d3 respectively. The assay demonstrated linear ranges of 0.4 – 40.0 ng/mL, for exemestane; and 0.2 – 15.0 ng/mL, for 17β-dihydroexemestane and 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide, with coefficient of determination (r2) of > 0.998. The precision (coefficient of variation) were ≤10.7%, 7.7% and 9.5% and the accuracies ranged from 88.8 to 103.1% for exemestane, 98.5 to 106.1% for 17β-dihydroexemestane and 92.0 to 103.2% for 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetics/dynamics study in breast cancer patients receiving exemestane 25mg daily orally. For a representative patient, 20.7% of exemestane in plasma was converted into 17β-dihydroexemestane and 29.0% of 17β-dihydroexemestane was inactivated as 17β-dihydroexemestane-17-O-β-D-glucuronide 24 hours after ingestion of exemestane, suggesting that altered 17-dihydroexemestane glucuronidation may play an important role in determining effect of exemestane against breast cancer cells. PMID:25793887

  15. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9-overexpressing HeLa cells is an appropriate tool to delineate the kinetic interplay between breast cancer resistance protein (BRCP) and UGT and to rapidly identify the glucuronide substrates of BCRP.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Xu, Beibei; Wu, Baojian; Yu, Rong; Hu, Ming

    2012-02-01

    The interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters leads to extensive metabolism and low bioavailability for flavonoids. To investigate the simplest interplay between one UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoform and one efflux transporter in flavonoid disposition, engineered HeLa cells stably overexpressing UGT1A9 were developed, characterized, and further applied to investigate the metabolism of two model flavonoids (genistein and apigenin) and excretion of their glucuronides. The results indicated that the engineered HeLa cells overexpressing UGT1A9 rapidly excreted the glucuronides of genistein and apigenin. The kinetic characteristics of genistein or apigenin glucuronidation were similar with the use of UGT1A9 overexpressed in HeLa cells or the commercially available UGT1A9. Small interfering (siRNA)-mediated UGT1A9 silencing resulted in a substantial decrease in glucuronide excretion (>75%, p < 0.01). Furthermore, a potent inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), 3-(6-isobutyl-9-methoxy-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (Ko143), caused, in a dose-dependent manner, a substantial and marked reduction of the clearance (74-94%, p < 0.01), and a substantial increase in the intracellular glucuronide levels (4-8-fold, p < 0.01), resulting in a moderate decrease in glucuronide excretion (19-59%, p < 0.01). In addition, a significant, albeit moderate, reduction in the fraction of genistein metabolized (f(met)) in the presence of Ko143 was observed. In contrast, leukotriene C₄ and siRNA against multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 and MRP3 did not affect excretion of flavonoid glucuronides. In conclusion, the engineered HeLa cells overexpressing UGT1A9 is an appropriate model to study the kinetic interplay between UGT1A9 and BCRP in the phase II disposition of flavonoids. This simple cell model should also be very useful to rapidly identify whether a phase II metabolite is the substrate of BCRP. PMID:22071170

  16. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9-Overexpressing HeLa Cells Is an Appropriate Tool to Delineate the Kinetic Interplay between Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BRCP) and UGT and to Rapidly Identify the Glucuronide Substrates of BCRP

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen; Xu, Beibei; Wu, Baojian; Yu, Rong

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters leads to extensive metabolism and low bioavailability for flavonoids. To investigate the simplest interplay between one UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoform and one efflux transporter in flavonoid disposition, engineered HeLa cells stably overexpressing UGT1A9 were developed, characterized, and further applied to investigate the metabolism of two model flavonoids (genistein and apigenin) and excretion of their glucuronides. The results indicated that the engineered HeLa cells overexpressing UGT1A9 rapidly excreted the glucuronides of genistein and apigenin. The kinetic characteristics of genistein or apigenin glucuronidation were similar with the use of UGT1A9 overexpressed in HeLa cells or the commercially available UGT1A9. Small interfering (siRNA)-mediated UGT1A9 silencing resulted in a substantial decrease in glucuronide excretion (>75%, p < 0.01). Furthermore, a potent inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), 3-(6-isobutyl-9-methoxy-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydropyrazino[1′,2′:1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (Ko143), caused, in a dose-dependent manner, a substantial and marked reduction of the clearance (74–94%, p < 0.01), and a substantial increase in the intracellular glucuronide levels (4–8-fold, p < 0.01), resulting in a moderate decrease in glucuronide excretion (19–59%, p < 0.01). In addition, a significant, albeit moderate, reduction in the fraction of genistein metabolized (fmet) in the presence of Ko143 was observed. In contrast, leukotriene C4 and siRNA against multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 and MRP3 did not affect excretion of flavonoid glucuronides. In conclusion, the engineered HeLa cells overexpressing UGT1A9 is an appropriate model to study the kinetic interplay between UGT1A9 and BCRP in the phase II disposition of flavonoids. This simple cell model should also be very useful to rapidly identify whether a phase II metabolite is the substrate of BCRP. PMID:22071170

