Science.gov

Sample records for eugen sanger eminent

  1. Eugen Sänger: Eminent space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago

    2007-12-01

    In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Sänger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Sänger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space shuttle flights. Taking a look at Sänger's work and heritage, it is obvious that he greatly influenced the development of astronautics in terms of purely theoretical dissertations on achievable limits of space research as well as in terms of technical approaches to achieving the short- and long-term goals of astronautics, and in terms of setting tasks for organizing mankind to achieve these goals. Sänger's book "The Technology of Rocket Flight" was the first study based not only on basic research, but also on the applied research that he conducted and the findings of which he published in various papers. Sänger was clearly connected with and influenced the development of two experimental research groups in the US in the 1930s, which resulted in two of the most significant companies in the US in the 1950s that manufactured liquid propellant rocket engines. Basic and applied research in the field of space planes resulted in construction of rocket planes such as the US space shuttle and Soviet Buran shuttle. Sänger's research on subsonic and supersonic ramjets in combination with a turbojet engine provided a basis for developing this promising propulsion for use in subsequent space planes designed for flights into low Earth orbits. His pioneering work on the photon rocket represents human achievements in reaching almost unimaginable limits of space research. By striving for a peaceful international approach to space research, Sänger participated in establishing the non-governmental organization IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and realized his idea that

  2. The role of the physician: Eugene Sanger and a standard of care at the Elmira prison camp.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    The conduct of American military physicians in prisoner of war (POW) camps has been called into question by the abuse scandals at Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo Bay. This essay explores the experiences of the first U.S. military physicians to confront POW patients in large numbers-events that occurred during the American Civil War. While POWs received sub-standard care in camps north and south, the war also saw the issuance of the first document to outline the rights of POWs. This ambivalence toward the proper care and treatment of the POW is evident in the career of Dr. Eugene Sanger, the first Union surgeon at the prison camp in Elmira, New York. Sanger demonstrated both concern about the sanitary condition of the camp and pride in the deaths of POWs as furthering the overall war aims. His cruelty attracted some censure, but Sanger never faced disciplinary action. He was honorably discharged and went on to become the Surgeon General of his home state. This article places his actions at Elmira in the context of medical ethics, Army orders, and Northern opinion in 1864, and it will argue that the lack of Federal response to Eugene Sanger's poor record while serving at the prison set a precedent for inferior medical care of POWs by American military physicians. PMID:17681973

  3. Margaret Sanger: birth control's successful revolutionary.

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, D

    1980-01-01

    The year 1979 marked the centennial of Margaret Sanger, birth control pioneer. Sanger worked to secure two new human rights: the right to decide whether to have a child and the right of a child to be wanted. Beginning in 1873, antipornography crusader Anthony Comstock lobbied through Congress and the state legislatures laws forbidding the distribution of contraceptive devices and even information. He equated these with erotic postcards as "obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, indecent and disgusting." Sanger's strategy was to challenge the Comstock laws in the courts. She studied birth control methods abroad and published a pamphlet, Family Limitation, in 1914. It was the first modern marriage manual; it was also illegal. The publicity her trial generated was immense and highly sympathetic. The government dropped its case when it saw it could only make her a martyr. An obstetrical nurse, Sanger had seen the plight of factory women in the poorest sections of New York City. In order to provide the medical advice and supplies women clamored for, Sanger opened the first U.S. birth control clinic, in Brooklyn in 1916. The New York City Vice Squad raided and closed it, and jailed Sanger. Margaret Sanger underwent other trials, raids, and harassments, but each time won additional public support for her organization--Planned Parenthood--and her cause. Images p737-a p740-a p741-a PMID:6992603

  4. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties. PMID:22164927

  5. Eugenics and prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R

    1986-01-01

    Prejudices against people with disabilities, poor people, and immigrants during the nineteenth century generated a science of "race improvement" called eugenics. In the United States, a number of eugenic measures were enacted early in this century, but it was in Nazi Germany that eugenics flourished under the name of racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene). In the guise of furthering the health of the German people, German scientists and physicians initially designed programs of sterilization. Next came euthanasia and finally mass extermination of "lives not worth living." Remembering this history, many German women oppose the new technical developments in prenatal diagnosis because they see them as yet another way to specify what kinds of people are and are not fit to inhabit the world. This paper tries to place the new technologies in the context of eugenics and to point out some of the ways in which the new, supposedly liberating, choices in fact limit women's control over our lives. PMID:3516893

  6. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  7. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  8. The politics of population: birth control and the eugenics movement.

    PubMed

    Gordon, L

    1974-01-01

    The birth control movement and the population control movement became inseparable in people's minds during the early years of the birth control movement, led by Margaret Sanger in 1915. Emma Goldman and Margaret Sanger defied obscenity laws by disseminating information on contraception. The birth control movement was concerned with individual choice and reproductive self determination. Population control referred to a large-scale social policy of limiting births throughout a whole society or in certain groups for the purpose of changing economic, ecological and/or political conditions. Population control ideas were dominated by eugenics and marred by racism and nativism in the United States. Unfortunately, eugenic ideas and population control were often confused with birth control, especially by poor, lower class women. Real democracy in population control requires that women, not men, have the reproductive choice. It is the material basis for liberation. If a woman's desire for children interferes with a reasonable and democratic social plan to lower birth rates, the woman should be offered educational and economic opportunities as an alternative to childbearing. Eugenics and imperialism were closely related in American and English history, focussing first on one group of immigrants then another. PMID:11615086

  9. Medical Genetics Is Not Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Ruth Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    The connection that critics make between medical genetics and eugenics is historically fallacious. Activists on the political right are as mistaken as activists on the political left: Genetic screening was not eugenics in the past, is not eugenics in the present, and, unless its technological systems become radically transformed, will not be…

  10. Would Fred Sanger Get Funded Today?

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Fred Sanger developed technologies that won him two Nobel Prizes and revolutionized biological research. Yet, in spite of this record, the question has been raised as to whether, in the current scientific climate, he might be unsuccessful in obtaining a grant because of a productivity that would be viewed as too limited. In imagining how a National Institutes of Health study section today might treat a proposal from Sanger to sequence DNA, we can ask whether there are lessons from his career that suggest changes to the grant review process. PMID:24939989

  11. Can we learn from eugenics?

    PubMed Central

    Wikler, D

    1999-01-01

    Eugenics casts a long shadow over contemporary genetics. Any measure, whether in clinical genetics or biotechnology, which is suspected of eugenic intent is likely to be opposed on that ground. Yet there is little consensus on what this word signifies, and often only a remote connection to the very complex set of social movements which took that name. After a brief historical summary of eugenics, this essay attempts to locate any wrongs inherent in eugenic doctrines. Four candidates are examined and rejected. The moral challenge posed by eugenics for genetics in our own time, I argue, is to achieve social justice. PMID:10226926

  12. Eugene Filmore Stoermer

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Lawrence Great Lakes has lost a champion and prominent researcher with the passing of Eugene F. Stoermer, during the early winter of 2012, after a two-year battle with esophageal cancer. Indeed the international community of diatom and algal research has lost a scholar i...

  13. In vitro eugenics.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2014-11-01

    A series of recent scientific results suggest that, in the not-too-distant future, it will be possible to create viable human gametes from human stem cells. This paper discusses the potential of this technology to make possible what I call 'in vitro eugenics': the deliberate breeding of human beings in vitro by fusing sperm and egg derived from different stem-cell lines to create an embryo and then deriving new gametes from stem cells derived from that embryo. Repeated iterations of this process would allow scientists to proceed through multiple human generations in the laboratory. In vitro eugenics might be used to study the heredity of genetic disorders and to produce cell lines of a desired character for medical applications. More controversially, it might also function as a powerful technology of 'human enhancement' by allowing researchers to use all the techniques of selective breeding to produce individuals with a desired genotype. PMID:23557913

  14. [Eugenics: morality or pragmatism].

    PubMed

    Gómez Fröde, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The subject of eugenics is as old as humanity itself, but since World War II it has been related almost automatically with the policies and practices implemented by the National Socialist regime. This happened despite the fact that these despicable practices were inspired by legislation in place in the United Sates since the 19th century and which, in some cases, were modified until the 1970's. Today, some state governments are still paying compensation to victims of these policies. PMID:23999641

  15. Anton's Syndrome and Eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Frahm-Falkenberg, Siska

    2011-01-01

    Anton's syndrome is arguably the most striking form of anosognosia. Patients with this syndrome behave as if they can see despite their obvious blindness. Although best known for his description of asomatognosia and visual anosognosia, Gabriel Anton (1858-1933) made other significant contributions to the clinical neurosciences, including pioneering work in neurosurgery, neuropsychology, and child psychiatry. However, it has not been recognized in the English literature that Anton was also a dedicated advocate of eugenics and racial hygiene. This paper provides a case of Anton's syndrome and puts the works of Gabriel Anton into their historic context. PMID:21779298

  16. Eugenics--a side effect of progressivism? analysis of the role of scientific and medical elites in the rise and fall of eugenics in pre-war Poland.

    PubMed

    Blach, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas. PMID:20977151

  17. Human enhancement: The new eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    Supporters of human enhancement through genetic and other reproductive technologies claim that the new liberal eugenics, based on science and individual consent differs from the old eugenics which was unscientific and coercive. Supporters claim it is the parent's moral obligation to produce the best children possible. At this time, a defective gene that is identified in an unborn child cannot be repaired. To prevent the manifestation of the undesirable trait the unborn child is destroyed. The arguments in support of human enhancement are based on an ethic of consequence that could allow for nearly any means as long as the desired end is reached. Medical enhancement may affect the parent–child family unit; the parents’ love for the child may be conditioned on the expected results. The new eugenics, although based on science, continues to pursue the same goal as the old eugenics, the development of a superior individual and the elimination of those considered inferior. PMID:25249705

  18. Delineation, characterization, and classification of topographic eminences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Gaurav

    Topographic eminences are defined as upwardly rising, convex shaped topographic landforms that are noticeably distinct in their immediate surroundings. As opposed to everyday objects, the properties of a topographic eminence are dependent not only on how it is conceptualized, but is also intrinsically related to its spatial extent and its relative location in the landscape. In this thesis, a system for automated detection, delineation and characterization of topographic eminences based on an analysis of digital elevation models is proposed. Research has shown that conceptualization of eminences (and other landforms) is linked to the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of people. However, the perception of stimuli from our physical environment is not subject to cultural or linguistic bias. Hence, perceptually salient morphological and spatial properties of the natural landscape can form the basis for generically applicable detection and delineation of topographic eminences. Six principles of cognitive eminence modeling are introduced to develop the philosophical foundation of this research regarding eminence delineation and characterization. The first step in delineating eminences is to automatically detect their presence within digital elevation models. This is achieved by the use of quantitative geomorphometric parameters (e.g., elevation, slope and curvature) and qualitative geomorphometric features (e.g., peaks, passes, pits, ridgelines, and valley lines). The process of eminence delineation follows that of eminence detection. It is posited that eminences may be perceived either as monolithic terrain objects, or as composites of morphological parts (e.g., top, bottom, slope). Individual eminences may also simultaneously be conceived as comprising larger, higher order eminence complexes (e.g., mountain ranges). Multiple algorithms are presented for the delineation of simple and complex eminences, and the morphological parts of eminences. The proposed eminence

  19. Eugenics and modern biology: critiques of eugenics, 1910-1945.

    PubMed

    Allen, Garland E

    2011-05-01

    Eugenics in most western countries in the first four decades of the 20th century was based on the idea that genes control most human phenotypic traits, everything from physical features such as polydactyly and eye colour to physiological conditions such as the A-B-O blood groups to mental and personality traits such as "feeblemindedness," alcoholism and pauperism. In assessing the development of the eugenics movement-its rise and decline between 1900 and 1950-it is important to recognise that its naïve assumptions and often flawed methodologies were openly criticised at the time by scientists and nonscientists alike. This paper will present a brief overview of the critiques launched against eugenicists' claims, particularly criticisms of the American school led by Charles B. Davenport. Davenport's approach to eugenics will be contrasted to his British counterpart, Karl Pearson, founder and first editor of the Annals of Eugenics. It was not the case that nearly everyone in the early 20th century accepted eugenic conclusions as the latest, cutting-edge science. There are lessons from this historical approach for dealing with similar naïve claims about genetics today. PMID:21488848

  20. Eugenics: The Threat of the Feeble Minded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winzer, Margaret; O'Connor, Anne

    1982-01-01

    The history of the eugenics movement is reviewed. The authors conclude that, despite changed terminology and a shifting emphasis, advocacy of eugenics and its discrimination against poor and mentally retarded persons still persists today. (MC)

  1. Eugenics in Education: Apologetics for Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D.

    2008-01-01

    For many people an esoteric educational topic is eugenics. This brief text analysis will provide a textual as well as contextual analysis of Dr. Ann Gibson Winfield's book (2007) Eugenics and Education in America: Institutionalized Racism and the Implications of History, Ideology, and Memory. Winfield objectively critiques eugenic apologetics.…

  2. Human Eugenics: Whose Perception of Perfection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Parendi

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the science of eugenics beginning in ancient Greece. Discusses the use of "racial hygiene" by the Nazis' Third Reich and its effect on eugenics. Addresses the pros and cons of eugenics and genetic engineering. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  3. Moderate eugenics and human enhancement.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Though the reputation of eugenics has been tarnished by history, eugenics per se is not necessarily a bad thing. Many advocate a liberal new eugenics--where individuals are free to choose whether or not to employ genetic technologies for reproductive purposes. Though genetic interventions aimed at the prevention of severe genetic disorders may be morally and socially acceptable, reproductive liberty in the context of enhancement may conflict with equality. Enhancement could also have adverse effects on utility. The enhancement debate requires a shift in focus. What the equality and/or utility costs of enhancement will be is an empirical question. Rather than philosophical speculation, more social science research is needed to address it. Philosophers, meanwhile, should address head-on the question of how to strike a balance between liberty, equality, and utility in cases of conflict (in the context of genetics). PMID:23728949

  4. "Eugenics talk" and the language of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-06-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether "eugenics talk", in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people's critical-rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical-rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics. PMID:18511622

  5. Reproductive genetic testing and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Suzanne

    1993-04-01

    The situation concerning reproductive genetic testing in Switzerland is briefly described. Growing awareness of eugenic implications especially by women is reported. This is also true for all the other German-speaking countries in Europe to a higher extent than in the other European countries. Better professional education and public information are required. PMID:11653020

  6. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  7. Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes strategies…

  8. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the 'new' eugenics.

    PubMed

    King, D S

    1999-04-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PID) is often seen as an improvement upon prenatal testing. I argue that PID may exacerbate the eugenic features of prenatal testing and make possible an expanded form of free-market eugenics. The current practice of prenatal testing is eugenic in that its aim is to reduce the numbers of people with genetic disorders. Due to social pressures and eugenic attitudes held by clinical geneticists in most countries, it results in eugenic outcomes even though no state coercion is involved. I argue that technological advances may soon make PID widely accessible. Because abortion is not involved, and multiple embryos are available, PID is radically more effective as a tool of genetic selection. It will also make possible selection on the basis of non-pathological characteristics, leading, potentially, to a full-blown free-market eugenics. For these reasons, I argue that PID should be strictly regulated. PMID:10226925

  9. Evangelizing Eugenics: A Brief Historiography of Popular and Formal American Eugenics Education (1908-1948)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history of the American Eugenics movement's penetration into the formal and popular educational milieu during the first half of the 20th Century, and includes a review of some recent scholarly research on eugenic themes in education and popular culture. Apologists have dismissed the American Eugenics movement as a…

  10. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  11. Eugenics and Curriculum: 1860-1929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1978-01-01

    Examines ideas about heredity, racism, and the development of the eugenics movement, which influenced curriculum thinkers in the period of the "naturalistic mind" and progressivism; the eugenics movement's influence upon education for the gifted; and continuing similar attitudes as to the limited effect of environment on individuals compared to…

  12. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19602363

  13. Francis Galton: and eugenics today.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J; Galton, C J

    1998-01-01

    Eugenics can be defined as the use of science applied to the qualitative and quantitative improvement of the human genome. The subject was initiated by Francis Galton with considerable support from Charles Darwin in the latter half of the 19th century. Its scope has increased enormously since the recent revolution in molecular genetics. Genetic files can be easily obtained for individuals either antenatally or at birth; somatic gene therapy has been introduced for some rare inborn errors of metabolism; and gene manipulation of human germ-line cells will no doubt occur in the near future to generate organs for transplantation. The past history of eugenics has been appalling, with gross abuses in the USA between 1931 and 1945 when compulsory sterilization was practised; and in Germany between 1933 and 1945 when mass extermination and compulsory sterilization were performed. To prevent such abuses in the future statutory bodies, such as a genetics commission, should be established to provide guidance and rules of conduct for use of the new information and technologies as applied to the human genome. PMID:9602996

  14. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907-1940.

    PubMed

    Baker, Graham J

    2014-05-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over 'mainline' versus 'reform' eugenics. PMID:24778464

  15. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907–1940

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of ‘orthodox’ theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over ‘mainline’ versus ‘reform’ eugenics. PMID:24778464

  16. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    PubMed Central

    Pernick, M S

    1997-01-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well. PMID:9366633

  17. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups. PMID:26322647

  18. AB118. Validation of next generation sequencing by Sanger sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Low, Meow Hong Wendy; Lai, Hwei Meeng Angeline; Jamuar, Saumya Shekhar; Law, Hai Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Development of the next generation sequencing (NGS) platform was driven by the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003. With the availability of NGS, the time taken for sequencing of humongous genomic regions was greatly reduced and data generated per unit DNA was also significantly increased. Though the cost to use NGS in a clinically setting is far from ideal, economically speaking, there is a significant decrease in the average cost per sequenced base. To validate findings of NGS on mutation detected for FBN1, TGFBR2, RAF1, RTEL1, LMNA, MID2, KCNK9, DMD, SMARCA2 and IQSEC2 by using gold standard, Sanger Sequencing. Methods The coordinate of the mutation identified by NGS was used to retrieve the adjacent genomic sequence in UCSC Genome Browser (Available from URL: https://genome.ucsc.edu/). Targeted primers were designed with Primer 3 software (Available from URL: http://primer3.ut.ee/) based on the genomic sequence obtained from UCSC. The following step involves the optimization of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with the designed primers to amplify the desired DNA template for the targeted region. Upon optimization, the template is purified and subjected to dye terminator sequencing to generate multiple DNA fragments of varying sizes. Lastly, the DNA fragments will be purified and analysed with an automated sequencer. The sequencer separates the DNA fragments based on their size by carrying out capillary electrophoresis. Results A total of 28 cases were validated with Sanger sequencing. Of them, 25 (89.3%) cases concur with the findings from NGS and 3 (10.7%) cases were false-positive calls. Conclusions NGS shows promise in the future molecular diagnostic regime, however, at the present moment, it needs to be done concurrently with Sanger sequencing for clinical applications.

  19. CRISP-ID: decoding CRISPR mediated indels by Sanger sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dehairs, Jonas; Talebi, Ali; Cherifi, Yacine; Swinnen, Johannes V.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next generation gene editing technologies has revolutionized the fields of genome engineering in allowing the generation of gene knockout models and functional gene analysis. However, the screening of resultant clones remains challenging due to the simultaneous presence of different indels. Here, we present CRISP-ID, a web application which uses a unique algorithm for genotyping up to three alleles from a single Sanger sequencing trace, providing a robust and readily accessible platform to directly identify indels and significantly speed up the characterization of clones. PMID:27363488

  20. CRISP-ID: decoding CRISPR mediated indels by Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dehairs, Jonas; Talebi, Ali; Cherifi, Yacine; Swinnen, Johannes V

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next generation gene editing technologies has revolutionized the fields of genome engineering in allowing the generation of gene knockout models and functional gene analysis. However, the screening of resultant clones remains challenging due to the simultaneous presence of different indels. Here, we present CRISP-ID, a web application which uses a unique algorithm for genotyping up to three alleles from a single Sanger sequencing trace, providing a robust and readily accessible platform to directly identify indels and significantly speed up the characterization of clones. PMID:27363488

  1. Childhood Sibling Relationships of Eminent Canadian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn R.; Schlosser, Grace A.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared differences between 72 eminent Canadian women who reported close sibling relationships and 72 similar women who reported no close sibling relationships. Those with close siblings expressed their responsibility within the relationship and rivalry within the sibship. Those not close to siblings often blamed this on age…

  2. The Sanger-concept - A fully reusable winged launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, R. E.; Wolf, D. M.

    The present study compares winged space transportation systems with horizontal take-off (HTO) and vertical take-off (VTO), respectively. HTO vehicles were investigated at various take-off speeds and with various types of gear. While the type of acceleration till lift-off is a dominant factor for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles, its influence on two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles is of lesser importance. This finding holds for lift-off velocity as well as for the type of gear. Among SSTO vehicles, a comparison of payload capability with HTO and VTO proves to be in favor of VTO in nearly all ranges. The only exceptions are at lift-off velocity Mach 0.6 in the range of lower GLOW and in a certain range for the sled-propelled vehicles. Concerning TSTO vehicles no essential differences between VTO and HTO can be discerned. Finally, different launch vehicles (SSTO and SANGER) with 20 Mg payload were compared, resulting in a definite advantage of the TSTO-SANGER solution in terms of performance and lower developmental risks.

  3. Social imaginaries: the literature of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Alison

    2008-06-01

    This paper starts from a premise relating to the act of fictional writing about eugenics and the way it may be understood as the embodiment and enactment of social imaginaries. It proposes that literature (in the sense of fiction) frequently, if not habitually, expresses the underside of what is expressed in public discourse. That is, far from being the implement of state policy or intervention, it acts in counterpoint to the state, constituting a type of social fantasy in that it explores through the realm of the imagination what might happen. It becomes the arena for contestation, exploration, and nuancing as it essays how ideas from public, 'real' life, might transform when acted out. The paper considers two sorts of literary case. First it looks at that of 'naïve' literature, harnessed unashamedly to a specific sociological discourse of eugenics. Then, using primarily Ibsen, it considers a subset, the case of literature that does not set out to be explicitly in the service of the cause of eugenics, but is appropriated and disseminated from a platform of eugenics. Lastly, taking the example of Unamuno's Amor y pedagogía (1902) the paper considers literature that exists in a quite different sphere of public awareness. It shows awareness of the arguments and precepts of eugenics and related beliefs and practices, but acts as a transitional space (in the terms of Winnicott) to enable such ideas to be entertained and thought about, without a requirement of acceptance or belief. PMID:18534355

  4. Eugenics and the Social Construction of Merit, Race, and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Contends that eugenics is an example of normalization. Outlines an aspect of this process by analyzing: (1) the popular eugenic knowledge exhibited at U.S. state fairs; and (2) the mainstream eugenic knowledge found in the work of Leta S. Hollingworth who was an early leader in gifted education. (CMK)

  5. Eugenics: past, present, and the future.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, K L; Garver, B

    1991-01-01

    During the past 20 years there has been a resurgence of interest in the history of the eugenics movements, particularly those of the United States and Germany. Unfortunately, most of these accounts have been published in nonmedical and nongenetic journals, so they are not readily available to geneticists or physicians. The authors of this article are concerned about the lack of information that geneticists, physicians, and students have concerning the origin and progress of these movements. This article provides a short history of the American and German eugenics programs and concludes with a review of their possible relations to our current practices. It is hoped that this will encourage institutions to include, in master's Ph.D., and M.D. programs in human genetics, lectures, seminars, and journal clubs on the topic of eugenics. PMID:1928094

  6. Scout Project - portrait of Eugene D. Schult

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Portrait of Eugene D. Schult who became head of Scout project in June 1963. Schult was part of the original nine members of the Scout Project Office. He, C.T. Brown, Jr., and William M. Moore were the project's three engineers. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 202, 211.

  7. Eugene's Story: A Case for Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Vicki Dodds

    1999-01-01

    As this story about a mischievous, underachieving 10th grader shows, meeting standards and showing caring, compassion, and respect are not mutually exclusive. Unless students experience a positive, supportive climate, some may never achieve minimal standards or realize their full potential. The author later discovered she had inspired Eugene to…

  8. Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy--An Andragogical Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeng, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy's work related to andragogy is insufficiently discussed in adult pedagogical literature, although most of his work deals with this field, if we employ his own definition of andragogy. This paper makes visible his role as an andragogical pioneer, and clarifies his understanding of andragogy and basic perspectives in his…

  9. Frederick Sanger, Erwin Chargaff, and the metamorphosis of specificity.

    PubMed

    Judson, H F

    1993-12-15

    That a transformation of ruling ideas in genetics and biochemistry took place at the dawn of molecular biology, in the late 1940s, is a commonplace; but the nature and components of that transformation are widely misunderstood. The change is often identified with the importation into biology of new styles of thought and new rigor by the many scientists trained in physics or chemistry who came into the nascent field--notably, Max Delbrück, Max Perutz, Francis Crick, John Kendrew, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin. Most generally, the change is supposed to be the realization that genes are made not of protein but of nucleic acid--and this change was initiated, of course, by the work of Oswald Avery and his colleagues. These changes are not mutually exclusive, and both were surely important to the genesis of molecular biology. But logically prior to them, more fundamental, was another transformation in ruling preconceptions, one that has been neglected: the revolution in understanding of the chemical structures--the sequences of subunits--of proteins and of nucleic acids which was wrought by the work of Frederick Sanger and of Erwin Chargaff. This was a metamorphosis in the understanding of biochemical specificity, and while it astonished many biochemists it set free the small groups of those who were beginning to call themselves molecular biologists, enabling them to think of the relationship between genes and proteins in entirely new ways. PMID:8276259

  10. Electrostatic Potential Maps and Natural Bond Orbital Analysis: Visualization and Conceptualization of Reactivity in Sanger's Reagent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottishaw, Jeffery D.; Erck, Adam R.; Kramer, Jordan H.; Sun, Haoran; Koppang, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Frederick Sanger's early work on protein sequencing through the use of colorimetric labeling combined with liquid chromatography involves an important nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S[subscript N]Ar) reaction in which the N-terminus of a protein is tagged with Sanger's reagent. Understanding the inherent differences between this S[subscript…

  11. Advertising eugenics: Charles M. Goethe's campaign to improve the race.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William; Peck, Danielle

    2010-06-01

    Over the last several decades historians have shown that the eugenics movement appealed to an extraordinarily wide constituency. Far from being the brainchild of the members of any one particular political ideology, eugenics made sense to a diverse range of Americans and was promoted by professionals ranging from geneticists and physicians to politicians and economists.(1) Seduced by promises of permanent fixes to national problems, and attracted to the idea of a scientifically legitimate form of social activism, eugenics quickly grew in popularity during the first decades of the twentieth century. Charles M. Goethe, the land developer, entrepreneur, conservationist and skilled advertiser who founded the Eugenics Society of Northern California, exemplifies the broad appeal of the eugenics movement. Goethe played an active role within the American eugenics movement at its peak in the 1920s. The last president of the Eugenics Research Association,(2) he also campaigned hard against Mexican immigration to the US and he continued open support for the Nazi regime's eugenic practices into the later 1930s.(3) This article examines Goethe's eugenic vision and, drawing on his correspondence with the leading geneticist Charles Davenport, explores the relationship between academic and non-academic advocates of eugenics in America. PMID:20510454

  12. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns.

    PubMed

    Garver, K L; Garver, B

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Human Genome project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the U.S. and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided. PMID:8279465

  13. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Garver, K.L.; Garver, B. )

    1994-01-01

    The US Human Genome Project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the US and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided. 142 refs.

  14. [Eugen Bleuler and Carl Gustav Jung's habilitation].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H R

    1996-01-01

    Eugen Bleuler's letter of recommendation for Carl Gustav Jung's appointment as a lecturer In January 1905, Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) wrote a letter of recommendation to the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich, urging them to accept the application of Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) as a lecturer there. Bleuler's letter mentions the contribution to Jung's writing made by Franz Riklin (1878-1938), although he does not define it precisely. It is safe to say that, judging from the way in which Bleuler expresses his opinions in this letter, this may be regarded at the very least as an early sign of his receptiveness to the psychoanalytical ideas of the time. PMID:8928214

  15. Better science and better race? Social Darwinism and Chinese eugenics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuehtsen Juliette

    2014-12-01

    This essay explores the variegated roles played by racial, eugenic, and Social Darwinist discourse in China over roughly the last century. Using Japan as a parallel for comparison, it analyzes the introduction of the term "eugenics" into Japanese and Chinese. It then locates the deployment of eugenics and Social Darwinism as counterimperial discourse in East Asia. It offers a brief history of eugenics thinking in China across the twentieth century, focusing on the Chinese eugenicist Pan Guangdan, who used race as a category of analysis yet without any sense of hierarchy. He was critically aware of the scientific basis of eugenics and helped craft the study of eugenics in China, from biology to sociology, from economics to ethnology. PMID:25665386

  16. [Scandinavian eugenics: Nordic historians provide new approaches].

