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Sample records for eucalyptus nitens wood

  1. Floral induction in Eucalyptus nitens.

    PubMed

    Moncur, M W; Hasan, O

    1994-11-01

    Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden takes at least five years to initiate flower buds from seed and is an infrequent and light flowerer. Because this behavior constitutes a major impediment to breeding programs, we examined the mechanisms controlling floral induction in E. nitens, with the long-term aim of reducing generation time and increasing seed yield. Application of paclobutrazol reduced the concentration of endogenous gibberellic acid (GA) in apical tissue and enhanced the reproductive activity of grafted trees maintained outside over winter in Canberra, Australia. Grafts maintained in a warm greenhouse over winter did not produce flower buds, despite the paclobutrazol-induced reduction in GA concentration of the apical tissue. Exposing untreated grafts, which had been maintained over winter in a warm greenhouse, to low temperature the following spring reduced growth but did not induce flower bud production. Addition of GA(3) to paclobutrazol-treated grafts reduced the effect of paclobutrazol on reproductive activity. PMID:14967619

  2. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 μg/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

  3. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Febé E.; Shuey, Louise S.; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K.; Myburg, Alexander A.; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  4. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Febé E; Shuey, Louise S; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K; Myburg, Alexander A; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  5. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Telfer, Emily J.; Stovold, Grahame T.; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Grattapaglia, Dario G.; Dungey, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource

  6. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    PubMed

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned. PMID:17046244

  7. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage. PMID:27243933

  8. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae. PMID:20640444

  9. Mechanical properties of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Verma, B.B.; Gupta, R.C.

    1999-10-01

    In the present investigation the effects of carbonization conditions (temperature and heating rate) on the mechanical properties (such as crushing and impact strengths and shatter index) of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars have been determined. The crushing and impact strengths of both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars (made by slow carbonization) decreased with increase of preparation temperature up to 600 C, followed by an increase thereafter. These wood chars showed a continuous increase in shatter index values with carbonization temperature. In contrast to slow carbonization (heating rate 4 C min{sup {minus}1}), rapid carbonization (heating rate 30 C min{sup {minus}1}) yielded chars of lower crushing strengths. Slowly carbonized eucalyptus wood gave chars of superior crushing and impact strengths than those produced from acacia wood under the same carbonization conditions. The crushing and impact strengths of these wood chars, in general, have shown an increase with increase in their apparent density. The crushing strength of cubic-shaped wood char decreased with increase in size.

  10. Influence of carbonization conditions on the pyrolytic carbon deposition in acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon (resulting from the cracking of volatile matter) was found to depend on wood species and carbonization conditions, such as temperature and heating rate. Maximum pyrolytic carbon deposition in both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars has been observed at a carbonization temperature of 800 C. Rapid carbonization (higher heating rate) of wood significantly reduces the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in resulting chars. Results also indicate that the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in acacia wood char is less than that in eucalyptus wood char.

  11. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. PMID:27112846

  12. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  13. Eucalyptus

    MedlinePlus

    Eucalyptus is a tree. The dried leaves and oil are used to make medicine. Though eucalyptus is ... gallbladder problems, loss of appetite, and cancer. Eucalyptus oil should not be taken by mouth or applied ...

  14. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  15. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  16. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits. PMID:21651758

  17. Determination of Thermal Properties and Morphology of Eucalyptus Wood Residue Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Kabakci, Ayse

    2008-01-01

    Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR) filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 °C and one for recycled HDPE around 460 °C. Addition of EWR did not affect the melting temperature of the recycled HDPE. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between wood residue and recycled HDPE. PMID:19325736

  18. Eucalyptus

    MedlinePlus

    ... ginseng, and others.Herbs that contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)Eucalyptus can increase the toxicity of herbs that contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). PAs can damage the liver. Herbs containing ...

  19. Decontamination of CCA-treated eucalyptus wood waste by acid leaching.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; dos Santos, Heldiane Souza; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes; Maia, Sandra Maria; Pires, Marçal

    2016-03-01

    Preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are used to increase the resistance of wood to deterioration. The components of CCA are highly toxic, resulting in growing concern over the disposal of the waste generated. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cu, Cr and As present in CCA-treated eucalyptus wood from utility poles removed from service in southern Brazil, in order to render them non-hazardous waste. The removal was carried out by acid leaching in bench-scale and applying optimal extractor concentration, total solid content, reactor volume, temperature and reaction time obtained by factorial experiments. The best working conditions were achieved using three extraction steps with 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at 75°C for 2h each (total solid content of 15%), and 3 additional 1h-long washing steps using water at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, removal of 97%, 85% and 98% were obtained for Cu, Cr and As, respectively, rendering the decontaminated wood non-hazardous waste. The wastewater produced by extraction showed acid pH, high organic loading as well as high concentrations of the elements, needing prior treatment to be discarded. However, rinsing water can be recycled in the extraction process without compromising its efficiency. The acid extraction is a promising alternative for CCA removal from eucalyptus wood waste in industrial scale. PMID:26856447

  20. More wood of better quality: intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Eucalyptus spp. for pulpwood

    SciTech Connect

    Campinhos, E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, there was an inability of the species to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that new silvicultural techniques should be developed and also new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce a better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated mainly because of the new technique of rooting cuttings developed by Aracruz, which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantations. The first results have already enabled good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content and resistance to disease.

  1. More wood of better quality through intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Brazilian eucalyptus

    SciTech Connect

    Campinhos, E. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, the species was unable to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that a new silviculture technique should be developed and also that new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated, mainly because a new technique of rooting cuttings which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids, was developed. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantings. The first results have already shown good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content, and resistance to disease.

  2. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  3. Transcriptional Profiles of Hybrid Eucalyptus Genotypes with Contrasting Lignin Content Reveal That Monolignol Biosynthesis-related Genes Regulate Wood Composition

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Tomotaka; Iwata, Eiji; Nakahama, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Yujiroh; Hayashi, Kazunori; Nanto, Kazuya; Rosa, Antonio C.; Kawaoka, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected 3-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis) genotypes (AM063 and AM380) that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0 and 48.2%, α-cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA) and sucrose synthase (SUSY) were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis-related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF, and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents in Eucalyptus plants. PMID

  4. Transcriptional Profiles of Hybrid Eucalyptus Genotypes with Contrasting Lignin Content Reveal That Monolignol Biosynthesis-related Genes Regulate Wood Composition.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Tomotaka; Iwata, Eiji; Nakahama, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Yujiroh; Hayashi, Kazunori; Nanto, Kazuya; Rosa, Antonio C; Kawaoka, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected 3-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis) genotypes (AM063 and AM380) that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0 and 48.2%, α-cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA) and sucrose synthase (SUSY) were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis-related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF, and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents in Eucalyptus plants. PMID

  5. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on properties of bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sheng; Zhao, Zengli; Zheng, Anqing; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Zhen; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Eucalyptus wood powder was first subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment in a high-pressure reactor at 160-190°C, and subsequently fast pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor at 500°C to obtain high quality bio-oil. This study focused on investigating effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on bio-oil properties. Hemicellulose and some metals were effectively removed from eucalyptus wood, while cellulose content was enhanced. No significant charring and carbonization of constituents was observed during hydrothermal pretreatment. Thus pretreated eucalyptus wood gave higher bio-oil yield than original eucalyptus wood. Chemical composition of bio-oil was examined by GC/MS and (13)C NMR analyses. Bio-oil produced from pretreated eucalyptus wood exhibited lower contents of ketones and acids, while much higher levoglucosan content than bio-oil produced from original eucalyptus wood, which would help to improve thermal stability of bio-oil and extract levoglucosan from bio-oil. Hydrothermal pretreatment also improved bio-oil fuel quality through lowering water content and enhancing heating value. PMID:23624050

  6. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

  7. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  8. Generation of xylose solutions from Eucalyptus globulus wood by autohydrolysis-posthydrolysis processes: posthydrolysis kinetics.

    PubMed

    Garrote, G; Domínguez, H; Parajó, J C

    2001-09-01

    Eucalyptus wood samples were treated with water under selected operational conditions (autohydrolysis reaction) to obtain a liquid phase containing hemicellulose-decomposition products (mainly acetylated xylooligosaccharides, xylose and acetic acid). In a further acid-catalysed step (posthydrolysis reaction), xylooligosaccharides were converted into xylose, a carbon source for further fermentation. The kinetic pattern governing the posthydrolysis step was established by reacting xylooligosaccharide-containing liquors at 100.5 degrees C, 115 degrees C, 125 degrees C or 135 degrees C in media containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2 wt% of catalyst (sulphuric acid). The time course of the concentrations of xylooligosaccharides, xylose, furfural and acetic acid were determined, and the results were interpreted by means of a kinetic model which allowed a close reproduction of the experimental data. Almost quantitative conversion of xylooligosaccharides into xylose was achieved under a variety of experimental conditions. The first-order, kinetic coefficient for xylooligosaccharide hydrolysis (k1, h(-1)) varied with both temperature (T, K) and molar sulphuric acid concentration (C) according to the equation In k1 = 36.66 + 1.00lnC - 108.0/(8.314T). The hydrolysis of acetyl groups followed a first-order kinetics. The corresponding kinetic coefficient (ka, h(-1) was correlated with the operational conditions by the equation Inka = 26.80+ 1.18 InC - 73.37/(8.314T). PMID:11480924

  9. Eucalyptus hairy roots, a fast, efficient and versatile tool to explore function and expression of genes involved in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, Anna; Soler, Marçal; Dupas, Annabelle; Ladouce, Nathalie; Silva-Martins, Guilherme; Martinez, Yves; Lapierre, Catherine; Franche, Claudine; Truchet, Isabelle; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Eucalyptus are of tremendous economic importance being the most planted hardwoods worldwide for pulp and paper, timber and bioenergy. The recent release of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence pointed out many new candidate genes potentially involved in secondary growth, wood formation or lineage-specific biosynthetic pathways. Their functional characterization is, however, hindered by the tedious, time-consuming and inefficient transformation systems available hitherto for eucalypts. To overcome this limitation, we developed a fast, reliable and efficient protocol to obtain and easily detect co-transformed E. grandis hairy roots using fluorescent markers, with an average efficiency of 62%. We set up conditions both to cultivate excised roots in vitro and to harden composite plants and verified that hairy root morphology and vascular system anatomy were similar to wild-type ones. We further demonstrated that co-transformed hairy roots are suitable for medium-throughput functional studies enabling, for instance, protein subcellular localization, gene expression patterns through RT-qPCR and promoter expression, as well as the modulation of endogenous gene expression. Down-regulation of the Eucalyptus cinnamoyl-CoA reductase1 (EgCCR1) gene, encoding a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, led to transgenic roots with reduced lignin levels and thinner cell walls. This gene was used as a proof of concept to demonstrate that the function of genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation can be elucidated in transgenic hairy roots using histochemical, transcriptomic and biochemical approaches. The method described here is timely because it will accelerate gene mining of the genome for both basic research and industry purposes. PMID:26579999

  10. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  11. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment of eucalyptus wood for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    Ground eucalyptus wood was pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions with different mixing ratios under various conditions. The changes in the composition and structure of the biomass were investigated; and the enzymatic hydrolysis performance of the pretreated biomass was evaluated. [EMIM]OAc-DMSO pretreatment had a relatively mild effect on the composition of the biomass, but excessively high pretreatment temperatures led to massive loss of xylan after pretreatment. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass was significantly improved with increased pretreatment temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the disruption of cellulose crystal structure by [EMIM]OAc at a sufficiently high temperature was primarily responsible for the remarkable improvement in the digestibility. Appropriate addition of DMSO could help minimize the consumption of [EMIM]OAc without impairing the performance of the ionic liquid, and contribute to the improvement in pretreatment efficiency due to the viscosity reduction effect on the pretreatment liquor. PMID:23685645

  12. Bark and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence are linked to wood structural changes in Eucalyptus saligna

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Denise; Tausz, Michael; Moore, Gregory; Nicolas, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Wood structure and wood anatomy are usually considered to be largely independent of the physiological processes that govern tree growth. This paper reports a statistical relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and wood density. A relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and the quantity of wood decay in a tree is also described. There was a statistically significant relationship between the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm and wood density and the quantity of wood decay in summer, but not in spring or autumn. Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence at 0.05 ms (the O step) could predict the quantity of wood decay in trees in spring. Bark chlorophyll fluorescence could predict wood density in spring using the Fv/Fm parameter, but not in summer or autumn. There was a consistent statistical relationship in spring, summer and autumn between the bark chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm and wood decay. This study indicates a relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence and wood structural changes, particularly with bark chlorenchyma. PMID:24790120

  13. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VIII. The wood-fueled gasification system, Evergreen Energy Corporation's final engineering report

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    Evergreen Energy Corporation provided projected cost and operating data on the Evergreen/Texaco entrained-bed wood gasification system currently under development as an alternative to the state-of-the-art fixed-bed wood gasification system proposed by Davy McKee. Overall capital costs for the total plant remain about the same at approx. $250 million. The Evergreen/Texaco system will provide significant capital cost savings in the gasifiers, gas cleanup, and waste water treatment sections, and eliminate the need for a large off-site wood-fired power boiler. These reductions are offset by higher investments in the feedstock preparation, drying, and feeding section plus the need for a larger air separation plant and compressor to supply oxygen at high pressure to the gasifier.

  14. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta(13)C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis x camaldulensis and E. grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, D; Stock, W D; Bond, W J; Maphanga, D

    1996-05-01

    Clonal variation in water use efficiency (WUE), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of crude leaf fiber extracts was determined in six clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. grown for 16 months in field lysimeters in two soil water regimes. The relationships between delta(13)C and WUE calculated on the basis of leaf, harvestable stem, shoot and whole-plant dry mass accumulation were investigated. There was no clonal variation in dry mass accumulation but clonal allocation to roots, harvestable stems, branches and leaves varied. Water use efficiencies (mass of plant or plant part/water used over 16 months) differed significantly between clones. The clonal ranking of WUE varied depending on the units of dry mass accumulation used. Significant relationships between delta(13)C values and instantaneous water use efficiencies and ratios of internal leaf to ambient CO(2) concentrations were found only in the high soil water treatment. There were no relationships between delta(13)C values and whole-plant, shoot and harvestable stem water use efficiencies and soil water availability. Values of delta(13)C were negatively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the low soil water treatment. At the whole-plant level, WUE was positively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the high soil water treatment. We found significant differences in delta(13)C values between clones and the clonal rankings in delta(13)C and WUE were maintained in both soil water treatments. PMID:14871719

  15. Effect of thermal treatments on technological properties of wood from two Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cademartori, Pedro Henrique G; Missio, André L; Mattos, Bruno D; Gatto, Darci A

    2015-03-01

    The effect of thermal treatments on physical and mechanical properties of rose gum and Sydney blue gum wood was evaluated. Wood samples were thermally modified in a combination: pre-treatment in an autoclave (127°C - 1h) and treatment in an oven (180-240°C - 4h); and only treatment in an oven at 180-240°C for 4h. Chemical changes in the structure of woods were evaluated through infrared spectroscopy. Evaluation of physical properties was performed through mass loss, specific gravity, equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability tests. Surface changes were analyzed through apparent contact angle technique and static bending tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical behavior. Use of pre-treatment in autoclave affected the properties analyzed, however oven, resulted in the highest changes on wood from both species. Chemical changes were related to the degradation of hemicelluloses. Moreover, a significant decrease of hygroscopicity and mechanical strength of thermally modified woods was observed, while specific gravity did not significantly change for either of the species studied. The best results of decrease of wettability were found in low temperatures, while dimensional stability increased as a function of temperature of exposure in oven. The highest loss of mechanical strength was observed at 240°C for both species. PMID:25806991

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 2. Vegetative propagation of Eucalypts

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of large-scale plantation establishment by various methods was examined, and the following conclusions were reached: seedling plantations are limited in potential yield due to genetic variation among the planting stock and often inadequate supplies of appropriate seed; vegetative propagation by rooted cuttings can provide good genetic uniformity of select hybrid planting stock; however, large-scale production requires establishment and maintenance of extensive cutting orchards. The collection of shoots and preparation of cuttings, although successfully implemented in the Congo and Brazil, would not be economically feasible in Florida for large-scale plantations; tissue culture propagation of select hybrid eucalypts offers the only opportunity to produce the very large number of trees required to establish the energy plantation. The cost of tissue culture propagation, although higher than seedling production, is more than off-set by the increased productivity of vegetative plantations established from select hybrid Eucalyptus.