  17. Crystal structure of (eth­oxy­ethyl­idene)di­methyl­aza­nium ethyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis; Saur, Stefan; Kantlehner, Willi

    2015-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H14NO+·C2H5SO4 −, the C—N bond lengths in the cation are 1.2981 (14), 1.4658 (14) and 1.4707 (15) Å, indicating double- and single-bond character, respectively. The C—O bond length of 1.3157 (13) Å shows double-bond character, indicating charge delocalization within the NCO plane of the iminium ion. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between H atoms of the cations and O atoms of neighbouring ethyl sulfate anions are present, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870525

  18. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl - N -heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine containing up to 20...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  1. Enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate over Pt/Alumina modified by (R)-1-(1-Naphthyl)ethylamine derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Minder, B.; Schuerch, M.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A.; Heinz, T.; Pfaltz, A.

    1996-05-01

    Platinum/alumina (5 wt%) modified with (R)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine has been tested in the stereoselective hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate to ethyl lactate. Up to 82% enantiomeric excess (ee) was achieved for synthesis of the ethyl pyruvate product in acetic acid after optimizing the reaction parameters. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10588 - Phenol, 2-[1-[[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]imino]ethyl]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. 721.10588... Substances § 721.10588 Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]- (PMN P-11-98; CAS No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.10588 - Phenol, 2-[1-[[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]imino]ethyl]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. 721.10588... Substances § 721.10588 Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]- (PMN P-11-98; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the...

  5. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the...

  6. The mechanism of hydrothermal hydrolysis for glycyrrhizic acid into glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid 3-O-mono-β-D-glucuronide in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Li, Nan; Xu, Honggao; Xiang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-01-01

    To improve the bioactivity and sweetness properties of glycyrrhizic acid (GL), the hydrothermal hydrolysis of GL into glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and glycyrrhetinic acid 3-O-mono-β-D-glucuronide (GAMG) in subcritical water was investigated. The effects of temperature, time and their interaction on the conversion ratios were analyzed and the reactions were elaborated with kinetics and thermodynamics. The results showed that GL hydrothermal hydrolysis was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by reaction time and temperature, as well as their interaction, and could be fitted into first-order kinetics. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the hydrolysis of GL was endergonic and non-spontaneous. The hydrolytic pathways were composed of complex consecutive and parallel reactions. It was concluded that subcritical water may be a potential medium for producing GAMG and GA. PMID:26213056

  7. Ethyl-2-(3,5-Dihidroxyfenol): Phloroglucinol derivatives as potential anticancer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningsih, Triana; Firdaus, Maulidan; Widyo Wartono, Muhammad; Nur Artanti, Anif; Suci Handayani, Desi; Eryanto Putro, Angga

    2016-02-01

    Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroxyfenol) based phloroglucinol compounds have been synthesized. Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroksifenol) were synthesized by reacting phloroglucinol with ethyl 2-chloro acetate in excess. Phloroglucinol reaction using 2-chloro ethyl acetate was carried out under reflux for 24 hours at a temperature of 56 oC. The reaction products were identified by a thin layer chromatography and were characterized by melting point test. Analysis of the structure of the products was obtained by FTIR spectrophotometer, H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The result of the reaction between phloroglucinol and 2-chloro ethyl acetate was brownish black solid, and has a melting point of 191 oC. Based on the structural analysis by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, the reaction product was a mixture of compounds which is ethyl 2- (3,5-dihidroksifenol) acetate, ethyl-2-(2,4,6-trioxocyclohexyl) acetate, and the rest of phloroglucinol which can not react.