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underpriviledged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favour in the middle of the sixties. PMID:15461971

  17. ['Negative' eugenics, psychiatry, and Catholicism: clashes over eugenic sterilization in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Wegner, Robert; Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes the dialogue between eugenicist Renato Kehl and a group of Brazilian psychiatrists who turned their interest to so-called negative eugenics in the early 1930s. Enthused about research into eugenics and the application of eugenic methods in countries such as the United States and Germany, authors like Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani, and Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva blamed Catholicism for impeding Brazil from moving in a similar direction, especially the church's resistance to the sterilization of 'degenerates', which entered into effect in Germany in 1934. The article charts the various strategies these authors proposed for engaging in dialogue with the Catholic Church. PMID:23429742

  18. Obituary: Eugene Richard Tomer, 1932-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkl, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Eugene R. Tomer passed away on 2 July 2007 at his home in San Francisco, California. The cause of death was cancer. Tomer was a consulting applied mathematician with a wide range of interests in dynamical astronomy, electromagnetic theory for use in communications, and computational methods of applied mathematics. He was a member of AAS, and the Society for Applied and Industrial Mathematics [SIAM]. With K. H. Prendergast, he co-wrote the influential paper "Self-consistent Models of Elliptical Galaxies," published in the Astronomical Journal 75 (1970), 674-679. This paper has been cited over eighty times. Tomer was born on 13 June 1932. He earned the Ph.D. in Mathematics at the University of California-Berkeley in 1978 (title of dissertation: On the C*-algebra of the Hermite Operator). In 1996 he and A. F. Peterson wrote "Meeting the Challenges Presented by Computational Electromagnetics," a publication of the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. This writer met Eugene at the 1992 Annual SIAM meeting in Los Angeles in connection with the Activity Group on Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions, which the writer chaired at the time. Eugene volunteered to edit the Newsletter of the group, which he did from July 1992 to July 1995. Thanks to his skills and efforts, the Newsletter became a carefully edited, professional publication. Eugene not only organized a Problems Column, attracting questions in pure and applied mathematics, but he also designed the logo for the group. He gave much time and effort to this service, in an era when copy had to be physically assembled and mailed to SIAM Headquarters. Eventually he felt he had done what he could for the Activity Group. He told me that he hoped the Group would get seriously involved with applications such as in astronomy, physics, and sciences that use special function solutions of differential equations. During Tomer's editorship, we communicated mostly by e-mail, our homes being far apart. He

  19. Hughes, Twain, Child, and Sanger: Four Who Locked Horns with the Censors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton

    1969-01-01

    A look at the lives and conflicts of four writers--Langston Hughes, Mark Twain, Lydia Maria Child, and Margaret Sanger--who faced public criticism and censorship because oftheir views on controversial issues. (RM)

  20. Science in the Publicity Laboratory: The Case of Eugenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Edward

    The eugenicists of the 1920s and 1930s aggressively pursued media attention and sought policy change for their cause of improving the human race by selective breeding. Eugenics gained momentum in the United States when the American Eugenics Society (AES) was organized in 1921. Policy formation and information dissemination were central to the…

  1. Eugenics, Mental Deficiency and Fabian Socialism between the Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Eugenics was not exclusively the concern of conservatives; it also appealed to certain socialists, particularly those whose middle class status was dependent upon their expert services and who believed that social problems could be resolved scientifically. Reasons for the appeal of eugenics to this group are discussed. (IS)

  2. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    PubMed

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers. PMID:19244735

  3. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into Medial Ganglionic Eminence vs. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sandra; Kim, Tae-Gon; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Chung, Sangmi

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an opportunity to study human development in vitro, to model diseases in a dish, to screen drugs as well as to provide an unlimited and ethically unimpeded source of therapeutic cells. Cortical GABAergic interneurons, which are generated from Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) cells and Caudal Ganglionic Eminence (CGE) cells during embryonic development, regulate cortical neural networks by providing inhibitory inputs. Their malfunction, resulting in failure to intricately regulate neural circuit balance, has been implicated in brain diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy. In this study, using combinatorial and temporal modulation of developmentally relevant dorsoventral and rostrocaudal signaling pathways, we efficiently generated MGE cells vs. CGE cells from human PSCs, which predominantly generate Parvalbumin-expressing or Somatostatin-expressing interneurons vs. Calretinin-expressing interneurons, respectively. Efficient generation of specific differentiated progenies of hPSCs as shown in this study will be a pivotal step to realize the full potential of hPSCs for regenerative medicine, developmental studies, disease modeling, bioassay, and drug screening. PMID:26364591

  4. Eugenics talk” and the language of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-01-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people’s critical–rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical–rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics. PMID:18511622

  5. Distinguishing genetics and eugenics on the basis of fairness.

    PubMed Central

    Ledley, F D

    1994-01-01

    There is concern that human applications of modern genetic technologies may lead inexorably to eugenic abuse. To prevent such abuse, it is essential to have clear, formal principles as well as algorithms for distinguishing genetics from eugenics. This work identifies essential distinctions between eugenics and genetics in the implied nature of the social contract and the importance ascribed to individual welfare relative to society. Rawls's construction of 'justice as fairness' is used as a model for how a formal systems of ethics can be used to proscribe eugenic practices. Rawls's synthesis can be applied to this problem if it is assumed that in the original condition all individuals are ignorant of their genetic constitution and unwilling to consent to social structures which may constrain their own potential. The principles of fairness applied to genetics requires that genetic interventions be directed at extending individual liberties and be applied to the greatest benefit of individuals with the least advantages. These principles are incompatible with negative eugenics which would further penalize those with genetic disadvantage. These principles limit positive eugenics to those practices which are designed to provide absolute benefit to those individuals with least advantage, are acceptable to its subjects, and further a system of basic equal liberties. This analysis also illustrates how simple deviations from first principles in Rawls's formulation could countenance eugenic applications of genetic technologies. PMID:7996561

  6. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  7. Eugene Wigner, The First Nuclear Reactor Engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    2002-04-01

    All physicists recognize Eugene Wigner as a theoretical physicist of the very first rank. Yet Wigner's only advanced degree was in Chemical Engineering. His physics was largely self-taught. During WWII, Wigner brilliantly returned to his original occupation as an engineer. He led the small team of theoretical physicists and engineers who designed, in remarkable detail, the original graphite-moderated, water-cooled Hanford reactor, which produced the Pu239 of the Trinity and Nagasaki bombs. With his unparalleled understanding of chain reactors (matched only by Fermi) and his skill and liking for engineering, Wigner can properly be called the Founder of Nuclear Engineering. The evidence for this is demonstrated by a summary of his 37 Patents on various chain reacting systems.

  8. Eugen Bleuler's schizophrenia—a modern perspective

    PubMed Central

    Maatz, Anke; Hoff, Paul; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of the term and concept schizophrenia earned its inventor, Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, worldwide fame. Prompted by the rejection of the main principle of Kraepelinian nosology, namely prognosis, Bleuler's belief in the clinical unity of what Kraepelin had described as dementia praecox required him to search for alternative characterizing features that would allow scientific description and classification. This led him to consider psychological, and to a lesser degree, social factors alongside an assumed underlying neurobiological disease process as constitutive of what he then termed schizophrenia, thus making him an early proponent of a bio-psycho-social understanding of mental illness. Reviewing Bleuler's conception of schizophrenia against the background of his overall clinical and theoretical work, this paper provides a critical overview of Bleuler's key nosological principles and links his work with present-day debates about naturalism, essentialism, and stigma. PMID:25987862

  9. [Beyond eugenics: posthumanism as Homo patiens denials].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Llompart, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history there have been attempts to overcome human limitations by means of technique. The novelty of the 20th century has been to try to extirpate all the faults, the suffering, the disease, and even the death. This power has been attributed successively to machines (the futurism), to the genetic information (the eugenism) and to the electronic information (the posthumanism). In all cases, it's unknown the distinction between inevitable faults, ontological deficiencies, as the reality of death, and avoidable ones, sociological deficiencies, as the deaths due to circumstances as lack of drinkable water, of medicaments, wars or any other type of violence. The due way of confronting the human faults is to try to eradicate their avoidable causes and at the same time to understand the sense of those that cannot be avoided, as occasion of the self-overcoming and the opening to the Transcendence. PMID:22548654

  10. Reusable space systems (Eugen Saenger Lecture, 1987)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The history and current status of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) development are surveyed, with emphases on the contributions of Eugen Saenger and ongoing NASA projects. Topics addressed include the capabilities and achievements of the Space Shuttle, the need to maintain a fleet with both ELVs and RLVs to meet different mission requirements, the X-30 testbed aircraft for the National Aerospace Plane program, current design concepts for Shuttle II (a 1000-ton fully reusable two-stage rocket-powered spacecraft capable of carrying 11,000 kg to Space Station orbit), proposals for dual-fuel-propulsion SSTO RLVs, and the Space Station Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Orbital Transfer Vehicle. The importance of RLVs and of international cooperation in establishing the LEO infrastructure needed for planetary exploration missions is stressed.

  11. Comparison of the Equine Reference Sequence with Its Sanger Source Data and New Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo-Mendez, Jovan; Hestand, Matthew S.; Coleman, Stephen J.; Zeng, Zheng; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N.; Kalbfleisch, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The reference assembly for the domestic horse, EquCab2, published in 2009, was built using approximately 30 million Sanger reads from a Thoroughbred mare named Twilight. Contiguity in the assembly was facilitated using nearly 315 thousand BAC end sequences from Twilight’s half brother Bravo. Since then, it has served as the foundation for many genome-wide analyses that include not only the modern horse, but ancient horses and other equid species as well. As data mapped to this reference has accumulated, consistent variation between mapped datasets and the reference, in terms of regions with no read coverage, single nucleotide variants, and small insertions/deletions have become apparent. In many cases, it is not clear whether these differences are the result of true sequence variation between the research subjects’ and Twilight’s genome or due to errors in the reference. EquCab2 is regarded as “The Twilight Assembly.” The objective of this study was to identify inconsistencies between the EquCab2 assembly and the source Twilight Sanger data used to build it. To that end, the original Sanger and BAC end reads have been mapped back to this equine reference and assessed with the addition of approximately 40X coverage of new Illumina Paired-End sequence data. The resulting mapped datasets identify those regions with low Sanger read coverage, as well as variation in genomic content that is not consistent with either the original Twilight Sanger data or the new genomic sequence data generated from Twilight on the Illumina platform. As the haploid EquCab2 reference assembly was created using Sanger reads derived largely from a single individual, the vast majority of variation detected in a mapped dataset comprised of those same Sanger reads should be heterozygous. In contrast, homozygous variations would represent either errors in the reference or contributions from Bravo's BAC end sequences. Our analysis identifies 720,843 homozygous discrepancies between new

  12. How a Small Double-Stranded Trick Can Mislead Sanger Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Notwithstanding the arrival of “third-generation sequencing,” Sanger sequencing, developed in 1980, is still the most accurate and used method for sequencing, although on a smaller scale. It is a powerful resource for studying sequences and discovering polymorphisms and genes, as well as regulatory elements. There has already been described a wide range of possible problems with this very sensitive and accurate technology. Here, we show that a specific event, related to genomes rich in repetitive sequences, can mislead operators working with Sanger sequencing. PMID:26190945

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 WEST ELEVATION (RIO GRANDE RIVER FACADE). - Leocadia Leandro Garcia House, Southwest corner of Main Plaza, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 NORTHWEST ELEVATION (RIO GRANDE RIVER FACADE). - Leocadia Leandro Garcia House, Southwest corner of Main Plaza, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  15. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Diane B.

    2012-11-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical facts. In this paper, I will show how different—indeed, diametrically-opposed—morals have been drawn from the history of eugenics and link these contrasting messages both to different underlying conceptions of what constitutes the central wrong of eugenics and differing degrees of enthusiasm for reprogenetic technologies. I will then argue that, for several reasons, the history of eugenics simply cannot provide the kind of direct guidance that many participants in current debates would like. Although the history does have implications for policy, the insights to be gleaned are both subtle and indirect.

  16. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF MUSEUM GALLERY WITH EUGENE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF MUSEUM GALLERY WITH EUGENE ALLEN SMITH'S VEHICLE WITH WHICH HE AS STATE GEOLOGIST (FROM 1873 TO 1927) CONDUCTED SURVEYS OF DISTRICT MINERAL RESOURCES - Smith Hall, Capstone Drive at Sixth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. Eugenics without the state: anarchism in Catalonia, 1900-1937.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Current historiography has considered eugenics to be an emanation from state structures or a movement which sought to appeal to the state in order to implement eugenic reform. This paper examines the limitations of that view and argues that it is necessary to expand our horizons to consider particularly working-class eugenics movements that were based on the dissemination of knowledge about sex and which did not aspire to positions of political power. The paper argues that anarchism, with its contradictory practice afforded by the convulsive social situation of the Civil War in Spain, allows us to assess critically the parameters of the social action of eugenics, its many alliances, and its struggle for existence in changing political circumstances not of its own making. PMID:18534354

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Eugene F. Schrand, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Eugene F. Schrand, Photographer, 1937 GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE SIDE AND GABLE END. - Charles Krebs Place, South of Morning Sun, State Route 224, Darrtown, Butler County, OH

  19. Eugene Island Block 330 Field - development and production history. [Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.L.; Dupuy, H.J. Jr.; Holland, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Eugene Island Block 330 Field is currently the largest oil producing field in federally owned offshore waters of the United States. The field is located about 272 kilometers southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana. This paper discusses the total geological complex and then follows the development and production history of the primary block: Eugene Island Block 330. A discussion of the sand control and safety features used in the offshore is also included. 1 ref.

  20. A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of pigeonpea (Cajanauscajan L.) using sanger and second-generation sequencing platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly for pigeonpea has been developed by analyzing 128.9 million short Illumina GA IIx single end reads, 2.19 million single end FLX/454 reads, and 18,353 Sanger expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from more than 16 genotypes. The resultant transcriptome assembly, refer...

  1. Deep sequencing increases hepatitis C virus phylogenetic cluster detection compared to Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Vincent; Olmstead, Andrea; Tang, Patrick; Cook, Darrel; Janjua, Naveed; Grebely, Jason; Jacka, Brendan; Poon, Art F Y; Krajden, Mel

    2016-09-01

    Effective surveillance and treatment strategies are required to control the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. Phylogenetic analyses are powerful tools for reconstructing the evolutionary history of viral outbreaks and identifying transmission clusters. These studies often rely on Sanger sequencing which typically generates a single consensus sequence for each infected individual. For rapidly mutating viruses such as HCV, consensus sequencing underestimates the complexity of the viral quasispecies population and could therefore generate different phylogenetic tree topologies. Although deep sequencing provides a more detailed quasispecies characterization, in-depth phylogenetic analyses are challenging due to dataset complexity and computational limitations. Here, we apply deep sequencing to a characterized population to assess its ability to identify phylogenetic clusters compared with consensus Sanger sequencing. For deep sequencing, a sample specific threshold determined by the 50th percentile of the patristic distance distribution for all variants within each individual was used to identify clusters. Among seven patristic distance thresholds tested for the Sanger sequence phylogeny ranging from 0.005-0.06, a threshold of 0.03 was found to provide the maximum balance between positive agreement (samples in a cluster) and negative agreement (samples not in a cluster) relative to the deep sequencing dataset. From 77 HCV seroconverters, 10 individuals were identified in phylogenetic clusters using both methods. Deep sequencing analysis identified an additional 4 individuals and excluded 8 other individuals relative to Sanger sequencing. The application of this deep sequencing approach could be a more effective tool to understand onward HCV transmission dynamics compared with Sanger sequencing, since the incorporation of minority sequence variants improves the discrimination of phylogenetically linked clusters. PMID:27282472

  2. EUGENE'HOM: A generic similarity-based gene finder using multiple homologous sequences.

    PubMed

    Foissac, Sylvain; Bardou, Philippe; Moisan, Annick; Cros, Marie-Josée; Schiex, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    EUGENE'HOM is a gene prediction software for eukaryotic organisms based on comparative analysis. EUGENE'HOM is able to take into account multiple homologous sequences from more or less closely related organisms. It integrates the results of TBLASTX analysis, splice site and start codon prediction and a robust coding/non-coding probabilistic model which allows EUGENE'HOM to handle sequences from a variety of organisms. The current target of EUGENE'HOM is plant sequences. The EUGENE'HOM web site is available at http://genopole.toulouse.inra.fr/bioinfo/eugene/EuGeneHom/cgi-bin/EuGeneHom.pl. PMID:12824408

  3. Eugene Wigner and Symmetries In Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshinsky, Marcos

    2002-04-01

    Concepts of symmetry in physics have had a long history, particularly if they are of a geometric or crystallographic origin, yet in classical physics they had a somewhat esoteric position. This situation changed radically when in the XX Century we passed from classical to quantum mechanics. In the former a state for a system of particles was given by a number of points in phase space and the transformation groups related with symmetries mainly gave the invariance of concepts such as energy or angular momentum. In the latter the state is characterized by a vector in Hilbert space in which the transformations had a representation. Eugene Wigner was the right man (for his mathematical ability and physical intuition) at the right place and time (Germany, in the twenties) to take full advantage of this new situation. His first interest was atomic spectroscopy (then a very active field) and the fact that its basic states were related with irreducible representation of the orthogonal group in three dimensions O(3). The German version of his book on ``Group theory and Application" published in 1931 established, as he quotes ``that almost all rules of spectroscopy follow from the symmetry of the problem". His later extension to the direct product of two or more representations led to his development of the 3-j symbol, that he explicitly derived, and his interest in the properties of 6-j, 9-j, etc. His awareness of the time inversion as an antiunitary operator, and the analysis of its combination with the unitary representations of other symmetries, proved fundamental for deriving the features of time reversed reactions from their direct behavior. His interest in space reflection and the concept of parity led to important selection rules, and was of relevance even in weak interactions where parity is not a good symmetry. His later interest in nuclear physics, solid state, elementary particles etc., was almost never without a component of the role of symmetry in these

  4. What Contributes to Talent Development in Eminent Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronborg, Leonie

    2010-01-01

    The lives of ten eminent Australian women across seven talent domains were explored for factors that contributed to the development of their talent. Nine themes and related sub-themes emerged that were linked to the Model of Adult Female Talent Development (MAFTD) developed by Noble, Subotnik & Arnold (1996, 1999). Results provided support for…

  5. Significant Samples: The Psychological Study of Eminent Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1999-01-01

    Psychologists occasionally study eminent individuals, such as Nobellaureates, U.S. presidents, Olympic athletes, chess grandmasters, movie stars, and even distinguished psychologists. Studies using such significant samples may be differentiated along 7 distinct dimensions: qualitative versus quantitative, single versus multiple case, nomothetic…

  6. The Testing and Militarization of K-12 Education: Eugenic Assault on Urban School Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss eugenics in education and how this eugenic legacy continues to haunt American schooling and nonwhite students. Eugenic praxes and pedagogy continue to proliferate inside the American school systems' teachers may be unaware that they are teaching in such a way that maintains this ethos. This paper and seminar's…

  7. Eugenic Sterilization: Medico-Legal and Sociological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Felipe C.; Robinson, Shirley W.; Williams, Loretta J.

    1979-01-01

    The court-ordered sterilization of a normal 18-year-old black female in North Carolina focused attention on the unfortunate impact of eugenic statutes that allow sterilization as a method of social control. The existence of these laws in many states allows misapplication and abuse of authority which, not infrequently, is directed liberally to blacks and other minority groups. Eugenic sterilization is, at this time, a legally accepted form of “medical treatment.” The justification of such sterilization is the vague concept that the presumed “mentally deficient” individual is probably a potential parent of socially inadequate offspring who would likewise be socially inadequate. Since there never has been factual substantiation of whether the sterilization of these individuals will diminish the incidence of mental retardation, it is necessary to focus attention on the concept of eugenic sterilization and point out its many fallacies. PMID:480398

  8. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

  9. Designing a brave new world: eugenics, politics, and fiction.

    PubMed

    Woiak, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Aldous Huxley composed Brave New World in the context of the Depression and the eugenics movement in Britain. Today his novel is best known as satirical and predictive, but an additional interpretation emerges from Huxley's nonfiction writings in which the liberal hurmanist expressed some surprising opinions about eugenics, citizenship, and meritocracy. He felt that his role as an artist and public intellectual was to formulate an evolving outlook on urgent social, scientific, and moral issues. His brave new world can therefore be understood as a serious design for social reform, as well as a commentary about the social uses of scientific knowledge. PMID:18175454

  10. Slurry line eminent domain urged over rail lands

    SciTech Connect

    Bagge, C.E.

    1980-06-09

    According to C.E. Bagge of the National Coal Association (NCA), Congress should pass a bill that would grant coal slurry pipelines the right-of-eminent-domain across land held by railroads. An NCA study determined that 85% of the coal shipped by U.S. railroads in 1977 could not have been shipped in any other way, and the NCA feels that the coal market would be improved if the railroads' transport dominance were reduced by the presence of slurry lines. NCA and Senator D. Bumpers would prefer that the bill under consideration be broadened to give slurry lines eminent domain over private lands, but this expansion of powers is considered politically infeasible. According to Senator W. Ford, the proposed bill would be applied primarily in eastern states, rather than in western states, as is generally thought, since eastern railroads usually own their track beds but western railroads are built on federal easements which slurry lines can cross.

  11. Modified arthroscopic suture fixation of a displaced tibial eminence fracture.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Murphy, Kevin P; Machen, M Shaun; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-02-01

    This study describes a new arthroscopic method using a whip-stitch technique for treating a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture. A 12-year-old girl who sustained a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture was treated with arthroscopic fixation using the Arthrosew disposable suture device (Surgical Dynamics, Norwalk, CT) to place a whip stitch into the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The Arthrex ACL guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to reduce the avulsed tibial spine fragment. Sutures were then passed through the tibial tunnel and secured over a bony bridge with the knee in 20 degrees of flexion. At 9 months, the patient has a full range of motion with normal Lachman and anterior drawer testing, and she has returned to competitive basketball. Radiographs show complete fracture healing. KT-1000 and isokinetic testing at 9-month follow-up show only minimal side-to-side differences. The Arthrosew device provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the ACL, thus obviating arthrotomy and hardware placement. This technique also restores the proper length and tension to the ACL, and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treatment for this injury. PMID:12579135

  12. Astronaut Eugene Cernan eating a meal aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A fellow crewman took this photograph of Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, eating a meal under the weightless conditions of space during the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. Cernan appears to be eating chocolate pudding.

  13. 75 FR 66750 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power... Transmission Line Rebuild Project EIS and requesting comments about the potential environmental impacts it should consider as it prepares the EIS for the proposed project. DATES: Written comments are due to...

  14. Last Interview with W. Eugene Smith on the Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobre, Ken

    An interview with W. Eugene Smith, well-known photographer and photographic essayist, is presented in this paper. The introductory section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of Smith and a discussion of his photographic essays on a number of topics, including World War II scenes, life in a Spanish village, the work of a black midwife in…

  15. The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…

  16. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society as problems for…

  17. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  18. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical…

  19. Chris Woodhead: A New Champion of Eugenic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2009-01-01

    Eugenic Theories are clearly alive and well in present-day society--or this is at least true of those theories relating to the passing on of abilities and talents from one generation to the next. This depressing thought was prompted by a reading of Chris Woodhead's latest book "A Desolation of Learning."

  20. Echoes of a Forgotten Past: Eugenics, Testing, and Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoskopf, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Review of the work of Goddard, Terman, and Thorndike and the role of eugenics and the intelligence quotient in testing points out dangers to be avoided in the current testing climate, such as use of the business model, single-number scores, and tracking. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  1. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record of Decision (ROD..., based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE/EIS-0457, March 2012). BPA has decided... will continue to operate at 115 kV. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and EIS may be obtained by calling...

  2. Eugenic utopias/dystopias, reprogenetics, and community genetics.

    PubMed

    Raz, Aviad E

    2009-05-01

    The impetus for this review is the intriguing realisation that eugenics, viewed as dystopian and authoritarian in most of the 20th century, is in the process of being reinterpreted today--in the context of reproductive genetics--as utopian and liberal. This review offers an analytical framework for mapping the growing literature on this subject in order to provide a summary for both teaching and research in medical sociology. Recent works are subsumed and explored in three areas: historical criticism of the 'old eugenics'; the continuation of this stream in the form of criticism of reprogenetics as a new, 'backdoor' eugenic regime of bio-governmentality--an area which also includes the application of Foucauldian and feminist perspectives; and the recent enthusiasm regarding 'liberal eugenics,' claiming that reprogenetic decisions should be left to individual consumers thus enhancing their options in the health market. The review concludes by discussing and illustrating potential research directions in this field, with a focus on the social and ethical aspects of 'community genetics' and its emerging networks of individuals genetically at risk. PMID:19397763

  3. Television transmission of Astronaut Eugene Cernan using Lunar Surface Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan operates the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Cernan is the commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission.

  4. Final-Offer Arbitration: "Sudden Death" in Eugene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary; Feuille, Peter

    1974-01-01

    A case study on final offer arbitration experiences in Eugene, Oregon, is presented and discussed. Basic criticisms leveled against the final-offer system are opposed by the authors and evidence is given in support of the use of final-offer arbitration. (DS)

  5. [The characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in the colonial period represented in the bulletin, Woosaeng].