  17. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. PMID:21735933

  18. Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Eucalyptus Grandis Using a Maternal Half-Sib Family and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Bertolucci, FLG.; Penchel, R.; Sederoff, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping. BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761

  19. Alterations in energy properties of eucalyptus wood and bark subjected to torrefaction: the potential of mass loss as a synthetic indicator.

    PubMed

    Almeida, G; Brito, J O; Perré, P

    2010-12-01

    Torrefaction is a mild pyrolysis process (usually up to 300 degrees C) that changes the chemical and physical properties of biomass. This process is a possible pre-treatment prior to further processes (transport, grinding, combustion, gasification, etc) to generate energy or biofuels. In this study, three eucalyptus wood species and bark were subjected to different torrefaction conditions to determine the alterations in their structural and energy properties. The most severe treatment (280 degrees C, 5h) causes mass losses of more than 35%, with severe damage to anatomical structure, and an increase of about 27% in the specific energy content. Bark is more sensitive to heat than wood. Energy yields are always higher than mass yields, thereby demonstrating the benefits of torrefaction in concentrating biomass energy. The overall mass loss is proposed as a relevant parameter to synthesize the effect of torrefaction conditions (temperature and duration). Accordingly, all results are summarised by analytical expressions able to predict the energy properties as a function of the overall mass loss. These expressions are intended to be used in any optimization procedure, from production in the field to the final use. PMID:20705459

  20. Condensed lignin structures and re-localization achieved at high severities in autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood and their relationship with cellulose accessibility.

    PubMed

    Araya, Fabio; Troncoso, Eduardo; Mendonça, Regis Teixeira; Freer, Juanita

    2015-09-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood was subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment at different severity factors. The pretreated materials were enzymatically saccharified at a substrate load of 10% (w/v) using a cellulase enzyme complex. Around 82-95% of original glucans were retained in the pretreated material, and the enzymatic hydrolysis yields ranged from 58% to 90%. The chemical and structural changes in the pretreated materials were investigated by microscopic (SEM, LSCM) and spectroscopic (2D-HSQC NMR and FT-IR) techniques. 2D-NMR results showed a reduction in the amounts of β-O-4 aryl-ether linkages and suggested the presence of newly condensed structures of lignin in the biomass pretreated at the more severe conditions. Furthermore, the microscopic analysis showed that lignin migrates out of the cell wall and re-deposits in certain regions of the fibers at the more severe conditions to form droplet-like structures and expose the cellulose surface. These changes improved the glucose yield up to 69%, on dry wood basis. PMID:25851426

  1. [Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopisferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae)].

    PubMed

    Morandini, Marcelo Nahuel; Giamminola, Eugenia Mabel; de Viana, Marta Leonor

    2013-03-01

    The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P ferox and P nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103 degreeC and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20 degreeC. The MC in P ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20 degreeC. Fresh seeds of P nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20 degreeC was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20 degree C. PMID:23894986

  2. Effects of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis on influence of chemical components and crystallinity index.

    PubMed

    da Silva Morais, Alaine Patrícia; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; de Oliveira Neto, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust were autohydrolyzed in aqueous conditions to reach temperatures in the range 110-190°C and reaction times of 0-150min in a minireactor. In each minireactor were used a liquor:wood ratio (10:1 L:kg dry wood), in order to assess the effects of the autohydrolysis severity and the crystalline properties of cellulose. The content of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, cellulose, hemicelluloses and crystallinity index obtained from the solid fraction after autohydrolysis of sawdust were determined. This study demonstrated that the hemicelluloses were extensively removed at 170 and 190°C, whereas cellulose was partly degraded to Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust. The lignin content decreased, while the extractives content increased. It was defined that during autohydrolysis, had a slight decreased on crystalline structure of cellulose of Eucalyptus urogandis and Eucalyptus grandis. PMID:27187566

  3. Validation of models to estimate the fumigant and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Juan, Laura W; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marcó, Martín; Masuh, Hector M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to validate the pre-existing models that relate the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of the Eucalyptus essential oils on Aedes aegypti. Previous works at our laboratory described that the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils can be estimated from the relative concentration of two main components (p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and that the adulticidal effectiveness can be explained, to a great extent, by the presence of large amounts of the component 1,8-cineole in it. In general, the results show that the higher adulticidal effect of essential oils the lower their larvicidal activity. Fresh leaves was harvested and distilled. Once the essential oil was obtained, the chemical composition was analysed, evaluating the biological activity of 15 species of the genus Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev and Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis × nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii var Benthamii Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus benthamii var dorrigoensis Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson and K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus robusta Smith, Eucalyptus rubida Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker). Essential oils of these plant species were used for the validation of equations from preexistent models, in which observed and estimated values of the biological activity were compared. The regression analysis showed a strong validation of the models, re-stating the trends previously observed. The models were expressed as follows: A, fumigant activity [KT(50(min)) = 10.65-0.076 × 1,8-cineole (%)](p < 0.01; F, 397; R (2), 0.79); B, larval mortality (%)((40 ppm)) = 103.85 + 0.482 × p-cymene (%) - 0.363 × α-pinene (%) - 1.07 × 1,8-cineole (%) (p < 0.01; F, 300; R (2), 0.90). These results confirmed the

  4. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  5. [Population density of Eucalyptus urophylla plantation].

    PubMed

    Huang, B; Lu, C

    2000-02-01

    This paper dealt with the relationships and correlation models of the population density of 5.6 years old Eucalyptus urophylla plantation with its crown width, diamter at breast height(DBH), tree height, individual standing volume, stand volume, wood properties and survital rate. The results showed that the population density remarkably affected DBH, individual standing volume, crown width, live branch height, stand volume and wood fiber width; but not affect tree height, basic density of wood, and length of wood fibers. It had a positive relationship with stand volume, live branch height and wood fibers width, and a negative relationship with DBH, individual standing volume and crown width. In addition, E. urophylla had a wide range of reasonable density. For short-rotation puplwoods, the optimum planting density of E. urophylla is 2000 individuals per hectare. PMID:11766582

  6. Genomic patterns of species diversity and divergence in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Myburg, Alexander A; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

    2015-06-01

    We examined genome-wide patterns of DNA sequence diversity and divergence among six species of the important tree genus Eucalyptus and investigated their relationship with genomic architecture. Using c. 90 range-wide individuals of each Eucalyptus species (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. globulus, E. nitens, E. dunnii and E. camaldulensis), genetic diversity and divergence were estimated from 2840 polymorphic diversity arrays technology markers covering the 11 chromosomes. Species differentiating markers (SDMs) identified in each of 15 pairwise species comparisons, along with species diversity (HHW ) and divergence (FST ), were projected onto the E. grandis reference genome. Across all species comparisons, SDMs totalled 1.1-5.3% of markers and were widely distributed throughout the genome. Marker divergence (FST and SDMs) and diversity differed among and within chromosomes. Patterns of diversity and divergence were broadly conserved across species and significantly associated with genomic features, including the proximity of markers to genes, the relative number of clusters of tandem duplications, and gene density within or among chromosomes. These results suggest that genomic architecture influences patterns of species diversity and divergence in the genus. This influence is evident across the six species, encompassing diverse phylogenetic lineages, geography and ecology. PMID:25678438

  7. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  8. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  9. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  10. Relationship between density and ultrasonic velocity in Brazilian tropical woods.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabiana Goia Rosa; Sales, Almir

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the effect of density on the velocity of an ultrasonic wave in wood is investigated. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of density on the longitudinal velocity of an ultrasonic wave, propagated in the longitudinal direction. Experiments were conducted on 5cm x 5cm x 5cm wood specimens selected from the following species: pinus caribea (Pinus caribea var. caribea), eucalyptus citriodora (Eucalyptus citriodora), eucalyptus grandis (Eucalyptus grandis), cupiúba (Goupia glabra) and jatobá (Hymenaea sp.). The relationship between density and velocity was analyzed in two different manners: between and within species. The results obtained between species indicated that ultrasonic velocity tends to increase with increasing density. The results obtained within species also showed an increasing trend in ultrasonic velocity as density increased, but the relationship was not as significant as it was for between species. PMID:16311030

  11. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  12. Mixed plantations of eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    DeBell, D.S.; Whitesell, C.D.; Schubert, T.H.

    1985-07-01

    Two Eucalyptus species--E. Saligna and E. grandis--are especially favored in Hawaii for wood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-fixing plants, such as legumes. A test was conducted to determine whether planting two leguminous species--Acacia melanoxylon and Albizia falcataria Fosberg--could increase biomass production. Total biomass production was much greater in the mixed-species plantations than in the pure Eucalyptus plantation.

  13. Isolation and characterization of lignins from Eucalyptus tereticornis (12ABL).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiping; Lu, Fachuang; Liu, Chuanfu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2010-11-10

    A three-step sequential extraction-precipitation method was used to isolate lignin from Eucalyptus tereticornis. The ball-milled eucalyptus was extracted with 96% dioxane, 50% dioxane, and 80% dioxane containing 1% NaOH at boiling temperature, consecutively resulting in solubilization of lignin and hemicelluloses. By precipitating such solutions into 70% aqueous ethanol, the hemicelluloses were removed substantially although there were still some carbohydrates left over, especially for lignin fraction extracted by 50% dioxane. Lignins dissolved in the 70% ethanol solutions were recovered via concentration and precipitation into acidified water. About 37% of the original lignin was released following such procedure whereas only 13.5% can be isolated by traditional milled wood lignin (MWL) method. The obtained lignin fractions were analyzed by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) following acid hydrolysis for sugar composition of the contaminating carbohydrates and characterized by quantitative (31)P NMR as well as two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence ((13)C-(1)H) NMR. The results showed that 96% aqueous dioxane extraction of ball-milled wood under conditions used in this study resulted in lignin preparation with very similar structures and sugar composition as traditional MWL. Therefore extracting ball-milled wood with 96% aqueous dioxane produced lignin in 33.6% yield, which makes it very attractive as an alternative to the traditional MWL method. However further extraction with 50% aqueous dioxane or 80% aqueous dioxane containing 1% NaOH gave just a little more lignins with different carbohydrate compositions from those in MWL. The eucalyptus lignins obtained were syringyl and guaiacyl type units. Lignin fraction obtained from 96% dioxane extraction was found to have more phenolic hydroxyl and less aliphatic hydroxyl than the other two preparations. PMID:20954709

  14. Xylem transcription profiles indicate potential metabolic responses for economically relevant characteristics of Eucalyptus species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus is one of the most important sources of industrial cellulose. Three species of this botanical group are intensively used in breeding programs: E. globulus, E. grandis and E. urophylla. E. globulus is adapted to subtropical/temperate areas and is considered a source of high-quality cellulose; E. grandis grows rapidly and is adapted to tropical/subtropical climates; and E. urophylla, though less productive, is considered a source of genes related to robustness. Wood, or secondary xylem, results from cambium vascular differentiation and is mostly composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. In this study, the xylem transcriptomes of the three Eucalyptus species were investigated in order to provide insights on the particularities presented by each of these species. Results Data analysis showed that (1) most Eucalyptus genes are expressed in xylem; (2) most genes expressed in species-specific way constitutes genes with unknown functions and are interesting targets for future studies; (3) relevant differences were observed in the phenylpropanoid pathway: E. grandis xylem presents higher expression of genes involved in lignin formation whereas E. urophylla seems to deviates the pathway towards flavonoid formation; (4) stress-related genes are considerably more expressed in E. urophylla, suggesting that these genes may contribute to its robustness. Conclusions The comparison of these three transcriptomes indicates the molecular signatures underlying some of their distinct wood characteristics. This information may contribute to the understanding of xylogenesis, thus increasing the potential of genetic engineering approaches aiming at the improvement of Eucalyptus forest plantations productivity. PMID:23521840

  15. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. PMID:26255602

  16. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  17. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  18. Transmission of Babesia caballi by Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) Is Restricted to One Generation in the Absense of Alimentary Reinfection on a Susceptible Equine Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical horse tick, Dermacentor nitens, is the natural vector of Babesia caballi in the Americas; the distribution of this tick in the United States is limited to the southernmost parts of Florida and Texas. Babesia caballi, one of the etiologic agents of equine babesiosis, occurs widely throug...

  19. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-19

    Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology. PMID:24919147

  20. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VI. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm: the natural system interface

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-05-01

    A review of pertinent literature covered the following: eucalypt background, the candidate species, biomass plantation considerations, effects of site production, leachate and allelopathy, and some exotic flora considerations. The comparative eucalypt field survey covers mined land stands, unmined south Florida stands, and Glade County eucalypt stands. The problem of eucalypt naturalization is discussed.