  8. Mechanism of quizalofop-ethyl selectivity in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species

    SciTech Connect

    Ruizzo, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) susceptibility to quizalofop-ethyl herbicide was investigated under field and greenhouse conditions. Yield of cucumber cultivars was significantly reduced under field conditions with a single or repeat application of the ethyl ester of quizalofop at 0.14 or 0.28 kg ai/ha. Under greenhouse conditions, quialofop-ethyl significantly suppressed cucumber plant fresh weight with or without the presence of an adjuvant. Enhancement of herbicide activity was directly related to concentration of adjuvant. Microliter droplet application of quizalofop-ethyl at a 10/sup -3/ M concentration, inhibited the relative growth (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) of the treated cucumber leaf 45% and 52%, respectively. Expression of herbicidal injury was localized on the treated leaf with no visible symptoms observed on adjacent leaves. Radiolabeled /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl was applied to leaves of cucumber and corn (Zea mays L.) to compare translocation patterns between two susceptible plant species and relate this information to the observed selectivity of the herbicide. Cucumber autoradiographs showed minimal translocation of /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl 192 hours after treatment. In contrast, corn autoradiographs showed both apoplastic and symplastic transport of quizalofop-ethyl 3 and 24 hours after treatment. Quantification of /sup 14/C in cucumber revealed 96% of absorbed /sup 14/C was confined to the treated leaf after 192h of exposure.

  9. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-Hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: Application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxy-flavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from plasma. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61– 2,500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31– 2,500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less 16.48 % and accuracy is in 77.70–90.64 % for 3-HF and variance less than 15.86%, accuracy in 85.08–114.70 % for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.23 %, accuracy is in 110.58–114.2 % for 3-HF and variance less than 15.59 %, accuracy in 83.00–89.40% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 μL of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. PMID:23973631

  10. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from blood. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61-2500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31-2500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less than 16.5% and accuracy is in 77.7-90.6% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.9%, accuracy in 85.1-114.7% for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.2%, accuracy is in 110.6-114.2% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.6%, accuracy in 83.0-89.4% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 μl of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. PMID:23973631

  11. Identification of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in tissue of marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor by liquid chromatography/ion trap multiple mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giessing, Anders M B; Lund, Torben

    2002-01-01

    1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide is identified as the single major aqueous metabolite of the tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene, in tissue from a deposit-feeding marine polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Identification was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) probe and connected to a high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD) system. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene, the 339-nm UV trace of tissue samples from pyrene-exposed worms showed only one dominant peak that could be related to pyrene metabolism. Negative APCI-MS of this supposed 1- hydroxypyrene conjugate gave a characteristic signal at m/z 429 corresponding to the molecular ion of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide plus eluent adducts ([M - H + 2H(2)O](-)). Fragmentation pathways were studied by isolating the abundant ion at m/z 429 in the ion trap and performing multiple mass spectrometric experiments (MS(n)). The fragmentations observed were consistent with the proposed identification. Two low intensity LC peaks that could be related to pyrene metabolism by their DAD absorption spectra were also present in the 339-nm UV chromatogram of tissue samples. However, these peaks could not be identified by their mass spectra in negative ion mode due to ion suppression by very abundant co-eluting impurities. The present method shows that LC/MS(n) is a fast and useful analytical tool for identification of aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation products in samples from relatively small marine invertebrates with limited sample preparation. PMID:12203242

  12. Human Metabolite Lamotrigine-N(2)-glucuronide Is the Principal Source of Lamotrigine-Derived Compounds in Wastewater Treatment Plants and Surface Water.

    PubMed

    Zonja, Bozo; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater and surface water samples, extracted with four solid-phase extraction cartridges of different chemistries, were suspect-screened for the anticonvulsant lamotrigine (LMG), its metabolites, and related compounds. LMG, three human metabolites, and a LMG synthetic impurity (OXO-LMG) were detected. Preliminary results showed significantly higher concentrations of OXO-LMG in wastewater effluent, suggesting its formation in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, biodegradation experiments with activated sludge demonstrated that LMG is resistant to degradation and that its human metabolite lamotrigine-N(2)-glucuronide (LMG-N2-G) is the actual source of OXO-LMG in WWTPs. In batch reactors, LMG-N2-G was transformed, following pseudo-first-order kinetics to OXO-LMG and LMG, but kinetic experiments suggested an incomplete mass balance. A fragment ion search applied to batch-reactor and environmental samples revealed another transformation product (TP), formed by LMG-N2-G oxidation, which was identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Accounting for all TPs detected, a total mass balance at two concentration levels in batch reactors was closed at 86% and 102%, respectively. In three WWTPs, the total mass balance of LMG-N2-G ranged from 71 to 102%. Finally, LMG-N2-G and its TPs were detected in surface water samples with median concentration ranges of 23-139 ng L(-1). The results of this study suggest that glucuronides of pharmaceuticals might also be sources of yet undiscovered, but environmentally relevant, transformation products. PMID:26606642