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Jeon

    2006-12-01

    Woosaeng, meaning "eugenic" in Korean, was a bulletin published by the Korean Eugenics Association in 1934. With detailed review of the contributors to Woosaeng, its publication background and the contents, the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and its historical implications of public health are studied. Intellectuals, especially some medical doctors educated abroad, played the pivotal role in publishing Woosaeng and leading the eugenic movement in 1930's. Lee Gabsoo, a medical doctor educated in Germany, is identified as the key person in the whole process. Most of contributors including Lee considered medical science, especially genetics, as the foundation of eugenics and had strong confidence in their belief. A variety of eugenic movements and activities, including enactment of the national eugenic law around the world. was introduced to the Korean society through Woosaeng and it reinforced the eugenic activities in Korea. Although colonial Korea at the time was being heavily imposed with Japan's culture, the eugenic activities were also influenced by Germany and the US through the contributors educated oversea. The overall content and tone of Woosaeng, revealed its 'soft' characteristics, yet it also implied its vulnerability to 'hard' eugenics. Korea's eugenic movement around Woosaeng faces turnover right before 'The Go Fast Imperialism' period. The high class intellectuals tamed by Japanese colonial paradigm in eugenics took the lead and ended up having a significant influence upon the activities around Woosaeng. And even after Koreans' liberation from Japan's annexation, they were able to retain their influence in public health area in the Korean society. In summary, Woosaeng guided us to understand the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and the historical context of public health in Korea. Moreover, Woosaeng provided a large amount of information about the eugenic movements around the world as well as in Korea. It

  6. Screening PCR Versus Sanger Sequencing: Detection of CALR Mutations in Patients With Thrombocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Hun; Lee, Hwan Tae; Seo, Ja Young; Seo, Yiel Hea; Kim, Kyung Hee; Kim, Moon Jin; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Jinny; Hong, Jun Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in calreticulin (CALR) have been reported to be key markers in the molecular diagnosis of myeloid proliferative neoplasms. In most previous reports, CALR mutations were analyzed by using Sanger sequencing. Here, we report a new, rapid, and convenient system for screening CALR mutations without sequencing. Methods Eighty-three bone marrow samples were obtained from 81 patients with thrombocytosis. PCR primers were designed to detect wild-type CALR (product: 357 bp) and CALR with type 1 (product: 302 bp) and type 2 mutations (product: 272 bp) in one reaction. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and compared with results from fragment analysis. Results The minimum detection limit of the screening PCR was 10 ng for type 1, 1 ng for type 2, and 0.1 ng for cases with both mutations. CALR type 1 and type 2 mutants were detected with screening PCR with a maximal analytical sensitivity of 3.2% and <0.8%, respectively. The screening PCR detected 94.1% (16/17) of mutation cases and showed concordant results with sequencing in the cases of type 1 and type 2 mutations. Sanger sequencing identified one novel mutation (c.1123_1132delinsTGC). Compared with sequencing, the screening PCR showed 94.1% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity, 100.0% positive predictive value, and 98.5% negative predictive value. Compared with fragment analysis, the screening PCR presented 88.9% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity. Conclusions This screening PCR is a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for the detection of major CALR mutations. PMID:27139600

  7. De novo genome sequence assembly of a filamentous fungus using Sanger, 454 and Illumina sequence data

    PubMed Central

    DiGuistini, Scott; Liao, Nancy Y; Platt, Darren; Robertson, Gordon; Seidel, Michael; Chan, Simon K; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Holt, Robert A; Hirst, Martin; Mardis, Elaine; Marra, Marco A; Hamelin, Richard C; Bohlmann, Jörg; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven JM

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing-by-synthesis technologies can reduce the cost of generating de novo genome assemblies. We report a method for assembling draft genome sequences of eukaryotic organisms that integrates sequence information from different sources, and demonstrate its effectiveness by assembling an approximately 32.5 Mb draft genome sequence for the forest pathogen Grosmannia clavigera, an ascomycete fungus. We also developed a method for assessing draft assemblies using Illumina paired end read data and demonstrate how we are using it to guide future sequence finishing. Our results demonstrate that eukaryotic genome sequences can be accurately assembled by combining Illumina, 454 and Sanger sequence data. PMID:19747388

  8. Analysis of the Pythium ultimum transcriptome using Sanger and Pyrosequencing approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Foo; Win, Joe; Lang, Jillian M; Hamilton, John; Vuong, Hue; Leach, Jan E; Kamoun, Sophien; André Lévesque, C; Tisserat, Ned; Buell, C Robin

    2008-01-01

    Background Pythium species are an agriculturally important genus of plant pathogens, yet are not understood well at the molecular, genetic, or genomic level. They are closely related to other oomycete plant pathogens such as Phytophthora species and are ubiquitous in their geographic distribution and host rage. To gain a better understanding of its gene complement, we generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from the transcriptome of Pythium ultimum DAOM BR144 (= ATCC 200006 = CBS 805.95) using two high throughput sequencing methods, Sanger-based chain termination sequencing and pyrosequencing-based sequencing-by-synthesis. Results A single half-plate pyrosequencing (454 FLX) run on adapter-ligated cDNA from a normalized cDNA population generated 90,664 reads with an average read length of 190 nucleotides following cleaning and removal of sequences shorter than 100 base pairs. After clustering and assembly, a total of 35,507 unique sequences were generated. In parallel, 9,578 reads were generated from a library constructed from the same normalized cDNA population using dideoxy chain termination Sanger sequencing, which upon clustering and assembly generated 4,689 unique sequences. A hybrid assembly of both Sanger- and pyrosequencing-derived ESTs resulted in 34,495 unique sequences with 1,110 sequences (3.2%) that were solely derived from Sanger sequencing alone. A high degree of similarity was seen between P. ultimum sequences and other sequenced plant pathogenic oomycetes with 91% of the hybrid assembly derived sequences > 500 bp having similarity to sequences from plant pathogenic Phytophthora species. An analysis of Gene Ontology assignments revealed a similar representation of molecular function ontologies in the hybrid assembly in comparison to the predicted proteomes of three Phytophthora species, suggesting a broad representation of the P. ultimum transcriptome was present in the normalized cDNA population. P. ultimum sequences with similarity to oomycete

  9. Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Gillham, N W

    2001-01-01

    The eugenics movement was initiated by Sir Francis Galton, a Victorian scientist. Galton's career can be divided into two parts. During the first, Galton was engaged in African exploration, travel writing, geography, and meteorology. The second part began after he read the Origin of Species by his cousin Charles Darwin. The book convinced Galton that humanity could be improved through selective breeding. During this part of his career he was interested in the factors that determine what he called human "talent and character" and its hereditary basis. Consequently, he delved into anthropometrics and psychology and played a major role in the development of fingerprinting. He also founded the field of biometrics, inventing such familiar statistical procedures as correlation and regression analysis. He constructed his own theory of inheritance in which nature and not nurture played the leading role. He actively began to promote eugenics and soon gained important converts. PMID:11700278

  10. Arnold Gesell's progressive vision: child hygiene, socialism and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ben

    2011-08-01

    In October 1913, The American Magazine published an article by Arnold Gesell that portrayed Alma, Wisconsin (his hometown) as overflowing with the mentally and morally unfit. In "The Village of a Thousand Souls", Gesell called for the observation and segregation of the unfit as a eugenic measure. This article explores the reasons behind this infamous article by someone who became a famous developmental psychologist and pediatrician. Gesell's papers at the Library of Congress reveal his socialist views of poverty, injustice, and human development. The archives of his father's photography studio at the Wisconsin Historical Society reveal his manipulation of the photographic record to fit his negative view of Alma. Typical of the era, Gesell's Progressive vision combined social control and negative eugenics with egalitarianism and the benevolent engineering of the environment. PMID:21936236

  11. MutAid: Sanger and NGS Based Integrated Pipeline for Mutation Identification, Validation and Annotation in Human Molecular Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Pabinger, Stephan; Kriegner, Albert; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Sanger sequencing as well as Next-Generation Sequencing have been used for the identification of disease causing mutations in human molecular research. The majority of currently available tools are developed for research and explorative purposes and often do not provide a complete, efficient, one-stop solution. As the focus of currently developed tools is mainly on NGS data analysis, no integrative solution for the analysis of Sanger data is provided and consequently a one-stop solution to analyze reads from both sequencing platforms is not available. We have therefore developed a new pipeline called MutAid to analyze and interpret raw sequencing data produced by Sanger or several NGS sequencing platforms. It performs format conversion, base calling, quality trimming, filtering, read mapping, variant calling, variant annotation and analysis of Sanger and NGS data under a single platform. It is capable of analyzing reads from multiple patients in a single run to create a list of potential disease causing base substitutions as well as insertions and deletions. MutAid has been developed for expert and non-expert users and supports four sequencing platforms including Sanger, Illumina, 454 and Ion Torrent. Furthermore, for NGS data analysis, five read mappers including BWA, TMAP, Bowtie, Bowtie2 and GSNAP and four variant callers including GATK-HaplotypeCaller, SAMTOOLS, Freebayes and VarScan2 pipelines are supported. MutAid is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/mutaid. PMID:26840129

  12. Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach.

    PubMed

    Gulecal-Pektas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces. PMID:27281996

  13. A high-throughput Sanger strategy for human mitochondrial genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A population reference database of complete human mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) sequences is needed to enable the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region data in forensic casework applications. However, the development of entire mtGenome haplotypes to forensic data quality standards is difficult and laborious. A Sanger-based amplification and sequencing strategy that is designed for automated processing, yet routinely produces high quality sequences, is needed to facilitate high-volume production of these mtGenome data sets. Results We developed a robust 8-amplicon Sanger sequencing strategy that regularly produces complete, forensic-quality mtGenome haplotypes in the first pass of data generation. The protocol works equally well on samples representing diverse mtDNA haplogroups and DNA input quantities ranging from 50 pg to 1 ng, and can be applied to specimens of varying DNA quality. The complete workflow was specifically designed for implementation on robotic instrumentation, which increases throughput and reduces both the opportunities for error inherent to manual processing and the cost of generating full mtGenome sequences. Conclusions The described strategy will assist efforts to generate complete mtGenome haplotypes which meet the highest data quality expectations for forensic genetic and other applications. Additionally, high-quality data produced using this protocol can be used to assess mtDNA data developed using newer technologies and chemistries. Further, the amplification strategy can be used to enrich for mtDNA as a first step in sample preparation for targeted next-generation sequencing. PMID:24341507

  14. Reanalyze unassigned reads in Sanger based metagenomic data using conserved gene adjacency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Investigation of metagenomes provides greater insight into uncultured microbial communities. The improvement in sequencing technology, which yields a large amount of sequence data, has led to major breakthroughs in the field. However, at present, taxonomic binning tools for metagenomes discard 30-40% of Sanger sequencing data due to the stringency of BLAST cut-offs. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of metagenomic data, we re-analyzed the discarded metagenomes by using less stringent cut-offs. Additionally, we introduced a new criterion, namely, the evolutionary conservation of adjacency between neighboring genes. To evaluate the feasibility of our approach, we re-analyzed discarded contigs and singletons from several environments with different levels of complexity. We also compared the consistency between our taxonomic binning and those reported in the original studies. Results Among the discarded data, we found that 23.7 ± 3.9% of singletons and 14.1 ± 1.0% of contigs were assigned to taxa. The recovery rates for singletons were higher than those for contigs. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a high degree of similarity (0.94 ± 0.03 at the phylum rank and 0.80 ± 0.11 at the family rank) between the proposed taxonomic binning approach and those reported in original studies. In addition, an evaluation using simulated data demonstrated the reliability of the proposed approach. Conclusions Our findings suggest that taking account of conserved neighboring gene adjacency improves taxonomic assignment when analyzing metagenomes using Sanger sequencing. In other words, utilizing the conserved gene order as a criterion will reduce the amount of data discarded when analyzing metagenomes. PMID:21083935

  15. When The Time Seems Ripe: Eugenics, the Annals, and the subtle persistence of typological thinking

    PubMed Central

    WEISS, KENNETH M; LAMBERT, BRIAN W

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This journal began in 1926 as the Annals of Eugenics. Much has changed since then. The original Editors’ primary eugenic objective was not achieved, and eugenics justifiably became notorious for racism and gross abuse of human rights. But one founding aim was to publish advances in statistical genetics, and that objective prospered in the journal’s pages from its beginning to the present day. The online availability of the original issues will be useful to those interested in the history of both eugenics and human genetics, and will provide a reminder of how the careless use of genetical concepts can go astray. PMID:21488850

  16. Modeling the biomechanics of articular eminence function in anthropoid primates

    PubMed Central

    Terhune, Claire E

    2011-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cranial component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articular eminence (AE). This bar of bone is the primary surface upon which the condyle translates and rotates during movements of the mandible, and is therefore the primary point at which forces are transmitted from the mandible to the cranium during loading of the masticatory apparatus. The shape of the AE is highly variable across primates, and the raised eminence of humans has often been considered a defining feature of the human TMJ, yet few data exist to address whether this variation is functionally significant. This study used a broad interspecific sample of anthropoid primates to elaborate upon and test the predictions of a previously proposed model of AE function. This model suggests that AE inclination acts to resist non-normal forces at the TMJ, thereby maximizing bite forces (BFs). AE inclination was predicted to covary with two specific features of the masticatory apparatus: height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane; and inclination of the masticatory muscles. A correlate of this model is that taxa utilizing more resistant food objects should also exhibit relatively more inclined AEs. Results of the correlation analyses found that AE inclination is strongly correlated with height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane, but less so with inclination of the masticatory muscles. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa with documented dietary differences found that the AE is consistently more inclined in taxa that utilize more resistant food items. These data preliminarily suggest that variation in AE morphology across anthropoid primates is functionally related to maximizing BFs, and add to the growing dataset of masticatory morphologies linked to feeding behavior. PMID:21923720

  17. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using Sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-quality transcriptome assembly for chickpea has been developed using ~135 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads, and 139 thousand Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs). This hybrid transcriptome assembly, which we refer to as the "Cicer arietinum Transcripto...

  18. Science and Society in the Eugenic Thought of H. J. Muller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Garland E.

    1970-01-01

    Traces the growth of theories of eugenics during the twentieth century, focussing on the work of H. J. Muller. Concludes that "Muller's lasting contribution was to write the hereditarian attitudes associated with traditional eugenics and the environmentalist's viewpoint associated with modern sociology to obtain a humane and reasoned approach to…

  19. Resistance in School and Society: Public and Pedagogical Debates about Eugenics, 1900-1947.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews positions of scientists, educators and publicists who resisted eugenics and determinism. The nature nurture controversy is discussed, as well as the impact of eugenics on American classrooms. Specific attention is given to four resisters: Dewey, Bagley, Jennings, and Lippmann. (IAH)

  20. Eugenics and education: Implications of ideology, memory, and history for education in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, Ann Gibson

    Eugenics has been variously described "as an ideal, as a doctrine, as a science (applied human genetics), as a set of practices (ranging from birth control to euthanasia), and as a social movement" (Paul 1998 p. 95). "Race Suicide" (Roosevelt 1905) and the ensuing national phobia regarding the "children of worm eaten stock" (Bobbitt 1909) prefaced an era of eugenic ideology whose influence on education has been largely ignored until recently. Using the concept of collective memory, I examine the eugenics movement, its progressive context, and its influence on the aims, policy and practice of education. Specifically, this study examines the ideology of eugenics as a specific category and set of distinctions, and the role of collective memory in providing the mechanism whereby eugenic ideology may shape and fashion interpretation and action in current educational practice. The formation of education as a distinct academic discipline, the eugenics movement, and the Progressive era coalesced during the first decades of the twentieth century to form what has turned out to be a lasting alliance. This alliance has had a profound impact on public perception of the role of schools, how students are classified and sorted, degrees and definitions of intelligence, attitudes and beliefs surrounding multiculturalism and a host of heretofore unexplored ramifications. My research is primarily historical and theoretical and uses those material and media cultural artifacts generated by the eugenics movement to explore the relationship between eugenic ideology and the institution of education.

  1. Between two worlds: Yamanouchi Shigeo and eugenics in early twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Sumiko

    2005-04-01

    This paper explores the eugenic through of Yamanouchi Shigeo (1876-1973), who was trained in plant cytology under the tutelage of botanist and eugenicist John Coulter (1851-1928) in the USA, and later become one of the early and important popularizers of eugenic ideas in Japan. His career demonstrates a direct link between Japanese and US eugenics. Despite his academic training and research at various internationally renowned institutions, numerous publications, and longevity, his life has received little scholarly attention. By the early twentieth century, most biologists in Japan, as in the USA, began accepting Mendelian evolutionary theory and rejecting the Lamarckian notion of inheritance of acquire characteristics. However, Yamanouchi Shigeo's eugenic view represents a paradox: he was a mendelian cytologist sympathetic to Lamarckism. Was his 'nurture'-oriented eugenic view unscientific? is that why he was largely ignored in the history of botany in Japan? This study attempts to answer these questions and to analyse the origins and distinct features of Yamanouchi's eugenic ideas by situating Yamanouchi's eugenic through historically and culturally. After examining his scientific papers, popular writings, and documents of various organizations to which he belonged, I argue that Yamanouchi's 'softer' (or less biologically deterministic) perspective may have reflected the Japanese desire to catch up with the dominant 'race' by using eugenics without accepting permanent inferior status. PMID:15789487

  2. A Cabinet of Mathematical Curiosities at Teachers College: David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a history of David Eugene Smith's collection of historical books, manuscripts, portraits, and instruments related to mathematics. The study analyzes surviving documents, images, objects, college announcements and catalogs, and secondary sources related to Smith's collection. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944) travelled…

  3. The Emergence of Genetic Counseling in Sweden: Examples from Eugenics and Medical Genetics.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the intertwined relations between eugenics and medical genetics from a Swedish perspective in the 1940s and 1950s. The Swedish case shows that a rudimentary form of genetic counseling emerged within eugenic practices in the applications of the Swedish Sterilization Act of 1941, here analyzed from the phenomenon of "heredophobia" (ärftlighetsskräck). At the same time genetic counseling also existed outside eugenic practices, within the discipline of medical genetics. The paper argues that a demand for genetic counseling increased in the 1940s and 1950s in response to a sense of reproductive responsibility engendered by earlier eugenic discourse. The paper also questions the claim made by theoreticians of biopolitics that biological citizens have emerged only during the last decades, especially in neoliberal societies. From the Swedish case it is possible to argue that this had already happened earlier in relation to the proliferation of various aspects of eugenics to the public. PMID:26256508

  4. Noncontinuously binding loop-out primers for avoiding problematic DNA sequences in PCR and sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Kelli; Swensen, Jeffrey J; Procter, Melinda; Jama, Mohamed; Wooderchak-Donahue, Whitney; Lewis, Tracey; Fong, Michael; Hubley, Lindsey; Schwarz, Monica; Ha, Youna; Paul, Eleri; Brulotte, Benjamin; Lyon, Elaine; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Mao, Rong; Pont-Kingdon, Genevieve; Best, D Hunter

    2014-09-01

    We present a method in which noncontinuously binding (loop-out) primers are used to exclude regions of DNA that typically interfere with PCR amplification and/or analysis by Sanger sequencing. Several scenarios were tested using this design principle, including M13-tagged PCR primers, non-M13-tagged PCR primers, and sequencing primers. With this technique, a single oligonucleotide is designed in two segments that flank, but do not include, a short region of problematic DNA sequence. During PCR amplification or sequencing, the problematic region is looped-out from the primer binding site, where it does not interfere with the reaction. Using this method, we successfully excluded regions of up to 46 nucleotides. Loop-out primers were longer than traditional primers (27 to 40 nucleotides) and had higher melting temperatures. This method allows the use of a standardized PCR protocol throughout an assay, keeps the number of PCRs to a minimum, reduces the chance for laboratory error, and, above all, does not interrupt the clinical laboratory workflow. PMID:25017792

  5. Implementing a genomic data management system using iRODS in the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasingly large amounts of DNA sequencing data are being generated within the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI). The traditional file system struggles to handle these increasing amounts of sequence data. A good data management system therefore needs to be implemented and integrated into the current WTSI infrastructure. Such a system enables good management of the IT infrastructure of the sequencing pipeline and allows biologists to track their data. Results We have chosen a data grid system, iRODS (Rule-Oriented Data management systems), to act as the data management system for the WTSI. iRODS provides a rule-based system management approach which makes data replication much easier and provides extra data protection. Unlike the metadata provided by traditional file systems, the metadata system of iRODS is comprehensive and allows users to customize their own application level metadata. Users and IT experts in the WTSI can then query the metadata to find and track data. The aim of this paper is to describe how we designed and used (from both system and user viewpoints) iRODS as a data management system. Details are given about the problems faced and the solutions found when iRODS was implemented. A simple use case describing how users within the WTSI use iRODS is also introduced. Conclusions iRODS has been implemented and works as the production system for the sequencing pipeline of the WTSI. Both biologists and IT experts can now track and manage data, which could not previously be achieved. This novel approach allows biologists to define their own metadata and query the genomic data using those metadata. PMID:21906284

  6. "A century of civilization under the influence of eugenics": Dr. Enrique Diego Madrazo, socialism and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the thought of one of the pioneers of eugenics in Spain, Dr. Enrique Diego Madrazo. In particular, it analyses his 1930 essay Un siglo de civilización bajo la influencia eugenésica [A Century of Civilization under the Influence of Eugenics], as the most explicit work on the eugenic utopia he advocated. This work, because of its breadth, was also one of the most extensive and detailed accounts of the steps to be taken towards the eugenic society that was produced. The present analysis of his work assesses the degree to which his thought, which has been described as "utopian socialist", in fact corresponded to that epithet, given the politically authoritarian nature and the gender bias of some aspects of his one-hundred year plan for the creation of a eugenic society. The article also places Madrazo's thought in the context of his time and other national currents of eugenic thought. PMID:17214140

  7. The strength of a loosely defined movement: eugenics and medicine in imperial Russia.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the 'infiltration' of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900-17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859-1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879-1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia's and Iudin's attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  8. The Strength of a Loosely Defined Movement: Eugenics and Medicine in Imperial Russia

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the ‘infiltration’ of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900–17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859–1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879–1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia’s and Iudin’s attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  9. Confronting the stigma of eugenics: genetics, demography and the problems of population.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2009-12-01

    Building upon the work of Thomas Gieryn and Erving Goffman, this paper will explore how the concepts of stigma and boundary work can be usefully applied to history of population science. Having been closely aligned to eugenics in the early 20th century, from the 1930s both demographers and geneticists began to establish a boundary between their own disciplines and eugenic ideology. The eugenics movement responded to this process of stigmatization. Through strategies defined by Goffman as 'disclosure' and 'concealment', stigma was managed, and a limited space for eugenics was retained in science and policy. Yet by the 1960s, a revitalized eugenics movement was bringing leading social and biological scientists together through the study of the genetic demography of characteristics such as intelligence. The success of this programme of 'stigma transformation' resulted from its ability to allow geneticists and demographers to conceive of eugenic improvement in ways that seemed consistent with the ideals of individuality, diversity and liberty. In doing so, it provided them with an alternative, and a challenge, to more radical and controversial programmes to realize an optimal genotype and population. The processes of stigma attribution and management are, however, ongoing, and since the rise of the nature-nurture controversy in the 1970s, the use of eugenics as a 'stigma symbol' has prevailed. PMID:20506743

  10. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  11. Homozygosity Mapping and Targeted Sanger Sequencing Reveal Genetic Defects Underlying Inherited Retinal Disease in Families from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani; Mustafa, Bilal; Ayub, Humaira; Ali, Liaqat; Ahmad, Shakeel; Micheal, Shazia; Hussain, Alamdar; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Ahmed, Waqas; Khan, Yar Muhammad; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Collin, Rob W. J.; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Qamar, Raheel; Cremers, Frans P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Homozygosity mapping has facilitated the identification of the genetic causes underlying inherited diseases, particularly in consanguineous families with multiple affected individuals. This knowledge has also resulted in a mutation dataset that can be used in a cost and time effective manner to screen frequent population-specific genetic variations associated with diseases such as inherited retinal disease (IRD). Methods We genetically screened 13 families from a cohort of 81 Pakistani IRD families diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), or cone dystrophy (CD). We employed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals and performed Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes located in the sizeable homozygous regions. In addition, based on population specific mutation data we performed targeted Sanger sequencing (TSS) of frequent variants in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, GUCY2D, LCA5, RPGRIP1 and TULP1, in probands from 28 LCA families. Results Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes revealed the underlying mutations in 10 families. TSS revealed causative variants in three families. In these 13 families four novel mutations were identified in CNGA1, CNGB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1. Conclusions Homozygosity mapping and TSS revealed the underlying genetic cause in 13 IRD families, which is useful for genetic counseling as well as therapeutic interventions that are likely to become available in the near future. PMID:25775262

  12. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations. PMID:25090126

  13. Inbreeding, eugenics, and Helen Dean King (1869-1955).

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey

    2007-01-01

    Helen Dean King's scientific work focused on inbreeding using experimental data collected from standardized laboratory rats to elucidate problems in human heredity. The meticulous care with which she carried on her inbreeding experiments assured that her results were dependable and her theoretical explanations credible. By using her nearly homozygous rats as desired commodities, she also was granted access to venues and people otherwise unavailable to her as a woman. King's scientific career was made possible through her life experiences. She earned a doctorate from Bryn Mawr College under Thomas Hunt Morgan and spent a productive career at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology in Philadelphia where she had access to the experimental subjects which made her career possible. In this paper I examine King's work on inbreeding, her participation in the debates over eugenics, her position at the Wistar Institute, her status as a woman working with mostly male scientists, and her involvement with popular science. PMID:18348398

  14. Eugene Island Block 330 field-development and production history

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.L.; Dupuy, M.J.

    1983-11-01

    Eugene Island Block 330 field is currently the largest oilproducing field in federally owned offshore waters of the U.S. The field is located about 170 miles southwest of New Orleans (Fig. 1). The first leases were purchased in Dec. 1970. Three months later, a major discovery was apparent when exploratory wells drilled by Pennzoil and Shell on adjoining Blocks 330 and 331, respectively, established a 900-ft column of hydrocarbon-bearing sands. By the end of 1971, two platforms had been set, and development was under way. Four more platforms were set during 1972 and ultimately nine platforms were installed in the field. Initial production began in Sept. 1972 from Block 331. Hydrocarbon accumulation occurs in more than 25 sandstone reservoirs located at 2,200 to 12,000 ft. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be greater than 225 million bbl of liquid hydrocarbons and 950 Bcf of gas. Improved recovery operations began in Aug. 1975, utilizing water injection on Blocks 331 and 314 and through-gas injection in Dec. 1979 on Block 330. Through Dec. 1982, cumulative production was 224 million bbl of liquid and 1.03 Tcf of gas. This production is graphically illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3. This field is unique in the quick timing of operations to develop and initiate production. In summary, the Eugene Island Block 330 field is a major oil and gas field in which the hydrocarbons have accumulated in more than 25 Plio-Pleistocene deltaic sandstone reservoirs. Trapping mechanisms are combinations of structural and stratigraphic varieties including fourway dip closure, fault closure, and facies changes.

  15. Eugenics, sexual pedagogy and social change: constructing the responsible subject of governmentality in the Spanish Second Republic.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Alonso, Belén

    2008-06-01

    This study focuses on eugenics in Spain, and more specifically on the 'official' eugenics whose platform was the Primeras Jornadas Eugénicas Españolas (First Spanish Eugenic Days, FSED). The aim of this paper is to relate eugenics to 'governmentality' rather than to State politics alone and to 'Latin eugenics' rather than to 'mainline eugenics'. On the one hand, the FSED were largely centred on the development of a new sexual code which would set Catholic sexual morality aside. For this reason, sexual pedagogy was one of the most relevant topics during the FSED, personal responsibility becoming the first step to social change. The concern about making people play an active role in their own self-regulation is typical of governmentality. The latter refers to societies where power is decentered and where the objective is to structure the field of action of others (the conduct of conduct). On the other hand, the FSED emphasised preventive eugenics such as welfare programmes and health campaigns rather than negative eugenics such as the sterilisation of the unfit. The situation in Spain was mirrored in countries such as Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, which allows us to think about them in terms of 'Latin eugenics' rather than 'mainline eugenics' from countries such as Great Britain, Germany and the USA. PMID:18534356

  16. Official portrait of STS-50 USML payload specialist Eugene H. Trinh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Official portrait of STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-01 payload specialist Dr. Eugene H. Trinh in blue flight suit with US flag and space shuttle model in the background.