  1. Nitensidine A, a guanidine alkaloid from Pterogyne nitens, is a novel substrate for human ABC transporter ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Tamura, Ai; Kadioglu, Onat; Satake, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Yuji; Murase, Hayato; Regasini, Luis Octavio; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Fricker, Gert; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    The Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae) tree, native to South America, has been found to produce guanidine alkaloids as well as bioactive flavonols such as kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin. In the present study, we examined the possibility of interaction between human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 and four guanidine alkaloids isolated from P. nitens (i.e., galegine, nitensidine A, pterogynidine, and pterogynine) using human T cell lymphoblast-like leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM and its multi-drug resistant (MDR) counterpart CEM/ADR5000. In XTT assays, CEM/ADR5000 cells were resistant to the four guanidine alkaloids compared to CCRF-CEM cells, although the four guanidine alkaloids exhibited some level of cytotoxicity against both CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells. In ATPase assays, three of the four guanidine alkaloids were found to stimulate the ATPase activity of ABCB1. Notably, nitensidine A was clearly found to stimulate the ATPase activity of ABCB1 as strongly as the control drug, verapamil. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of nitensidine A on CEM/ADR5000 cells was synergistically enhanced by verapamil. Nitensidine A inhibited the extrusion of calcein by ABCB1. In the present study, the possibility of interaction between ABCB1 and two synthetic nitensidine A analogs (nitensidine AT and AU) were examined to gain insight into the mechanism by which nitensidine A stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCB1. The ABCB1-dependent ATPase activity stimulated by nitensidine A was greatly reduced by substituting sulfur (S) or oxygen (O) for the imino nitrogen atom (N) in nitensidine A. Molecular docking studies on human ABCB1 showed that, guanidine alkaloids from P. nitens dock to the same binding pocket as verapamil. Nitensidine A and its analogs exhibit similar binding energies to verapamil. Taken together, this research clearly indicates that nitensidine A is a novel substrate for ABCB1. The present results also suggest that the number, binding site, and polymerization

  2. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  3. [Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

    2009-07-01

    Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species. PMID:19899483

  4. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A P

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus. PMID:27148332

  5. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M.; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus. PMID:27148332

  6. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents. PMID:26693411

  7. Species Discrimination, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis Using SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Arumugasundaram, Shanmugapriya; Ghosh, Modhumita; Veerasamy, Sivakumar; Ramasamy, Yasodha

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis are closely related species commonly cultivated for pulp wood in many tropical countries including India. Understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) existing in these species is essential for the improvement of industrially important traits. Our goal was to evaluate the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci for species discrimination, population structure and LD analysis in these species. Investigations were carried out with the most common alleles in 93 accessions belonging to these two species using 62 SSR markers through cross amplification. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.44 to 0.93 and 0.36 to 0.93 in E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis respectively. A clear delineation between the two species was evident based on the analysis of population structure and species-specific alleles. Significant genotypic LD was found in E. camaldulensis, wherein out of 135 significant pairs, 17 pairs showed r2≥0.1. Similarly, in E. tereticornis, out of 136 significant pairs, 18 pairs showed r2≥0.1. The extent of LD decayed rapidly showing the significance of association analyses in eucalypts with higher resolution markers. The availability of whole genome sequence for E. grandis and the synteny and co-linearity in the genome of eucalypts, will allow genome-wide genotyping using microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphims. PMID:22163287

  8. Wood biodegradation in laboratory-scale landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this research was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of major wood products in municipal waste by measuring methane yields, decay rates, the extent of carbohydrate decomposition, carbon storage, and leachate toxicity. Tests were conducted in triplicate 8 L reactors operated to obtain maximum yields. Measured methane yields for red oak, eucalyptus, spruce, radiata pine, plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB) from hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW), particleboard (PB) and medium-density fiberboard (MDF) were 32.5, 0, 7.5, 0.5, 6.3, 84.5, 0, 5.6, and 4.6 mL CH(4) dry g(-1), respectively. The red oak, a HW, exhibited greater decomposition than either SW (spruce and radiata), a trend that was also measured for the OSB-HW relative to OSB-SW. However, the eucalyptus (HW) exhibited toxicity. Thus, wood species have unique methane yields that should be considered in the development of national inventories of methane production and carbon storage. The current assumption of uniform biodegradability is not appropriate. The ammonia release from urea formaldehyde as present in PB and MDF could contribute to ammonia in landfill leachate. Using the extent of carbon conversion measured in this research, 0-19.9%, predicted methane production from a wood mixture using the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change waste model is only 7.9% of that predicted using the 50% carbon conversion default. PMID:21749061

  9. Wood stains

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...

  10. Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; de Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; da Silva Matos, Renata; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae. PMID:26346899

  11. Electrophysiological responses of Atta sexdens rubropilosa workers to essential oils of eucalyptus and its chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; da Silva, M Fátima G E; Vieira, Paulo C; Bueno, Odair C; Corrêa, Arlene G

    2006-01-01

    The leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 is the most harmful of the Eucalyptus pests, causing severe losses in wood production through defoliation. Various strategies have been tried and effort spent on the development of methods to control this pest, however no practical and environmentally acceptable one currently exists. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil of seven Eucalyptus species was identified and the selectivity and sensitivity of antennal receptors of A. sexdens rubropilosa workers to the volatile compounds were determined using the electroantennographic technique (EAG and GC-EAD). Analysis by GC-EAD showed in E. cloesiana and E. maculata, respectively, seventeen and sixteen terpenes that elicited responses in ant workers' antennae, indicating the potential role of the essential oils as allelochemicals that determine the choice of the foraging material. PMID:17137124

  12. Cryopreservation of eucalyptus genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Kaya, E; Alves, A; Rodrigues, L; Jenderek, M; Hernandez-Ellis, M; Ozudogru, A; Ellis, D

    2013-01-01

    The long-term preservation of forest genetic resources is a vital part of preserving our forest crops for future generations. Unfortunately, there are few genebanks dedicated to forest trees and very few methods for long-term preservation of forest genetic resources collections aside from field plantings of a limited number of seed-derived or elite clonal individuals. The use of cryopreservation for the long-term storage of elite germplasm is increasingly being used for the long-term preservation of clonal agronomic crops but for forest trees, such as Eucalyptus, the methodology for cryopreservation of diverse genetic resources collections has not been established. We report the successful cryopreservation of a germplasm collection of in vitro shoot cultures of thirteen Eucalyptus spp. lines consisting of two E. grandis x E. camaldulensis lines, seven E. urophylla x E. grandis lines, one E. grandis line, two E. grandis x E. urophylla lines, and one E. camaldulensis line. In a comparison of two cryopreservation methods, sucrose sensitivity limited the application of encapsulation-dehydration. However, with droplet-vitrification, all thirteen lines had good survival after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. A 30 min exposure to Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) yielded post-liquid nitrogen survival between 38% and 85% depending on the line. One hundred shoot tips from all thirteen lines are currently in long-term storage as a germplasm collection. PMID:24441371

  13. Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eucalyptus + C. albicans, diabetic control, diabetic + C. albicans, diabetic + eucalyptus + C. albicans. Diabetes was induced after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) of treated animals for 4 weeks. The concerned groups were inoculated with C. albicans 15 days after diabetes induction. At the end of one month experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Results: Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (P<0.05). Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats that in some ways validates the traditional use of this plant in treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:21079663

  14. Wood colors and their coloring matters: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    A number of colored specialty woods, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany and amboyna, and commercially important woods, such as morus, logwood, Brazilwood, Japanese yellowwood, blackwood, kwila, red beech and myrtle beech, exhibit a wide range of colors from black, violet, dark red, reddish brown, to pale yellow. These colors are not only due to colored pigments contained in extractives from those woods but also to insoluble polymers. Wood and bark from many species of both hardwood and softwood trees contain many types of flavonoid compounds. Research on flavonoids has been conducted mainly from two points of view. The first is chemotaxonomy with flavonoid compounds as taxonomic markers, and the second relates to the utilization of woods for pulp and paper and the use of tannins from bark for wood adhesives. Most chemotaxonomic studies have been conducted on flavonoids in the extracts from softwoods such as Podocarpus, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Taxus, Libocedrus, Tsuja, Taxodium, Sequoia, Cedrus, Tsuga, Abies and Picea. Hardwood chemotaxonomic studies include those on Prunus and Eucalyptus species. Studies on flavonoids in pulp and paper production were conducted on Eucalyptus woods in Australia and woods from Douglas fir in the USA and larch in Japan. Flavonoids as tannin resources from black wattle tannin and quebracho tannin have been used commercially as wood adhesives. Flavonoids in the bark from radiata pine and southern pine, from western and eastern hemlock, southern red oak and Quercus dentata are also discussed. In addition, the distribution of flavonoids among tree species is described, as is the first isolation of rare procyanidin glycosides in nature. PMID:25924540

  15. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  16. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  17. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  18. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  19. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  20. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  1. Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.

    1997-10-01

    A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

  2. Processing conditions analysis of Eucalyptus globulus plywood bonded with resol-tannin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Stefani, P M; Peña, C; Ruseckaite, R A; Piter, J C; Mondragon, I

    2008-09-01

    Phenol-formaldehyde resol containing mimosa tannin extract was employed to produce plywood panels with two plies from Eucalyptus globulus veneers. The effect of processing conditions and tannin content on the gelation time of the adhesive in the glue line was evaluated by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA). These results were related with shear strength and wood failure of glue line in the final panels. Hazardous petrochemical phenol could be partially substituted in resols in industrial applications by addition of mimosa tannin extracts. PMID:18024109

  3. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha-1, respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha-1). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential. PMID:26186367

  4. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential. PMID:26186367

  5. A model system to study the lignification process in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Pedro; Cesarino, Igor; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Ferrari, Ilse Fernanda; Kiyota, Eduardo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Recalcitrance of plant biomass is closely related to the presence of the phenolic heteropolymer lignin in secondary cell walls, which has a negative effect on forage digestibility, biomass-to-biofuels conversion and chemical pulping. The genus Eucalyptus is the main source of wood for pulp and paper industry. However, when compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, relatively little is known about lignin biosynthesis in Eucalyptus and only a few genes were functionally characterized. An efficient, fast and inexpensive in vitro system was developed to study lignification in Eucalyptus globulus and to evaluate the potential role of candidate genes in this biological process. Seedlings were grown in four different conditions, in the presence or absence of light and with or without sucrose in the growth medium, and several aspects of lignin metabolism were evaluated. Our results showed that light and, to a lesser extent, sucrose induced lignin biosynthesis, which was followed by changes in S/G ratio, lignin oligomers accumulation and gene expression. In addition, higher total peroxidase activity and differential isoperoxidase profile were observed when seedlings were grown in the presence of light and sucrose. Peptide sequencing allowed the identification of differentially expressed peroxidases, which can be considered potential candidate class III peroxidases involved in lignin polymerization in E. globulus. PMID:24444279

  6. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels. PMID:26685670

  7. Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of the NAC domain protein family in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Steven G; Saïdi, Mohammed N; Hefer, Charles A; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    NAC domain transcription factors regulate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants and vary widely in number and family structure. We analysed the characteristics and evolution of the NAC gene family of Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing forest tree in the rosid order Myrtales. NAC domain genes identified in the E. grandis genome were subjected to amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and motif analyses. Transcript abundance in developing tissues and abiotic stress conditions in E. grandis and E. globulus was quantified using RNA-seq and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). One hundred and eighty-nine E. grandis NAC (EgrNAC) proteins, arranged into 22 subfamilies, are extensively duplicated in subfamilies associated with stress response. Most EgrNAC genes form tandem duplicate arrays that frequently carry signatures of purifying selection. Sixteen amino acid motifs were identified in EgrNAC proteins, eight of which are enriched in, or unique to, Eucalyptus. New candidates for the regulation of normal and tension wood development and cold responses were identified. This first description of a Myrtales NAC domain family reveals an unique history of tandem duplication in stress-related subfamilies that has likely contributed to the adaptation of eucalypts to the challenging Australian environment. Several new candidates for the regulation of stress, wood formation and tree-specific development are reported. PMID:25385212

  8. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Budzinski, Ilara G. F.; Moon, David H.; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD+ for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  9. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  10. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Li, Fagen; Zhou, Changpin; Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10-56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  11. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10–56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  12. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    PubMed

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth. PMID:27296961

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of strains of Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and ALL (Steinernematidae: Rhabditida) to control engorged female Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ribeiro, G M; Vasconcelos, V O; Furlong, J; Dolinski, C

    2009-04-01

    In view of the need to combat the generalized spread of resistance in ticks to commercial acaricides, the objective of this study was to evaluate the action of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae, strains Santa Rosa and ALL) on engorged female Anocentor nitens. Five ticks per Petri dish were exposed to concentrations of 500, 5,000, or 25,000 infective juveniles of S. carpocapsae for 72 h. After transferring the ticks to clean plates, biological parameters were analyzed. Related to strains Santa Rosa, the period of pre-oviposition (p = 0.0001), oviposition (p = 0.041), and the mass weight of eggs (p = 0.005) showed significant differences between the control group and treated group. When the strain ALL was tested, the control and treated groups differed between the periods of pre-oviposition (p = 0.001), oviposition (p = 0.001), and egg mass weight (p = 0.01). The egg mass conversion was less significant in the groups when exposed to strains Santa Rosa (p = 0.002) and ALL (p = 0.001) relative to the control. The efficacy of both entomopathogenic nematode strains used in this study was comparable to other biological control agents, showing their potential against A. nitens in the laboratory. PMID:19123009

  14. Climate determines vascular traits in the ecologically diverse genus Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Harbusch, Marco; Wesolowski, Anita; Smith, Renee; Macfarlane, Craig; Tjoelker, Mark G; Reich, Peter B; Adams, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Current theory presumes that natural selection on vascular traits is controlled by a trade-off between efficiency and safety of hydraulic architecture. Hence, traits linked to efficiency, such as vessel diameter, should show biogeographic patterns; but critical tests of these predictions are rare, largely owing to confounding effects of environment, tree size and phylogeny. Using wood sampled from a phylogenetically constrained set of 28 Eucalyptus species, collected from a wide gradient of aridity across Australia, we show that hydraulic architecture reflects adaptive radiation of this genus in response to variation in climate. With increasing aridity, vessel diameters narrow, their frequency increases with a distribution that becomes gradually positively skewed and sapwood density increases while the theoretical hydraulic conductivity declines. Differences in these hydraulic traits appear largely genotypic in origin rather than environmentally plastic. Data reported here reflect long-term adaptation of hydraulic architecture to water availability. Rapidly changing climates, on the other hand, present significant challenges to the ability of eucalypts to adapt their vasculature. PMID:26743135

  15. Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Luís, Ângelo; Neiva, Duarte; Pereira, Helena; Gominho, Jorge; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of several crude stump wood and stump bark extracts of E. globulus, comparing it with similar extracts of E. globulus wood (industrial chips). The results showed the presence of high concentrations of total phenolic compounds (>200 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoids (>10 mg QE/g extract) in E. globulus stump extracts. Generally the stump wood extracts stands out from the other ones, presenting the highest percentages of inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. It was also possible to conclude that the extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria, presenting low MIC values. This study thus provides information supporting the economic valorization of E. globulus stump wood. PMID:25314604

  16. Chemical composition of 8 eucalyptus species' essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1957, Tunisia introduced 117 species of Eucalyptus; they have been used as fire wood, for the production of mine wood and to fight erosion. Actually, Eucalyptus essential oil is traditionally used to treat respiratory tract disorders such as pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. A few investigations were reported on the biological activities of Eucalyptus oils worldwide. In Tunisia, our previous works conducted in 2010 and 2011 had been the first reports to study the antibacterial activities against reference strains. At that time it was not possible to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against clinical bacterial strains and other pathogens such as virus and fungi. Methods The essential oils of eight Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman, Korbous (North East Tunisia) and Souinet arboreta (North of Tunisia) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods against seven bacterial isolates: Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. In addition, the bactericidal, fungicidal and the antiviral activities of the tested oils were carried out. Results Twenty five components were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. These components were used to correlate with the biological activities of the tested oils. The chemical principal component analysis identified three groups, each of them constituted a chemotype. According to the values of zone diameter and percentage of the inhibition (zdi, % I, respectively), four groups and subgroups of bacterial strains and three groups of fungal strains were characterized by their sensitivity levels to Eucalyptus oils. The cytotoxic effect and the antiviral activity varied significantly within Eucalyptus species oils. Conclusions E. odorata showed the strongest activity against S. aureus, H. influenzae, S. agalactiae, S. pyogenes

  17. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; Calixto, Giovana; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal infections caused by Candida krusei are a problem of extreme complexity due to the intrinsic resistance to azole drugs. The species Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland is a plant of the Eriocaulaceae family that has demonstrated promising antifungal activity. In phyto-formulation research, liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive systems (LCPM) stand out as drug delivery systems for vaginal administration because they increase the activity and overcome the problems associated with plant-based medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the methanolic extract of scapes of S. nitens (S. nitens extract [SNE]) and an SNE-loaded LCPM against C. krusei as prophylaxis for vulvovaginal candidiasis. LCPM formulation developed consisted of oleic acid as the oil phase (50% w/w), polyoxypropylene (5) polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl alcohol (40% w/w) as the surfactant and a polymeric dispersion containing 2.5% Carbopol® 974P and 2.5% polycarbophil (10% w/w) as the aqueous phase. LCPM formulation developed was characterized using polarized light microscopy, rheological analysis, and in vitro mucoadhesive studies. Different strains of C. krusei, including one standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258) and three clinically isolated strains from the vaginal region (CKV1, 2, and 3), were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilms, and time kill. The in vivo prophylaxis assay was performed using the standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258). The analyses of F by polarized light microscopy and rheology showed isotropy; however, the addition of 100% artificial vaginal mucus (F100) made it more viscous and anisotropic. Moreover, the mucoadhesive strength was modified, which makes F an excellent formulation for vaginal applications. SNE was active against all strains studied, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 125 to 62.5 µg/mL; after incorporating SNE into F (FE

  18. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Lignin Composition and Structure in Young versus Adult Eucalyptus globulus Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Nieto, Lidia; Jiménez-Barbero, J.; Faulds, Craig B.; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Martínez, Ángel T.; del Río, José C.