  13. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengyi; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Meilan; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-eth­oxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-di­hydro-1,2,4-oxa­diazol-3-yl)phenyl]benz­yl}-1H-1,3-benzo­diazole-7-carboxyl­ate ethyl acetate hemisolvate), was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z)-2-eth­oxy-1-{(2′-(N′-hy­droxy­carbamimido­yl)-[1,1′-biphen­yl]-4-yl)meth­yl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxyl­ate with diphen­yl carbonate. There are two independent mol­ecules (A and B) with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. In mol­ecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxa­diazole ring is 59.36 (17); the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15) and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11)°. The corres­ponding dihedral angles in mol­ecule B are 58.45 (18), 50.73 (16) and 85.37 (10)°, respectively. The C—O—C—Cm (m = meth­yl) torsion angles for the eth­oxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in mol­ecules A and B are 93.9 (3) and −174.6 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.536 (3)Å] are also observed. PMID:25878884

  14. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm-2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2) × 1015 cm-2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work was also based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Replication across regioisomeric ethylated thymidine lesions by purified DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Nisana; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-11-18

    Causal links exist between smoking cigarettes and cancer development. Some genotoxic agents in cigarette smoke are capable of alkylating nucleobases in DNA, and higher levels of ethylated DNA lesions were observed in smokers than in nonsmokers. In this study, we examined comprehensively how the regioisomeric O(2)-, N3-, and O(4)-ethylthymidine (O(2)-, N3-, and O(4)-EtdT, respectively) perturb DNA replication mediated by purified human DNA polymerases (hPols) η, κ, and ι, yeast DNA polymerase ζ (yPol ζ), and the exonuclease-free Klenow fragment (Kf(-)) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Our results showed that hPol η and Kf(-) could bypass all three lesions and generate full-length replication products, whereas hPol ι stalled after inserting a single nucleotide opposite the lesions. Bypass conducted by hPol κ and yPol ζ differed markedly among the three lesions. Consistent with its known ability to efficiently bypass the minor groove N(2)-substituted 2'-deoxyguanosine lesions, hPol κ was able to bypass O(2)-EtdT, though it experienced great difficulty in bypassing N3-EtdT and O(4)-EtdT. yPol ζ was only modestly blocked by O(4)-EtdT, but the polymerase was strongly hindered by O(2)-EtdT and N3-EtdT. LC-MS/MS analysis of the replication products revealed that DNA synthesis opposite O(4)-EtdT was highly error-prone, with dGMP being preferentially inserted, while the presence of O(2)-EtdT and N3-EtdT in template DNA directed substantial frequencies of misincorporation of dGMP and, for hPol ι and Kf(-), dTMP. Thus, our results suggested that O(2)-EtdT and N3-EtdT may also contribute to the AT → TA and AT → GC mutations observed in cells and tissues of animals exposed to ethylating agents. PMID:24134187

  16. Reactions of Ethyl Groups on a Model Chromia Surface: Ethyl Chloride on Stoichiometric Alpha-Cr2O3(1012)

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.; Ma, Q; Cox, D

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of CH3CH2Cl over the nearly-stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3 (1 0 View the MathML source 2) surface yields gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2, CH3CH3, H2 and surface chlorine adatoms. The decomposition reaction is initiated via C-Cl bond cleavage to give a surface ethyl (CH3CH2-) intermediate. A rate-limiting ?-hydride elimination from the surface ethyl species produces gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2 and surface hydrogen atoms. Two parallel competing reactions form CH3CH3, via ?-hydride addition to remaining surface ethyl species (reductive elimination), and H2, via the combination of two surface hydrogen atoms. The chlorine freed from the dissociation of CH3CH2Cl binds at the five-coordinate surface Cr3+ sites on the stoichiometric surface and inhibits the surface chemistry via simple site blocking. No surface carbon deposition is observed from the thermal reaction of ethyl chloride, suggesting that ethyl intermediates are not primary coke forming intermediates in the dehydrogenation of ethane over (1 0 View the MathML source 2) facets of ?-Cr2O3.

  17. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons V : 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, Earl R

    1946-01-01

    The method used for the synthesis and purification of an 8-gallon quantity of 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene from m-creosol consists in obtaining m-methylcyclohexanone from m-creosol by hydrogenation followed by oxidation, condensation of the ketone with ethylmagnesium bromide, dehydration of the tertiary alcohol obtained, and the dehydration of the olefins to 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene. A yield of 28 percent of the theoretical was obtained from 98 percent commercial m-creosol. The physical properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene are compared with selected values from the literature.