  17. Eugene – A Domain Specific Language for Specifying and Constraining Synthetic Biological Parts, Devices, and Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bilitchenko, Lesia; Liu, Adam; Cheung, Sherine; Weeding, Emma; Xia, Bing; Leguia, Mariana; Anderson, J. Christopher; Densmore, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic biological systems are currently created by an ad-hoc, iterative process of specification, design, and assembly. These systems would greatly benefit from a more formalized and rigorous specification of the desired system components as well as constraints on their composition. Therefore, the creation of robust and efficient design flows and tools is imperative. We present a human readable language (Eugene) that allows for the specification of synthetic biological designs based on biological parts, as well as provides a very expressive constraint system to drive the automatic creation of composite Parts (Devices) from a collection of individual Parts. Results We illustrate Eugene's capabilities in three different areas: Device specification, design space exploration, and assembly and simulation integration. These results highlight Eugene's ability to create combinatorial design spaces and prune these spaces for simulation or physical assembly. Eugene creates functional designs quickly and cost-effectively. Conclusions Eugene is intended for forward engineering of DNA-based devices, and through its data types and execution semantics, reflects the desired abstraction hierarchy in synthetic biology. Eugene provides a powerful constraint system which can be used to drive the creation of new devices at runtime. It accomplishes all of this while being part of a larger tool chain which includes support for design, simulation, and physical device assembly. PMID:21559524

  18. Eugenics discourse and racial improvement in Republican China (1911-1949).

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-hwan

    2010-12-31

    This paper aimed to examine the advent of eugenics and its characteristics in republican China. Although eugenics was introduced into China as a discourse to preserve and improve race by the 1898 reformers such as Yan Fu (1854-1921) and Yi Nai (1875-?) in the late imperial period, it was not until the republican period that eugenics discourse started to combine with the discourse and movement related to social reform. The May 4th intellectuals put forward criticisms of Confucian patriarchy, propagating science and democracy. They pointed out that the large family system was a source of every social evil, and argued the need for a small family system based on monogamy. The aim of the small family system was to improve both the race and the environment. Such thinkers argued that freedom of love and the liberation of individuality were necessary for this end. Zhou Jianren (1888-1984), Lu Xun's youngest brother and representative eugenicist in the May 4th period, combined eugenics with freedom of love and the liberation of individuality. Pan Guangdan (1899-1967) and Zhou Jianren debated the eugenics controversy in the 1920s. They raised the freedom of love and the liberation of individuality as central issues related to the eugenics controversy. The eugenics debate was developed into the controversy between biological determinism and environmentalism in the late 1920s. However, these issues did not continue to be brought up in the 1930s. The main issues concerning the eugenics controversy in the 1930s were cultural identity and the population problem. Particularly in the 1930s, the scope of birth control as the solution to the population problem was extended from the individual person and family to nation and race. For eugenicists like Pan Guangdan, birth control violated the aim of eugenics and brought about the degeneration of the race. However, such theorists did not deny the value of birth control itself. The supporters of birth control thought that selecting

  19. Rapid Sanger Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene for Identification of Some Common Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangbiao; Shi, Xiaojun; Su, Jianhui; Chen, Guanwu; Lin, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Conventional Sanger sequencing remains time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a rapid improved sequencing protocol of 16S rRNA for pathogens identification by using a new combination of SYBR Green I real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing with FTA® cards. To compare the sequencing quality of this method with conventional Sanger sequencing, 12 strains, including three kinds of strains (1 reference strain and 3 clinical strains, which were previously identified by biochemical tests), which have 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 Staphyloccocus aureus and 4 Escherichia coli, were targeted. Additionally, to validate the sequencing results and bacteria identification, expanded specimens with 90 clinical strains, also comprised of the three kinds of strains which included 30 samples respectively, were performed as just described. The results showed that although statistical differences (P<0.05) were found in sequencing quality between the two methods, their identification results were all correct and consistent. The workload, the time consumption and the cost per batch were respectively light versus heavy, 8 h versus 11 h and $420 versus $400. In the 90 clinical strains, all of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus strains were correctly identified, but only 26.7% of the Escherichia coli strains were recognized as Escherichia coli, while 33.3% as Shigella sonnei and 40% as Shigella dysenteriae. The protocol described here is a rapid, reliable, stable and convenient method for 16S rRNA sequencing, and can be used for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus identification, yet it is not completely suitable for discriminating Escherichia coli and Shigella strains. PMID:24551186

  20. Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.

    PubMed

    Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D

    2013-09-01

    The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work. PMID:23179067

  1. [Neurocosmetics, transhumanism and eliminative materialism: toward new ways of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Echarte Alonso, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I present similarities and connections between Transhumanism and Eliminative Materialism. Concretely, I study the arguments with which in both positions it is defended a merely instrumental idea of human body and, because of that, one infinitely mouldable. First, I show the social relevance of this idea and its projections in phenomena as medicalization of human condition and, especially, cosmetic psychopharmacology. Besides, I denounce that such influences are caused by illegitimate transference of authority between philosophical and scientific forums. Second, according to my analysis, these new postmodern fashions of chemical sentimentalism (related with radical changes on personal identity and human nature) drive to new eugenic forms what I name autoeugenics. Finally, I call attention to the important role of utopian speeches about the science of tomorrow and super-human civilization in a Carpe Diem society. In my conclusions, I claim that historical reasoning or warnings about what is coming are not efficient strategies to control neither new psychopharmacological habits nor passivity generated by them. Returning social confidence in the power of reason to achieve reality (and other human beings) is, in my opinion, the best way to rehabilitate a more and more devalued human action. PMID:22548656

  2. Comparing Whole-Genome Sequencing with Sanger Sequencing for spa Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Andreas; Worning, Peder; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Larner-Svensson, Hanna; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Andersen, Leif Percival; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Westh, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has traditionally been done by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the spa repeat region. At Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of all MRSA isolates has been performed routinely since January 2013, and an in-house analysis pipeline determines the spa types. Due to national surveillance, all MRSA isolates are sent to Statens Serum Institut, where the spa type is determined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the spa types obtained by 150-bp paired-end Illumina WGS. MRSA isolates from new MRSA patients in 2013 (n = 699) in the capital region of Denmark were included. We found a 97% agreement between spa types obtained by the two methods. All isolates achieved a spa type by both methods. Nineteen isolates differed in spa types by the two methods, in most cases due to the lack of 24-bp repeats in the whole-genome-sequenced isolates. These related but incorrect spa types should have no consequence in outbreak investigations, since all epidemiologically linked isolates, regardless of spa type, will be included in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. This will reveal the close relatedness of the spa types. In conclusion, our data show that WGS is a reliable method to determine the spa type of MRSA. PMID:25297335

  3. Prenatal diagnosis as a tool and support for eugenics: myth or reality in contemporary French society?

    PubMed

    Gaille, Marie; Viot, Géraldine

    2013-02-01

    Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in this article has been elaborated jointly by a geneticist and a philosopher. Besides a survey of the medical, bioethical, philosophical and social sciences literature on the topic, the methodology is founded on a joint analysis of geneticist's various consults. Evidence from office visits demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis leads to case-by-case decisions. As we have suggested, this conclusion does not mean that prenatal diagnosis is devoid of ethical issues, and we have identified at least two. The first is related to the evaluation of a decision to abort. The second line of ethical questions arises from the fact that the claim for "normality" hardly hides normative and ambiguous views about disability. As a conclusion, ethical dilemmas keep being noticeable in the field of reproductive medicine and genetic counselling, but an enquiry about eugenic tendencies probably does not allow us to understand them in the proper way. PMID:22814726

  4. From 'beastly philosophy' to medical genetics: eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers an overview of the three distinct periods in the development of Russian eugenics: Imperial (1900-1917), Bolshevik (1917-1929), and Stalinist (1930-1939). Began during the Imperial era as a particular discourse on the issues of human heredity, diversity, and evolution, in the early years of the Bolshevik rule eugenics was quickly institutionalized as a scientific discipline--complete with societies, research establishments, and periodicals--that aspired an extensive grassroots following, generated lively public debates, and exerted considerable influence on a range of medical, public health, and social policies. In the late 1920s, in the wake of Joseph Stalin's 'Great Break', eugenics came under intense critique as a 'bourgeois' science and its proponents quickly reconstituted their enterprise as 'medical genetics'. Yet, after a brief period of rapid growth during the early 1930s, medical genetics was dismantled as a 'fascist science' towards the end of the decade. Based on published and original research, this essay examines the factors that account for such an unusual--as compared to the development of eugenics in other locales during the same period--historical trajectory of Russian eugenics. PMID:21466003

  5. Eugenics, politics and the state: social democracy and the Swiss 'gardening state'.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the connections between eugenics, politics and the state, taking the Swiss case as a particular focus. It is argued that Switzerland provides a historical example of what Bauman [Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.] describes as 'gardening states': states that are concerned with eliminating the 'bad weeds' from the national garden and thereby constructing sharply exclusionary national identities. The Swiss experiments with eugenics (1920s-1960s) can be seen as an example of an ongoing struggle against 'difference'. Against this backdrop I will examine, first, the ways in which state regulation of reproductive sexuality, and other eugenic measures, became central mechanisms for dealing with cultural and other 'differences' in the Swiss nation. Second, I will analyse the gendered nature of such mechanisms, as well as the preoccupation with racial 'difference' exemplified by eugenic policies towards 'Gypsies'. To conclude, I will examine the impact of political institutions and political ideology, in particular, social democracy, on these eugenic gardening efforts. PMID:18534358

  6. Eminence-Focused Gifted Education: Concerns about Forward Movement Void of an Equity Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Tarek C.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on Grantham's commentary on an eminence-focused gifted education model developed by Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Worrell. Grantham primarily reviews the model from an equity perspective, taking into account the changing demographics in the nation's public schools. Specifically, Grantham asserts that education leaders…

  7. Linking Extreme Precocity and Adult Eminence: A Study of Eight Prodigies at International Chess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Do prodigies have extraordinary innate talent or do they just start very early and get much practice? Why do relatively few become eminent as adults? Is it because early and later success often need somewhat different abilities and gatekeepers rule? International chess is a good test domain for both issues because it has objective longitudinal…

  8. Transient structures of the human fetal brain: subplate, thalamic reticular complex, ganglionic eminence.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, N; Neudörfer, F; Bohl, J

    2000-07-01

    Morphological features of the subplate, the thalamic reticular complex and the ganglionic eminence, which represent three major transient structures of the human fetal forebrain, are summarized with special reference to their functional roles. The subplate harboring various neuronal types is an outstandingly wide zone subjacent to the cortical plate in the human fetal brain. Within the subplate various cortical afferents establish synaptic contacts for a prolonged period before entering the cortical plate. Therefore, the subplate is regarded as a "waiting compartment" which is required for the formation of mature cortical connections. Next to the thalamic reticular nucleus, within the fibers of internal capsule, the perireticular nucleus is located which has been established as a distinct entity during development. Its various neuronal types express a number of different neuroactive substances. Perinatally, the perireticular nucleus is drastically reduced in size. It is involved in the guidance of corticofugal and thalamocortical fibers. The ganglionic eminence is a conspicuous proliferative area that persists throughout nearly the entire fetal period. In the human fetal brain it extends medially upon the dorsal thalamic nuclei which receive precursor cells from the ganglionic eminence. Postmitotic cells in the marginal zone of the ganglionic eminence serve as an intermediate target for growing axons. On the whole, all three structures establish transient neural circuitries that may be essential for the formation of adult projections. The characteristics of the three transient structures are particularly relevant for developmental neuropathology as these structures may be damaged in disorders that preferentially occur in preterm infants. PMID:10963122

  9. Alternative Pathways to Talent Development in Music: The Narrative of an Eminent Filipino Singer-Songwriter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2014-01-01

    The narrative of an eminent Filipino singer-songwriter, Noel Cabangon, provides a description of an alternative pathway to musical talent development. Most theories on talent development assume that a young artist would have access to the resources required for one to advance in the domain. The results of multiple in-depth interviews suggested…

  10. Childhood Giftedness and Adulthood Genius: A Historiometric Analysis of 291 Eminent African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2008-01-01

    Although the association between giftedness and genius has been the subject of several retrospective, longitudinal, and historiometric studies, this research concentrated on majority-culture samples. In the current study, Cox's (1926) findings regarding 301 geniuses were replicated on a sample of 291 eminent African Americans. Relative genius was…

  11. Is Mandibular Fossa Morphology and Articular Eminence Inclination Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Abolvardi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Finding a significant relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology and the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) may help early prediction and prevention of these problems. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to determine the morphology of mandibular fossa and the articular eminence inclination in patients with TMD and in control group using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method The CBCT data of bilateral TMJs of 40 patients with TMD and 23 symptom-free cases were evaluated. The articular eminence inclination, as well as the glenoid fossa depth and width of the mandibular fossa were measured. The paired t-test was used to compare these values between two groups. Results The articular eminence inclination and glenoid fossa width and depth were significantly higher in patients with TMD than in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The articular eminence inclination was steeper in patients with TMD than in the control group. Glenoid fossa width and depth were higher in patients with TMD than that in the control group. This information may shed light on the relationship between TMJ morphology and the incidence of TMD. PMID:27284559

  12. Comparison of Illumina de novo assembled and Sanger sequenced viral genomes: A case study for RNA viruses recovered from the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mahmoud E; Varsani, Arvind; Ganley, Austen R D; Pearson, Michael N

    2016-07-01

    The advent of 'next generation sequencing' (NGS) technologies has led to the discovery of many novel mycoviruses, the majority of which are sufficiently different from previously sequenced viruses that there is no appropriate reference sequence on which to base the sequence assembly. Although many new genome sequences are generated by NGS, confirmation of the sequence by Sanger sequencing is still essential for formal classification by the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), although this is currently under review. To empirically test the validity of de novo assembled mycovirus genomes from dsRNA extracts, we compared the results from Illumina sequencing with those from random cloning plus targeted PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing for viruses from five Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates. Through Sanger sequencing we detected nine viral genomes while through Illumina sequencing we detected the same nine viruses plus one additional virus from the same samples. Critically, the Illumina derived sequences share >99.3 % identity to those obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Although, there is scope for errors in de novo assembled viral genomes, our results demonstrate that by maximising the proportion of viral sequence in the data and using sufficiently rigorous quality controls, it is possible to generate de novo genome sequences of comparable accuracy from Illumina sequencing to those obtained by Sanger sequencing. PMID:26581665

  13. 77 FR 64349 - Notice of Availability of the Draft West Eugene Wetlands Resource Management Plan/Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... process was initiated on June 8, 2011, through a Notice of Intent published in the Federal Register (76 FR... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft West Eugene Wetlands Resource Management...) for the West Eugene Wetlands and by this notice is announcing the opening of the comment period....

  14. Emancipation through interaction--how eugenics and statistics converged and diverged.

    PubMed

    Louçã, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the scope and influence of eugenics in defining the scientific programme of statistics and the impact of the evolution of biology on social scientists. It argues that eugenics was instrumental in providing a bridge between sciences, and therefore created both the impulse and the institutions necessary for the birth of modern statistics in its applications first to biology and then to the social sciences. Looking at the question from the point of view of the history of statistics and the social sciences, and mostly concentrating on evidence from the British debates, the paper discusses how these disciplines became emancipated from eugenics precisely because of the inspiration of biology. It also relates how social scientists were fascinated and perplexed by the innovations taking place in statistical theory and practice. PMID:20481126

  15. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    PubMed

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations. PMID:26111842

  16. Ethical dimensions of yousheng (healthy birth or eugenics): the perspective of a Chinese ethicist.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kailin

    2002-10-01

    Yousheng meaning eugenics or healthy-birth and youyu meaning good-upbringing are necessary requirements for the development of human beings and therefore of humankind generally. There are enormous ethical issues involved in eugenics. An important task or calling of contemporary bioethics and ethics of population is to discuss these issues in order for people, even people in different countries and cultures, to reach some basic consensus and have practical ethical guidance. Based on the practice of yousheng in contemporary China, this paper offers a Chinese perspective on ethical dimensions of eugenics. It will argue that individuals, as members of society, have a duty to provide society with healthy and normal children. Moreover, this paper examines the relationships between the aim and the means and conflicts between collective value and individual value, in yousheng. PMID:15587510

  17. Differences in articular-eminence inclination between medieval and contemporary human populations.

    PubMed

    Kranjčić, Josip; Vojvodić, Denis; Žabarović, Domagoj; Vodanović, Marin; Komar, Daniel; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-08-01

    The articular-eminence inclination is an important element in the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint and the entire masticatory system; however, very little is known about this inclination in archaeological human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the values of, in addition to the differences between, the articular-eminence inclination in medieval and contemporary human populations. The study was carried out on two dry skull groups. The first group consisted of 14 dry skulls from the medieval culture group Bijelo Brdo (BB) of East Croatia, and the other consisted of 137 recent dry skulls from the osteologic collection of the Institute of Anatomy (IA) in Zagreb. All BB skulls were dentulous, whereas the IA skulls were divided into dentulous and edentulous groups. The articular-eminence inclination was measured in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane on digital images of the skull's two lateral views using AutoCAD computer software. The mean value of the articular-eminence inclination in the BB sample group (49.57°) was lower, with a statistical significance (p<0.01), than those of the IA dentulous (61.56°), the IA edentulous (62.54°), and all the combined IA (61.99°) specimens. Because the values of the articular-eminence inclination can vary a lot with reference to the number of specimens and the different methods used for measuring, the obtained values yield only orientational information. Further investigations including a larger number of medieval specimens are needed to confirm the results obtained from this study. PMID:22721644

  18. [Unwanted memory, the Polish eugenic movement in between-the-wars period: side-notes to Krzysztof Kawalec's article].

    PubMed

    Gawin, M

    2001-01-01

    A polemical response to Krzysztof Kawalec's article 'Dispute over Eugenics in 1918-1939', published in 'Medycyna Nowizytna' ['Modern Medicine'], 2000, vol. 7, fascicle 2. In his article Krzysztof Kawalec overlooks the issue of race, which had been at the centre of the eugenic ideology, and then erroneously situates eugenicists on the political spectrum. The eugenicists were not radicals or totalitarians but constituted a group of leftist-liberal intellectuals. Their views were rejected by the Polish government circles in power at that time, not without the deterring influence of Nazi racism and the opposition of the Catholic Church. The main reason why eugenic notions suffered a defeat in pre-war Poland was the isolation and political weakness of eugenic circles. Therefore, issues relating to Polish eugenics during the two decades between the two World Wars should be consigned to a much greater degree to the realm of learning and social movements rather than to the political sphere. PMID:12568101

  19. Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32

  20. Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32

  1. 78 FR 21583 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Eugene-Springfield PM10

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 52 and 81 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Eugene-Springfield PM10 Nonattainment Area Limited Maintenance Plan and Redesignation Request AGENCY:...

  2. Eugene F. Kranz wears special vest to celebrate 41-C mission landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Eugene F. Kranz, Director of Mission Operations, wears special red, white and blue striped vest to celebrate 41-C mission landing. He stands at the rear row of consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of JSC's Mission Control Center.

  3. Reflections on Mental Retardation and Eugenics, Old and New: Mensa and the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the moral and ethical issues of mental retardation and a continuing legacy of belief in eugenics. It discusses the involuntary sterilization of Carrie Buck in 1927, support for legalized killing of subnormal infants by 47% of respondents to a Mensa survey, and implications of the Human Genome Project for the field of mental…

  4. Education Policy and Biological Science: Genetics, Eugenics, and the College Textbook, c. 1908-1931.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1985-01-01

    A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)

  5. The Killing Thought in the Eugenic Era and Today: A Commentary on Hollander's Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    1989-01-01

    Two responses to Hollander (EC 220 057) and the author's counter-response note similarities between "mercy killing" of people with mental retardation and deliberate abortion of the unborn, misuse of the history of eugenics, and a defense of the author's historical scholarship. (DB)

  6. The Human Genome Project and Eugenics: Identifying the Impact on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuna, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)

  7. Eugenics and Education: A Note on the Origins of the Intelligence Testing Movement in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Roy

    1980-01-01

    Examines influence of Francis Galton and the Eugenics Education Society in the intelligence testing movement in England (early 1900s). For eugenicists, the central issue confronting society was the problem of racial deterioration. They responded with modification of the Binet-Simon tests and developed tests to examine the whole ability range.…

  8. Thoughts on the Changing Meaning of Disability: New Eugenics or New Wholeness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the impact of eugenics on people with disabilities and the danger that they will be further devalued in a world of increasing genetic manipulation. Margaret Mead's concept of providing opportunities for all people to learn how to participate wholly in society and the need for an ethical revolution are discussed. (CR)

  9. The Hunt for Disability: The New Eugenics and the Normalization of School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2002-01-01

    Examines issues of sameness, difference, equality, and democracy in present public school systems, focusing on the question of (dis)ability and implications of rethinking (dis)ability as an ontological issue before its inscription as an educational one concerning the politics of inclusion. The paper analyzes old and new discourses of eugenics as…

  10. Professionalization and the Null Curriculum: The Case of the Popular Eugenics Movement and American Educational Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Presents an essay review of three recent books on eugenics, a once popular quasiscientific and politically conservative social movement devoted to the improvement of humankind through programs of selective breeding and marriage restriction. States that educators must study and come to grips with the meaning of this movement in order to appreciate…

  11. Astronaut Eugene Cernan salutes deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander, salutes the deployed U.S. flag on the lunar surface during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The lunar module is at the left background and the lunar roving vehicle, also in background, is partially obscured. The photo was made by Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot.

  12. Restoring "Speech" and "Time" to Communication Theory: Contributions of Franz Rosenzweig and Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eugene D.; McConnell, Kathleen

    It has been said that the contribution of Franz Rosenzweig and Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy to the social sciences is their understanding of speech and time. Rosenstock-Huessy criticized modern communication theory because it assumes that one communicates to express thought, claiming instead that because speech necessitates the presence of a listener,…

  13. Program Documentation and Evaluation. Workshop (Eugene, Oregon, April 12-14, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Teacher Corps Network, Bellingham, WA.

    Emphasis on the systematic evaluation of federally funded programs has steadily increased over the last several years. In response to this increased emphasis, a workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, on April 12-14, 1977, to familiarize the directors and selected staff members from six Far West Teacher Corps Network projects with the program…

  14. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence.

    PubMed

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K

    2007-06-01

    Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease. PMID:17499855

  15. Reduction and fixation of the avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence using mini-open technique.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiong-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Tong; Ding, Yong; Dai, Li-Yang

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to present and evaluate a new technique using suture anchors for the treatment of the avulsion fractures of the tibial eminence. Twenty-three consecutive patients with the displaced avulsion fracture of the tibial attachment of anterior cruciate ligament were treated using mini-open technique with suture anchors between 2005 and 2008. According to the classification of Meyers and McKeever, there were 5 type II, 13 type III, and 5 type IV fractures. The median follow-up period was 18 months (range, 12-32 months). The patient assessment included Lysholm score, Tegner score, IKDC score, and radiographic evaluation. The median Lysholm score improved from 32 (range, 28-48) preoperatively to 98 (range, 85-100) postoperatively. The median preoperative Tegner score was 3 (range, 2-5), and the median postoperative Tegner score was 7 (range, 5-9). The global IKDC objective score was normal (A) in 21 knees and nearly normal (B) in 2 knees. At final follow-up, the Lachman test and anterior drawer test were negative. The results showed that mini-open reduction and fixation of avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence with suture anchors have achieved satisfactory results. We suggest the use of this technique for treating avulsion fractures of the tibial eminence. PMID:20127313

  16. A Case of Nonunion Avulsion Fracture of the Anterior Tibial Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is an uncommon injury. If bone union does not occur, knee extension will be limited by impingement of the avulsed fragment and knee instability will be induced by dysfunction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This report describes a 55-year-old woman who experienced an avulsion fracture of the right anterior tibial eminence during recreational skiing. Sixteen months later, she presented at our hospital with limitation of right knee extension. Plain radiography showed nonunion of the avulsion fracture region, and arthroscopy showed that the avulsed fragment impinged the femoral intercondylar notch during knee extension. The anterior region of the bony fragment was debrided arthroscopically until the knee could be extended completely. There was no subsequent instability, and the patient was able to climb a mountain 6 months after surgery. These findings indicate that arthroscopic debridement of an avulsed fragment for nonunion of an avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is a minimally invasive and effective treatment for middle-aged and elderly patients with a low level of sports activity. PMID:27119035

  17. 454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples

    PubMed Central

    Altimari, Annalisa; de Biase, Dario; De Maglio, Giovanna; Gruppioni, Elisa; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; D’Errico, Antonia; Pession, Annalisa; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ΔCt for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues. PMID

  18. A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) using sanger and second-generation sequencing platforms.

    PubMed

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Bharti, Arvind K; Cannon, Steven B; Farmer, Andrew D; Mulaosmanovic, Benjamin; Kramer, Robin; Bohra, Abhishek; Weeks, Nathan T; Crow, John A; Tuteja, Reetu; Shah, Trushar; Dutta, Sutapa; Gupta, Deepak K; Singh, Archana; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R; May, Gregory D; Singh, Nagendra K; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly for pigeonpea has been developed by analyzing 128.9 million short Illumina GA IIx single end reads, 2.19 million single end FLX/454 reads, and 18 353 Sanger expressed sequenced tags from more than 16 genotypes. The resultant transcriptome assembly, referred to as CcTA v2, comprised 21 434 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) with an N50 of 1510 bp, the largest one being ~8 kb. Of the 21 434 TACs, 16 622 (77.5%) could be mapped on to the soybean genome build 1.0.9 under fairly stringent alignment parameters. Based on knowledge of intron junctions, 10 009 primer pairs were designed from 5033 TACs for amplifying intron spanning regions (ISRs). By using in silico mapping of BAC-end-derived SSR loci of pigeonpea on the soybean genome as a reference, putative mapping positions at the chromosome level were predicted for 6284 ISR markers, covering all 11 pigeonpea chromosomes. A subset of 128 ISR markers were analyzed on a set of eight genotypes. While 116 markers were validated, 70 markers showed one to three alleles, with an average of 0.16 polymorphism information content (PIC) value. In summary, the CcTA v2 transcript assembly and ISR markers will serve as a useful resource to accelerate genetic research and breeding applications in pigeonpea. PMID:22241453

  19. "Hopelessly entangled in Nordic pre-suppositions": Catholic participation in the American Eugenics Society in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Leon, Sharon M

    2004-01-01

    While American Catholics stand out as some of the few voices of cultural opposition to the eugenics movement in the United States, Catholics and eugenicists actively engaged in conversational exchanges during the late 1920s. In association with the Committee on Cooperation with Clergymen of the American Eugenics Society, John A. Ryan and John Montgomery Cooper engaged in a process that Sander Gilman and Nancy Leys Stepan call "recontextualization," whereby they challenged the social and scientific basis for eugenics policy initiatives while constantly urging American eugenicists to rid their movement of racial and class prejudice. In the process, they participated in a revealing debate on immigration restriction, charity, racial hierarchies, feminism, birth control, and sterilization that points to both the instances of convergence and divergence of Catholic and eugenic visions for the national community. PMID:15011811

  20. Comparison of Sanger and next generation sequencing performance for genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates at the 18S rRNA and actin loci.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Gofton, Alexander; Yang, Rongchang; White, Nicole; Bunce, Michael; Ryan, Una M

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important enteric pathogen that infects a wide range of humans and animals. Rapid and reliable detection and characterisation methods are essential for understanding the transmission dynamics of the parasite. Sanger sequencing, and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) on an Ion Torrent platform, were compared with each other for their sensitivity and accuracy in detecting and characterising 25 Cryptosporidium-positive human and animal faecal samples. Ion Torrent reads (n = 123,857) were obtained at both 18S rRNA and actin loci for 21 of the 25 samples. Of these, one isolate at the actin locus (Cattle 05) and three at the 18S rRNA locus (HTS 10, HTS 11 and HTS 12), suffered PCR drop-out (i.e. PCR failures) when using fusion-tagged PCR. Sanger sequences were obtained for both loci for 23 of the 25 samples and showed good agreement with Ion Torrent-based genotyping. Two samples both from pythons (SK 02 and SK 05) produced mixed 18S and actin chromatograms by Sanger sequencing but were clearly identified by Ion Torrent sequencing as C. muris. One isolate (SK 03) was typed as C. muris by Sanger sequencing but was identified as a mixed C. muris and C. tyzzeri infection by HTS. 18S rRNA Type B sequences were identified in 4/6 C. parvum isolates when deep sequenced but were undetected in Sanger sequencing. Sanger was cheaper than Ion Torrent when sequencing a small numbers of samples, but when larger numbers of samples are considered (n = 60), the costs were comparative. Fusion-tagged amplicon based approaches are a powerful way of approaching mixtures, the only draw-back being the loss of PCR efficiency on low-template samples when using primers coupled to MID tags and adaptors. Taken together these data show that HTS has excellent potential for revealing the "true" composition of species/types in a Cryptosporidium infection, but that HTS workflows need to be carefully developed to ensure sensitivity, accuracy and contamination are

  1. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement. PMID:20027757

  2. Detection of hepatitis B virus genotypic resistance mutations by coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR coupled with sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Lin, Jinpiao; Chen, Huijuan; Shang, Hongyan; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Jing; Ye, Yang; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the reverse transcriptase (rt) region of the DNA polymerase gene are the primary cause of hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug resistance. In this study, we established a novel method that couples coamplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and we applied it to the detection of known and unknown HBV mutations. Primers were designed based on the common mutations in the HBV rt sequence at positions 180 to 215. The critical denaturation temperature (Tc) was established as a denaturing temperature for both fast and full COLD-PCR procedures. For single mutations, when a melting temperature (Tm)-reducing mutation occurred (e.g., C-G → T-A), the sensitivities of fast and full COLD-PCR for mutant detection were 1% and 2%, respectively; when the mutation caused no change in Tm (e.g., C-G → G-C) or raised Tm (e.g., T-A → C-G), only full COLD-PCR improved the sensitivity for mutant detection (2%). For combination mutations, the sensitivities of both full and fast COLD-PCR were increased to 0.5%. The limits of detection for fast and full COLD-PCR were 50 IU/ml and 100 IU/ml, respectively. In 30 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cases, no mutations were detected by conventional PCR, whereas 18 mutations were successfully detected by COLD-PCR, including low-prevalence mutations (<10%), as confirmed by ultradeep pyrosequencing. In conclusion, COLD-PCR provides a highly sensitive, simple, inexpensive, and practical tool for significantly improving amplification efficacy and detecting low-level mutations in clinical CHB cases. PMID:24899029

  3. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. PMID:27082205

  4. From species ethics to social concerns: Habermas's critique of "liberal eugenics" evaluated.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2014-10-01

    Three arguments of Habermas against "liberal eugenics" -- the arguments from consent, responsibility, and instrumentalization -- are critically evaluated and explicated in the light of his discourse ethics and social theory. It is argued that these arguments move partly at a too deep level and are in part too individualistic and psychological to sufficiently counter the liberal position that he sets out to criticize. This is also due to limitations that prevent discourse ethics from connecting effectively to the moral and political domains, e.g., through a discussion of justice. In spite of these weaknesses, Habermas's thesis is of major relevance and brings up neglected issues in the discussion about eugenic reproductive practices. This relevance has not been duly recognized in bioethics, largely because of the depth of his speculations of philosophical anthropology. It is argued that Habermas's notion of the colonization of the lifeworld could provide the analytical tool needed to build that bridge to the moral and political domain. PMID:25234409

  5. In memory of Eugene (Jenő) von Gothard: a pioneering nineteenth century Hungarian astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Ildikő J.; Jankovics, István

    2012-07-01

    Eugene von Gothard was a Hungarian engineer/scientist, instrument-maker and astrophysicist who founded the Herény Astrophysical Observatory in 1881 and carried out pioneering work in astronomical photography and spectroscopy. In this paper we provide biographical material about von Gothard and describe his observatory, before discussing his astronomical observations and the contribution that hemade to the early development of astrophysics.