    2011-01-01

    Lignin changes during plant growth were investigated in a selected Eucalyptus globulus clone. The lignin composition and structure were studied in situ by a new procedure enabling the acquisition of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectra on wood gels formed in the NMR tube as well as by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, milled-wood lignins were isolated and analyzed by 2D-NMR, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and thioacidolysis. The data indicated that p-hydroxyphenyl and guaiacyl units are deposited at the earlier stages, whereas the woods are enriched in syringyl (S) lignin during late lignification. Wood 2D-NMR showed that β-O-4′ and resinol linkages were predominant in the eucalypt lignin, whereas other substructures were present in much lower amounts. Interestingly, open β-1′ structures could be detected in the isolated lignins. Phenylcoumarans and cinnamyl end groups were depleted with age, spirodienone abundance increased, and the main substructures (β-O-4′ and resinols) were scarcely modified. Thioacidolysis revealed a higher predominance of S units in the ether-linked lignin than in the total lignin and, in agreement with NMR, also indicated that resinols are the most important nonether linkages. Dimer analysis showed that most of the resinol-type structures comprised two S units (syringaresinol), the crossed guaiacyl-S resinol appearing as a minor substructure and pinoresinol being totally absent. Changes in hemicelluloses were also shown by the 2D-NMR spectra of the wood gels without polysaccharide isolation. These include decreases of methyl galacturonosyl, arabinosyl, and galactosyl (anomeric) signals, assigned to pectin and related neutral polysaccharides, and increases of xylosyl (which are approximately 50% acetylated) and 4-O-methylglucuronosyl signals. PMID:21098672

  20. Kinetics of Eucalyptus globulus delignification in a methanol-water medium

    SciTech Connect

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Santos, A.; Oliet, M.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.; Tijero, J.

    1999-09-01

    The kinetics of Eucalyptus Globulus delignification in methanol-water pulping has been studied. A total of 17 isothermal runs at a liquor-to-wood ratio of 50 L/kg were carried out to develop the kinetic model describing the system. In a first series of experiments, eight models were considered to study the influence of temperature on the delignification rate. The most suitable model, which was discriminated according to statistical criteria, describes delignification as the consecutive dissolution of three lignin species: initial, bulk, and residual lignin, their content in wood being 10, 69, and 21%, respectively. Initial and residual delignification were considered as irreversible reactions and bulk delignification as reversible. The influence of hydrogen ion concentration was taken into account by means of a general power-law expression. The model proposed was taken into account by means of a general power-law expression. The model proposed was validated by reproducing the experimental data from four runs carried out under nonisothermal conditions and a liquor-to-wood ratio of 7 L/kg, which are closer to industrial operating conditions.

  1. Development of Genetic Markers in Eucalyptus Species by Target Enrichment and Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family– based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus. PMID:25602379

  2. New species, hyper-diversity and potential importance of Calonectria spp. from Eucalyptus in South China

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; Chen, S.F.; Mou, X.; Zhou, X.D.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus trees in plantations or cuttings in nurseries displayed symptoms of leaf blight. Isolations from symptomatic leaves and soils collected close to infected trees resulted in a large collection of Calonectria isolates. These isolates were identified using the Consolidated Species Concept, employing morphological characters and DNA sequence comparisons for the β-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Twenty-one Calonectria species were identified of which 18 represented novel taxa. Of these, 12 novel taxa belonged to Sphaero-Naviculate Group and the remaining six to the Prolate Group. Southeast Asia appears to represent a centre of biodiversity for the Sphaero-Naviculate Group and this fact could be one of the important constraints to Eucalyptus forestry in China. The remarkable diversity of Calonectria species in a relatively small area of China and associated with a single tree species is surprising. PMID:26955194

  3. Botryosphaeria species from Eucalyptus in Australia are pleoanamorphic, producing dichomera synanamorphs in culture.

    PubMed

    Barber, Paul A; Burgess, Treena J; Hardy, Giles E St J; Slippers, Bernard; Keane, Philip J; Wingfield, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    Species within the genus Botryosphaeria include some of the most widespread and important pathogens of woody plants, and have been the focus of numerous taxonomic studies in recent years. It is currently accepted that anamorphs of Botryosphaeria belong to two distinct genera, Fusicoccum and Diplodia. Species within the genus Fusicoccum commonly produce aseptate, hyaline conidia. In the present study, fungi were isolated from foliage and wood of Eucalyptus in native forests and plantations in Australia. Although these fungi produced Dichomera anamorphs in culture, they clustered within the Fusicoccum clade of Botryosphaeria based on their ITS sequence data. Four species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, B. parva, B. ribis and B. australis produced Dichomera conidia in culture. The Dichomera synanamorphs are described for these four species of Botryosphaeria. In addition, falling within the Fusicoccum clade of Botryosphaeria, two species were found to be distinct from previously described Botryosphaeria spp. based on their ITS sequences, but synonymous with D. versiformis and D. eucalypti. These observations are currently unique to isolates from host trees within the genus Eucalyptus in Australia, and the pleoanamorphic nature of these species is discussed. PMID:16353635

  4. Development of genetic markers in Eucalyptus species by target enrichment and exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family- based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus. PMID:25602379

  5. Do differences in carbon allocation strategy account for large difference in productivity among four tropical Eucalyptus plantations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, D.; Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Kinana, A.; Mazoumbou, J.; Almeida, J. D.; Deleporte, P.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for wood products is not satisfied by natural forests, and forest plantations are expected to provide a larger part of the global wood supply in the future. Eucalyptus is the dominant species planted in the tropics. Intensification of wood production will rely mainly on gain of productivity and on extension of afforested area on marginal zones. Wood production does not only depend on gross primary production (GPP) but also on carbon partitioning between growth (NPP) and respiration, and on NPP partitioning among the different plant organs (allocation). Less than one third of GPP is allocated to wood production in planted forest ecosystems and we hypothesized that this fraction varies among genotypes, or because of soil fertility, in relation to productivity. The partitioning of aboveground NPP between leaf, branch and stem growth was compared in four Eucalyptus plantations located in Congo and Brazil over an entire rotation (6 years). In addition, total below ground carbon allocation was estimated from soil respiration and litter fall measurements. Two clones differing in productivity were studies in Congo where productivity is known to be much less important than in Brazil. Two plots (fertilized or not with K) were studied in Brazil. In Congo, the wood production was twice higher in the most productive clone (UG) compared to the less productive one (PF1). This was due to a higher aboveground NPP, the surplus being allocated to wood production. In addition, an increase in leaf lifespan reduced the amount of carbon allocated to leaf production. Similar conclusions can be drawn when comparing K+ fertilised and control stand in Brazil where most of the surplus of aboveground NPP in fertilised plots was allocated to wood production and where leaf lifespan was also increased. Soil respiration increased in both sites with increasing NPP reflecting that more carbon is allocated below ground in these stands. A better understanding of genetic and

  6. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  7. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood's lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  8. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet (UV) light to look at the skin closely. ... Gebhard RE. Wood's light examination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap ...

  9. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports a wide array of research and ...

  10. Effect of veneer side wettability on bonding quality of Eucalyptus globulus plywoods prepared using a tannin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesive.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, G; González-Alvarez, J; López-Suevos, F; Antorrena, G

    2003-05-01

    The influence of rotary peeling on the different behaviour of tight and loose sides of Eucalyptus globulus veneers has been studied. The presence of lathe checks on the loose sides favours wettability, the contact angle decreasing more rapidly on these sides than on tight sides. Additionally, pine bark tannins improved wettability due to their surfactant character. Bonding quality tests carried out on plywoods prepared using a tannin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesive showed that fracture almost invariably occurred in a glue line with at least one loose side, where wood failure appeared. This behaviour, confirmed by analysing the glue lines by means of fluorescence microscopy, was due to the large surface alterations of the loose sides which reduced mechanical strength but allowed greater penetration of the adhesive giving rise to high wood failure. PMID:12507878

  11. Natural radionuclides in an eucalyptus forest located in the south of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca, F.; Manjón, G.; García-León, M.

    2001-06-01

    Eucalyptus forests can be considered as the main source of raw material for the pulp industry of Spain. This environment was selected for a radioactivity study because natural and artificial radionuclides can be transferred into the pulp mills, associated with raw material, wood and barks, where they are concentrated by industrial processes, becoming a cause of doses. Radionuclide concentration of natural radionuclides ( 238U, 234U, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th) were determined by alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. Well-established radiochemical procedures were applied to environmental samples in order to isolate these radionuclides. A comparison between 228Th activity, determined by gamma-spectrometry, and 232Th activity, determined by alpha-spectrometry, was used as quality control parameter for analyses. The concentration factors were finally evaluated from experimental data.

  12. Separation of lignocresol from eucalyptus lignocresol-cellulase complex using organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ai; Funaoka, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    A functional lignin-based material, lignocresol, was synthesized from eucalyptus wood meal by using phase separation treatment with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid. Lignocresol physically adsorbs Trichoderma reesei cellulase and functions as an immobilized cellulase. Lignocresol-immobilized cellulase was treated with acetone or ethanol to separate the enzyme and its support. Most lignocresol was dissolved in organic solvents and then precipitated in diethyl ether. The recovery yield of lignocresol using acetone was 85% and that using ethanol was 72%, with very low or negligible residual cellulase. Lignocresol is an innovative recyclable enzyme support that can be easily separated using only organic solvents after deactivation of the immobilized enzyme. PMID:23835277

  13. Fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus waste in a conical spouted bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Amutio, Maider; Lopez, Gartzen; Alvarez, Jon; Olazar, Martin; Bilbao, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The fast pyrolysis of a forestry sector waste composed of Eucalyptus globulus wood, bark and leaves has been studied in a continuous bench-scale conical spouted bed reactor plant at 500°C. A high bio-oil yield of 75.4 wt.% has been obtained, which is explained by the suitable features of this reactor for biomass fast pyrolysis. Gas and bio-oil compositions have been determined by chromatographic techniques, and the char has also been characterized. The bio-oil has a water content of 35 wt.%, and phenols and ketones are the main organic compounds, with a concentration of 26 and 10 wt.%, respectively. In addition, a kinetic study has been carried out in thermobalance using a model of three independent and parallel reactions that allows quantifying this forestry waste's content of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. PMID:26203554

  14. Floodplains and wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do

  15. Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America

    PubMed Central

    Zamaloa, María C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; González, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the

  16. Pretreatment with laccase and a phenolic mediator degrades lignin and enhances saccharification of Eucalyptus feedstock

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biofuel production from lignocellulosic material is hampered by biomass recalcitrance towards enzymatic hydrolysis due to the compact architecture of the plant cell wall and the presence of lignin. The purpose of this work is to study the ability of an industrially available laccase-mediator system to modify and remove lignin during pretreatment of wood (Eucalyptus globulus) feedstock, thus improving saccharification, and to analyze the chemical modifications produced in the whole material and especially in the recalcitrant lignin moiety. Results Up to 50% lignin removal from ground eucalypt wood was attained by pretreatment with recombinant Myceliophthora thermophila laccase and methyl syringate as mediator, followed by alkaline peroxide extraction in a multistage sequence. The lignin removal directly correlated with increases (approximately 40%) in glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment using laccase alone (without mediator) removed up to 20% of lignin from eucalypt wood. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the pretreated wood revealed modifications of the lignin polymer, as shown by lignin markers with shortened side chains and increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio. Additional information on the chemical modifications produced was obtained by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of the whole wood swollen in dimethylsulfoxide-d6. The spectra obtained revealed the removal of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin units, although with a preferential removal of the former, and the lower number of aliphatic side-chains per phenylpropane unit (involved in main β-O-4ʹ and β-βʹ inter-unit linkages), in agreement with the pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results, without a substantial change in the wood polysaccharide signals. However, the most noticeable modification observed in the spectra was the formation of Cα-oxidized syringyl lignin units during the enzymatic treatment. Further insight into

  17. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Vining, Kelly J; Romanel, Elisson; Jones, Rebecca C; Klocko, Amy; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Hefer, Charles A; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Naithani, Sushma; Ranik, Martin; Wesley-Smith, James; Solomon, Luke; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Myburg, Alexander A; Strauss, Steven H

    2015-06-01

    As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages, and compared these with transcriptomes of diverse vegetative tissues, including leaves, roots, and stems. A subset of 4807 genes (13% of protein-coding genes) were differentially expressed between floral buds of either stage and vegetative tissues. A similar proportion of genes were differentially expressed among all tissues. A total of 479 genes were differentially expressed between early and late stages of floral development. Gene function enrichment identified 158 gene ontology classes that were overrepresented in floral tissues, including 'pollen development' and 'aromatic compound biosynthetic process'. At least 40 floral-dominant genes lacked functional annotations and thus may be novel floral transcripts. We analyzed several genes and gene families in depth, including 49 putative biomarkers of floral development, the MADS-box transcription factors, 'S-domain'-receptor-like kinases, and selected gene family members with phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains. Expanded MADS-box gene subfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis included SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), SEPALLATA (SEP) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) Arabidopsis thaliana homologs. These data provide a rich resource for functional and evolutionary analysis of genes controlling eucalypt floral development, and new tools for breeding and biotechnology. PMID:25353719

  18. Is Eucalyptus Cryptically Self-incompatible?

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Tasmien N.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The probability that seeds will be fertilized from self- versus cross-pollen depends strongly on whether plants have self-incompatibility systems, and how these systems influence the fate of pollen tubes. Methods In this study of breeding systems in Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis, epifluorescence microscopy was used to study pollen tube growth in styles following self- and cross-pollinations. Key Results Pollen tubes from self-pollen took significantly longer than those from cross-pollen to grow to the base of the style in both E. urophylla (120 h vs. 96 h) and E. grandis (96 h vs. 72 h). In addition, both species exhibited reduced seed yields following self-pollination compared with cross-pollination. Conclusions The present observations suggest that, in addition to a late-acting self-incompatibility barrier, cryptic self-incompatibility could be a mechanism responsible for the preferential out-crossing system in these two eucalypt species. PMID:17881341

  19. Hydrological impact of Eucalyptus plantation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Ian R.; Hall, Robin L.; Prasanna, K. T.