  18. Gauche Ethyl Alcohol: Laboratory Assignments and Interstellar Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

    1997-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is known to possess a pair of closely spaced excited torsional substates (gauche+, gauche-) at an energy of approximately 57 K above the ground (trans) torsional substate. We report an extended analysis of some gauche - gauche+ Q-branch ((Delta)J = 0) transitions with a three-substate fixed frame axis method (FFAM) Hamiltonian. Our approach accounts for complex trans-gauche interactions for the first time. In addition, we are able to obtain intensities for perturbed rotational transitions, and to determine the trans to gauche+ separation to be 1185399.1 MHz. A complete ground state rotational-torsional partition function accounting for the previously neglected gauche substates is presented. Based on our analysis, a total of 14 U lines obtained towards Orion KL can now be assigned to gauche substates of ethanol. Analysis of these lines yields a rotational temperature of 223 K and a total (trans + gauche) column density of 7.0 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. The column density is in reasonable agreement with the recent value of 2-3 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm based on observations of trans-ethanol by Ohishi et al., although there is some disparity in the rotational temperatures. Eight additional U lines in the literature are assigned to transitions of gauche ethanol.

  19. Hazards of urethane (ethyl carbamate): a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Field, K J; Lang, C M

    1988-07-01

    Urethane (ethyl carbamate) is used alone or in combination with other drugs to produce anaesthesia in laboratory animals. Although originally studied as a potential phytocide, urethane demonstrated antineoplastic properties when administered to rats with the Walker rat carcinoma 256. Subsequent trials in humans led to its use as a chemotherapeutic agent for various leukaemias. Mice develop pulmonary adenomas earlier in life and at a higher incidence following urethane administration. Urethane's carcinogenic influence is greater in neonatal mice; it also has a transplacental influence in mice. In rats, urethane increases the incidence of pulmonary adenomas, Zymbal Gland tumours, and a variety of other neoplasms. Urethane is absorbed sufficiently from the skin of laboratory animals to produce a transient narcosis. The carcinogenic effect appears to be due to an undefined oncogenic intermediate formed in the blood. Considering the properties urethane demonstrates in animals, the safety of its use by laboratory personnel is in question. However, if appropriate guidelines are followed, urethane should continue to be a useful anaesthetic agent for laboratory animals. PMID:3050270

  20. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Ethyl Cyanide On Titan: Spectroscopic Detection and Mapping Using Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Kisiel, Z.; Serigano, J.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Wang, K.-S.

    2015-02-01

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C2H5CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C2H5CNH+. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C2H5CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at \\gt 3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222-241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC3N, CH3CN, and CH3CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC3N, CH3CN, and CH3CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C2H5CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C2H5CN. Radiative transfer models show that C2H5CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳ 200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1-5) × 1014 cm-2.

  2. Ethyl carbamate levels resulting from azodicarbonamide use in bread.

    PubMed

    Caas, B J; Diachenko, G W; Nyman, P J

    1997-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA), a dough conditioner, is an additive approved in the US up to a maximum of 45 mg/kg in flour. The addition of 45 mg/kg of ADA was investigated and found to increase the ethyl carbamate (EC) content of commercially prepared breads by 1-3 micrograms/kg. A similar increase in EC was observed in breads baked in the laboratory with a bread machine. The increase in EC levels appears to depend on a variety of factors, most notably the concentration of ADA added and the time of fermentation. The addition of 20 mg/kg ADA caused only a slight increase, if any, in commercial products but a 2.3 micrograms/kg increase of EC in breads baked with a bread machine. When 100 mg/kg of ascorbic acid was added along with ADA, smaller EC increases were observed. Addition of urea was also found to enhance the EC content of the bread. Toasting, which was previously shown to increase EC levels, caused even larger increases when ADA or urea had been added. PMID:9059587

  3. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, urine, feces, liver and kidney: Application to a pharmacokinetic study of irinotecan in rats.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sumit; Zeng, Min; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this research is to develop and validate a sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify irinotecan, its active metabolite SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide (phase II metabolite of SN-38) simultaneously in different bio-matrices (plasma, urine, feces), tissues (liver and kidney) and to use the method to investigate its pharmacokinetic behavior in rats. Irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide has been resolved and separated by C18 column using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water used as the mobile phases. Triple quadruple mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode were employed to perform mass analysis. The results showed that the linear response range of irinotecan and SN-38 in plasma, feces, liver and kidney is 4.88-10000nM, 39-5000nM, 48.8-6250nM and 48.8-6250nM, respectively (R(2)>0.99). In case of SN-38 glucuronide, the standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 6.25-2000nM, 4.88-1250nM, 9.8-1250nM and 9.8-1250nM in plasma, feces, liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide was determined to be less than 25nM in all bio-matrices as well as tissue homogenates. Recoveries of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide at three different concentrations (low, medium and high) were not less than 85% at three different concentrations in plasma and feces. The percentage matrix factors in different bio-matrices and tissues were within 20%. The UPLC-MS/MS method was validated with intra-day and inter-day precision of less than 15% in plasma, feces, liver and kidney. Owing to the high sensitivity of this method, only 20μl of plasma, urine and homogenates of liver, kidney and feces is needed. The validated method has been successfully employed for pharmacokinetic evaluation of irinotecan in male wistar rats to quantify irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, feces, and urine samples. PMID:26894853