  6. [Agnes Bluhm, the woman scientist among the eugenics specialists, and the women's movement].

    PubMed

    Bleker, Johanna

    2007-01-01

    The paper tries to assess the early female physician Agnes Bluhm (1862-1943) as one of the outstanding German female scientists of her time and draws up a connection from her achievements in early genetics to her commitments in eugenics and feminism. This leads to a more precise judgement on her position within the German racial hygiene and allows to correct misunderstandings that have assigned Bluhm to the right wing in the German women's movement. PMID:18447190

  7. Treatment of tibial eminence fractures with arthroscopic suture fixation technique: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanhao; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yanjie; Wang, Zhanchao

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The present study aims to investigate the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic suture fixation in treating tibial eminence fracture with a retrospective study design of two years’ follow-up. Methods: A total of 33 patients with imaging evidence of tibial eminence avulsion fractures who underwent arthroscopic surgery between 2008 and 2012 were included in this study. The inclusion criteria for the study were a displaced tibial eminence avulsion fracture and anterior knee instability of grade II or higher inskeletally mature patients. These patients were treated with arthroscopic suture fixation and followed with a mean period of 24 months. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were obtained 3 months postoperatively to assess fracture healing. At 24 months after surgery, all patients were evaluated by an independent orthopaedic professor with clinical examination like anteroposterior laxity (Lachman-Noulis and anterior drawer tests) and Rolimeter knee tester (Aircast, Vista, CA). Knee range of motion was evaluated actively and passively with a goniometer. Knee function was evaluated by the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Knee radiographs in standing anteroposterior, standing lateral, and Merchant views were examined for alignment, joint space narrowing, and degenerative knee changes. Results: No major complication like infection, deep venous thrombosis, or neurovascular deficit happened peri-operatively. At the final follow-up, there were no symptoms of instability and no clinical signs of ACL deficiency. Radiographs showed that all fractures healed 3 months post-operative, but at the last follow-up, there was one person with degenerative changes like joint space narrowing in radiographs. Anterior translation of the tibia was 0.47 mm on average (0 to 2.5 mm) compared with the uninjured side. Range-of-motion measurement showed a mean extension deficit of 1.5° (0° to 5°) and a mean flexion deficit of 2.7° (0° to 10

  8. The eminent need for an academic program in universities to teach nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Manuel; Vélez, Juan Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Nanomedicine is on the cutting edge of technology applied to medical and biological sciences. Nanodevices, nanomaterials, nanoinstruments, nanotechnologies, and nanotechniques (laboratory methods and procedures) are important for the modern practice of medicine and essential for research that could stimulate the discovery of new medical advances. Accordingly, there is an eminent need for implementing an academic program in universities to teach this indispensable and pragmatic discipline, especially in the departments of graduate studies and research in the areas of pharmacology, genetic engineering, proteomics, and molecular and cellular biology. PMID:21984868

  9. Glomus Tumor of the Thenar Eminence in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Scaravilli, Gabriele; Rossi, Roberto; Artiaco, Stefano; Merolla, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a disease characterized by increased tumorigenesis susceptibility, caused by mutations of the oncosuppressor gene NF1. The glomus tumor (GT) is a rare, very painful mesenchymal neoplasm, arising from the glomus body. In recent years, it has been highlighted the association between NF1 and GT. We report a case of a man aged 65 years, suffering from NF1, with intense pain at the thenar eminence of the right hand, successfully treated with the excision of the mass. PMID:25674553

  10. The doers of good. Scandinavian historians revise the social history of eugenics(1997-2001).

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underprivileged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favor in the middle of the sixties. PMID:19848224

  11. Eugenics, medical education, and the Public Health Service: Another perspective on the Tuskegee syphilis experiment.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Paul A; Dorr, Gregory M

    2006-01-01

    The Public Health Service (PHS) Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro (1932-72) is the most infamous American example of medical research abuse. Commentary on the study has often focused on the reasons for its initiation and for its long duration. Racism, bureaucratic inertia, and the personal motivations of study personnel have been suggested as possible explanations. We develop another explanation by examining the educational and professional linkages shared by three key physicians who launched and directed the study. PHS surgeon general Hugh Cumming initiated Tuskegee, and assistant surgeons general Taliaferro Clark and Raymond A. Vonderlehr presided over the study during its first decade. All three had graduated from the medical school at the University of Virginia, a center of eugenics teaching, where students were trained to think about race as a key factor in both the etiology and the natural history of syphilis. Along with other senior officers in the PHS, they were publicly aligned with the eugenics movement. Tuskegee provided a vehicle for testing a eugenic hypothesis: that racial groups were differentially susceptible to infectious diseases. PMID:16809865

  12. Retinoic acid influences neuronal migration from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, James E.; Goodman, Timothy; McCarthy, Deirdre M.; Duester, Gregg; Bhide, Pradeep G.; Dräger, Ursula C.; McCaffery, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ganglionic eminence contributes cells to several forebrain structures including the cerebral cortex, for which it provides GABAergic interneurons. Migration of neuronal precursors from the retinoic-acid rich embryonic ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex is known to be regulated by several factors, but retinoic acid has not been previously implicated. We found retinoic acid to potently inhibit cell migration in slice preparations of embryonic mouse forebrains, which was reversed by an antagonist of the dopamine-D2 receptor, whose gene is transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid. Histonedeacetylase inhibitors, which amplify nuclear receptor-mediated transcription, potentiated the inhibitory effect of retinoic acid. Surprisingly, when retinoic acid signalling was completely blocked with a pan-retinoic acid receptor antagonist, this also decreased cell migration into the cortex, implying that a minimal level of endogenous retinoic acid is necessary for tangential migration. Given these opposing effects of retinoic acid in vitro, the in vivo contribution of retinoic acid to migration was tested by counting GABAergic interneurons in cortices of adult mice with experimental reductions in retinoic acid signalling: a range of perturbations resulted in significant reductions in the numerical density of some GABAergic interneuron subpopulations. These observations suggest functions of retinoic acid in interneuron diversity and organization of cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance. PMID:21895658

  13. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications.

    PubMed

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Azam, Sarwar; Sharpe, Andrew G; Taran, Bunyamin; Li, Rong; Deonovic, Benjamin; Cameron, Connor; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinumTranscriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201), comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8%) of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%). The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and intron spanning regions (ISRs) for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding applications in

  14. Bioinformatic analysis of ESTs collected by Sanger and pyrosequencing methods for a keystone forest tree species: oak

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody species worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest tree species in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few genomic resources have yet been generated for these species. Here, we describe the development of an EST catalogue that will support ecosystem genomics studies, where geneticists, ecophysiologists, molecular biologists and ecologists join their efforts for understanding, monitoring and predicting functional genetic diversity. Results We generated 145,827 sequence reads from 20 cDNA libraries using the Sanger method. Unexploitable chromatograms and quality checking lead us to eliminate 19,941 sequences. Finally a total of 125,925 ESTs were retained from 111,361 cDNA clones. Pyrosequencing was also conducted for 14 libraries, generating 1,948,579 reads, from which 370,566 sequences (19.0%) were eliminated, resulting in 1,578,192 sequences. Following clustering and assembly using TGICL pipeline, 1,704,117 EST sequences collapsed into 69,154 tentative contigs and 153,517 singletons, providing 222,671 non-redundant sequences (including alternative transcripts). We also assembled the sequences using MIRA and PartiGene software and compared the three unigene sets. Gene ontology annotation was then assigned to 29,303 unigene elements. Blast search against the SWISS-PROT database revealed putative homologs for 32,810 (14.7%) unigene elements, but more extensive search with Pfam, Refseq_protein, Refseq_RNA and eight gene indices revealed homology for 67.4% of them. The EST catalogue was examined for putative homologs of candidate genes involved in bud phenology, cuticle formation, phenylpropanoids biosynthesis and cell wall formation. Our results suggest a good coverage of genes involved in these traits. Comparative orthologous

  15. Activation of transcription factors STAT1 and STAT5 in the mouse median eminence after systemic ciliary neurotrophic factor administration.

    PubMed

    Severi, Ilenia; Senzacqua, Martina; Mondini, Eleonora; Fazioli, Francesca; Cinti, Saverio; Giordano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Exogenously administered ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) causes weight loss in obese rodents and humans through leptin-like activation of the Jak-STAT3 signaling pathway in hypothalamic arcuate neurons. Here we report for the first time that 40min after acute systemic treatment, rat recombinant CNTF (intraperitoneal injection of 0.3mg/kg of body weight) induced nuclear translocation of the tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of STAT1 and STAT5 in the mouse median eminence and other circumventricular organs, including the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis and the subfornical organ. In the tuberal hypothalamus of treated mice, specific nuclear immunostaining for phospo-STAT1 and phospho-STAT5 was detected in ependymal cells bordering the third ventricle floor and lateral recesses, and in median eminence cells. Co-localization studies documented STAT1 and STAT5 activation in median eminence β-tanycytes and underlying radial glia-like cells. A few astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus responded to CNTF by STAT5 activation. The vast majority of median eminence tanycytes and radial glia-like cells showing phospho-STAT1 and phospho-STAT5 immunoreactivity were also positive for phospho-STAT3. In contrast, STAT3 was the sole STAT isoform activated by CNTF in arcuate nucleus and median eminence neurons. Finally, immunohistochemical evaluation of STAT activation 20, 40, 80, and 120min from the injection demonstrated that cell activation was accompanied by c-Fos expression. Collectively, our findings show that CNTF activates STAT3, STAT1, and STAT5 in vivo. The distinctive activation pattern of these STAT isoforms in the median eminence may disclose novel targets and pathways through which CNTF regulates food intake. PMID:26133794

  16. Inherently Undesirable: American Identity and the Role of Negative Eugenics in the Education of Visually Impaired and Blind Students in Ohio, 1870-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Free, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, studies of eugenics artificially confine their focus to the movement's application to race, socio-economic status, and the forced sterilization of the so-called feebleminded. However, the segregationist aspect of the eugenics design in the United States brought with it damaging policies toward individuals with physical and mental…

  17. Is age kinder to the initially more able? A study of eminent scientists and academics.

    PubMed

    Christensen, H; Henderson, A S

    1991-11-01

    Elderly eminent academics and blue-collar workers were compared with Doctor of Philosophy students and trade apprentices to investigate whether intelligence and memory deteriorate at a slower rate in persons with high ability. The elderly groups showed decline on tests of perceptual-motor speed, visuospatial reasoning, inferential thinking and memory relative to the young subjects. Initial ability determined the level of intellectual performance, such that elderly academics maintained their initial advantage over the elderly blue-collar workers. However, with the exception of the Similarities subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the rate of change on tests of memory and intelligence did not differ for the high- and low-ability groups. The hypothesis that high ability is associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline was not supported. PMID:1780406

  18. [Distant functional outcomes of treatment and physiotherapy of tibial eminence fractures in adults].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Sebastian; Golec, Edward; Golec, Joanna; Szczygieł, Elzbieta; Ciszek, Elzbieta; Walocha, Jerzy; Mizia, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Authors of paper present distant functional outcomes of treatment and physiotherapy of tibial eminence fractures basing on clinical material covering years from 1998 to 2006, that make up 15 patients, 7 women (46.7%) and 8 men (53.3%), aged between 18 and 57 years, on average 37.5-years-old. Subject fractures ware classified basing on Meyers i McKeever criteria, however obtained outcomes basing on IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) system. Obtained outcomes persuade authors to standpoint, that inoperative treatment of fractures type I leads to good functional outcomes, operative treatment of fracture type II leads to good functional outcomes too and operative treatment of fracture type III and III+ leads to sufficient outcomes. PMID:20201332

  19. Racial science in social context: John R. Baker on eugenics, race, and the public role of the scientist.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2004-09-01

    In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole. PMID:15747772

  20. Throwing the baby out with the bathwater: a critique of Sparrow's inclusive definition of the term 'in vitro eugenics'.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Misao; Yashiro, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Mika

    2014-11-01

    Sparrow highlights three potential applications of in vitro eugenics, that is, (a) research into the heredity of genetic disorders, (b) production of cell lines with specific genotypes, and (c) breeding better babies, and points to the need for researchers to discuss in advance the potential ethical problems that may emerge if the realization of this technology occurs in the near future. In this commentary, we pose a question for the sake of discussion. Is it, in fact, appropriate to label all three applications raised by Sparrow as eugenics? By doing so, an unnecessary level of concern might be borne among the public, and as a result, the sound development of this specialized technology would be affected. If the label of eugenics is to be applied to all three of these applications, then Sparrow must justify how he perceives (a) and (b) as not inherently different from (c). PMID:23986606

  1. Pneumatized Articular Eminence and Assessment of Its Prevalence and Features on Panoramic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Khojastepour, Leila; Ezoddini, Fatemeh; Zeighami, Noshafarin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Pneumatized articular eminence or tubercle (PAT) is an air cell cavity in the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. Pneumatization of articular eminence may be seen incidentally on panoramic radiographs (PRs) as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucent defect. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and the pattern of PAT on PR in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 3,098 PRs belonging to 1,735 females and 1,363 males were retrospectively investigated for the presence and radiographic features of PAT. All PRs were taken for routine dental examination. Chi-square test, univariate odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Overall, PAT was found in 2.1 % of cases including 41 females and 23 males (with a mean age of 33.23±12.43 and 35.64±13.24 years, respectively, range 19–69 years). There were 40 unilateral and 24 bilateral cases (total: 88 PATs) including 49 unilocular and 39 multilocular cases. There was no significant difference in PAT between males and females or different age groups (P>0.05 and all CIs included 1.00). Binary logistic regression indicated that there was no relationship between the presence of PAT and age or sex. Conclusion: Knowledge about this anatomical variation is helpful for clinicians who are planning to perform temporomandibular joint surgery. They should assess the radiographic imaging thoroughly before the surgery. It can also provide valuable information to understand the differential diagnosis of pathological entities in this region. PMID:26622277

  2. Eugene P. Wigner's Visionary Contributions to Generations-I through IV Fission Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Among Europe's greatest scientists who fled to Britain and America in the 1930s, Eugene P. Wigner made instrumental advances in reactor physics, reactor design and technology, and spent nuclear fuel processing for both purposes of developing atomic weapons during world-war II and nuclear power afterwards. Wigner who had training in chemical engineering and self-education in physics first gained recognition for his remarkable articles and books on applications of Group theory to Quantum mechanics, Solid state physics and other topics that opened new branches of Physics.

  3. Music and Affective Phenomena: A 20-Year Content and Bibliometric Analysis of Research in Three Eminent Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish trends in the study of music and affective phenomena through a content and bibliometric analysis of three eminent music research journals, the "Journal of Research in Music Education", "Psychology of Music", and "Music Perception", for the years 1990 through 2009. Excluding…

  4. Down to the Bone: The Essential Thinking and Productivity of Professor Phillip Tobias, Eminent Paleoanthropologist from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Eminent individuals have made significant contributions to their fields that have impacted on fundamental knowledge and practices around the world, a description that aptly describes the world-known South African paleoanthropologist and scientist, Professor Phillip Tobias. This article presents evidence from his early childhood and schooling that…

  5. Biotypology, Endocrinology, and Sterilization: The Practice of Eugenics in the Treatment of Argentinian Women during the 1930s

    PubMed Central

    ERASO, YOLANDA

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This article looks at medical approaches to women’s fertility in Argentina in the 1930s and explores the ways in which eugenics encouraged the reproduction of the fit and attempted to avoid the reproduction of the unfit. The analysis concentrates on three main aspects: biotypology (the scientific classification of bodies), endocrine therapy, and sterilization. The article concludes by suggesting that a eugenically oriented obstetrical and gynecological practice encouraged both endocrine treatments (to achieve the ideal fertile woman) and sterilization, which, in spite of being legally banned, found a subtle application. PMID:18084107

  6. From the 'Village of a Thousand Souls' to 'Race Crossing in Jamaica': Arnold Gesell, eugenics and child development.

    PubMed

    Weizmann, Fredric

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps best known for providing age-related norms in early development, norms that are still used as a basis for measures of developmental maturity, Arnold Gesell was a key figure in developmental psychology from the 1920s through the 1950s. After examining Gesell's reputation and status in the field, we explore Gesell's changing relationship to eugenics, both in terms of Gesell's often contradictory attitudes about the role of hereditary and environmental influences in development, and in terms of the broader relationship between the eugenics movement and science. PMID:20623743

  7. The life of Eugene Braunwald: a remarkable journey that began in Vienna.

    PubMed

    Schlossmacher, M G

    1998-01-16

    The life of Dr. Eugene Braunwald, who is without doubt the preeminent cardiologist of our time, represents a remarkable journey that began in Vienna, Austria. It took an early and decisive turn in July 1938 when his family was forced into exile by Austrian Nazism, ultimately settling in the United States. During his career Dr. Braunwald has provided unprecedented contributions to the theory and practice of medicine, foremost in cardiovascular research and clinical cardiology. Professionally, his pursuit of excellence continues in the roles of physician-scientist, academic teacher, editor and administrator. Personally, Dr. Braunwald's voyage came full circle in the summer of 1995, some fifty seven years after his emigration, when the University of Vienna awarded him an honorary Medical Doctorate. This article reviews Dr. Eugene Braunwald's remarkable journey from his childhood in pre-World War II Vienna to the current titles of Distinguished Hersey Professor of Medicine and Faculty Dean for Academic Programs at Harvard Medical School and Vice President of Partner's HealthCare Systems in Boston, Massachusetts. This essay is also intended to raise awareness of, and foster academic investigation into, the long-lasting implications of Austrian Nazism on the "Viennese School of Medicine". PMID:9499476

  8. Very high resolution single pass HLA genotyping using amplicon sequencing on the 454 next generation DNA sequencers: Comparison with Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, F; Höglund, B; Fernandez-Vina, M; Tyan, D; Rastrou, M; Williams, T; Moonsamy, P; Goodridge, D; Anderson, M; Erlich, H A; Holcomb, C L

    2015-12-01

    Compared to Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing offers advantages for high resolution HLA genotyping including increased throughput, lower cost, and reduced genotype ambiguity. Here we describe an enhancement of the Roche 454 GS GType HLA genotyping assay to provide very high resolution (VHR) typing, by the addition of 8 primer pairs to the original 14, to genotype 11 HLA loci. These additional amplicons help resolve common and well-documented alleles and exclude commonly found null alleles in genotype ambiguity strings. Simplification of workflow to reduce the initial preparation effort using early pooling of amplicons or the Fluidigm Access Array™ is also described. Performance of the VHR assay was evaluated on 28 well characterized cell lines using Conexio Assign MPS software which uses genomic, rather than cDNA, reference sequence. Concordance was 98.4%; 1.6% had no genotype assignment. Of concordant calls, 53% were unambiguous. To further assess the assay, 59 clinical samples were genotyped and results compared to unambiguous allele assignments obtained by prior sequence-based typing supplemented with SSO and/or SSP. Concordance was 98.7% with 58.2% as unambiguous calls; 1.3% could not be assigned. Our results show that the amplicon-based VHR assay is robust and can replace current Sanger methodology. Together with software enhancements, it has the potential to provide even higher resolution HLA typing. PMID:26037172

  9. Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing Pipeline Outperforms a Combined Approach Using Sanger Sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification in Targeted Gene Panel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schenkel, Laila C; Kerkhof, Jennifer; Stuart, Alan; Reilly, Jack; Eng, Barry; Woodside, Crystal; Levstik, Alexander; Howlett, Christopher J; Rupar, Anthony C; Knoll, Joan H M; Ainsworth, Peter; Waye, John S; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-09-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have facilitated parallel analysis of multiple genes enabling the implementation of cost-effective, rapid, and high-throughput methods for the molecular diagnosis of multiple genetic conditions, including the identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in high-risk patients for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. We clinically validated a NGS pipeline designed to replace Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis and to facilitate detection of sequence and copy number alterations in a single test focusing on a BRCA1/BRCA2 gene analysis panel. Our custom capture library covers 46 exons, including BRCA1 exons 2, 3, and 5 to 24 and BRCA2 exons 2 to 27, with 20 nucleotides of intronic regions both 5' and 3' of each exon. We analyzed 402 retrospective patients, with previous Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification results, and 240 clinical prospective patients. One-hundred eighty-three unique variants, including sequence and copy number variants, were detected in the retrospective (n = 95) and prospective (n = 88) cohorts. This standardized NGS pipeline demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, uniformity, and high-depth nucleotide coverage per sample (approximately 7000 reads per nucleotide). Subsequently, the NGS pipeline was applied to the analysis of larger gene panels, which have shown similar uniformity, sample-to-sample reproducibility in coverage distribution, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of sequence and copy number variants. PMID:27376475

  10. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  11. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  12. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  13. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  14. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  15. 77 FR 4806 - Eugene Water and Electric Board; Notice of Application for Surrender of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eugene Water and Electric Board; Notice of Application for Surrender of... Water and Electric Board. e. Name of Project: Blue River Project. f. Location: The proposed project... the last three digits in the docket number field to access the document. You may also register...

  16. 78 FR 21547 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Oregon: Eugene-Springfield PM10

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... pollution. On July 1, 1987, EPA promulgated a NAAQS for PM 10 (52 FR 24634). EPA established a 24-hour... 10 standard (71 FR 61144, effective December 18, 2006). B. Eugene-Springfield NAA and Planning... measured violations of the 24-hour PM 10 standard (52 FR 29383). The notice announcing the...

  17. Preserving Precious Instruments in Mathematics History: The Educational Museum of Teachers College and David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A history is given of the Educational Museum of Teachers College, which began in 1886, and David Eugene Smith's extensive collection of mathematical tools used in the Museum's exhibits is discussed. Historic mathematical instruments including, the astrolabe, abacus and counting rods, and the slide rule are examined. The author uses digitized…

  18. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Wetlands Planning Area in the State of Oregon and Associated Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau... Wetlands Planning Area and by this notice is announcing the beginning of the scoping process to solicit public comments and identify issues. The West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area comprises approximately...

  19. Validation of targeted next-generation sequencing for RAS mutation detection in FFPE colorectal cancer tissues: comparison with Sanger sequencing and ARMS-Scorpion real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Wu, Huanwen; Wang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Huanli; Lu, Junliang; Liang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform-Ion Torrent PGM for KRAS exon 2 and expanded RAS mutations detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens, with comparison of Sanger sequencing and ARMS-Scorpion real-time PCR. Setting Beijing, China. Participants 51 archived FFPE CRC samples (36 men, 15 women) were retrospectively randomly selected and then checked by an experienced pathologist for sequencing based on histological confirmation of CRC and availability of sufficient tissue. Methods RAS mutations were detected in the 51 FFPE CRC samples by PGM analysis, Sanger sequencing and the Therascreen KRAS assay, respectively. Agreement among the 3 methods was assessed. Assay sensitivity was further determined by sequencing serially diluted DNA from FFPE cell lines with known mutation statuses. Results 13 of 51 (25.5%) cases had a mutation in KRAS exon 2, as determined by PGM analysis. PGM analysis showed 100% (51/51) concordance with Sanger sequencing (κ=1.000, 95% CI 1 to 1) and 98.04% (50/51) agreement with the Therascreen assay (κ=0.947, 95% CI 0.844 to 1) for detecting KRAS exon 2 mutations, respectively. The only discrepant case harboured a KRAS exon 2 mutation (c.37G>T) that was not covered by the Therascreen kit. The dilution series experiment results showed that PGM was able to detect KRAS mutations at a frequency of as low as 1%. Importantly, RAS mutations other than KRAS exon 2 mutations were also detected in 10 samples by PGM. Furthermore, mutations in other CRC-related genes could be simultaneously detected in a single test by PGM. Conclusions The targeted NGS platform is specific and sensitive for KRAS exon 2 mutation detection and is appropriate for use in routine clinical testing. Moreover, it is sample saving and cost-efficient and time-efficient, and has great potential for clinical application to expand testing to include mutations in RAS and other CRC-related genes. PMID

  20. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again. PMID:23197125

  1. A novel GABA-mediated corticotropin-releasing hormone secretory mechanism in the median eminence

    PubMed Central

    Kakizawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Miho; Mutoh, Hiroki; Okawa, Yuta; Yamashita, Miho; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Itoi, Keiichi; Suda, Takafumi; Oki, Yutaka; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the endocrine stress response. The excitability of CRH neurons is regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)–containing neurons projecting to the PVN. We investigated the role of GABA in the regulation of CRH release. The release of CRH was impaired, accumulating in the cell bodies of CRH neurons in heterozygous GAD67-GFP (green fluorescent protein) knock-in mice (GAD67+/GFP), which exhibited decreased GABA content. The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and the Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1), but not the K+-Cl− cotransporter (KCC2), were expressed in the terminals of the CRH neurons at the median eminence (ME). In contrast, CRH neuronal somata were enriched with KCC2 but not with NKCC1. Thus, intracellular Cl− concentrations ([Cl−]i) may be increased at the terminals of CRH neurons compared with concentrations in the cell body. Moreover, GABAergic terminals projecting from the arcuate nucleus were present in close proximity to CRH-positive nerve terminals. Furthermore, a GABAAR agonist increased the intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels in the CRH neuron terminals but decreased the Ca2+ levels in their somata. In addition, the increases in Ca2+ concentrations were prevented by an NKCC1 inhibitor. We propose a novel mechanism by which the excitatory action of GABA maintains a steady-state CRH release from axon terminals in the ME. PMID:27540587

  2. Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Daniel; Wu, Pei-Rung; Sorrells, Shawn F.; Arnold, Christine; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic cortical interneurons, derived from the embryonic medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE), are functionally and morphologically diverse. Inroads have been made in understanding the roles of distinct cortical interneuron subgroups, however, there are still many mechanisms to be worked out that may contribute to the development and maturation of different types of GABAergic cells. Moreover, altered GABAergic signaling may contribute to phenotypes of autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Specific Cre-driver lines have begun to parcel out the functions of unique interneuron subgroups. Despite the advances in mouse models, it is often difficult to efficiently study GABAergic cortical interneuron progenitors with molecular approaches in vivo. One important technique used to study the cell autonomous programming of these cells is transplantation of MGE cells into host cortices. These transplanted cells migrate extensively, differentiate, and functionally integrate. In addition, MGE cells can be efficiently transduced with lentivirus immediately prior to transplantation, allowing for a multitude of molecular approaches. Here we detail a protocol to efficiently transduce MGE cells before transplantation for in vivo analysis, using available Cre-driver lines and Cre-dependent expression vectors. This approach is advantageous because it combines precise genetic manipulation with the ability of these cells to disperse after transplantation, permitting greater cell-type specific resolution in vivo. PMID:25938985