    1993-10-01

    A brief review is given of the results of hydrological studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species on water resources, erosion and soil nutrients at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. New results on the impacts of the plantations on raindrop-induced erosion and preliminary results from studies that are aimed at improving the water use efficiency of the plantations are also presented. The erosion studies indicate that soil detachment resulting from net rainfall beneath Eucalyptus camaldulensis will be greater than beneath Pinus caribaea but less than that beneath the indigenous species, Tectona grandis. The water use efficiency studies, which make use of a controlled environment facility, have confirmed that in the dry zone of southern India water availability is the principal limiting factor on growth although, when water is available, nutrient limitations become important. Removal of both water and nutrient stress results typically in a fivefold increase in volume growth for the first year of growth.

  20. Ethanol production from Eucalyptus plantation thinnings.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Spain, M

    2012-04-01

    Conditions for optimal pretreatment of eucalypt (Eucalyptus dunnii) and spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) forestry thinning residues for bioethanol production were empirically determined using a 3(3) factorial design. Up to 161mg/g xylose (93% theoretical) was achieved at moderate combined severity factors (CSF) of 1.0-1.6. At CSF>2.0, xylose levels declined, owing to degradation. Moreover at high CSF, depolymerisation of cellulose was evident and corresponded to glucose (155mg/g, ∼33% cellulose) recovery in prehydrolysate. Likewise, efficient saccharification with Cellic® CTec 2 cellulase correlated well with increasing process severity. The best condition yielded 74% of the theoretical conversion and was attained at the height of severity (CSF of 2.48). Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently fermented crude E. dunnii hydrolysate within 30h, yielding 18g/L ethanol, representing a glucose to ethanol conversion rate of 0.475g/g (92%). Based on our findings, eucalyptus forest thinnings represent a potential feedstock option for the emerging Australian biofuel industry. PMID:22342086

  1. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  3. Cryopreservation of axillary buds of a Eucalyptus grandis x eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid.

    PubMed

    Blakesley, D; Kiernan, R J

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from a study to develop methodology for the cryopreservation of axillary buds from an in vitro hybrid Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden.) x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnnh.), maintained for use in a genetic modification programme. Axillary buds were encapsulated in an alginate gel, precultured on media containing elevated levels of sucrose, or a combination of sucrose and glycerol. Encapsulated buds were then dehydrated by evaporation prior to a two-step freezing process in liquid nitrogen. Eighteen percent of shoot explants survived freezing when sucrose alone was used as a protectant against dehydration and cryopreservation. Significantly higher survival (49%) was obtained with the incorporation of glycerol into the protocol. Following cryopreservation, shoots appeared to develop normally, with no evidence of adventitious meristems. PMID:11788839

  4. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9 wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55 N mg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60 m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0 nm, respectively. The addition of 9 wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions. PMID:26794952

  5. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. PMID:25385325

  6. Floods and Fluvial Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have recently addressed the complex interactions existing at various spatial scales among riparian vegetation, channel morphology and wood storage. The majority of these investigations has been carried out in relatively natural river systems, focusing mostly on the long-term vegetation-morphology dynamics under "equilibrium" conditions. Little is still known about the role of flood events - of different frequency/magnitude - on several aspects of such dynamics, e.g. entrainment conditions of in-channel wood, erosion rates of vegetation from channel margins and from islands, transport distances of wood elements of different size along the channel network. Even less understood is how the river's evolutionary trajectory may affect these processes, and thus the degree to which conceptual models derivable from near-natural systems could be applicable to human-disturbed channels. Indeed, the different human pressures - present on most river basins worldwide - have greatly impaired the morphological and ecological functions of fluvial wood, and the attempts to "restore" in-channel wood storage are currently carried out without a sufficient understanding of wood transport processes occurring during floods. On the other hand, the capability to correctly predict the magnitude of large wood transport during large floods is now seen as crucial - especially in mountain basins - for flood hazard mapping, as is the identification of the potential wood sources (e.g. landslides, floodplains, islands) for the implementation of sound and effective hazard mitigation measures. The presentation will first summarize the current knowledge on fluvial wood dynamics and modelling at different spatial and temporal scales, with a particular focus on mountain rivers. The effects of floods of different characteristics on vegetation erosion and wood transport will be then addressed presenting some study cases from rivers in the European Alps and in the Italian Apennines featuring

  7. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  8. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Wiltsee.

    1999-01-21

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories (wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  9. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  10. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  11. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    PubMed

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry. PMID:25394796

  12. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    PubMed

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments. PMID:27343456

  13. Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Suat Hui; Ho, Simon Y W; Thornhill, Andrew H; Foley, William J

    2013-09-01

    Foundation tree species define the structure of forest habitat and influence their ecosystem dynamics. However, there is limited understanding of both the patterns and timing of population fluctuations in foundation trees and how they vary among geographical regions. We have reconstructed the demographic history of five genetically distinct populations of the Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus) at the species and regional levels, using three nuclear loci sequenced from 104 individuals. Analysis using a Bayesian skyline plot indicated that the species experienced two periods of expansion, commencing in the Pliocene. Regional analyses showed that island populations expanded earlier, but that the rate of expansion was relatively slow when compared to that of the mainland group. This highlights the need for local demographic history to be taken into account when inferring local adaptation for candidate genes. Population growth throughout the Quaternary signals the ability of the species to persist and thrive under the predominantly harsh conditions of this period. PMID:23643971

  14. Effects of Planting Density on Transpiration, Stem Flow and Interception for Two Clones Differing in Drought Tolerance in a High Productivity Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, R. M.; Hakemada, R.; Ferraz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Eucalypt plantations cover about 20 M hectares worldwide and expansion is expected to mainly occur in marginal growing areas where dry conditions may lead to water conflicts. One of the principal reasons for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations is rapid wood growth but these forests also transpire large amounts of water. Genotype selection and planting density, are key factors regulating carbon and water tradeoffs at a stand scale, but few studies have examined these simultaneously especially in highly productive clonal plantations. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of planting density on carbon and water interactions using a drought tolerant and drought sensitive eucalyptus clone. This work is part of a larger study (TECHS project - Tolerance of Eucalyptus Clones to Hydric and Thermal Stresses) and is located in a flat Oxisol in southeast of Brazil. A drought tolerant (E. grandis x E. camaldulensis (Grancam) and drought sensitive clone E. grandis x E. urophylla (Urograndis) were planted at four densities ranging from 600 to 3.000 stem ha-1. We measured transpiration using thermal heat dissipation probes, wood growth, canopy interception and stemflow during a full year (21 to 33 months old). Precipitation during the study period was 738 mm. Independently of genetics, growth increased with increasing density. Transpiration also increased with planting density and ranged from 515-595 mm at wider spacing to 735-978 mm at tighter spacing. Interception increased with planting density representing 18-22% of precipitation versus 13-14% in wider spacing while stem flow represented 2-5% in denser spacing and 1-2% at broader spacing. When density was higher than 1.250 and 1.750 stems ha-1 in Urograndis and Grancam clones, respectively, the water balance were negative. On a stand scale, results show both genetics and spacing can be used as silvicultural tools to better manage the tradeoff between wood growth and water consumption.

  15. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  16. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  4. Influence of nutrient availability, stand age, and canopy structure on isoprene flux in a Eucalyptus saligna experimental forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Jennifer L.; Giardina, Christian P.; Knohl, Alexander; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2006-06-01

    Eucalyptus plantations occupy approximately 10 million ha of land in the tropics and, increasingly, afforestation and reforestation projects are relying on this genus to provide rapid occupation of degraded sites, large quantities of high-quality wood products, and high rates of carbon sequestration. Members of the genus Eucalyptus are also very high emitters of isoprene, the dominant volatile organic compound emitted by trees in tropical ecosystems, which significantly influences the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. While fertilization growth response of these trees has been intensively studied, little is known about how fertilization and tree age alter isoprene production from plantations of these trees. Here we examined the effects of fertilization and tree age on leaf-level isoprene flux from 2- and 6-year-old trees in a Eucalyptus saligna experimental forest in Hawaii. Leaf-level emission at a given canopy height did not differ between fertilized and unfertilized 6-year-old trees likely because leaf nitrogen content did not vary with fertilization. Across treatments, however, the standardized emission rate of isoprene (emission at a standard light and temperature) followed patterns of leaf N content and declined with canopy depth. Although leaf nitrogen content was similar between 2-year and 6-year fertilized trees, leaf-level emission rates declined with stand age. Surprisingly, despite differences in stand leaf area and leaf area distribution, modeled canopy-level isoprene flux was similar across stands varying in fertilization and tree age. Model results suggest that leaf area index was high enough in all treatments to absorb most of the light penetrating the canopy, leading to similar canopy flux rates despite the very different sized canopies.

  5. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  6. Distinct effects of auxin and light on adventitious root development in Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Fett-Neto, A G; Fett, J P; Veira Goulart, L W; Pasquali, G; Termignoni, R R; Ferreira, A G

    2001-05-01

    Adventitious rooting is essential for vegetative propagation of woody species. We studied the effects of auxin and light on the development of adventitious roots in cuttings obtained from seedlings of Eucalyptus saligna Smith and E. globulus Labill in an attempt to characterize the adventitious rooting process and identify factors controlling rhizogenesis. Root development was scored as rooting percentage, root density (roots per rooted cutting), mean rooting time and root length. In both species, rooting time was reduced in the presence of auxin. Cuttings from 2-month-old E. saligna seedlings were responsive to lower auxin concentrations than comparable cuttings from E. globulus seedlings. Cuttings from 3-month-old E. saligna seedlings rooted promptly and rooting was not significantly affected by light conditions. In contrast, rooting of cuttings from 3-month-old E. globulus seedlings exhibited recalcitrant behavior and no roots were formed if illuminated during the root formation phase. Effective root regeneration of E. globulus cuttings was obtained by a 4-day exposure to 10 mg l(-1) IBA and culture in darkness during the root formation step. Loss of rooting capacity with seedling age was more pronounced in E. globulus than in E. saligna. The possibility of switching adventitious rooting off and on by manipulating light regime and exogenous auxin supply in E. globulus, and the constitutive nature of rooting in E. saligna may provide useful models for examining the rooting process at the biochemical and molecular levels in Eucalyptus. PMID:11340046

  7. Composition and protein quality of honeybee-collected pollen of Eucalyptus marginata and Eucalyptus calophylla.

    PubMed

    Bell, R R; Thornber, E J; Seet, J L; Groves, M T; Ho, N P; Bell, D T

    1983-12-01

    The composition and protein quality of the two most important Western Australian export-quality pollens were investigated. Crude pollen protein content was 20.6% and 27.9% for Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and Marri (Eucalyptus calophylla), respectively. Lysine was the limiting amino acid relative to the FAO protein scoring pattern (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), and the amino acid scores were 0.73 and 0.66 for Jarrah and Marri pollen, respectively. Apparent biological value (BV) was 61.7 for Jarrah pollen, 66.9 for Marri pollen and 71.4 for the casein controls. Adjusted protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were 2.5, 1.2 and 1.1 for casein and Jarrah and Marri pollens, respectively. Apparent net protein utilization (NPU) was significantly reduced for both pollens (32.8 for Jarrah and 39.5 for Marri) compared to casein (63.6). The low apparent NPU values result from the relatively low digestibility of pollens. Apparent digestibility was 52 and 59% for Jarrah and Marri pollen compared to 89% for casein. Although both Jarrah and Marri pollen are relatively high in protein and have favorable amino acid patterns, their relatively low digestibility will be a limiting factor in their usefulness as a food for humans and monogastric animals. The proximate analysis and mineral content of the pollens are also presented. PMID:6655512

  8. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus torelliana.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Christiana Bola A; Lawal, Temitope Olufunmilayo; Mahady, Gail B

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae), Nigerian medicinal plants, was investigated in six strains of H. pylori, namely, ATCC 4504, ATCC 47619, A2, TI8984, 019A, and A6. The susceptibility of these strains was determined using a standardized agar dilution method (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines) with Mueller-Hinton agar, supplemented with defibrinated horse blood. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts against all the tested strains ranged from 12.5 to 400 mug/mL. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, and cardenolides. The anti-H. pylori activities demonstrated by these plants may be attributed to their chemical constituents, and explain their reported traditional uses, as well as their gastroprotective properties as demonstrated previously in experimental animals. The results of this work suggest that, in accordance with their traditional medical use in Nigeria, E. camaldalensis and E. torelliana have some therapeutic potential against H. pylori, and thus are of interest for the treatment of H. pylori infections. PMID:20396588

  9. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  10. Foliar nutrient retranslocation in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Saur, E; Nambiar, E K; Fife, D N

    2000-10-01

    We measured patterns of change in concentrations and contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in fully expanded leaves of young Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) trees growing in a plantation in southeastern Australia, over a 12-month period beginning at the onset of spring. There was significant net retranslocation of mobile nutrients on a seasonal basis from green leaves, coinciding with continued growth and production of foliage. There was a close positive relationship between initial nutrient content (N, P and K) of the leaf and amount retranslocated, and a tight coupling between N and P retranslocated from leaves. Net retranslocation was significantly correlated with basal area growth increments. Artificial shading of leaves resulted in senescence and reduction in leaf mass. It also induced retranslocation of N, P and K from leaves of different ages and from different position in the canopy. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of shading intensity on these changes were not elucidated, shading provided an experimental tool for studying retranslocation. Comparison of the results with published data for Pinus radiata (D. Don) grown in the same environment indicated a similarity between the species in patterns of change in foliar nutrient contents and in factors governing foliar nutrient retranslocation, giving rise to unifying principles. PMID:11269962

  11. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v) CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO) and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin) was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The 2% (w/v) CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v) EO in combination with 2% (w/v) CHG in 70% (v/v) IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis. PMID:20860796

  12. Genetic Control of Heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Corey J.; Freeman, Jules S.; Jones, Rebecca C.; Potts, Brad M.; Wong, Melissa M. L.; Weller, James L.; Hecht, Valérie F. G.; Poethig, R. Scott; Vaillancourt, René E.