  4. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-01

    A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

  5. Rapeseed ethyl ester as bio-lube in 2-cycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The performance of four blends of gasoline with rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) and three commercial 2-cycle oils has been evaluated in engine tests by the University of Idaho. Details and results of the tests are given in the article.

  6. Base-switched annuloselectivity in the reactions of ethyl malonyl chloride and imines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanhui; Li, Siqi; Zhang, Zhong; Xu, Jiaxi

    2014-12-28

    The base-switched annuloselectivity, namely [2 + 2] and [2 + 2 + 2] selectivity, in the reactions of ethyl malonyl chloride and imines is successfully realized. In the presence of the weak nucleophilic base 2-chloropyridine, the reactions deliver ethyl trans-β-lactam-3-carboxylates as the exclusive [2 + 2] products in up to 93% yields, while with the strong nucleophilic N-methylimidazole as the base, the reactions give rise to 2,3-dihydro-1,3-oxazin-4-one derivatives as the sole products in up to 99% yields via the formal [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition involving one molecule of the imine and two molecules of the ketene generated from malonyl chloride. Notably, ethyl trans-β-lactam-3-carboxylates are synthesized for the first time directly from the reactions of ethyl malonyl chloride and imines. Mechanistic discussions reveal that the annuloselectivity is controlled by the nucleophilicity of organic bases. PMID:25355462

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Antimicrobial Ethyl Cellulose Nanofibers Using Electrospinning Techniques.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Ju-Il; Lee, In-Hwa

    2015-08-01

    Ethyl cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning techniques using ethyl cellulose solution having concentrations of 150 g/l, using different volume ratios of a binary THF (tetrahydrofuran): DMAc (N,N dimethylacetamide) solvent system. The influence of the composition of the binary solvent system on the surface morphology of ethyl cellulose nanofibers with or without adhered antibiotics was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). To assess the effectiveness of drug release from the nanofibers and their antibacterial activities toward S. aureus, streptomycin was selected as the antibiotic. Disc diffusion and optical density tests were used for the assessment. The antibiotic release from ethyl cellulose fibers was best when the THF to DMAc volume ratio was 3 to 2 (v/v). The optical density test showed the antibacterial effective time of the streptomycin antibiotics loaded in nanofibers was longer than that of the bulk antibiotics against S. aureus bacteria. PMID:26369137

  8. Improving lipids with prescription icosapent ethyl after previous use of fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kota J; Chowdhury, Sumita

    2016-05-01

    Managing dyslipidemia can be challenging in patients with statin intolerance. We describe the lipid effects of icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (high-purity prescription omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid) in two coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance who were self-treating with fish oil dietary supplements. After initiating icosapent ethyl, improvements were noted in the first and second patients, respectively, in total cholesterol (-12%; -21%), LDL cholesterol (-3%; -24%), triglycerides (-34%; -16%), non-HDL cholesterol (-12%; -22%), the omega-3 index (+42%; +8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (+275%; +138%). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. These cases demonstrated favorable lipid effects with prescription icosapent ethyl treatment that may help optimize the care of high-risk coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance. PMID:27070379

  9. Hepatic studies of intraperitoneally administered tris(2-ethyl hexyl)trimellitate (TOTM) and di(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate in rats.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, K; Srivastava, S P; Seth, P K

    1990-02-01

    Adult male rats receiving tris(2-ethyl hexyl)trimellitate (TOTM) intraperitoneally for seven days exhibited no significant changes in the activities of hepatic aminopyrine-N-demethylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase or glutathione-S-transferase, or in the glutathione contents. However, except for the glutathione level, the di(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (DEHP)-treated group showed significant increases in the activities of these enzymes. Changes in the body weight and the absolute and relative liver weights were also observed among the DHEP-treated group. PMID:2335710

  10. Influence of ethyl xanthate on the wettability and surface free energy of galena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jańczuk, Bronisław; Zdziennicka, Anna; Wójcik, Wiesław