  3. A novel GABA-mediated corticotropin-releasing hormone secretory mechanism in the median eminence.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Miho; Mutoh, Hiroki; Okawa, Yuta; Yamashita, Miho; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Itoi, Keiichi; Suda, Takafumi; Oki, Yutaka; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2016-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the endocrine stress response. The excitability of CRH neurons is regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing neurons projecting to the PVN. We investigated the role of GABA in the regulation of CRH release. The release of CRH was impaired, accumulating in the cell bodies of CRH neurons in heterozygous GAD67-GFP (green fluorescent protein) knock-in mice (GAD67(+/GFP)), which exhibited decreased GABA content. The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), but not the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2), were expressed in the terminals of the CRH neurons at the median eminence (ME). In contrast, CRH neuronal somata were enriched with KCC2 but not with NKCC1. Thus, intracellular Cl(-) concentrations ([Cl(-)]i) may be increased at the terminals of CRH neurons compared with concentrations in the cell body. Moreover, GABAergic terminals projecting from the arcuate nucleus were present in close proximity to CRH-positive nerve terminals. Furthermore, a GABAAR agonist increased the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) levels in the CRH neuron terminals but decreased the Ca(2+) levels in their somata. In addition, the increases in Ca(2+) concentrations were prevented by an NKCC1 inhibitor. We propose a novel mechanism by which the excitatory action of GABA maintains a steady-state CRH release from axon terminals in the ME. PMID:27540587

  4. Semaphorin7A regulates neuroglial plasticity in the adult hypothalamic median eminence

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Jyoti; Messina, Andrea; Langlet, Fanny; Cimino, Irene; Loyens, Anne; Mazur, Danièle; Gallet, Sarah; Balland, Eglantine; Malone, Samuel A.; Pralong, François; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Schellino, Roberta; De Marchis, Silvia; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent; Giacobini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive competence in mammals depends on the projection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the hypothalamic median eminence (ME) and the timely release of GnRH into the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. In adult rodents, GnRH neurons and the specialized glial cells named tanycytes periodically undergo cytoskeletal plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate this plasticity are still largely unknown. We demonstrate that Semaphorin7A, expressed by tanycytes, plays a dual role, inducing the retraction of GnRH terminals and promoting their ensheathment by tanycytic end feet via the receptors PlexinC1 and Itgb1, respectively. Moreover, Semaphorin7A expression is regulated during the oestrous cycle by the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids. Genetic invalidation of Semaphorin7A receptors in mice induces neuronal and glial rearrangements in the ME and abolishes normal oestrous cyclicity and fertility. These results show a role for Semaphorin7A signalling in mediating periodic neuroglial remodelling in the adult ME during the ovarian cycle. PMID:25721933

  5. Semaphorin7A regulates neuroglial plasticity in the adult hypothalamic median eminence.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Jyoti; Messina, Andrea; Langlet, Fanny; Cimino, Irene; Loyens, Anne; Mazur, Danièle; Gallet, Sarah; Balland, Eglantine; Malone, Samuel A; Pralong, François; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Schellino, Roberta; De Marchis, Silvia; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent; Giacobini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive competence in mammals depends on the projection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the hypothalamic median eminence (ME) and the timely release of GnRH into the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In adult rodents, GnRH neurons and the specialized glial cells named tanycytes periodically undergo cytoskeletal plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate this plasticity are still largely unknown. We demonstrate that Semaphorin7A, expressed by tanycytes, plays a dual role, inducing the retraction of GnRH terminals and promoting their ensheathment by tanycytic end feet via the receptors PlexinC1 and Itgb1, respectively. Moreover, Semaphorin7A expression is regulated during the oestrous cycle by the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids. Genetic invalidation of Semaphorin7A receptors in mice induces neuronal and glial rearrangements in the ME and abolishes normal oestrous cyclicity and fertility. These results show a role for Semaphorin7A signalling in mediating periodic neuroglial remodelling in the adult ME during the ovarian cycle. PMID:25721933

  6. Adult tibial eminence fracture fixation: arthroscopic procedure using K-wire folded fixation.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Nicolas; Jeunet, Laurent; Obert, Laurent; Dejour, David

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a new and simple technique for arthroscopic fixation of tibial intercondylar eminence avulsion fractures using folded surgical pin. This technique allows reduction and fixation of the bone fragment without using special equipment. After standard arthroscopic procedure to explore the knee and to remove fracture debris and blood clot, the bone block is reduced and advanced with the spike of the anterior cruciate ligament tibial drill guide. A 1.8-mm K-wire is drilled through the guide from the proximal tibia into the reduced fragment. It is bent on its end into the joint with a strong needle case. The K-wire is then pulled back until good fragment compression to the tibia appears with the wire starting unbending. Next, the other side is bent on the anterior tibial cortex and cut. This arthroscopic fixation allows elastic compression fragment stabilization that authorizes early weight bearing and rehabilitation programs. The material is extracted by traction after 6 months. PMID:17235617

  7. [The hypertensive effect of vasopressin administered into the median eminence of the hypothalamus in rats].

    PubMed

    Gindeva, R; Pencheva, T

    1991-01-01

    Data about direct effect of vasopressin (VP) on the central arterial pressure (AP) orientated us to investigate the effect of its local administration in the median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus in rats. For this purpose VP was administered in ME under micropellet form. AP was measured indirectly on the tail of rats up to 96th hour after operation. After implantation of VP there was an elevation of AP with maximum in the first hour, which was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Identical manipulation (sham operation) was performed to control the lesion effect. Transitory lowering of AP with maximum in the first hour was also established and it was statistically significant (p less than 0.001), For exclusion a nonspecific systemic effect of VP the same dose was administered in the parietal cortex, during which transitory and short-lasting reaction occurred in the first hour after the operation. The data indicate that the peptide, administered in ME under micropellet form, could induce a longlasting hypertensive effect. PMID:1884687

  8. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Larimer, Phillip; Spatazza, Julien; Espinosa, Juan Sebastian; Tang, Yunshuo; Kaneko, Megumi; Hasenstaub, Andrea R; Stryker, Michael P; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SST) interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE)-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP. PMID:27425623

  9. Hormonal modulation of the quantity and in situ activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in neurites of the median eminence.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P S; Porter, J C

    1986-01-01

    The role of ovarian hormones in the control of the quantity and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrOHase) in neurites of the median eminence of the rat was investigated. TyrOHase was quantified by an immunoblot assay using purified rat TyrOHase as the standard. Treatment of ovariectomized animals with progesterone, but not estradiol, resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of TyrOHase in the median eminence. The in situ activity of the enzyme was assayed by measuring the rate of synthesis of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and the results were expressed as mol of dopa per hr per mol of TyrOHase. In animals treated with both estradiol and progesterone for 3 days, the in situ activity of TyrOHase in the median eminence was 114 +/- 13.5 (mean +/- SEM) compared to 26 +/- 4.7 for the controls. Estradiol or progesterone alone was much less effective than was the combination of estradiol and progesterone. To ascertain whether the effect of estradiol and progesterone on TyrOHase activity was reflected in the secretion of dopamine into hypophyseal portal blood, ovariectomized rats were treated for 3 days with both estradiol and progesterone or with the solvent vehicle. The concentration of dopamine in portal plasma of the hormone-treated animals was 1.93 +/- 0.533 ng/ml compared to 0.34 +/- 0.094 ng/ml in vehicle-treated animals. We conclude that the quantity and in situ molar activity of TyrOHase in neurites of the median eminence as well as the secretion of dopamine from these neurites are modulated by the combined action of estradiol and progesterone. PMID:2879287

  10. "More than just boots! The eugenic and commercial concerns behind A. R. Kaufman's birth controlling activities".

    PubMed

    Revie, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A. R. Kaufman (1885-1979), founder of the Kitchener-based Kaufman Rubber Company, was nicknamed "Canada's Mr. Birth Control" because he established the Parents' Information Bureau (PIB)-a birth control information centre that functioned out of his factory office. Besides creating mail order/home visiting services, Kaufman also funded birth control clinics. Because he was a rubber manufacturer, it was widely believed that commercial concerns were behind his activities. This article examines recently archived material, local newspaper accounts, and court transcripts to connect A. R. Kaufman and the PIB with the manufacture of contraceptive products. It also outlines Kaufman's involvement with the eugenics movement, especially his dealings with medical practitioners who carried out sterilization procedures for the PIB. PMID:17152242

  11. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden. PMID:24909018

  12. Contraception or eugenics? Sterilization and "mental retardation" in the 1970s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Taylor, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s. PMID:24909024

  13. "Our power to remodel civilization": the development of eugenic feminism in Alberta, 1909-1921.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    In addition to being a prominent political figure in equal rights legislation, Emily Murphy was a vital contributor to programs which sought to improve the human race through forced sterilization. These negative aspects of this period in feminist history tend to be described as outside of the women's sphere, representing instead the patriarchal realm of men. However, both eugenics and the first-wave feminist ambitions for equal political rights were connected through an agrarian construction of "mothers of the race." As "mothers of the race," women in Alberta were responsible for the physical and moral betterment of the nation, and were directly engaged in concepts of intelligent motherhood, healthy childhood, and an overarching moral philosophy that was politically driven. PMID:24909021

  14. Disagreement in genotyping results of drug resistance alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) gene by allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Lather, Manila; Dykes, Cherry L; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum over the past few decades has necessitated intensive monitoring of such resistance for an effective malaria control strategy. P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) genes act as molecular markers for resistance against the antimalarial drugs sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine, respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine which is used as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is associated with several mutations in the Pfdhfr gene, namely A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L. Therefore, routine monitoring of Pfdhfr-drug-resistant alleles in a population may help in effective drug resistance management. Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) is one of the commonly used methods for molecular genotyping of these alleles. In this study, we genotyped 55 samples of P. falciparum for allele discrimination at four codons of Pfdhfr (N51, C59, S108 and I164) by ASPCR using published methods and by Sanger's DNA sequencing method. We found that the ASPCR identified a significantly higher number of mutant alleles as compared to the DNA sequencing method. Such discrepancies arise due to the non-specificity of some of the allele-specific primer sets and due to the lack of sensitivity of Sanger's DNA sequencing method to detect minor alleles present in multiple clone infections. This study reveals the need of a highly specific and sensitive method for genotyping and detecting minor drug-resistant alleles present in multiple clonal infections. PMID:26407876

  15. Comparison of three human papillomavirus DNA detection methods: Next generation sequencing, multiplex-PCR and nested-PCR followed by Sanger based sequencing.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Galvão, Renata Silva; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Chen, Zigui

    2016-05-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance for HPV infection using three laboratorial techniques. Ninty-five cervicovaginal samples were randomly selected; each was tested for HPV DNA and genotypes using 3 methods in parallel: Multiplex-PCR, the Nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing, and the Next_Gen Sequencing (NGS) with two assays (NGS-A1, NGS-A2). The study was approved by the Brazilian National IRB (CONEP protocol 16,800). The prevalence of HPV by the NGS assays was higher than that using the Multiplex-PCR (64.2% vs. 45.2%, respectively; P = 0.001) and the Nested-PCR (64.2% vs. 49.5 %, respectively; P = 0.003). NGS also showed better performance in detecting high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and HPV16. There was a weak interobservers agreement between the results of Multiplex-PCR and Nested-PCR in relation to NGS for the diagnosis of HPV infection, and a moderate correlation for HR-HPV detection. Both NGS assays showed a strong correlation for detection of HPVs (k = 0.86), HR-HPVs (k = 0.91), HPV16 (k = 0.92) and HPV18 (k = 0.91). NGS is more sensitive than the traditional Sanger sequencing and the Multiplex PCR to genotype HPVs, with promising ability to detect multiple infections, and may have the potential to establish an alternative method for the diagnosis and genotyping of HPV. J. Med. Virol. 88:888-894, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26496186

  16. Direct Comparison of Rat- and Human-Derived Ganglionic Eminence Tissue Grafts on Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Lelos, Mariah J; Roberton, Victoria H; Vinh, Ngoc-Nga; Harrison, Carl; Eriksen, Peter; Torres, Eduardo M; Clinch, Susanne P; Rosser, Anne E; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating, genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorder that results in early loss of medium spiny neurons from the striatum and subsequent degeneration of cortical and other subcortical brain regions. Behavioral changes manifest as a range of motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric impairments. It has been established that replacement of the degenerated medium spiny neurons with rat-derived fetal whole ganglionic eminence (rWGE) tissue can alleviate motor and cognitive deficits in preclinical rodent models of HD. However, clinical application of this cell replacement therapy requires the use of human-derived (hWGE), not rWGE, tissue. Despite this, little is currently known about the functional efficacy of hWGE. The aim of this study was to directly compare the ability of the gold standard rWGE grafts, against the clinically relevant hWGE grafts, on a range of behavioral tests of motor function. Lister hooded rats either remained as unoperated controls or received unilateral excitotoxic lesions of the lateral neostriatum. Subsets of lesioned rats then received transplants of either rWGE or hWGE primary fetal tissue into the lateral striatum. All rats were tested postlesion and postgraft on the following tests of motor function: staircase test, apomorphine-induced rotation, cylinder test, adjusting steps test, and vibrissae-evoked touch test. At 21 weeks postgraft, brain tissue was taken for histological analysis. The results revealed comparable improvements in apomorphine-induced rotational bias and the vibrissae test, despite larger graft volumes in the hWGE cohort. hWGE grafts, but not rWGE grafts, stabilized behavioral performance on the adjusting steps test. These results have implications for clinical application of cell replacement therapies, as well as providing a foundation for the development of stem cell-derived cell therapy products. PMID:26727032

  17. NKCC1-Deficiency Results in Abnormal Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Cathia; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type (WT) and NKCC1 knockout (KO) mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced phospho-Histone H3 (PH3)-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. PMID:27582690

  18. NKCC1-Deficiency Results in Abnormal Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Cathia; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type (WT) and NKCC1 knockout (KO) mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced phospho-Histone H3 (PH3)-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. PMID:27582690

  19. Nursing, obedience, and complicity with eugenics: a contextual interpretation of nursing morality at the turn of the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Berghs, M; de Casterlé, B Dierckx; Gastmans, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Urban Walker's “expressive collaborative” method of moral inquiry to examine and illustrate the morality of nurses in Great Britain from around 1860 to 1915, as well as nursing complicity in one of the first eugenic policies. The authors aim to focus on how context shapes and limits morality and agency in nurses and contributes to a better understanding of debates in nursing ethics both in the past and present. PMID:16446419

  20. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness. PMID:25733067

  1. A combined strategy involving Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing increases genomic resources to aid in the management of reproduction, disease control and genetic selection in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic resources for plant and animal species that are under exploitation primarily for human consumption are increasingly important, among other things, for understanding physiological processes and for establishing adequate genetic selection programs. Current available techniques for high-throughput sequencing have been implemented in a number of species, including fish, to obtain a proper description of the transcriptome. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive transcriptomic database in turbot, a highly priced farmed fish species in Europe, with potential expansion to other areas of the world, for which there are unsolved production bottlenecks, to understand better reproductive- and immune-related functions. This information is essential to implement marker assisted selection programs useful for the turbot industry. Results Expressed sequence tags were generated by Sanger sequencing of cDNA libraries from different immune-related tissues after several parasitic challenges. The resulting database (“Turbot 2 database”) was enlarged with sequences generated from a 454 sequencing run of brain-hypophysis-gonadal axis-derived RNA obtained from turbot at different development stages. The assembly of Sanger and 454 sequences generated 52,427 consensus sequences (“Turbot 3 database”), of which 23,661 were successfully annotated. A total of 1,410 sequences were confirmed to be related to reproduction and key genes involved in sex differentiation and maturation were identified for the first time in turbot (AR, AMH, SRY-related genes, CYP19A, ZPGs, STAR FSHR, etc.). Similarly, 2,241 sequences were related to the immune system and several novel key immune genes were identified (BCL, TRAF, NCK, CD28 and TOLLIP, among others). The number of genes of many relevant reproduction- and immune-related pathways present in the database was 50–90% of the total gene count of each pathway. In addition, 1,237 microsatellites and 7,362 single

  2. [Arthroscopic fracture fixation of intercondylar eminence in children using instrumentarium for the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Sleczka, Paweł; Krzywoń, Jerzy; Ambrozy, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    In our article we introduce a proposal of intercondylar tibial eminence fracture in children management. When dealing with II and III type fracture according to Mes and McKeever classification, we would like to suggest artroscopic fracture fixation with the help of a tension band wiring technique using single bundle reconstruction set of anterior cruciate ligament.The method mentioned above was presented on two cases managed in our ward. Stable fixation of this type fracture allows for quick mobilization and physiotherapy of a patient. It appears to be the key element to full recovery in articular surface fracture. PMID:21648155

  3. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences. PMID:27066627

  4. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  5. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  6. Screening for major driver oncogene alterations in adenosquamous lung carcinoma using PCR coupled with next-generation and Sanger sequencing methods

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaohua; Wu, Huanwen; Lu, Junliang; Duan, Huanli; Liu, Xuguang; Liang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the frequency of major driver oncogenes in lung adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASC) cases. Frequency of EGFR, K-Ras, B-Raf, PIK3CA, DDR2, ALK, and PDGFRA gene mutations was examined in 56 patients using next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, and Sanger sequencing. Macrodissection or microdissection was performed in 37 cases to separate the adenomatous and squamous components of ASC. The overall mutation rate was 64.29%, including 55.36%, 7.14%, and 1.79% for EGFR, K-Ras, and B-Raf mutations, respectively. PIK3CA mutation was detected in three cases; all involved coexisting EGFR mutations. Of the 37 cases, 34 were convergent in two components, while three showed EGFR mutations in the glandular components and three showed PIK3CA mutations in the squamous components. With respect to EGFR mutations, the number of young female patients, nonsmokers, and those with positive pleural invasion was higher in the mutation-positive group than that in the mutation-negative. K-Ras mutation was significantly associated with smoking. Overall survival in the different EGFR mutation groups differed significantly. The frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of EGFR- and K-Ras-mutated adenosquamous lung carcinoma were similar to that noted in Asian adenocarcinomas patients. The high convergence mutation rate in both adenomatous and squamous components suggests monoclonality in ASC. PMID:26923333

  7. Eugen Bircher (1882-1956) the first knee surgeon to use diagnostic arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kieser, Christopher W; Jackson, Robert W

    2003-09-01

    Eugen Bircher was a strong advocate of diagnostic arthroscopy as shown in several papers on the topic of internal derangements of the knee published between 1921 and 1926. During that time, he performed about 60 endoscopic procedures, which usually preceded a meniscectomy. We believe that this was the first time arthroscopy was used in a large scale for clinical purposes. Bircher was the head surgeon of the busy provincial Aarau General Hospital, a right-wing politician, and a highly ranked army officer. His interest in knee surgery was supported by his friend Fritz Steinmann, who was the "man of the pin" and an early promoter of skeletal traction for fracture treatment. Bircher believed in the early surgical treatment of meniscal lesions and, later, in the reconstruction of cruciate ligament lesions. He used the Jacobaeus thoracolaparoscope for arthroscopy, but it had poor endoscopic qualities. The electric lamp at the tip of the optical device was not mechanically protected and was therefore endangered by every manipulation within the joint space. Also, the 90 degrees optical system delivered a dark image. By the late 1920s, Bircher had developed the technique of double-contrast arthrography, and he gave up endoscopy by 1930. In 1935, he left surgery and took a military command in the Swiss army; later he was a representative of the Farmers Party in the National Parliament until his death. PMID:12966386

  8. Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening: evidence for eugenics in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, X

    1998-09-01

    To identify Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening, a national survey was conducted. Of 402 Chinese geneticists asked to participate, 255 (63%) returned by mail anonymous questionnaires. The majority of respondents thought that genetic testing should be offered in the workplace for alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (95%) and the predisposition of executives to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes (94%); that genetic testing should be included in preemployment physical examinations (86%); that governments should require premarital carrier tests (86%), newborn screening for sickle cell (77%), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (71%); and that children should be tested for genes for late-onset disorders such as Huntington disease (85%), susceptibility to cancers (85%), familial hypercholesterolemia (84%), alcoholism (69%), and Alzheimer disease (61%). Most believed that partners should know each other's genetic status before marriage (92%), that carriers of the same defective gene should not mate with each other (91%), and that women should have a prenatal diagnosis if medically indicated (91%). The majority said that in China decisions about family planning were shared by the couple (82%). More than half had views that, in China, there were no laws to prohibit disability discrimination (64%), particularly to protect people with adult polycystic kidney disease (57%), cystic fibrosis (56%), or genetic predisposition to other diseases (50%). To some extent, these results might provide a basis for a discussion of eugenics in China, particularly about China's Maternal and Infant Health Care Law (1994). PMID:9718350

  9. Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias (1911): A Centenary Appreciation and Reconsideration

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Andrew; Heim, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    On the 100th anniversary of the publication of Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias, his teachings on schizophrenia from that seminal book are reviewed and reassessed, and implications for the current revision of the category of schizophrenia, with its emphasis on psychotic symptoms, drawn. Bleuler's methods are contrasted with Kraepelin's, and 4 myths about his concept of schizophrenia addressed. We demonstrate that (1) Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia has close ties to historical and contemporary concepts of dissociation and as such the public interpretation of schizophrenia as split personality has some historical basis; (2) Bleuler's concept of loosening of associations does not refer narrowly to a disorder of thought but broadly to a core organically based psychological deficit which underlies the other symptoms of schizophrenia; (3) the “4 A's,” for association, affect, ambivalence, and autism, do not adequately summarize Bleuler's teachings on schizophrenia and marginalize the central role of splitting in his conception; and (4) Bleuler's ideas were more powerfully influenced by Pierre Janet, particularly with regard to his diagnostic category Psychasthenia, than by Sigmund Freud. We conclude that Bleuler's ideas on schizophrenia warrant reexamination in the light of current criticism of the emphasis on psychotic symptoms in the schizophrenia diagnosis and argue for the recognition of the dissociative roots of this most important psychiatric category. PMID:21505113

  10. In Genes We Trust: Germline Engineering, Eugenics, and the Future of the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being. In this article, I argue that germline intervention will be necessary merely to sustain the levels of genetic health that we presently enjoy for future generations-a goal that should appeal to bioliberals and bioconservatives alike. This is due to the population-genetic consequences of relaxed selection pressures in human populations caused by the increasing efficacy and availability of conventional medicine. This heterodox conclusion, which I present as a problem of intergenerational justice, has been overlooked in medicine and bioethics due to certain misconceptions about human evolution, which I attempt to rectify, as well as the sordid history of Darwinian approaches to medicine and social policy, which I distinguish from the present argument. PMID:26475170

  11. Eugenics and Mandatory Informed Prenatal Genetic Testing: A Unique Perspective from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ng, Vincent H; Wang, Zhaochen; Zhai, Xiaomei; Lie, Reidar K

    2016-08-01

    The application of genetic technologies in China, especially in the area of prenatal genetic testing, is rapidly increasing in China. In the wealthy regions of China, prenatal genetic testing is already very widely adopted. We argue that the government should actively promote prenatal genetic testing to the poor areas of the country. In fact, the government should prioritize resources first to make prenatal genetic testing a standard routine care with an opt-out model in these area. Healthcare professions would be required to inform pregnant women about the availability of genetic testing and provide free testing on a routine basis unless the parents choose not to do so. We argue that this proposal will allow parents to make a more informed decision about their reproductive choices. Secondarily, this proposal will attract more healthcare professionals and other healthcare resources to improve the healthcare infrastructures in the less-developed regions of the country. This will help to reduce the inequity of accessing healthcare services between in different regions of China. We further argue that this policy proposal is not practicing eugenics. PMID:26222676

  12. More than a Mentor: Leonard Darwin's Contribution to the Assimilation of Mendelism into Eugenics and Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution to evolutionary theory of Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), the eighth child of Charles Darwin. By analysing the correspondence Leonard Darwin maintained with Ronald Aylmer Fisher in conjunction with an assessment of his books and other written works between the 1910s and 1930s, this article argues for a more prominent role played by him than the previously recognised in the literature as an informal mentor of Fisher. The paper discusses Leonard's efforts to amalgamate Mendelism with both Eugenics and Darwinism in order for the first to base their policies on new scientific developments and to help the second in finding a target for natural selection. Without a formal qualification in biological sciences and as such mistrusted by some "formal" scientists, Leonard Darwin engaged with key themes of Darwinism such as mimicry, the role of mutations on speciation and the process of genetic variability, arriving at important conclusions concerning the usefulness of Mendelian genetics for his father's theory. PMID:26391791

  13. The Genomic Revolution and Beliefs about Essential Racial Differences: A Backdoor to Eugenics?

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Feldman, Naumi M.

    2014-01-01

    Could the explosion of genetic research in recent decades affect our conceptions of race? In Backdoor to Eugenics, Duster argues that reports of specific racial differences in genetic bases of disease, in part because they are presented as objective facts whose social implications are not readily apparent, may heighten public belief in more pervasive racial differences. We tested this hypothesis with a multi-method study. A content analysis showed that news articles discussing racial differences in genetic bases of disease increased significantly between 1985 and 2008 and were significantly less likely than non–health-related articles about race and genetics to discuss social implications. A survey experiment conducted with a nationally representative sample of 559 adults found that a news-story vignette reporting a specific racial difference in genetic risk for heart attacks (the Backdoor Vignette) produced significantly greater belief in essential racial differences than did a vignette portraying race as a social construction or a no-vignette condition. The Backdoor Vignette produced beliefs in essential racial differences that were virtually identical to those produced by a vignette portraying race as a genetic reality. These results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be the reinvigoration of age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:24855321

  14. A multilocus analysis provides evidence for more than one species within Eugenes fulgens (Aves: Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Beltrán, Luz E; Hernández-Baños, Blanca E

    2015-09-01

    The status of subspecies in systematic zoology is the focus of controversy. Recent studies use DNA sequences to evaluate the status of subspecies within species complexes and to recognize and delimit species. Here, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships, the taxonomic status of the proposed subspecies, and the species limits of the monotypic hummingbird genus Eugenes (E. fulgens with traditionally recognized subspecies E. f. fulgens, E. f. viridiceps, and E. f. spectabilis), using nuclear (Beta Fibrinogen BFib, Ornithine Decarboxylase ODC, and Muscle Skeletal Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MUSK) and mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 ND2, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 ND4, and Control Region CR) markers. We performed Bayesian and Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography analyses and found genetic differences between the three groups, suggesting the existence of two cryptic species (E. fulgens and E. viridiceps) and one phenotypically differentiated species (E. spectabilis). Our analyses show that the E. viridiceps and E. fulgens groups are more closely related with one another than with E. spectabilis. PMID:25982690

  15. The Genomic Revolution and Beliefs about Essential Racial Differences: A Backdoor to Eugenics?

    PubMed

    Phelan, Jo C; Link, Bruce G; Feldman, Naumi M

    2013-04-01

    Could the explosion of genetic research in recent decades affect our conceptions of race? In Backdoor to Eugenics, Duster argues that reports of specific racial differences in genetic bases of disease, in part because they are presented as objective facts whose social implications are not readily apparent, may heighten public belief in more pervasive racial differences. We tested this hypothesis with a multi-method study. A content analysis showed that news articles discussing racial differences in genetic bases of disease increased significantly between 1985 and 2008 and were significantly less likely than non-health-related articles about race and genetics to discuss social implications. A survey experiment conducted with a nationally representative sample of 559 adults found that a news-story vignette reporting a specific racial difference in genetic risk for heart attacks (the Backdoor Vignette) produced significantly greater belief in essential racial differences than did a vignette portraying race as a social construction or a no-vignette condition. The Backdoor Vignette produced beliefs in essential racial differences that were virtually identical to those produced by a vignette portraying race as a genetic reality. These results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be the reinvigoration of age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:24855321

  16. Relationship of articular soft tissue contour and shape to the underlying eminence and slope profile in young adult temporomandibular joints.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, A G; Bibb, C A; Ding, X; Baldioceda, F

    1993-11-01

    This study examined whether the overall shape of the articular soft tissue overlying the posterior slope and articular eminence of the temporal bone could be predicted by the underlying osseous contour in a histologic model of 51 central sagittal sections of young adult temporomandibular joints. Articular soft tissue and bone contours were traced, and osseous landmarks identified on the basis of joint geometry. Soft tissue thickness measurements were made under low power light microscopy. Seven categories of articular soft tissue pattern were identified. The soft tissue uniformly followed the osseous contour in only one (14%). A progressive increase in soft tissue thickness from the middle of the posterior slope to the articular crest was the most common pattern (35%) but did not describe most of the sample that was more asymmetric. Pattern was poorly predicted by the shape and slope of the temporal bone outline or by dental factors that describe anterior guidance and did not relate to disk displacement. The articular soft tissue compensated for flatter eminence slopes and osseous irregularities and maintained an intact surface. This study has clinical implications for radiographic interpretation of disk space, condyle translation pathways, and the integrity of the functional articular surface. PMID:8247507

  17. HSPC280, a winged helix protein expressed in the subventricular zone of the developing ganglionic eminences, inhibits neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Stylianopoulou, Electra; Kalamakis, Georgios; Pitsiani, Margarita; Fysekis, Ioannis; Ypsilantis, Petros; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Skavdis, George; Grigoriou, Maria E

    2016-02-01

    Winged helix proteins have critical roles in a variety of developmental processes. During a screening for genes expressed in the developing forebrain, we identified HSPC280, a non-typical winged helix protein, which shares similarity with a protein-protein interaction domain found in the proteins of the actin-binding Rho-activating protein family. In this work, we analyzed HSPC280 expression during mouse development as well as during neuronal differentiation of mouse Neuro2a cells. HSPC280 expression is tightly regulated; during mouse development, it was detected predominantly in the ganglionic eminences of the ventral telencephalon, from their appearance at E11.5 to P0, with the highest levels between E13.5 and E15.5, a period that correlates with the peak of neurogenesis in these structures. Comparative expression analysis of HSPC280 with Dlx2, cyclinD2 and Lhx6 revealed that, within the ganglionic eminences, HSPC280 was restricted in the proliferating cell population of the subventricular zone, in a pattern similar to that of cyclinD2. Finally, we showed that HSPC280 is a nuclear protein which, when overexpressed in Neuro2a cells, it inhibited neuronal differentiation in vitro, suggesting its involvement in the mechanisms controlling neural progenitor cells proliferation. PMID:26537243

  18. An Evil Hitherto Unchecked: Eugenics and the 1917 Ontario Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Mentally Defective and Feeble-Minded.