    2014-01-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

  13. Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

    2014-07-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

  14. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands. PMID:26239647

  15. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  16. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  17. Impact Tests for Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

  18. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  19. Growing with wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1995-05-01

    When officials at Regional Waste Services (Peabody, Mass.) were looking for an outlet for their used wood products in the late 1980s, they had no idea that the material would eventually turn into a whole new market for them. Simply tired of paying exorbitant disposal fees and seeking out obscure landfills willing to accept the waste, company officials decided to build and operate their own 1,000-tpd wood recycling facility. Encouraged by the immediate success of the facility, principals at Regional Waste Services, which at the time was the fifth largest independent waste hauling, transfer, and disposal firm in the US made a strategic business decision to sell their waste hauling business and to concentrate on the wood recycling operation full time. Their newly named company, Wood Recycling, Inc. (WRI, Peabody, Mass.), was officially established in July 1990. Today, nearly five years later, that decision appears to be paying off in a big way. WRI has successfully diverted thousands of tons of urban wood wastes from landfills. It also has turned that waste into an innovative line of recycled wood and paper fiber mulch lawn care products that are being marketed to consumers and commercial entities across the country.

  20. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  1. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  2. Germination of stress-tolerant Eucalyptus pollen.

    PubMed

    Heslop-Harrison, J; Heslop-Harrison, Y

    1985-02-01

    Earlier reports have indicated that the pollen of Eucalyptus is mechanically robust and unusually resistant to the osmotic stress imposed by immersion in water. We have investigated some of the features of the germination mechanism in the pollen of E. rhodantha with a view to clarifying the role of pollen-wall specializations in determining this resistance. Cultured in vitro, the pollen showed erratic germination, with a scatter of germination times up to 24 h. This was associated with variation between individual grains in the rate of hydration and dispersal of the pectins of the oncus, the thickened outer component of the intine present at each aperture. The oncus is itself differentiated, with a refractive outer layer lying within a sporopollenin operculum and itself overlying the protein-bearing layer of the intine. The outer layer, interpreted as a compacted pectin, undergoes only slow dissolution in aqueous media after the lifting of the operculum, and it is this that apparently protects the grain from the effects of short-term osmotic stress. The rate of dissolution varies between grains, possibly as a consequence of minor differences in developmental rate in the final stages of differentiation in the anther, and this contributes to the wider scatter of germination times. The dehydrated pollen gave one-third of the potential germination after 24 h exposure to 60 degrees C, and a small proportion survived 24 h at 70 degrees C. This degree of heat tolerance must primarily reflect properties of the protoplast of the vegetative cell, not examined in the present study; but the wall specializations may well provide a guard against extreme desiccation, and it is noteworthy that the function of the germination mechanism is not prejudiced by exposure to high temperatures. PMID:4019590

  3. Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Pio, C.; Rzaca, M.; Schmidl, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain the combustion phase and conditions, continuous emission monitors measured O2, CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, temperature and pressure, during each burning cycle. Woodsmoke samples have been collected and analysed to estimate the contribution of plant debris and biomass smoke to atmospheric aerosols. At this stage of work, cellulose, anhydrosugars and humic-like substances (HULIS) have been measured. Cellulose was determined photometrically after its conversion to D-Glucose. The determination of levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars, including mannosan and galactosan, was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. HULIS determination was made with a total organic carbon analyser and an infrared non dispersive detector, after the isolation of substances. Cellulose was present in PM10 at mass fractions (w/w) of 0.13%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.08% for Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major anhydrosugar present in the samples, representing mass fractions of 14.71%, 3.80%, 6.78% and 1.91%, concerning the above mentioned wood species, respectively. The levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio, usually used to evaluate the proportion of hardwood or softwood smoke in PM10, gave average values of 34.9 (Eucalyptus globulos), 3.40 (Pinus pinaster), 24.8 (Quercus suber) and 10.4 (Acacia longifolia). HULIS were present at mass fractions of 2.35%, 2.99%, 1.52% and 1.72% for the four wood species listed in the same order as before.

  4. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  5. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free. PMID:26274428

  6. Effects of mesostructured silica catalysts on the depolymerization of organosolv lignin fractionated from woody eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Klamrassamee, Thepparat; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Cronin, Dylan; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S

    2015-03-01

    Isolated and purified organosolv eucalyptus wood lignin was depolymerized at different temperatures with and without mesostructured silica catalysts (i.e., SBA-15, MCM-41, ZrO2-SBA-15 and ZrO2-MCM-41). It was found that at 300°C for 1h with a solid/liquid ratio of 0.0175/1 (w/v), the SBA-15 catalyst with high acidity gave the highest syringol yield of 23.0% in a methanol/water mixture (50/50, wt/wt). Doping with ZrO2 over these catalysts did not increase syringol yield, but increased the total amount of solid residue. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) also identified other main phenolic compounds such as 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethanone, 1,2-benzenediol, and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde. Analysis of the lignin residues with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated decreases in the absorption bands intensities of OH group, CO stretching of syringyl ring and aromatic CH deformation of syringol unit, and an increase in band intensities associated with the guaiacyl ring, confirming the type of products formed. PMID:25614246

  7. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill in Galicia.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Regueira, L; Proupín-Castiñeiras, J; Rodríguez-Añón, J A

    2002-03-01

    The possibility of retrieving the energy contained in forest residues originating from wood exploitation in Galicia (Spain) is evaluated. This study was made on Eucalyptus globulus Labill occupying a forest surface of 240000 ha. This species plays an important role in the economical development of Galicia, as it is the main forest species for production of pulp. Sampling was made over 1999 in seven different zones, three main stations plus four selected for comparison, situated in Galicia. The residues originating from cutting were sorted into three different groups and their calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimetry. These calorific values, close to 7200 kJ kg(-1), make possible the use of this residual biomass as an energy source. Calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimeter in an oxygen atmosphere. Flammability was determined using a standard epiradiator. Simultaneously, some other parameters, elementary chemical composition, heavy metal contents, moisture, density, ash percentage after combustion in the bomb, and main bioclimatic characteristics, were also determined. PMID:11848377

  8. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  9. Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).

    PubMed

    Dudai, N; Weinberg, Z G; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Ashbell, G; Putievsky, E

    2001-05-01

    Changes in essential oil during ensiling of lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus were studied. Wilted lemongrass and eucalyptus leaves were ensiled in 0.25-L anaerobic jars. Samples consisted of a control (no additives) and a treated sample (0.5% glucose and lactic acid bacteria and 1% cellulase plus 1% hemicellulase plus pectinase). Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 6, 10, and 36 for analysis of essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by extraction and by hydrodistillation. Extraction efficacy of essential oil from the lemongrass was improved by the enzyme treatment, but it was much lower than the amount obtained by distillation. The major components of the essential oil were neral and geranial. In the eucalyptus, total essential oils obtained by distillation decreased during ensiling, and the amount was similar to the amount obtained by extraction. Citronellal, which was the major component of the essential oil in the fresh eucalyptus leaves, decreased, whereas isopulegol and 3,8-terpinolhydrate increased during ensiling. PMID:11368586

  10. In vitro regeneration of Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Girijashankar, V

    2012-01-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol enables mass multiplication, genetic modification and germplasm conservation of desired plants. In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from nodal segments of 18-months-old superior genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees through direct organogenesis (DO) and direct somatic embryogenesis (DSE) pathways. Initial bud break (BB) stage occurred via DO while shoot multiplication phase followed both DO and DSE pathways. Interestingly, both BB and shoot multiplication stages were achieved on shoot induction and multiplication (SIM) media composed of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Best shoot elongation response was observed on half strength MS fortified with 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP, while root induction and elongation was superior in 1/2 MS + 1 mg l(-1) Indole butyric acid (IBA). Full strength MS fortified with cytokinins (BAP) and weak auxin (NAA) in the ratio of 20:1 favored direct regeneration pathways. Further, half strength MS supported shoot and root development. The absence of intervening callus phase in this protocol can help in minimizing the chance occurrence of somaclones. When compared to other compositions tried, hardening in 100 % coco peat resulted in maximum survival (80 %) of the in vitro raised plantlets. For mass multiplication, fortnight subculturing of a single nodal explants for eight passages on SIM medium resulted in 60-148 shoot initials. Repeated subculturing in SIM medium induced the formation of direct somatic embryos which in turn improved the turnover capacity and enabled large scale clonal multiplication of elite and desirable trees of E. camaldulensis. Following this protocol, it takes a minimum time period of four-months between in vitro explant inoculation to hardening stage. In the present study, DO and DSE pathway of plant regeneration was reported occurring simultaneously in

  11. Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulger, A. N.

    Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

  12. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  13. Plasma treatment of wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

  14. Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. PMID:25303462

  15. Decaying wood in tree trunk hollows as a natural substrate for Cryptococcus neoformans and other yeast-like fungi of clinical interest.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, H S; Mussa, A Y; Khan, Z U

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and other yeast-like fungi of clinical interest in decaying wood inside tree trunk hollows, bark and other plant materials is reported. The var. neoformans was isolated from 3 of 45 (6.6%) wood and one of 390 Eucalyptus bark samples. Two of the positive wood samples came from a tree trunk hollow of Butea monosperma (Family: Papilionaceae) growing in Roshan Ara Garden, Old Delhi whereas the third was from a trunk hollow of Tamarindus indica (Family: Papilionaceae) growing outside of Talkatora Garden, New Delhi. The solitary positive Eucalyptus bark sample originated from Amritsar. The isolations of var. neoformans from decaying wood inside trunk hollows of B. monosperma and T indica constitute the first record of the natural occurrence of this pathogen in association with these trees. The observation reinforces the recent evidence for decaying wood inside trunk hollows of some trees to be a new natural habitat of the variety neoformans. Besides, in consonance with their essentially saprobic character, a number of other yeast-like fungi were sporadically isolated. This includes, Cryptoccus laurentii, Cryptococcus albidus, Candida lusitaniae, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. zeylanoides, Trichosporon cutaneum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, R. glutinis, Geotrichum capitatum, G. klebahnii and Sporobolomyces salmonicolor. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was not found in any of the 702 samples of plant materials, including the bark and detritus of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis trees. A more extensive environmental survey, covering divergent climatic regions, is warranted to identify the natural reservoirs of var. gattii in India. PMID:11554580

  16. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  17. Micropropagation and tissue culture of Eucalyptus-a review.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, J J; Staden, J V

    1991-12-01

    Micropropagation has the potential to provide very high multiplication rates of selected tree genotypes, with resulting short-term silvicultural gains. Aseptic cultures have been established from seeds, seedlings, shoots, flowers and lignotubers. Callus cultures have been established from a wide range of tissue sources for at least 30 species of Eucalyptus. Plant regeneration from callus was successful for 12 of these species. Micropropagation through axillary proliferation, or adventitious shoot proliferation on nodal explants, or both, has been successful. An agar-based medium of Murashige and Skoog with a low auxin/cytokinin ratio is most commonly used for shoot multiplication. Vitrification and shoot senescence remain problems. Gibberellic acid was added in some media to stimulate shoot elongation. Various media are used for in vitro root initiation. Suspension and protoplast cultures have been achieved and plants have been regenerated from protoplasts. In vitro techniques are presently being applied to Eucalyptus to achieve genetic transformations. PMID:14972839

  18. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  19. Out of the woods.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

  20. Valuation of pollinator forage services provided by Eucalyptus cladocalyx.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Willem J; Veldtman, Ruan; Allsopp, Mike H

    2013-08-15

    We assess the monetary value of forage provisioning services for honeybees as provided by an alien tree species in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Although Eucalyptus cladocalyx is not an officially declared invader, it is cleared on a regular basis along with other invasive Eucalyptus species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Eucalyptus conferruminata (which have been prioritised for eradication in South Africa). We present some of the trade-offs associated with the clearing of E. cladocalyx by means of a practical example that illustrates a situation where the benefits of the species to certain stakeholders could support the containment of the species in demarcated areas, while allowing clearing outside such areas. Given the absence of market prices for such forage provisioning services, the replacement cost is used to present the value of the loss in forage as provided by E. cladocalyx if the alien tree species is cleared along with invasive alien tree species. Two replacement scenarios formed the basis for our calculations. The first scenario was an artificial diet as replacement for the forage provisioning service, which yielded a direct cost estimate of US$7.5 m per year. The second was based on a Fynbos cultivation/restoration initiative aimed at substituting the forage provisioning service of E. cladocalyx, which yielded a direct cost of US$20.2 m per year. These figures provide estimates of the potential additional cost burden on the beekeeping industry if E. cladocalyx is completely eradicated from the Western Cape. The cost estimates should be balanced against the negative impacts of E. cladocalyx on ecosystem services in order to make an informed decision with regard to appropriate management strategies for this species. The findings therefore serve as useful inputs to balance trade-offs for alien species that are considered as beneficial to some, but harmful to other. PMID:23629013

  1. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-02-14

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

  2. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  3. Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of Eucalyptus globules Labill.

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Barad, Mahesh B.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro anticariogenic potential of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol and aqueous extracts of plant leaves of Eucalyptus globules Labill. were evaluated by using four cariogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The ethyl acetate extracted fraction of plant leaves showed good inhibitory effects against all selected bacteria. In Eucalyptus globules, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts found highly effective against, Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value of 0.031 and 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of above extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Based on the MIC value and bioautography, ethyl acetate of plant leaf was selected for further study. Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques revealed the presence of alpha-farnesene, a sesquiterpene. Eucalyptus globules plant leaf extracts have great potential as anticariogenic agents that may be useful in the treatment of oral disease. PMID:23961222

  4. Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.

    PubMed

    Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes. PMID:19937585

  5. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood. PMID:12937955

  6. Dynamic loss properties of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.; Caulfield, D.

    1984-11-01

    Internal friction and dielectric loss measurements have been made on whole wood, on cellulose, and on lignin. A prominent ..beta.. peak is seen at 200 K for frequencies around 1 Hz. This peak shifts to lower temperatures (near 160 K) when wood is heated to 475 K. We propose that this shift signifies molecular changes characteristic of the first stages of coalification of wood and lignin. Additional comparisons are made with the macromolecular structure of amber, oil shale, and synthetic polymers.

  7. Dynamic loss properties of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.; Caulfield, D.

    1984-11-01

    Internal friction and dielectric loss measurements have been made on wood, on cellulose, and on lignin. A prominent ..beta.. peak is seen at 200 K for frequencies around 1 Hz. This peak shifts to lower temperatures (near 160 K) when wood is heated to 475 K. We propose that this shift signifies molecular changes characteristic of the first stages of coalification of wood and lignin. Additional comparisons are made with the macromolecular structure of amber, oil shale, and synthetic polymers.

  8. Processed eucalyptus trees as a substrate component for greenhouse crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast growing eucalyptus species are selected for commercial plantings worldwide and are harvested for a variety of uses. Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida are harvested for landscape mulch production, yet this material may have potential as a container substrate for horticulture crop production....