    1997-11-01

    The contact angles of water (W), glycerol (G), formamide (F), diiodomethane (D) and 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane (T) were measured on a non-oxidized and oxidized surface of galena previously covered with a potassium ethyl xanthate film formed from aqueous solutions at different concentrations. Then, using the obtained values of the contact angle, the Lifshitz-van der Waals component and electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the surface free energy of galena covered with ethyl xanthate film were calculated from the modified Young equation. It was found that the surface free energy of the galena/ethyl xanthate film depends on the way of galena surface treatment after adsorption of ethyl xanthate on its surface and results from both apolar and polar intermolecular interactions. The contribution of these interactions in the surface free energy of galena depends on the concentration of potassium ethyl xanthate solution used for film formation and the state of the galena surface (non-oxidized or oxidized). With the increase of ethyl xanthate concentration in the solution from which the film was formed, the Lifshitz-van der Waals component increases or decreases a little depending on whether or not the surface galena, after adsorption of ethyl xanthate, was washed by ethyl ether. In all cases, the electron-acceptor parameter of the acid-base component is considerably smaller than the electron-donor one and practically does not depend on the concentration of the potassium ethyl xanthate solution in contact with galena. The changes of the electron-donor parameter of the acid-base component depend on the state of the galena surface, the concentration of the potassium ethyl xanthate solutions and the way of galena surface treatment after adsorption. It is interesting that the total surface free energy, both of non-oxidized and oxidized galena, does not practically depend on the concentration of potassium ethyl xanthate in aqueous solution from which the film was formed.

  11. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  12. The effect of electron-ion collisionality on ETG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colyer, Greg; Schekochihin, Alex; Roach, Colin; Barnes, Michael; Ghim, Young-Chul; Dorland, Bill; Parra, Felix

    2014-10-01

    In electrostatic simulations of MAST plasma at electron-gyroradius scales with adiabatic ions, using the local flux-tube gyrokinetic code GS2, we find that the saturated electron heat flux decreases as the electron collisionality decreases. At early simulation times the heat flux quasi-saturates at a level independent of electron collisionality; however the zonal fluctuation component continues to grow slowly until much later simulation times, eventually reducing the heat flux at low collisionality. The heat flux at the longest simulation times is the saturated level relevant to energy transport, in the gyrokinetic expansion. We outline an explanation based on zonal-nonzonal interactions and the scaling of the zonal damping rate with electron-ion collisionality, and we discuss the correlation times of the zonal and nonzonal components of the microturbulence. Improved energy confinement with decreasing collisionality has previously been observed on NSTX and MAST, and is favourable towards the performance of future, hotter devices. This work was part-funded by the RCUK Energy Programme, and by the European Union's Horizon 2020 programme. Computations were performed at the UK's HECToR service, on EFDA's HPC-FF system, and on the Helios system at IFERC-CSC.

  13. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, O.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  14. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities.

    PubMed

    Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  15. The contribution of azodicarbonamide to ethyl carbamate formation in bread and beer.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M J; Massey, R C; Ginn, R; Willetts, P; Crews, C; Parker, I

    1997-01-01

    Data on ethyl carbamate concentrations in beers purchased and analysed between 1988 and 1990 are presented. The concentrations in draught beers were uniformly below the detection limit of 1 microgram/l. Canned beers contained rather more ethyl carbamate (up to 2.5 micrograms/l) which is considered to be due to their longer shelf-life and higher alcohol content (in some cases). Bottled beers contained even higher amounts of ethyl carbamate (up to 14.7 micrograms/l) and this was considered to be due to the use of azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent in the beer bottle cap liners. It is understood that modifications to the liner have led to reduced concentrations in bottled beers produced more recently. A survey of bread samples and related cereal products such as rusks, French toasts and pitta bread indicated typical ethyl carbamate concentrations between < 0.4 and 4.5 micrograms/kg. Toasting bread led to increases of between three- and eight-fold in ethyl carbamate concentrations ranging from 3.5 to 33.8 micrograms/kg on a wet weight basis. Analysis of the data indicated that commercial bread samples which indicated the use of azodicarbonamide as a flour improver showed statistically significant increases in ethyl carbamate concentrations. The mean increase for treated bread over untreated bread was 66%. When these breads were toasted, the mean increase for treated toast over untreated toast was 56%. PMID:9059589

  16. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4-12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system. PMID:27225540

  17. The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A polymorphism c.2042C>G (rs8330) is associated with increased human liver acetaminophen glucuronidation, increased UGT1A exon 5a/5b splice variant mRNA ratio, and decreased risk of unintentional acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Court, Michael H; Freytsis, Marina; Wang, Xueding; Peter, Inga; Guillemette, Chantal; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Duan, Su X; Greenblatt, David J; Lee, William M