    PubMed

    Koester, C Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In 1917, the Ontario government appointed the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Mentally Defective and Feeble-Minded, headed by Justice Frank Hodgins. Its final report made wide-ranging recommendations regarding the segregation of feeble-minded individuals, restrictions on marriage, the improvement of psychiatric facilities, and the reform of the court system, all matters of great concern to the eugenics movement. At the same time, however, it refrained from using explicitly eugenic vocabulary and ignored the question of sterilization. This article explores the role the commission played in the trajectory of eugenics in Ontario (including the province's failure to pass sterilization legislation) and considers why its recommendations were disregarded. PMID:27344903

  19. [The standard textbook on racial hygiene by Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer, and Fritz Lenz as viewed by the psychiatric and neurological communities from 1921 to 1940].

    PubMed

    Fangerau, H; Müller, I

    2002-11-01

    The textbook "Human heredity and Racial Hygiene" by Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer, and Fritz Lenz went through five editions between 1921 and 1940. In contemporary journals, it received almost only positive review articles and was considered to be the standard textbook on racial hygiene in the Weimar Republic. After Hitler's takeover in 1933, it became the "scientific" basis for eugenic sterilization programs. In that year, the Nazis enacted a law allowing the involuntary sterilization of persons with diseases thought to be hereditary, mostly neurological and psychiatric disorders. Using review articles on the book, the position of neurologists and psychiatrists towards racial hygiene is analyzed. We describe how they prepared and maintained the acceptance of eugenic politics in the medical profession by praising the standard work on racial hygiene. PMID:12430045

  20. Prox1 Regulates the Subtype-Specific Development of Caudal Ganglionic Eminence-Derived GABAergic Cortical Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Young, Allison; Petros, Timothy; Karayannis, Theofanis; McKenzie Chang, Melissa; Lavado, Alfonso; Iwano, Tomohiko; Nakajima, Miho; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Huang, Z. Josh; Heintz, Nathaniel; Oliver, Guillermo; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Machold, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Neurogliaform (RELN+) and bipolar (VIP+) GABAergic interneurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex provide critical inhibition locally within the superficial layers. While these subtypes are known to originate from the embryonic caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), the specific genetic programs that direct their positioning, maturation, and integration into the cortical network have not been elucidated. Here, we report that in mice expression of the transcription factor Prox1 is selectively maintained in postmitotic CGE-derived cortical interneuron precursors and that loss of Prox1 impairs the integration of these cells into superficial layers. Moreover, Prox1 differentially regulates the postnatal maturation of each specific subtype originating from the CGE (RELN, Calb2/VIP, and VIP). Interestingly, Prox1 promotes the maturation of CGE-derived interneuron subtypes through intrinsic differentiation programs that operate in tandem with extrinsically driven neuronal activity-dependent pathways. Thus Prox1 represents the first identified transcription factor specifically required for the embryonic and postnatal acquisition of CGE-derived cortical interneuron properties. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the recognition that 30% of GABAergic cortical interneurons originate from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), to date, a specific transcriptional program that selectively regulates the development of these populations has not yet been identified. Moreover, while CGE-derived interneurons display unique patterns of tangential and radial migration and preferentially populate the superficial layers of the cortex, identification of a molecular program that controls these events is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is expressed in postmitotic CGE-derived cortical interneuron precursors and is maintained into adulthood. We found that Prox1 function is differentially required during both embryonic and postnatal stages of development to

  1. Avoiding genetic genocide: understanding good intentions and eugenics in the complex dialogue between the medical and disability communities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paul Steven; Levine, Rebecca Leah

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the medical and disability communities is complex and is influenced by historical, social, and cultural factors. Although clinicians, health-care researchers, and people with disabilities all work from the standpoint of the best interest of disabled individuals, the notion of what actually is “best” is often understood quite differently among these constituencies. Eugenics campaigns, legal restrictions on reproductive and other freedoms, and prenatal testing recommendations predicated on the lesser worth of persons with disabilities have all contributed toward the historic trauma experienced by the disability community, particularly with respect to medical genetics. One premise of personalized medicine is that different individuals require different solutions. Disabled persons’ experiences are a reminder that these solutions can be best realized by maintaining awareness and sensitivity in a complex ethical and moral terrain. Geneticists should recognize that their research may have implications for those with disabilities; they should recognize the impact of the historical trauma of the eugenics movement, and seek to involve people with disabilities in discussions about policies that affect them. Dialogue can be messy and uncomfortable, but it is the only way to avoid the mistakes of the past and to ensure a more equitable, and healthful, future. PMID:22899092

  2. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I receptors in the median eminence of the brain and their modulation by food restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Bohannon, N.J.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Dorsa, D.M.; Baskin, D.G.

    1988-05-01

    High affinity binding sites for 125I-labeled (Thr59)insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in rat median eminence by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen rat brain. Specific binding of 0.1 nM iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to brain slices reached maximum by 12 h at 4 C and was unchanged at 24 h. Densitometry by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images indicated that specific binding of iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to the median eminence was reversible. The specificity of binding was evaluated with competition of iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I with unlabeled (Thr59)IGF-I, rat IGF-II (multiplication-stimulating activity), and porcine insulin. All were recognized by the binding site, but the rank order of potency was (Thr59)IGF-I greater than IGF-II greater than insulin. Somatostatin was completely ineffective. Further, an antibody against the rat IGF-II receptor did not block binding of iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to the median eminence. Fourteen days of food restriction (75% of food intake of controls) resulted in significant weight loss and reduction of plasma immunoreactive IGF-I in six food-restricted rats (0.9 +/- 0.1 U/ml) compared with values in six controls (2.6 +/- 0.5 U/ml; P less than 0.001). Binding of 125I-labeled (Thr59)IGF-I in the median eminence was significantly increased in the food-restricted rats, primarily due to an increase in the concentration of iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I-binding sites in the median eminence; the affinity (Kd) of binding was unchanged. The results indicate that the median eminence has type I IGF-I receptors, which become more numerous under metabolic conditions associated with decreased caloric intake and lowered plasma IGF-I levels.

  3. APOLLO 17 COMMANDER EUGENE CERNAN SPEAKS AT THE APOLLO/SATURN V CENTER RIBBON-CUTTING CEREMONY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Gemini and Apollo astronaut Eugene A. Cernan addresses the invited guests at the ribbon-cutting ceremony which officially opens the new Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center. Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon. The 100,000-square-foot facility includes two theaters, various exhibits and an Apollo- era Saturn V rocket, which formerly was on display outside the Vehicle Assembly Building and is one of only three moon rockets remaining in existence. The new center is located off the Kennedy Parkway at the Banana Creek launch viewing site.

  4. Prevalence of Cystic Echinococcosis in Slaughtered Sheep as an Indicator to Assess Control Progress in Emin County, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shijie; Wu, Weiping; Tian, Tian; Zhao, Jiangshan; Chen, Kang; Wang, Qinyan; Feng, Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Hydatid disease imposing serious threat on human health and great loss in live¬stock pastoralism remains a major public health problem in western China. To assess and monitor the effect of control program on transmission dynamics, we used the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep at slaughterhouse as an indicator during the period of 2007 to 2013 in Emin County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The results showed a significant decline trend of prevalence in all age groups during the 7 years when the control program was implemented; particularly, the rate was reduced by 72% after first 3 years. Among the sheep slaughtered, the age distribution evidenced that the prevalence increased significantly as the sheep grew older. The baseline data indicated that the rate was 4.5% at the age <1, 6.7% at age 2~, and reached to the highest 17.9% at age ≥ 4 years. Earlier response to the intervention pressure was seen in the sheep at the younger age. Significant decline started from 2008 at the age <1, from 2009 at age of 1~, 2010 at 2~ to 3~, and the latest, in 2012 at age ≥ 4. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep may be used as an indicator to assess and monitor the transmission status during and after control program providing information for betterment of performance to sustain control strength. PMID:26174832

  5. Adult NG2-Glia Are Required for Median Eminence-Mediated Leptin Sensing and Body Weight Control.

    PubMed

    Djogo, Tina; Robins, Sarah C; Schneider, Sarah; Kryzskaya, Darya; Liu, Xiaohong; Mingay, Andrew; Gillon, Colleen J; Kim, Joo Hyun; Storch, Kai-Florian; Boehm, Ulrich; Bourque, Charles W; Stroh, Thomas; Dimou, Leda; Kokoeva, Maia V

    2016-05-10

    While leptin is a well-known regulator of body fat mass, it remains unclear how circulating leptin is sensed centrally to maintain energy homeostasis. Here we show that genetic and pharmacological ablation of adult NG2-glia (also known as oligodendrocyte precursors), but not microglia, leads to primary leptin resistance and obesity in mice. We reveal that NG2-glia contact the dendritic processes of arcuate nucleus leptin receptor (LepR) neurons in the median eminence (ME) and that these processes degenerate upon NG2-glia elimination, which explains the consequential attenuation of these neurons' molecular and electrical responses to leptin. Our data therefore indicate that LepR dendrites in the ME represent the principal conduits of leptin's anorexigenic action and that NG2-glia are essential for their maintenance. Given that ME-directed X-irradiation confirmed the pharmacological and genetically mediated ablation effects on body weight, our findings provide a rationale for the known obesity risk associated with cranial radiation therapy. PMID:27166944

  6. Distinct cis-Regulatory Elements from the Dlx1/Dlx2 Locus Mark Different Progenitor Cell Populations in the Ganglionic Eminences and Different Subtypes of Adult Cortical Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Noël; Yu, Man; Long, Jason; Hatch, Gary; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Ekker, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Distinct subtypes of cortical GABAergic interneurons provide inhibitory signals that are indispensable for neural network function. The Dlx homeobox genes have a central role in regulating their development and function. We have characterized the activity of three cis-regulatory sequences involved in forebrain expression of vertebrate Dlx genes: upstream regulatory element 2 (URE2), I12b, and I56i. The three regulatory elements display regional and temporal differences in their activities within the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE), medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), and caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) and label distinct populations of tangentially migrating neurons at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E13.5. We provide evidence that the dorsomedial and ventral MGE are distinct sources of tangentially migrating neurons during midgestation. In the adult cortex, URE2 and I12b/I56i are differentially expressed in parvalbumin-, calretinin-, neuropeptide Y-, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive interneurons; I12b and I56i were specifically active in somatostatin-, vasoactive intestinal peptide-, and calbindin-positive interneurons. These data suggest that interneuron subtypes use distinct combinations of Dlx1/Dlx2 enhancers from the time they are specified through adulthood. PMID:17494687

  7. Identification of binding sites for an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) in the median eminence of the rat brain by quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bohannon, N.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Porte, D. Jr.; Baskin, D.G.

    1986-08-01

    The microanatomical location of IGF-I binding in the rat brain was determined by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen brain. Sections incubated in 0.1 nM (/sup 125/I)-iodo-IGF-I produced a dense grain concentration in regions of the autoradiographic image corresponding to the external palisade zone of the median eminence; other hypothalamic regions were not so heavily labeled. This reaction was significantly reduced in the presence of 100 nM IGF-I. Measurement of binding by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images showed that specific binding for IGF-I in the median eminence was 41.3 +/- 8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2 (mean +/- SEM); nonspecific binding was 11.9 +/- 1.8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In contrast, specific binding to other hypothalamic regions was uniformly lower. In a separate experiment, 1000 nM unlabeled insulin was added. Without insulin, specific binding was 23 +/- 0.9 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2; nonspecific binding was 8 +/- 0.5 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In the presence of 1000 nM unlabeled insulin, specific binding for (/sup 125/I)-iodo-IGF-I was 23 +/- 1 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. The results suggest that a high concentration of receptors for an IGF-I-like molecule is present in the median eminence.

  8. Evidence, eminence and extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Hlavin, Gerald; Koenig, Franz; Male, Christoph; Posch, Martin; Bauer, Peter

    2016-06-15

    A full independent drug development programme to demonstrate efficacy may not be ethical and/or feasible in small populations such as paediatric populations or orphan indications. Different levels of extrapolation from a larger population to smaller target populations are widely used for supporting decisions in this situation. There are guidance documents in drug regulation, where a weakening of the statistical rigour for trials in the target population is mentioned to be an option for dealing with this problem. To this end, we propose clinical trials designs, which make use of prior knowledge on efficacy for inference. We formulate a framework based on prior beliefs in order to investigate when the significance level for the test of the primary endpoint in confirmatory trials can be relaxed (and thus the sample size can be reduced) in the target population while controlling a certain posterior belief in effectiveness after rejection of the null hypothesis in the corresponding confirmatory statistical test. We show that point-priors may be used in the argumentation because under certain constraints, they have favourable limiting properties among other types of priors. The crucial quantity to be elicited is the prior belief in the possibility of extrapolation from a larger population to the target population. We try to illustrate an existing decision tree for extrapolation to paediatric populations within our framework. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26753552

  9. Comparison of high resolution melting analysis, pyrosequencing, next generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry to conventional Sanger sequencing for the detection of p.V600E and non-p.V600E BRAF mutations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The approval of vemurafenib in the US 2011 and in Europe 2012 improved the therapy of not resectable or metastatic melanoma. Patients carrying a substitution of valine to glutamic acid at codon 600 (p.V600E) or a substitution of valine to leucine (p.V600K) in BRAF show complete or partial response. Therefore, the precise identification of the underlying somatic mutations is essential. Herein, we evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and feasibility of six different methods for the detection of BRAF mutations. Methods Samples harboring p.V600E mutations as well as rare mutations in BRAF exon 15 were compared to wildtype samples. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by manual micro-dissection and automated extraction. BRAF mutational analysis was carried out by high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, pyrosequencing, allele specific PCR, next generation sequencing (NGS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). All mutations were independently reassessed by Sanger sequencing. Due to the limited tumor tissue available different numbers of samples were analyzed with each method (82, 72, 60, 72, 49 and 82 respectively). Results There was no difference in sensitivity between the HRM analysis and Sanger sequencing (98%). All mutations down to 6.6% allele frequency could be detected with 100% specificity. In contrast, pyrosequencing detected 100% of the mutations down to 5% allele frequency but exhibited only 90% specificity. The allele specific PCR failed to detect 16.3% of the mutations eligible for therapy with vemurafenib. NGS could analyze 100% of the cases with 100% specificity but exhibited 97.5% sensitivity. IHC showed once cross-reactivity with p.V600R but was a good amendment to HRM. Conclusion Therefore, at present, a combination of HRM and IHC is recommended to increase sensitivity and specificity for routine diagnostic to fulfill the European requirements concerning vemurafenib therapy of melanoma patients. PMID:24410877

  10. Prostitutes and criminals: beginnings of eugenics in Croatia in the works of Fran Gundrum from Oriovac (1856-1919)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Fran Gundrum (1856-1919) was a Croatian physician, encyclopedist, and an advocate of medical enlightenment and healthy lifestyle. In order to identify and analyze Gundrum’s ideas about the problems of prostitution and criminality, we studied all of his books, booklets, and articles published between 1905 and 1914. We showed that Gundrum’s theories of heredity, morality, and sexual hygiene incorporated many of the important discussions of his time, especially those related to the Darwinian paradigm. Gundrum’s project of collecting statistics on prostitutes was the first such study published on the territory of today's Croatia. Although he rejected the notions of born prostitutes and born criminals, defended by Italian criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, he still regarded eugenics as a convenient method of dealing with the ills of society. He believed that criminals were degenerate individuals representing a violent threat to the society and that it was legitimate to use radical means, such as sterilization and deportation, to deal with this problem. Organicistic view of the society prevented him from seeing the individual rights as important as that of the society to protect itself. Nevertheless, this view led to many humanistic ideas, such as the binomial illness/poverty in case of prostitution, which influenced many prominent works of social medicine movement. PMID:22522997

  11. Fluid transport by solitary waves along growing faults. A field example from the South Eugene Island Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

    2002-09-01

    The Red Fault system is one of the main growth faults found in the South Eugene Island Basin, a salt withdrawal minibasin located offshore Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico. This fault system corresponds to a lateral boundary between fluid overpressured compartments. In addition, there is a set of observations indicating that the Red Fault system exhibits rapid episodic migration of fluids. This fault represents an example of preferential pathway for the upward episodic migration of overpressured hydrocarbons from deep, heavily pressured, compartments on time scales of years. The migrations of fluids into active growing faults could take the form of propagating surges (solitary waves) that propagate upward along the fault planes in a wave-like manner at km/yr. Solitary waves represent a very efficient mechanism for the upward transport of fluids along growth faults in sedimentary basins generating its own permeability. In addition, this mechanism is compatible with the fact that the fault plane is observed to sustain a static pore fluid pressure difference between its two sides. The propagation of solitary waves in active growth faults appears as a fundamental mechanism to understand the nature of upward fast migration of fluids along active growth faults in compartimentalized sedimentary basins.

  12. Cannonical [sic] confusions, an illusory allusion, and more: a critique of Haggbloom, et al.'s list of eminent psychologists (2002).

    PubMed

    Black, Stephen L

    2003-06-01

    The analysis by Haggbloom, et al. (2002) establishing a list of the most eminent psychologists of the 20th century contains significant errors. In one case the achievements of Walter B. Cannon are misattributed to W. Gary Cannon. Other errors are eponyms misattributed to Margaret F. Washburn, Morton Deutsch, Wolfgang Köhler, and G. Stanley Hall. A further mistake is to miscalculate the statistic for introductory psychology textbook citations for Hans J. Eysenck. These errors have consequences for the ranking of individuals on this list. Care must be taken to guard against such mistakes. PMID:12841456

  13. When intuition is not enough. Why the Principle of Procreative Beneficence must work much harder to justify its eugenic vision.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rebecca

    2014-11-01

    The Principle of Procreative Beneficence (PPB) claims that we have a moral obligation, where choice is possible, to choose to create the best child we can. The existence of this moral obligation has been proposed by John Harris and Julian Savulescu and has proved controversial on many levels, not least that it is eugenics, asking us to produce the best children we can, not for the sake of that child's welfare, but in order to make a better society. These are strong claims that require robust justification that can be open to scrutiny and debate. This article argues that robust justifications are currently lacking in the work of Savulescu and Harris. The justifications provided for their conclusions about this obligation to have the best child possible rely heavily on Derek Parfit's Non-Identity Problem and the intuitive response this provokes in many of us. Unfortunately Harris and Savulescu do not embrace the entirety of the Non-Identity Problem and the puzzle that it presents. The Non-Identity Problem actually provides a refutation of PPB. In order to establish PPB as a credible and defendable principle, Harris and Savulescu need to find what has eluded Parfit and many others: a solution to the Non-Identity Problem and thus an overturning of the refutation it provides for PPB. While Harris and Savulescu do hint at possible but highly problematic solutions to the Non-Identity Problem, these are not developed or defended. As a result their controversial is left supported by little more than intuition. PMID:23841936

  14. Eugenics ideals, racial hygiene, and the emigration process of German-American neurogeneticist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965).

    PubMed

    Pow, Stephen; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Biological psychiatry in the early twentieth century was based on interrelated disciplines, such as neurology and experimental biology. Neuropsychiatrist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) was a product of this interdisciplinary background who showed an ability to adapt to different scientific contexts, first in the field of neuromorphology in Berlin, and later in New York. Nonetheless, having innovative ideas, as Kallmann did, could be an ambiguous advantage, since they could lead to incommensurable scientific views and marginalization in existing research programs. Kallmann followed his Dr. Med. degree (1919) with training periods at the Charité Medical School in Berlin under psychiatrist Karl Bonhoeffer (1868-1948). Subsequently, he collaborated with Ernst Ruedin (1874-1952), investigating sibling inheritance of schizophrenia and becoming a protagonist of genetic research on psychiatric conditions. In 1936, Kallmann was forced to immigrate to the USA where he published The Genetics of Schizophrenia (1938), based on data he had gathered from the district pathological institutes of Berlin's public health department. Kallmann resumed his role as an international player in biological psychiatry and genetics, becoming president (1952) of the American Society of Human Genetics and Director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute in 1955. While his work was well received by geneticists, the idea of genetic differences barely took hold in American psychiatry, largely because of émigré psychoanalysts who dominated American clinical psychiatry until the 1960s and established a philosophical direction in which genetics played no significant role, being regarded as dangerous in light of Nazi medical atrocities. After all, medical scientists in Nazi Germany had been among the social protagonists of racial hygiene which, under the aegis of Nazi philosophies, replaced medical genetics as the basis for the ideals and application of eugenics. PMID:27388255

  15. Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Immunoreactivities in the Arcuate-Median Eminence Complex and their Link to the Tubero-Infundibular Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Fernandez, W.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Vargas-Barroso, V.; Narváez, M.; Di Palma, M.; Agnati, L.F.; Sahd, J. Larriva

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly and differentially

  16. Ernst Rüdin’s Unpublished 1922-1925 Study “Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity”: Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology

    PubMed Central

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin’s seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin’s 1922–1925 study on the inheritance of “manic-depressive insanity” was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 “Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring” (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses). PMID:26544949

  17. Ernst Rüdin's Unpublished 1922-1925 Study "Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity": Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology.

    PubMed

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-11-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses). PMID:26544949

  18. Variance of the SGK1 Gene Is Associated with Insulin Secretion in Different European Populations: Results from the TUEF, EUGENE2, and METSIM Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stančáková, Alena; Wang, Jianjung; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Sesti, Giorgio; Succurro, Elena; Smith, Ulf; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Machicao, Fausto; Schäfer, Silke; Lang, Florian; Risler, Teut; Ullrich, Susanne; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Hypothesis Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinase 1 (SGK1) is involved in the regulation of insulin secretion and may represent a candidate gene for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. Methods Three independent European populations were analyzed for the association of SGK1 gene (SGK) variations and insulin secretion traits. The German TUEF project provided the screening population (N = 725), and four tagging SNPs (rs1763527, rs1743966, rs1057293, rs9402571) were investigated. EUGENE2 (N = 827) served as a replication cohort for the detected associations. Finally, the detected associations were validated in the METSIM study, providing 3798 non-diabetic and 659 diabetic (type 2) individuals. Results Carriers of the minor G allele in rs9402571 had significantly higher C-peptide levels in the 2 h OGTT (+10.8%, p = 0.04; dominant model) and higher AUCC-Peptide/AUCGlc ratios (+7.5%, p = 0.04) compared to homozygous wild type TT carriers in the screening population. As interaction analysis for BMI×rs9402571 was significant (p = 0.04) for the endpoint insulin secretion, we stratified the TUEF cohort for BMI, using a cut off point of BMI = 25. The effect on insulin secretion only remained significant in lean TUEF participants (BMI≤25). This finding was replicated in lean EUGENE2 rs9402571 minor allele carriers, who had a significantly higher AUCIns/AUCGlc (TT: 226±7, XG: 246±9; p = 0.019). Accordingly, the METSIM trial revealed a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.71–1.01; p = 0.065, dominant model) in rs9402571 minor allele carriers. Conclusions The rs9402571 SGK genotype associates with increased insulin secretion in lean non-diabetic TUEF/EUGENE2 participants and with lower diabetes prevalence in METSIM. Our study in three independent European populations supports the conclusion that SGK variability affects diabetes risk. PMID:18985156

  19. Practical animal breeding as the key to an integrated view of genetics, eugenics and evolutionary theory: Arend L. Hagedoorn (1885-1953).

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2014-06-01

    In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work. PMID:24747808

  20. Evaluation of solitary waves as a mechanism for oil transport in poroelastic media: A case study of the South Eugene Island field, Gulf of Mexico basin

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Ajit; Appold, Martin S.; Nunn, Jeffrey A.

    2012-11-01

    Hydrocarbons in shallow reservoirs of the Eugene Island 330 field in the Gulf of Mexico basin are thought to have migrated rapidly along low permeability sediments of the Red fault zone as discrete pressure pulses from source rocks at depths of about 4.5 km. The aim of this research was to evaluate the hypothesis that these pressure pulses represent solitary waves by investigating the mechanics of solitary wave formation and motion and wave oil transport capability. A two-dimensional numerical model of Eugene Island minibasin formation predicted overpressures at the hydrocarbon source depth to increase at an average rate of 30 Pa/yr, reaching 52 MPa by the present day and oil velocities of 1E-12 m/yr, far too low for kilometer scale oil transport to fill shallow Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs within the 3.6 million year minibasin history. Calculations from a separate one-dimensional model that used the pressure generation rate from the two-dimensional model showed that solitary waves could only form and migrate within sediments that have very low permeabilities between 1-25 to 1-24 m2 and that are highly overpressured to 91-93% of lithostatic pressure. Solitary waves were found to have a maximum pore volume of 105 m3, to travel a maximum distance of 1-2 km, and to have a maximum velocity of 1-3 m/yr. Based on these results, solitary waves are unlikely to have transported oil to the shallowest reservoirs in the Eugene Island field in a poroelastic fault gouge rheology at the pressure generation rates likely to have been caused by disequilibrium compaction and hydrocarbon generation. However, solitary waves could perhaps be important agents for oil transport in other locations where reservoirs are closer to the source rocks, where the pore space is occupied by more than one fluid, or where sudden fracturing of overpressured hydrocarbon source sediments would allow the solitary waves to propagate as shock waves. Hydrocarbons in shallow reservoirs of the Eugene Island 330

  1. Inhibition of natriuresis in median eminence polydipsia: effects after intake of diets with different osmolalities and after hypertonic NaCl administration.