  9. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations. PMID:19902249

  10. Genetic Linkage Maps of Eucalyptus Grandis and Eucalyptus Urophylla Using a Pseudo-Testcross: Mapping Strategy and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Sederoff, R.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a ``two-way pseudo-testcross'' mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of Eucalyptus. In the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose RAPD markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their F(1) progeny following a testcross configuration. Meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and efficiently analyzed using RAPD markers. We screened 305 primers of arbitrary sequence, and selected 151 to amplify a total of 558 markers. These markers were grouped at LOD 5.0, θ = 0.25, resulting in the maternal Eucalyptus grandis map having a total of 240 markers into 14 linkage groups (1552 cM) and the paternal Eucalyptus urophylla map with 251 markers in 11 linkage groups (1101 cM) (n = 11 in Eucalyptus). Framework maps ordered with a likelihood support >/=1000:1 were assembled covering 95% of the estimated genome size in both individuals. Characterization of genome complexity of a sample of 48 mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicate that 53% amplify from low copy regions. These are the first reported high coverage linkage maps for any species of Eucalyptus and among the first for any hardwood tree species. We propose the combined use of RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross configuration as a general strategy for the construction of single individual genetic linkage maps in outbred forest trees as well as in any highly heterozygous sexually reproducing living organism. A survey of the occurrence of RAPD markers in different individuals suggests that the pseudo-testcross/RAPD mapping strategy should also be efficient at the intraspecific level and increasingly so with crosses of genetically divergent individuals. The ability to quickly construct single-tree genetic linkage maps in any forest species opens the way for a shift from the

  11. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment.

    PubMed

    Elhariri, Mahmoud; Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Refai, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%). Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment. PMID:26884765

  12. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Refai, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%). Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment. PMID:26884765

  13. Wood Substitutes; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    This curriculum guide is for use by college instructors concerned with expanding traditional woodworking programs. It was developed in a National Defense Education Act summer institute and is based on an outline provided by members of a previous institute. The content concerns wood substitutes which are made to resemble wood and are often used…

  14. Genetic variation for growth and selection in adult plants of Eucalyptus badjensis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Paulo Eduardo Telles; Paludzyszyn, Estefano; da Silva, Lorenzo Teixeira de Melo; Vandresen, Paula Burigo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate Eucalyptus badjensis concerning the genetic variation for growth traits and the potential of the species in supporting a breeding programme. The field trial was a provenance/progeny test established in Campina da Alegria, Santa Catarina, Brazil (latitude 26°52′05.1″ S, longitude 51°48′47.5″ W, altitude 1,015 m) in a soil classified as Latossolic Alumino-Ferric Brown Nitosol. The experiment comprised 60 open-pollinated progenies from the provenances Glenbog and Badja State Forest, New South Wales, Australia. Ten replicates and plots with six plants in row were used. At the age of 17 years, 279 trees were assessed for diameter of the bole at breast height (DBH), total tree height (H) and volume of wood with bark (Vol). After submitting the data to statistical genetic analysis, the overall means for DBH, H and Vol were 45.17 cm, 33.30 m and 2.84 m3, and the estimates of additive coefficient of variation [CV^a(%)] were 12.59%, 5.91% and 26.51%, respectively. Heritability coefficients of additive effects (h^a2) were also estimated and the following values were found: 0.443, 0.312 and 0.358. Thirty-nine trees from 25 different progenies were selected. The expected means of the provenances after improvement were 50.02 cm, 34.35 m and 3.47 m3 for DBH, H and Vol, respectively. PMID:26692156

  15. Genetic variation for growth and selection in adult plants of Eucalyptus badjensis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paulo Eduardo Telles Dos; Paludzyszyn Filho, Estefano; Silva, Lorenzo Teixeira de Melo da; Vandresen, Paula Burigo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Eucalyptus badjensis concerning the genetic variation for growth traits and the potential of the species in supporting a breeding programme. The field trial was a provenance/progeny test established in Campina da Alegria, Santa Catarina, Brazil (latitude 26°52'05.1″ S, longitude 51°48'47.5″ W, altitude 1,015 m) in a soil classified as Latossolic Alumino-Ferric Brown Nitosol. The experiment comprised 60 open-pollinated progenies from the provenances Glenbog and Badja State Forest, New South Wales, Australia. Ten replicates and plots with six plants in row were used. At the age of 17 years, 279 trees were assessed for diameter of the bole at breast height (DBH), total tree height (H) and volume of wood with bark (Vol). After submitting the data to statistical genetic analysis, the overall means for DBH, H and Vol were 45.17 cm, 33.30 m and 2.84 m3, and the estimates of additive coefficient of variation [ C V a(%)] were 12.59%, 5.91% and 26.51%, respectively. Heritability coefficients of additive effects ( h a 2) were also estimated and the following values were found: 0.443, 0.312 and 0.358. Thirty-nine trees from 25 different progenies were selected. The expected means of the provenances after improvement were 50.02 cm, 34.35 m and 3.47 m3 for DBH, H and Vol, respectively. PMID:26692156

  16. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  17. Impacts of Population Structure and Analytical Models in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Complex Traits in Forest Trees: A Case Study in Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Martín N.; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model (UMM) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S∶G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S∶G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  18. Effect of Thermal Treatment of Fast Growing Wood Fibers on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Light Medium Density Fiberboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarusombuti, Songklod; Ayrilmis, Nadir; Fueangvivat, Vallayuth; Bauchongkol, Piyawade

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated physical and mechanical properties of the light medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels made from thermally treated wood fibers of eucalyptus camaldulensis at three different temperatures (393 K, 423 K or 453 K) for 30 or 60 min in a laboratory autoclave. The average thickness swelling of the panels decreased by 16-54% depending on the treatment temperature and time. However, the modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond strength decreased by 16-37%, 9-25% and 10-39%, respectively. Based on the findings obtained from the present study, it may be said that wood fibers of E. camaldulensis treated at 453 K - 30 min can be used in the light MDF manufacture for use in humid conditions, such as kitchen and bathroom furniture requiring improved dimensional stability.

  19. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Eucalyptus-A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Matthew J; Holland, Barbara; Steane, Dorothy A; Jones, Rebecca C; Nicolle, Dean; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2015-07-01

    We assess phylogenetic patterns of hybridization in the speciose, ecologically and economically important genus Eucalyptus, in order to better understand the evolution of reproductive isolation. Eucalyptus globulus pollen was applied to 99 eucalypt species, mainly from the large commercially important subgenus, Symphyomyrtus. In the 64 species that produce seeds, hybrid compatibility was assessed at two stages, hybrid-production (at approximately 1 month) and hybrid-survival (at 9 months), and compared with phylogenies based on 8,350 genome-wide DArT (diversity arrays technology) markers. Model fitting was used to assess the relationship between compatibility and genetic distance, and whether or not the strength of incompatibility "snowballs" with divergence. There was a decline in compatibility with increasing genetic distance between species. Hybridization was common within two closely related clades (one including E. globulus), but rare between E. globulus and species in two phylogenetically distant clades. Of three alternative models tested (linear, slowdown, and snowball), we found consistent support for a snowball model, indicating that the strength of incompatibility accelerates relative to genetic distance. Although we can only speculate about the genetic basis of this pattern, it is consistent with a Dobzhansky-Muller-model prediction that incompatibilities should snowball with divergence due to negative epistasis. Different rates of compatibility decline in the hybrid-production and hybrid-survival measures suggest that early-acting postmating barriers developed first and are stronger than later-acting barriers. We estimated that complete reproductive isolation can take up to 21-31 My in Eucalyptus. Practical implications for hybrid eucalypt breeding and genetic risk assessment in Australia are discussed. PMID:25777461

  20. Identification of Eucalyptus citriodora clones micropropagated in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Kojima, E; Izumi, M; Tanabe, T; Matsuda, M; Shimizu, T; Murakami, A; Murakami, K

    1997-01-01

    The extent of genetic identity observed in the young individuals which were micropropagated from a single Eucalyptus individual was analyzed by using DNA-fingerprinting. Among 40,000 tissue-cultured-seedings of E.citriodora, 200 plants were randomly chosen so that each total DNA might be extracted from their leaves. Using these DNAs as template, PCR was performed with some primers we found in advance that leads polymorphism for DNA of E. citriodora. In this study, all over the 200 cases, the band pattern formed cDNA fragment on a gel after electrophoresis was the identical one mutually. PMID:9586054

  1. Seasonal influence on the essential oil of Eucalyptus microcorys.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávia N M; Fortes, Gilmara A C; Paula, José R; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil, phenolic contents, and foliar nutrients of Eucalyptus microcorys leaves, cultivated in Brazil, was analysed on a monthly basis for one year. Canonical redundancy analysis correlated results with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature), allowing three groups to be distinguished as regards temperature, flavonoids, and the content of some metals. Strong correlations between Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, P, and K with some monoterpenes and phenolic compounds were observed. Oxygenated monoterpenes were predominant in all sampling months. Oil chemovariation may be influenced by climatic factors as well as by foliar nutrient variation. PMID:24868888

  2. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, A.W.; Jolicoeur, G.D.

    1981-05-19

    A wood stove is of all welded steel plate construction except for the door which is of heavy cast iron. When the door is closed, the only source of combustion air is through an adjustable air inlet on the face of the door. The door is hollow and serves to preheat the incoming air. The inner wall of the door divides the incoming air into lower and upper, primary and secondary, respectively, combustion air flows. The stove has an internal upper baffle running from rear to front which helps to promote air flow and combustion efficiency and to knock out entrained matter from the products of combustion. The flue connection is in the rear of the stove above the baffle and is stepped into the back of the stove to allow the stove to be fitted against a wall.

  3. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  4. Antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities of volatile oils and extracts from stems, leaves, and flowers of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and Eucalyptus torquata.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Hossam M

    2008-03-01

    Eucalyptus species leaves have been traditionally used to heal wounds and fungal infections. Essential oils and extracts of some Eucalyptus species possess antimicrobial and antitumor properties. We sought to determine antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of oils and extracts of leaves, stems, and flowers of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and Eucalyptus torquata grown in Egypt. An agar diffusion method was used to analyze antimicrobial activities of essential oils and extracts of Eucalyptus against medically important gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A sulphorhodamine B assay was used to analyze the in vitro cytotoxic activities of oils and extracts against Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HEPG2), and Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7). Gram-positive bacteria were highly susceptible to oils and extracts of both Eucalyptus species. With the exception of Escherichia coli, gram-negative bacteria were resistant to extracts, but susceptible to the oil obtained from at least one organ of E sideroxylon and E torquata. Although Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were resistant to the extracts, essential oils of E sideroxylon and E torquata generally exhibited moderate to high antifungal activities against Candida albicans, A flavus and A niger. Oils of E torquata stems exhibited cytotoxic activities on MCF7 cells followed by oils of E torquata leaves and E sideroxylon leaves. However, oils from both species failed to exert cytotoxic effects on HEPG2 cells. This is the first report of antimicrobial and antitumor properties of E sideroxylon and E torquata. Results suggest a wider use of Eucalyptus species products in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food preparations. PMID:18075306

  5. Industrial uses of wood char

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1998-08-01

    The quality and feasibility of wood char utilization in various industries are reported. Wood char provides fuel not only for cooking and domestic heating but also for many industrial purposes, such as manufacture of iron and some ferro-alloys, recovery of gold and other nonferrous metals from their leached solutions, manufacture of chemicals and medicines, burning of bricks and glass, and removal of toxic substances from their solutions. The selection of wood char for these purposes is made on the basis of its properties, such as chemical composition, reactivity, heating value, electrical resistivity, adsorption capacity, and strength.

  6. Processing of post-consumer HDPE reinforced with wood flour: Effect of functionaliation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, A. L.; Montagna, L. S.; Rossini, K.; Santana, R. M. C.

    2014-05-01

    A way very interesting used in the reuse of waste cellulose derivatives such as wood flour is its incorporation into thermoplastics matrix. As the olefinic polymers have no interaction with cellulose derivatives, some chemical treatments have been used in the modification of vegetable fibers, to increase the interfacial adhesion between the cellulosic reinforcement and the polymeric matrix. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the methodology of the incorporation of compatibilizer agent (CA) in polyolefin matrix and evaluate the mechanical and morphological properties of composites. HDPE, wood flour from Eucalyptus grandis species (EU) and graftized polyethylene with maleic anhydride (CA) were used in composites, being extruded and after injection molding. The mixtures were processed in a single screw extruder (L/D: 22), with the temperature profile from 170° to 190°C. In a first step, the materials were processed together in the extruder, and after the samples were injected a temperature of 185°C and pressure of 600 bar. In a second step, the HDPE with the compatibilizer agent were first processed in the extruder in order to functionalize the polyolefin, and added after the wood flour (EU) sieved (30% w/w). Results showed that composites with CA had a higher mechanical performance compared to nocompatibilized. Also showed that composites compatibilized previously in the extruder with CA had better performance in comparison to other where the polymer matrix was not previously compatibilized.

  7. Size and composition distribution of fine particulate matter emitted from wood burning, meat charbroiling, and cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeman, M.J.; Schauer, J.J.; Cass, G.R.

    1999-10-15

    A dilution source sampling system is augmented to measure the size-distributed chemical composition of fine particle emissions from air pollution sources. Measurements are made using a laser optical particle counter (OPC), a differential mobility analyzer/condensation nucleus counter (DMA/CNC) combination, and a pair of microorifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs). The sources tested with this system include wood smoke (pine, oak, eucalyptus), meat charbroiling, and cigarettes. The particle mass distributions from all wood smoke sources have a single mode that peaks at approximately 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter. The smoke from meat charbroiling shows a major peak in the particle mass distribution at 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter, with some material present at larger particle sizes. Particle mass distributions from cigarettes peak between 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m particle diameter. Chemical composition analysis reveals that particles emitted from the sources tested here are largely composed of organic compounds. Noticeable concentrations of elemental carbon are found in the particles emitted from wood burning. The size distributions of the trace species emissions from these sources also are presented, including data for Na, K, Ti, Fe, Br, Ru, Cl, Al, Zn, Ba, Sr, V, Mn, Sb, La, Ce, as well as sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ion when present in statistically significant amounts. These data are intended for use with air quality models that seek to predict the size distribution of the chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles.

  8. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  9. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  10. Spectroscopic characteristics of ultrafiltration fractions of fulvic and humic acids isolated from an eucalyptus bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Santos, Eduarda B H; Duarte, Armando C

    2003-10-01

    In order to investigate the chemical heterogeneity of fulvic and humic acids previously isolated from a bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent, a sequential ultrafiltration (UF) scheme through four polyethersulphone membranes was applied. The unfractionated fulvic and humic acids and their fractions were characterized by UV-VIS, synchronous fluorescence (with Deltalambda=60 nm) and FTIR spectroscopies. The FTIR spectra were compared with those of lignin isolated from Eucalyptus globulus wood and from the black liquor of a Kraft pulping process. The results highlighted that fulvic acids fractions of low molecular sizes contain more lignin derived phenolic units, while those of higher molecular size exhibit a higher content of carbohydrate structures. However, the shift observed in the UV-VIS absorbance and fluorescence intensity towards higher wavelength, suggests a higher degree of conjugation of pi-bonds in the fractions of highest molecular sizes. In what concerns the humic acids size fractions, the FTIR spectra did not exhibit major differences but, as observed for the fulvic acids' fractions, UV-VIS and synchronous fluorescence spectra also suggest a higher degree of conjugation of pi-bonds in the fractions with the highest molecular sizes. It was also observed that the fulvic and humic acids fractions of the same molecular size, operationally defined by the UF process, exhibit major differences in their spectroscopic features. PMID:12946888

  11. Isolation of developing secondary xylem specific cellulose synthase genes and their expression profiles during hormone signalling in Eucalyptus tereticornis.