    2013-05-01

    Acetaminophen is cleared primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. Polymorphisms in genes encoding the acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes could explain interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation and variable risk for liver injury after acetaminophen overdose. In this study, human liver bank samples were phenotyped for acetaminophen glucuronidation activity and genotyped for the major acetaminophen-glucuronidating enzymes (UGTs 1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B15). Of these, only three linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the shared UGT1A-3'UTR region (rs10929303, rs1042640, rs8330) were associated with acetaminophen glucuronidation activity, with rs8330 consistently showing higher acetaminophen glucuronidation at all the tested concentrations of acetaminophen. Mechanistic studies using luciferase-UGT1A-3'UTR reporters indicated that these SNPs do not alter mRNA stability or translation efficiency. However, there was evidence for allelic imbalance and a gene-dose proportional increase in the amount of exon 5a versus exon 5b containing UGT1A mRNA spliced transcripts in livers with the rs8330 variant allele. Cotransfection studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of exon 5b containing cDNAs on acetaminophen glucuronidation by UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 cDNAs containing exon 5a. In silico analysis predicted that rs8330 creates an exon splice enhancer site that could favor exon 5a (over exon 5b) utilization during splicing. Finally, the prevalence of rs8330 was significantly lower (P = 0.027, ?(2) test) in patients who had acute liver failure from unintentional acetaminophen overdose compared with patients with acute liver failure from other causes or a race- or ethnicity-matched population. Together, these findings suggest that rs8330 is an important determinant of acetaminophen glucuronidation and could affect an individual's risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. PMID:23408116

  18. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Kisiel, Z.; Wang, K.-S.

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  19. Ethyl pyruvate protects against sepsis by regulating energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongjun; Mao, Zhi; Zhao, Yan; Yin, Ting; Song, Qing; Pan, Liang; Hu, Xin; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Feihu

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a derivative of pyruvic acid that has been demonstrated to be a potential scavenger of reactive oxygen species as well as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EP and its role in regulating the energy metabolism in the livers of cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced septic mice. Methods The animals were treated intraperitoneally with 0.2 mL of Ringer’s lactate solution or an equivalent volume of Ringer’s lactate solution containing EP immediately after cecal ligation and puncture. Each mouse in the Sham group was only subjected to a laparotomy. At 30-, 60-, 180-, and 360-minute time points, we measured the histopathological alterations of the intestines, and the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the total antioxidative capacity, malondialdehyde content, and lactate and lactate/pyruvate levels in livers. Furthermore, we detected the levels of adenosine triphosphate, total adenylate, and energy charge in the livers. Results Our results demonstrated that the administration of EP significantly improved the survival rate and reduced intestinal histological alterations. EP inhibited the plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased the IL-10 level. EP significantly inhibited the elevation of the malondialdehyde, lactate, and lactate/pyruvate levels and enhanced the total antioxidative capacity levels in the liver tissues. The downregulation of the adenosine triphosphate, total adenylate, and energy charge levels in the liver tissues was reversed in the septic mice treated with EP. Conclusion The results suggest that EP administration effectively modulates the energy metabolism, which may be an important component in treatment of sepsis. PMID:26966369

  20. Lignin biodegradation and the production of ethyl alcohol from cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    During the last few years our group has been engaged in developing a biochemical process for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethyl alcohol. Lignin is a barrier to complete cellulose saccharification in this process, but chemical and physical delignification steps are too expensive to be used at the present time. An enzymatic delignification process might be attractive for several reasons: little energy would be expected to be needed, enzymes could be recovered and reused, and useful chemicals might be produced from dissolved lignin. A number of thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi were examined for the ability to rapidly degrade lignocellulose in order to find an organism whcih produced an active lignin-degrading enzyme system. Chryosporium pruinosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum were found to be active lignocellulose degraders, and C. pruinosum was chosen for further study. Lignin and carbohydrate were degraded when the substrate remained moistened by, but not submerged in, the liquid medium. Attempts were made to demonstrate a cell-free lignin degrading system by both extraction and pressing of cultures grown on moist lignocellulose. Carbohydrate-degrading activity was found but not lignin-degrading activity. This led us to ask whether diffusible lignin-degrading activity could be demonstrated in this organism. The data indicate that the lignin degradation system, or one or more of its components, produced by this organism is either unstable, non-diffusible, or inactive at small distances (about 1 mm) from growing hyphae. At present, studies are being conducted using diffusion cultures to select mutants of C. pruinosum that do produce a diffusible lignin degradation system. We are also examining a number of mesophilic lignin-degrading molds for this ability.