    PubMed

    Sundari, Balachandran Karpaga Raja; Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh

    2014-08-01

    Cellulose synthases (CesA) represent a group of β-1, 4 glycosyl transferases involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Recent reports in higher plants have revealed that two groups of CesA gene families exist, which are associated with either primary or secondary cell wall deposition. The present study aimed at identifying developing secondary xylem specific cellulose synthase genes from Eucalyptus tereticornis, a species predominantly used in paper and pulp industries in the tropics. The differential expression analysis of the three EtCesA genes using qRT-PCR revealed 49 to 87 fold relative expression in developing secondary xylem tissues. Three full length gene sequences of EtCesA1, EtCesA2 and EtCesA3 were isolated with the size of 2940, 3114 and 3123 bp, respectively. Phytohormone regulation of all three EtCesA genes were studied by exogenous application of gibberellic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, indole acetic acid and 2, 4-epibrassinolide in internode tissues derived from three-month-old rooted cuttings. All three EtCesA transcripts were upregulated by indole acetic acid and gibberellic acid. This study demonstrates that the increased cellulose deposition in the secondary wood induced by hormones can be attributed to the upregulation of xylem specific CesAs. PMID:25189235

  12. Goddard Summer Interns: Danielle Wood

    NASA Video Gallery

    Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...

  13. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  14. Chemical compositions and larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils from two eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Chen, Ying-Ju; Yu, Jane-Jane; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from two eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla) against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, was investigated. In addition, the chemical compositions of the leaf essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results from the larvicidal tests revealed that essential oil from the leaves of E. camaldulensis had an excellent inhibitory effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. The 12 pure constituents extracted from the two eucalyptus leaf essential oils were also tested individually against two mosquito larvae. Among the six effective constituents, alpha-terpinene exhibits the best larvicidal effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. Results of this study show that the leaf essential oil of E. camaldulensis and its effective constituents might be considered as a potent source for the production of fine natural larvicides. PMID:18396398

  15. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases. PMID:21867365

  16. Lack of association between allozyme heterozygosity and juvenile traits in Eucalyptus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variability for juvenile waits, which included basal diameter, height, biomass accumulation, and growth increment, was studied in eight provenances involving four species, Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, E. camaldulensis and E. urophylla, under uniform greenhouse conditions. The species diff...

  17. Antidiabetic effects of Eucalyptus globulus on pancreatic islets: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, H; Heidari, Z; Bokaeian, M; Moudi, B

    2010-05-01

    The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced damage in pancreatic islands by stereological methods. Fifty mature normoglycaemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): control; STZ-induced diabetic (D) - by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin; treated control (TC); and treated diabetic (TD1, 2), respectively, received 20 and 62.5 g/kg of eucalyptus in their diet, and 2.5 g/L aqueous extract of eucalyptus in their drinking water from one week after induction of diabetes. After four weeks of the experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of the islets and pancreas, and total number of islets were carried out. Administration of eucalyptus significantly decreased the weight loss and increase of water and food intake in the treated diabetic groups in comparison to the STZ-induced diabetic (D) group. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of islets, and mass of pancreas of both treated diabetic groups were higher than the D group. In TD2, these stereological parameters increased significantly compared to the D group (p < 0.001). Volume density and total volume of beta cells increased 21% and 65%, respectively, in the TD2 group, but it was not statistically significant compared to the diabetic group (p > 0.05). The results suggested that Eucalyptus globulus with a dose-dependent manner ameliorates diabetic states by partial restoration of pancreatic beta cells and repair of STZ-induced damage in rats. This study suggests a beneficial effect of eucalyptus in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:20512762

  18. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeane; Abebe, Worku; Sousa, S M; Duarte, V G; Machado, M I L; Matos, F J A

    2003-12-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. PMID:14611892

  19. Soil microbial community structure and function responses to successive planting of Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Falin; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Huailin; Wu, Bing; Shi, Qian

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have shown soil degradation after the conversion of native forests to exotic Eucalyptus plantations. However, few studies have investigated the long-term impacts of short-rotation forestry practices on soil microorganisms. The impacts of Eucalyptus successive rotations on soil microbial communities were evaluated by comparing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) abundances, compositions, and enzyme activities of native Pinus massoniana plantations and adjacent 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation Eucalyptus plantations. The conversion from P. massoniana to Eucalyptus plantations significantly decreased soil microbial community size and enzyme activities, and increased microbial physiological stress. However, the PLFA abundances formed "u" shaped quadratic functions with Eucalyptus plantation age. Alternatively, physiological stress biomarkers, the ratios of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid and Gram+ to Gram- bacteria, formed "n"' shaped quadratic functions, and the ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1omega7c decreased with plantation age. The activities of phenol oxidase, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase increased with Eucalyptus plantation age, while the cellobiohydrolase activity formed "u" shaped quadratic functions. Soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and understory cover largely explained the variation in PLFA profiles while soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, and understory cover explained most of the variability in enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil microbial structure and function under Eucalyptus plantations were strongly impacted by plantation age. Most of the changes could be explained by altered soil resource availability and understory cover associated with successive planting of Eucalyptus. Our results highlight the importance of plantation age for assessing the impacts of plantation conversion as well as the importance of reducing disturbance for plantation management. PMID:24494498

  20. Eucalyptus plantations for energy production in Hawaii. Technical status report, October 1, 1978-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-14

    Progress made on accomplishing research objectives is reported. The objectives of this project are: (1) to increase the biomass production of Eucalyptus; (2) to determine the optimum requirements to maximize yield; (3) to assess planting, cultivation, harvesting, and transportation equipment requirements; (4) to determine the optimum mixture of biomass (eucalyptus and bagasse) at the generator for the production of electricity; and (5) to evaluate a complete production/conversion system which utilized optimum management conditions in relationship to costs. (DMC)

  1. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    PubMed Central

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  2. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  3. Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

    2008-08-01

    Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

  4. Effect of eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Cermelli, Claudio; Fabio, Anna; Fabio, Giuliana; Quaglio, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The activity of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was determined for 120 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 20 isolates of S. pneumoniae, 40 isolates of S. agalactiae, 20 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 40 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 30 isolates of H. parainfluenzae, 10 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 10 isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two viruses, a strain of adenovirus and a strain of mumps virus, all obtained from clinical specimens of patients with respiratory tract infections. The cytotoxicity was evaluated on VERO cells by the MTT test. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the Kirby Bauer paper method, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration. H. influenzae, parainfluenzae, and S. maltophilia were the most susceptible, followed by S. pneumoniae. The antiviral activity, assessed by means of virus yield experiments titered by the end-point dilution method for adenovirus, and by plaque reduction assay for mumps virus, disclosed only a mild activity on mumps virus. PMID:17972131

  5. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil

    PubMed Central

    Taur, D. J.; Kulkarni, V. B.; Patil, R. Y.

    2010-01-01

    In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. PMID:21808553

  6. Microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5–9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies. PMID:26069443

  7. Monitoring biogenic volatile compounds emitted by Eucalyptus citriodora using SPME.

    PubMed

    Zini, C A; Augusto, F; Christensen, T E; Smith, B P; Caramão, E B; Pawliszy, J

    2001-10-01

    A procedure to monitor BVOC emitted by living plants using SPME technique is presented. For this purpose, a glass sampling chamber was designed. This device was employed for the characterization of biogenic volatile compounds emitted by leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. After extraction with SPME fibers coated with PDMS/ DVB, it was possible to identify or detect 33 compounds emitted by this plant. A semiquantitative approach was applied to monitor the behavior of the emitted BVOC during 9 days. Circadian profiles of the variation in the concentration of isoprene were plotted. Using diffusion-based SPME quantitation, a recently introduced analytical approach, with extraction times as short as 15 s, it was possible to quantify subparts-per-billion amounts of isoprene emitted by this plant. PMID:11605854

  8. Heat pulse observations of Eucalyptus grandis transpiration in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, P.J.; Olbrich, B.W.

    1992-12-31

    Forest plantations in South Africa are currently limited to areas experiencing a minimum mean annual rainfall of 800 mm, and cover approximately 1.18 million ha. Of this total area, 37% is planted to Eucalyptus spp., of which 76% comprise E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Micrometeorological methods of measuring evapotranspiration are impractical in many areas of South African forestry owing to the rugged topography and heterogeneous canopy and boundary layer conditions. The heat pulse velocity (HPV) technique shows great promise as a suitable method of measuring sap flow in even-aged forest plantations. This paper describes the method in detail, as well as the results of comparisons between HPV sap flow estimates and cut-tree uptake rates for two size classes of E. grandis.

  9. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. PMID:26752503

  10. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. PMID:22960456

  11. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h), with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain. PMID:20807444

  12. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  13. A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2014-12-01

    In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species. PMID:25632486

  14. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  15. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  16. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  17. Diversity and distribution of the endophytic bacterial community at different stages of Eucalyptus growth.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Paulo Sérgio Balbino; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Delvaux, Júlio César; de Jesus, Guilherme Luiz; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (classes alpha-, beta- and gamma-) and Actinobacteria were identified in the Eucalyptus "urograndis" endophytic bacterial community. Within this community, the species Novosphingobium barchaimii, Rhizobium grahamii, Stenotrophomonas panacihumi, Paenibacillus terrigena, P. darwinianus and Terrabacter lapilli represent the first report these bacteria as endophytes. The diversity of the total endophytic bacteria was higher in the leaves from the 'field' (the Shannon-Wiener index, 2.99), followed by the indices obtained in the 'clonal garden' (2.78), the 'recently out from under shade (2.68), 'under shade' (2.63) and 'plants for dispatch' (2.51). In contrast, for diazotrophic bacteria, the highest means of these indices were obtained from the leaves of plants in the 'under shade' (2.56), 'recently out from under shade (2.52)' and 'field' stages (2.54). The distribution of the endophytic bacterial species in Eucalyptus was distinct and specific to the development stages under study, and many of the species had the potential for nitrogen fixation, raising the question of whether these bacteria could contribute to overall nitrogen metabolism of Eucalyptus. PMID:27010209

  18. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  19. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  20. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  1. Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mative, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

  2. Highly Anisotropic, Highly Transparent Wood Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingwei; Song, Jianwei; Li, Tian; Gong, Amy; Wang, Yanbin; Dai, Jiaqi; Yao, Yonggang; Luo, Wei; Henderson, Doug; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, two types of highly anisotropic, highly transparent wood composites are demonstrated by taking advantage of the macro-structures in original wood. These wood composites are highly transparent with a total transmittance up to 90% but exhibit dramatically different optical and mechanical properties. PMID:27147136

  3. GELIFICATION OF WOOD DURING COALIFICATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Romankiw, Lisa A.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Coalified wood was examined by SEM and CPMAS**1**3C NMR to delineate chemical and physical alterations responsible for gelification. Early coalification selectively degrades cellulosic components, preserving lignin-like components that are eventually transformed to coal. Cellular morphology persists until the chemical composition becomes uniform, at which point the cells coalesce under compaction and gelify.

  4. Woods Middle School: A Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Elisabeth

    1993-01-01

    Profiles the activities of the School of the Woods in Houston, which in the early 1980s began a Montessori middle school program to complement the already existing elementary instruction. Discusses the physical environment of the school, the activities of the students and teachers, the curriculum, and the contributions of parents. (MDM)

  5. Hydrogeology of Wood County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W.G.

    1989-01-01

    The average rate of ground·water pumpage in Wood County in 1985 was 9.7 million gallons per day. Of this rate, about 6 million gallons per day is pumped from municipal-supply wells in seven communities.An additional 1.08 million gallons per day is pumped for agricultural irrigation.

  6. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E.

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  7. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    PubMed

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  8. Encapsulated eucalyptus oil in ionically cross-linked alginate microcapsules and its controlled release.

    PubMed

    Noppakundilograt, Supaporn; Piboon, Phianghathai; Graisuwan, Wilaiporn; Nuisin, Roongkan; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda

    2015-10-20

    Sodium alginate microcapsules containing eucalyptus oil were prepared by oil-in-water emulsification via Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane and cross-linked by calcium chloride (CaCl2). SPG membrane pore size of 5.2μm was used to control the size of eucalyptus oil microdroplets. Effects of sodium alginate, having a mannuronic acid/guluronic acid (M/G) ratio of 1.13, eucalyptus oil and CaCl2 amounts on microdroplet sizes and size distribution were elucidated. Increasing sodium alginate amounts from 0.1 to 0.5% (wv(-1)) sodium alginate, the average droplets size increased from 42.2±2.0 to 48.5±0.6μm, with CVs of 16.5±2.2 and 30.2±4.5%, respectively. CaCl2 successfully gave narrower size distribution of cross-linked eucalyptus oil microcapsules. The optimum conditions for preparing the microcapsules, oil loading efficiency, and controlled release of the encapsulated eucalyptus oil from the microcapsules as a function of time at 40°C were investigated. Release model for the oil from microcapsules fitted Ritger-Peppas model with non-Fickian transport mechanism. PMID:26256156

  9. Phytoremediation efficiency OF CD by Eucalyptus globulus transplanted from polluted and unpolluted sites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Wang, Jinji

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of plants to uptake heavy metals from contaminated soils has shown great phytoremediation potential. The development, resistibility and Cd extraction of Eucalyptus globulus individuals from metalliferous and clean sites in different years were analyzed under a specific environment. Eucalyptus globulus planted in Guiyu for phytoremediation or cultivated in an uncontaminated, natural environment for economic purposes were transplanted to Yuecheng town, which, in recent years, has been involved in the e-waste dismantling and recycling business, to compare the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulus trees grown in different environments. Trees cultivated in polluted areas can remove far more Cd and Hg from the contaminated soil than the individuals from clean soils because metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus can produce more biomass and uptake more heavy metals than nonmetalliferous plants per year. As polluted environments negatively affect the growth of plants, we speculated that the phytoremediation efficiency of metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus should decrease over time and that nonmetalliferous trees should adapt to the local environment. PMID:26458117

  10. Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, S; Clarke, S K; Nirmala, M J; Tyagi, B K; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

    2014-06-01

    Filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease that causes lymphedema and the main vector is Culex quinquefasciatus. A simple measure was taken to eradicate the vector using nanoemulsion. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was formulated in various ratios comprising of eucalyptus oil, tween 80 and water by ultrasonication. The stability of nanoemulsion was observed over a period of time and 1:2 ratios of eucalyptus oil (6%) and surfactant (12%) was found to be stable. The formulated eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 9.4 nm and were spherical in shape. The larvicidal activity of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion and bulk emulsion was tested and compared. Our nanoemulsion showed higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. The histopathology of larvae-treated and untreated nanoemulsion was analyzed. Furthermore, biochemical assays were carried out to examine the effect of nanoemulsion on biochemical characteristics of larvae. The treated larval homogenate showed decrease in total protein content and a significant reduction in the levels of acetylcholinesterase. The levels of acid and alkaline phosphatase also showed reduction as compared to control larval homogenate. PMID:24401169