    PubMed

    Mahía, Javier; Bernal, Antonio; Puerto, Amadeo

    2013-01-01

    Lesions in the hypothalamic median eminence (ME) induce polydipsia and polyuria in male rats. A first experiment was designed to examine the effect of salt consumption (standard 0.25 percent Na+ vs. low-salt 0.04 percent Na+ diet) on the fluid-electrolytic balance (plasma sodium, urinary sodium excretion, urine osmolality) and water intake of ME polydipsic animals. In the first 6 h post-surgery, the natriuretic response was higher in ME-lesioned animals than in control groups. At 24 h post-surgery, however, less sodium was excreted by ME rats fed with a standard salt diet (ME/SS), despite showing no decrease in salt intake, and they evidenced an increase in plasma sodium concentration and water intake. Urine osmolality was significantly higher in control animals than in either ME-lesioned group. In experiment 2, hypertonic NaCl administration (2 ml/2M) increased the polydipsic behavior of ME-lesioned but not control rats (day 2). Animals deprived of food/salt showed a significant reduction (on day 2) in the initial (day 1) polydipsia, which increased on day 3 when the animals had access to a standard-salt diet. These results suggest that the reduced natriuretic response and the consequent sodium retention observed in ME animals may exacerbate the hydromineral imbalance of this polydipsic syndrome. PMID:24129482

  2. Prolonged infusion of estradiol benzoate into the stalk median eminence stimulates release of GnRH and kisspeptin in ovariectomized female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kenealy, Brian P; Keen, Kim L; Garcia, James P; Richter, Dustin J; Terasawa, Ei

    2015-05-01

    Our recent study indicates that a brief infusion (20 min) of estradiol (E2) benzoate (EB) into the stalk-median eminence (S-ME) stimulates GnRH release with a latency of approximately 10 minutes. In contrast to the effect induced by a brief infusion of EB, it has previously been shown that systemic EB administration suppresses release of GnRH, kisspeptin, and LH with a latency of several hours, which is known as the negative feedback action of E2. We speculated that the differential results by these 2 modes of EB administration are due to the length of E2 exposure. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of EB infusion for periods of 20 minutes, 4 hours, or 7 hours into the S-ME of ovariectomized female monkeys on the release of GnRH and kisspeptin were examined using a microdialysis method. To assess the effects of the EB infusion on LH release, serum samples were also collected. The results show that similar to the results with 20-minute infusion, both 4- and 7-hour infusions of EB consistently stimulated release of GnRH and kisspeptin from the S-ME accompanied by LH release in the general circulation. In contrast, sc injection of EB suppressed all 3 hormones (GnRH, kisspeptin, and LH) measured. It is concluded that regardless of the exposure period, direct E2 action on GnRH and kisspeptin neurons in the S-ME, where their neuroterminals are present, is stimulatory, and the E2-negative feedback effects do not occur at the S-ME level. PMID:25734362

  3. The geometry of continental displacement and its application to Arctic geology: Eugen Wegmann's early approaches published in the Geologische Rundschau in 1943

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsch, Dominik

    2013-06-01

    Plate tectonics developed around 1965 as a powerful tool to describe the tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. The article demonstrates that basically four already existing theoretical concepts—subduction, seafloor spreading, the application of Euler's theorem and transform faults—had to be combined to arrive at the modern theory. Alfred Wegener, father of the theory of continental displacement, is often credited as the most direct forerunner of plate tectonics. However, none of the aforementioned concepts had been developed by him. The present article deals with the hitherto not duly credited contributions of the Swiss geologist Eugen Wegmann (1896-1982). He developed in a series of highly original papers published between 1943 and 1948 (one of them in the Geologische Rundschau), a critical test of the theory of continental displacement based on the regional geology of the Arctic. Furthermore, he gave a very concise account on the geometrical principles of drift movements. As a result, he developed for the first time—25 years before McKenzie and Parker's Nature 216:1276-1280, landmark paper on the Pacific (1967)—the geometrical basis to graphically test plate motion directions. However, his work has not yet received the credit it deserves, neither by scientist nor by historians of science.

  4. Seismic stratigraphy, facies architecture, and reservoir character of a pleistocene shelf-margin delta complex, Eugene Island Block 330 field, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, B.S.; Sibley, D.M.; Flemings, P.B.

    1997-03-01

    The GA interval of the Eugene Island Block 330 field is the deposit of late Pleistocene ({approximately}0.8 Ma) shelf-margin lowstand delta complex. We integrated three-dimensional (3-D) seismic, wireline log, core, and cuttings data to examine the delta`s internal architecture and to reconstruct its depositional history. This interval displays a complex vertical and lateral interfingering of channel, clinoform, and base-of-slope failure deposits over short distances (a few kilometers), and is the product of delta lobe progradation structural development (growth faults, rollover anticline) and relative sea level change. We then integrated our sequence stratigraphic interpretation with production data. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the interval are primarily associated with updip facies (delta mouth bar, delta front) beneath the flooding surface at the top of the interval, and not the sequence boundary at the base of the interval. Maps of seismic amplitudes associated with the top of the GA interval show patchy (mouth bar deposits) and curvilinear (interdistributary delta front) trends that indicate reservoir heterogeneities associated with depositional features. There is a good qualitative relationship between seismic amplitude and production characteristics, with the best production being from high-amplitude areas that sit high on the structure.

  5. [Medicine and chemistry around the middle of the 19th century in Erlangen. Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez (1817--1878) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1981-07-01

    Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez, born 1817 in Graz, was appointed on 28. 11. 1846 to the post of lecturer in the faculty of medicine of the University of Erlangen. He had previously studied medicine in Vienna, Padua and Munich, followed by physiological and clinical-chemical studies under Louis Andreas Buchner in Munich, and further studies in organic and analytical chemistry under Friedrich Wöhler in Göttingen. In 1849 in Erlangen he became reader in organic and analytical chemistry, then, in 1855, moved to the faculty of philosophy as professor of chemistry. Von Gorup-Besanez was one of the early representatives of clinical chemistry in Germany. He tried to help clinicians by the analysis of urine, blood and tissues. In his lectures and through his books he was an outstanding teacher. His greatest contribution was the discovery of the amino acid valine. The lack of a laboratory in the medical faculty and his dissatisfaction with what could be achieved in clinical chemistry at that time may chiefly explain his move from the medical to the philosophical faculty. The life of von Gorup-Besanez illustrates the difficulties faced by clinical chemistry and its exponents in the middle of the 19th century. PMID:7035607

  6. Evaluation of Passive Samplers for Long-Term Monitoring of Organic Compounds in the Untreated Drinking Water Supply for the City of Eugene, Oregon, September-October 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Cranor, Walter L.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Schroeder, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), were deployed at three sites in the McKenzie River basin during September-October 2007. The McKenzie River is the source of drinking water for the city of Eugene, Oregon, and the work presented here was designed to evaluate the use of POCIS and SMPDs as part of a long-term monitoring plan for the river. Various compounds were detected in extracts from the POCIS and SPMDs, indicating that some compounds of concern are present in the McKenzie River basin, including the intake for the drinking water plant. However, most concentrations were near the quantitation limits of the analytical methods used - generally at subnanogram per liter concentrations - and would not have been detectable with conventional water sampling and analysis methods. These results indicate that both POCIS and SPMDs are well suited to monitor organic compounds in the McKenzie River basin.

  7. [The 'Krüppelfürsorge' during the Weimar Republic. Oscillating between an own position and the adoption of eugenic arguments].

    PubMed

    Weinert, Sebastian

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the discourse about physical disability led by the German 'Krüppelfürsorge'. It deals with the exhibition GeSoLei (Gesundheitspflege, soziale Fürsorge and Leibesübungen), which took place in Düsseldorf in 1926. The GeSoLei was one of the most popular platforms of the healthy and aesthetic body in the 1920s. It stood in the context of the German 'national recovery' after World War I and collected all types of medical, social and athletic professionals to expose their work to a broader audience. Also representatives of the so called 'Krüppelfürsorge' presented themselves and at the same time their perspective on people with physical disabilities on this exhibition. The article points out the ambivalent character of their perspective and shows the mixture of including and excluding people with physical disabilities, which was typical for the view of the 'Krüppelfürsorge'. It demonstrates that the 'Krüppelfürsorger' on the one hand were quite progressive towards people with disabilities, but on the other hand showed a striking openness towards eugenic values. PMID:21598586

  8. Lead (Pb) alters the norepinephrine-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone from the median eminence of adult male rats in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, G.R.; Hiney, J.K.; Dees, W.L. )

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, the authors evaluated the in vitro effects of lead (Pb) on basal and stimulated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) and Prostaglandin E[sub 2] (PGE[sub 2]) secretion. Median eminences (ME) were removed from brains of adult male rats and preincubated for 15 minutes in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate glucose buffer in an atmosphere of 95% O[sub 2]-5% CO[sub 2]. These media were discarded and all MEs were subjected to one of the following experiments. In Experiment 1, all MEs were incubated for 30 minutes in medium only. These media were collected and replaced with medium only (controls) or with medium containing Pb doses ranging from 5 to 20 [mu]M. After this 60-minute incubation, media were collected, then replaced with new medium containing 60 [mu]M norepinephrine (NE), or NE plus each dose of Pb, then incubated for a final 30-minute period. Experiment 2 was conducted as above, except PGE[sub 2] (2.8 [mu]M) replaced the NE. In both experiments, the amounts of LHRH released was measured by RIA. In experiment 3, NE was again used for the challenge; however, this time, the amount of PGE[sub 2] released was measured by RIA. Results indicate that Pb did not alter basal LHRH release, but compared with controls, significantly blocked NE-induced LHRH release in a dose-related manner. Conversely, Pb had no effect on the PGE[sub 2]-induced release of LHRH. Additionally, Pb did not alter basal PGE[sub 2] release; however, it significantly blocked the NE-induced release of PGE[sub 2]. Since NE-induced LHRH release is mediated by PGE[sub 2], these results support the hypothesis that Pb is capable of altering the hypothalamus and suggest that this effect is due, at least in part, to the diminished PGE[sub 2] synthesis/release within the ME, resulting in diminished LHRH secretion.

  9. The Eugen Seibold coral mounds offshore western Morocco: oceanographic and bathymetric boundary conditions of a newly discovered cold-water coral province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glogowski, Silke; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Feldens, Peter; Liebetrau, Volker; von Reumont, Jonas; Hühnerbach, Veit; Krastel, Sebastian; Wynn, Russell B.; Flögel, Sascha

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a new cold-water coral (CWC) province covering ~410 km2 off western Morocco (ca. 31°N) ~40 nautical miles north of the Agadir Canyon system between 678 and 863 m water depth, here named the Eugen Seibold coral mounds. Individual mounds are up to 12 m high with slope angles varying between 3° and 12°. Hydroacoustic data revealed mound axes lengths of 80 to 240 m. Slope angle, mound height, and density of mounds decrease with increasing water depth. The deepest mounds are composed of dead and fragmented Lophelia pertusa branches. Living CWCs, mainly L. pertusa, were sampled with box cores between 678 and 719 m water depth. Conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) measurements revealed living CWC colonies to occur within the deeper part of the North Atlantic Central Water (NACW; conservative temperature Θ of 9.78-9.94 °C, absolute salinity SA of ca. 35.632 g/kg, and seawater density σΘ of 27.31-27.33 kg/m3). Comparable CWC reefs off Mauritania (17°N-18°N) and on the Renard Ridge (35°N) in the Gulf of Cadiz, the latter consisting only of a dead CWC fabric, are also located in the deeper layer of the NACW slightly above the Mediterranean Outflow Water. The new CWC province, with its thin cover of living corals and much larger accumulations of dead thickets and fragmented coral rubble, was successfully discovered by CTD reconnaissance applying seawater density as a potential indicator of CWC occurrences, followed by hydroacoustic mapping. U-Th isotope systematics for macroscopically altered buried Lophelia material (25 cm sediment depth) yielded absolute ages dating back to the late Holocene at least.

  10. Parker, Eugene [`Gene'] Newman (1927-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    American solar-terrestrial physicist, Parker worked at the University of Chicago, studying the solar wind and the effects of magnetic fields in the heliosphere. At first this work was through the study of the effect of the Sun on comet tails, but more recently through satellite measurements in situ he has developed understanding of the solar corona, the solar wind, the magnetic fields of both Ear...

  11. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights in the Lane County Tour of Homes, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-10

    In August 2008 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a light emitting diode (LED) residential lighting demonstration project for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies, as part of DOE’s Solid State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Gateway Program. Two lighting technologies, an LED replacement for downlight lamps (bulbs) and an LED undercabinet lighting fixture, were tested in the demonstration which was conducted in two homes built for the 2008 Tour of Homes in Eugene, Oregon. The homes were built by the Lane County Home Builders Association (HBA), and Future B Homes. The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO) also participated in the demonstration project. The LED downlight product, the LR6, made by Cree LED Lighting Solutions acts as a screw-in replacement for incandescent and halogen bulbs in recessed can downlights. The second product tested is Phillips/Color Kinetics’ eW® Profile Powercore undercabinet fixture designed to mount under kitchen cabinets to illuminate the countertop and backsplash surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light performance and electrical power usage were taken at each site before and after initially installed halogen and incandescent lamps were replaced with the LED products. Energy savings and simple paybacks were also calculated and builders who toured the homes were surveyed for their responses to the LED products. The LED downlight product drew 12 Watts of power, cutting energy use by 82% compared to the 65W incandescent lamp and by 84% compared to the 75W halogen lamp. The LED undercabinet fixture drew 10 watts, cutting energy use by 83% to 90% compared to the halogen product, which was tested at two power settings: a low power 60W setting and a high power 105W setting. The LED downlight consistently provided more light than the halogen and incandescent lamps in horizontal measurements at counter height and floor level. It also outperformed in vertical

  12. Libbie Henrietta Hyman: Eminent Invertebrate Zoologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Rose M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the life and work of the famous invertebrate zoologist Libbie Henrietta Hyman. Focuses on her work at the American Museum of History and her role as informal mentor and valued colleague and collaborator to zoologists all over the world. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  13. Why Are There So Few Eminent Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the history of discrimination against gifted women and quotes notables such as Charles Darwin, Francis Galton, John Stuart Mill, Harriet Taylor Mill, and Mary Wollstonecraft. The article also examines the history of the education of women, the work of Leta Stetter Hollingworth, and current perspectives on giftedness and…

  14. What Led Eminent Economists to Become Economists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent A.; Grimes, Paul W.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the various factors that highly recognized economists cite as reasons for pursuing a career in economics. They obtained data for 62 of the 67 Nobel Laureates in economics and included another 22 prominent economists who have made significant contributions in economic research. The authors' basic quest was to discover how these…

  15. A correlation between the ligand specificity for 67copper uptake and for copper-prostaglandin E2 stimulation of the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from median eminence explants.

    PubMed

    Barnea, A; Cho, G; Hartter, D E

    1988-04-01

    We have previously shown that copper (Cu) leads to a 3- to 4-fold amplification of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulation of LHRH release from explants of the median eminence area (MEA), that this amplification is a saturable function of [Cu], and that complexed Cu but not ionic Cu is the active form of the metal. This implicates a ligand-specific site in Cu action. In this study we address the following questions. Is there a ligand specificity for Cu amplification of PGE2 stimulation of LHRH release, and if so, does it correlate with the ligand specificity for Cu uptake? MEAs of 1-month-old female rats were incubated for 5 min with 150 microM Cu solution and then for 15 min with 10 microM PGE2 (Cu/PGE2); LHRH released into the medium was evaluated by RIA. To assess Cu uptake, MEAs were incubated with 100 microM67 Cu solution for 15 min, and 67Cu accumulation by the MEA was evaluated. The Cu was complexed to one of the following ligands: histamine, His, Cys, Thr, Gly, glutathione, Gly-His-Lys, or albumin. There was a high degree of correlation (r = 0.943) between the ligand specificity for Cu/PGE2 stimulation of LHRH release (Cu action) and 67Cu uptake. Complexation of ionic Cu with His facilitated Cu action and 67Cu uptake 3-fold each, and this was completely prevented by the inclusion of His in a 100-fold excess over the concentration of the Cu/His complex. Histamine, the amino acids, and the peptides facilitated Cu action and 67Cu uptake, whereas albumin did not do so. Of these facilitatory ligands, histamine and His were the most effective and Gly-His-Lys was the least effective. In summary, both 67Cu uptake and Cu action are ligand-dependent and ligand-specific; the Cu interactive sites have a common recognition for the Cu-ligand complex and for the ligand itself; and the ligand specificity for 67Cu uptake and for Cu action are highly correlated. These results are consistent with the ligand specificity for Cu uptake being the primary determinant of the ligand

  16. The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled Eugene H. Pool, Fourth Surgeon-in-Chief 1933–1935 Followed by Philip D. Wilson, Fifth Surgeon-in-Chief 1935

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In 1933, for the second time in the history of the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (R & C), a general surgeon, Eugene Hillhouse Pool, MD, was appointed Surgeon-in-Chief by the Board of Managers of the New York Society for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled. R & C (whose name was changed to the Hospital for Special Surgery in 1940), then the oldest orthopaedic hospital in the country, was losing ground as the leading orthopaedic center in the nation. The R & C Board charged Dr. Pool with the task of recruiting the nation’s best orthopaedic surgeon to become the next Surgeon-in-Chief. Phillip D. Wilson, MD, from the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and the Harvard Medical School was selected and agreed to accept this challenge. He joined the staff of the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in the spring of 1934 as Director of Surgery and replaced Dr. Pool as Surgeon-in-Chief the next year. It was the time of the Great Depression, which added a heavy financial toll to the daily operations of the hospital. With a clear and courageous vision, Dr. Wilson reorganized the hospital, its staff responsibilities, professional education and care of patients. He established orthopaedic fellowships to support young orthopaedic surgeons interested in conducting research and assisted them with the initiation of their new practices. Recognizing that the treatment of crippling conditions and hernia were becoming separate specialties, one of his first decisions was to restructure the Hernia Department to become the General Surgery Department. His World War I experiences in Europe helped develop his expertise in the fields of fractures, war trauma and amputations, providing a broad foundation in musculoskeletal diseases that was to be beneficial to him in his future role as the leader of R & C. PMID:18815851

  17. Delaunay, Charles Eugene (1816-72)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Celestial mechanician, born in Lusigny-sur-Barse, France, died at sea (near Cherbourg) after just two years as director of the Paris Observatory. Studied lunar theory and worked out formulae that gave the longitude, latitude and parallax of the Moon as infinite series. The work was accurate but impractical as the series converged slowly....

  18. Obituary: Ronald Eugene Pitts, 1949-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConnell, D. Jack

    2009-01-01

    Ronald Pitts, systems engineer in the Commanding Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute and long-time Computer Sciences Corporation employee, died suddenly of a stroke on 4 May 2008 at his home in Laurel, Maryland. He was a dedicated scientist-engineer, husband, father, volunteer, and cherished friend to many. Ron was born on 19 January 1949 in Tucson, Arizona, and was raised, along with his sister Suzanne, on his parents' turkey farm outside Tucson. He picked up practical knowledge from his father, Vernon, and became a competent amateur electrician and plumber, skills he kept honed and used throughout his life. His mother, Ruth (Stephens), was a nurse and taught him compassion and patience and encouraged his inquisitive mind. Ron attended public schools and enrolled at the University of Arizona, graduating with a B. S. in Astronomy in 1971. Being from a family of modest means, he put himself through school working summers and part-time at a large copper mine south of town. Ron enrolled in the graduate astronomy program at the Ohio State University [OSU] in the fall of 1971 where he was a first-year fellowship student. During his second and third years, he was the Perkins Assistant, taking spectra for the very exacting but appreciative Philip Keenan who once remarked to another faculty member that Ron was the best observer he ever had. Later, in 1980, Ron was co-author with Keenan on "Revised MK Spectral Types for G, K, and M stars" and again in 1985 in a study of supergiants in open clusters. He met his future wife, Patricia Moore, also a graduate student in the department, and they were wed in 1973. Ron was also partially supported during his early OSU years by an NSF grant to Robert Wing, writing parts of Wing's photometric reduction code and observing on the program at Kitt Peak and Flagstaff in the summer of 1974. Wing remembers him as being very competent and pleasant to work with. Ron's thesis topic was "Oscillator Strengths for Neutral Iron and Silicon" under the direction of Gerald Newsom, and he was awarded the PhD in 1979. Newson recalls his facility with instrumentation, designing new circuitry to solve problems with the shock tube and ferreting out sources of systematic errors, and that it was enjoyable to work with him. In the fall of 1979, Ron went to Ball State University where he taught undergraduate astronomy classes for four years. In the summer of 1983, Ron left academia for the position of IUE Resident Astronomer with Computer Sciences Corporation [CSC] at the Goddard Space Flight Center where he joined a small contingent of other Ohio State graduates. For the next eleven years, he supported guest observers, implemented work-arounds as the IUE gyroscopes failed, improved calibrations, and had several proposals accepted to obtain spectra of spectrophotometric standards and to observe upper-main-sequence stars in the Pleiades, a Per, and NGC 2244, work that he did with Nancy Remage Evans. Ron worked diligently on the software to combine the best IUE calibration with ground-based data of the hot cluster stars and to fit the temperature and gravity. He also became interested in advanced technology for lunar remote telescopes and co-authored several studies with Peter Chen and others. After their children were of school age, Ron's wife Pat also worked for CSC/IUE for part of this period. In October 1994, Ron transferred to the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, where he joined the science instrument commanding group under the direction of Vicki Balzano. His first task was helping to write the commanding software controlling the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to be installed in HST in February 1997, and he became the in-house expert on the workings of this complex instrument, in particular on the details of the time-tag mode. In time, he became familiar with all the on-board instruments and oversaw the approval of the instrument commanding before the weekly HST command loads were distributed to the Goddard Space Flight Center for uploading to the telescope. In recent years, Ron participated in developing the onboard Javascript code for commanding the James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Spectrograph operations. He also helped write special commanding to support some activities to follow the final HST servicing mission. His "behind-the-scenes" contributions to IUE, HST, and JWST helped and will help astronomers around the world obtain their data. Ron seemed knowledgeable about almost any subject and could talk engagingly and at length on politics, economics, a variety of technical topics, the history of the early Church, and science fiction, among others. He was one of those people who always appeared to be smiling. He, Pat, and their daughter Marie enjoyed singing in the Central Maryland Chorale, and he served his church as an elder, Sunday-school teacher, and choir member. Ron sat on various church committees, set up and maintained the computers, and devoted many hours to the upkeep of the building. After Hurricane Katrina, he went on two mission trips with church members to help victims in Mississippi. Once again, his carpentry, electrical, and plumbing skills made him a valuable team member. Ron is survived by his wife, Pat, a cartographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, their son Mark, a graduate student in astronomy at the University of Hawaii, and their daughter Marie, a graduate student in biology at the University of Maryland.

  19. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

  20. Aldrin, Edwin Eugene, Jr [`Buzz'] (1930-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronaut, born in Montclair, NJ, trained as a fighter pilot (Korean War), he space-walked during the Gemini 12 mission, and was pilot of the lunar module of Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing. Aldrin followed NEIL ARMSTRONG as the second man to walk on the Moon....

  1. Obituary: Ronald Eugene Pitts, 1949-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConnell, D. Jack

    2009-01-01

    Ronald Pitts, systems engineer in the Commanding Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute and long-time Computer Sciences Corporation employee, died suddenly of a stroke on 4 May 2008 at his home in Laurel, Maryland. He was a dedicated scientist-engineer, husband, father, volunteer, and cherished friend to many. Ron was born on 19 January 1949 in Tucson, Arizona, and was raised, along with his sister Suzanne, on his parents' turkey farm outside Tucson. He picked up practical knowledge from his father, Vernon, and became a competent amateur electrician and plumber, skills he kept honed and used throughout his life. His mother, Ruth (Stephens), was a nurse and taught him compassion and patience and encouraged his inquisitive mind. Ron attended public schools and enrolled at the University of Arizona, graduating with a B. S. in Astronomy in 1971. Being from a family of modest means, he put himself through school working summers and part-time at a large copper mine south of town. Ron enrolled in the graduate astronomy program at the Ohio State University [OSU] in the fall of 1971 where he was a first-year fellowship student. During his second and third years, he was the Perkins Assistant, taking spectra for the very exacting but appreciative Philip Keenan who once remarked to another faculty member that Ron was the best observer he ever had. Later, in 1980, Ron was co-author with Keenan on "Revised MK Spectral Types for G, K, and M stars" and again in 1985 in a study of supergiants in open clusters. He met his future wife, Patricia Moore, also a graduate student in the department, and they were wed in 1973. Ron was also partially supported during his early OSU years by an NSF grant to Robert Wing, writing parts of Wing's photometric reduction code and observing on the program at Kitt Peak and Flagstaff in the summer of 1974. Wing remembers him as being very competent and pleasant to work with. Ron's thesis topic was "Oscillator Strengths for Neutral Iron and Silicon" under the direction of Gerald Newsom, and he was awarded the PhD in 1979. Newson recalls his facility with instrumentation, designing new circuitry to solve problems with the shock tube and ferreting out sources of systematic errors, and that it was enjoyable to work with him. In the fall of 1979, Ron went to Ball State University where he taught undergraduate astronomy classes for four years. In the summer of 1983, Ron left academia for the position of IUE Resident Astronomer with Computer Sciences Corporation [CSC] at the Goddard Space Flight Center where he joined a small contingent of other Ohio State graduates. For the next eleven years, he supported guest observers, implemented work-arounds as the IUE gyroscopes failed, improved calibrations, and had several proposals accepted to obtain spectra of spectrophotometric standards and to observe upper-main-sequence stars in the Pleiades, a Per, and NGC 2244, work that he did with Nancy Remage Evans. Ron worked diligently on the software to combine the best IUE calibration with ground-based data of the hot cluster stars and to fit the temperature and gravity. He also became interested in advanced technology for lunar remote telescopes and co-authored several studies with Peter Chen and others. After their children were of school age, Ron's wife Pat also worked for CSC/IUE for part of this period. In October 1994, Ron transferred to the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, where he joined the science instrument commanding group under the direction of Vicki Balzano. His first task was helping to write the commanding software controlling the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to be installed in HST in February 1997, and he became the in-house expert on the workings of this complex instrument, in particular on the details of the time-tag mode. In time, he became familiar with all the on-board instruments and oversaw the approval of the instrument commanding before the weekly HST command loads were distributed to the Goddard Space Flight Center for uploading to the te

  2. People's Republic of China passes "eugenics" law.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    On October 27, 1994, China passed the "Maternal and Infant Health Care Law." This law regulates support for maternal and child health and also requires physicians to recommend a postponement of marriage if either member of a couple has an infectious, contagious disease or an active mental disorder. If one member of a couple has a serious hereditary disease, the couple may only marry if they agree to use longterm contraception or to undergo sterilization. If prenatal tests reveal that a fetus has a serious hereditary disease or serious deformity, the physician must advise the pregnant woman to have an abortion, and the law states that the pregnant woman "should" follow this recommendation. This statute also bans determining the sex of a fetus through the use of technology unless such tests are medically necessary. This ban is the reaction to the combination of China's one-child policy and the technological ability to predict the sex of a fetus which has led to a change in China's sex ratio from 103.8 boys/100 girls in 1953 to 118 boys/100 girls in 1992. PMID:12288092

  3. Eugene Munroe: The Lepidopterist, 1919-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene Munroe was the acknowledged authority on the Pyraloidea worldwide for many decades; for nearly three decades, he was one of the few people publishing in the Pyraloidea. Gene's contribution to the systematic knowledge of Pyraloidea includes over 170 research papers and to this day is unparallel...

  4. In remembrance of Eugene Ladislas Kanabrocki (18 April 1922 * 23 April 2009): a 'General' in the battle of penetrating the normal range and in revealing its relation to the cosmos.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Sothern, R B; Scheving, L A; Best, W R

    2009-01-01

    Col. Eugene L. (Gene) Kanabrocki, PhD, commanding officer of the 361st Medical Laboratory of the U.S. Army Reserve, together with Col. Lawrence E. (Larry) Scheving, Professor at the University of Arkansas, initiated in May 1969 a linked cross-sectional (hybrid) study at Fort Sam Houston, TX, to examine the oscillatory (circadian) nature of many physiological variables in a group of 13 army men, 22-28 years of age, anticipating that such data would serve, as indeed they did, as time-specified reference values in future investigations of health and aging. In the initial study, 36 variables were examined around the clock in observations at 3-hour intervals. In subsequent 24-hour profiles, mapped in May of 1971 (mostly on new, young subjects, and not officially part of the Aging Project), 1979, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2003, additional subjects and variables were included. The follow-up studies were conducted at the Hines VA Medical Center in Hines, Illinois. Of the original 13 subjects, four were measured in all 6 studies and another four in 5 of the 6 studies. Three of the eight became diabetic (Type II) and three had vascular circulatory problems. Presently, a bank of circadian data for 187 medically relevant variables of blood (plasma or serum), saliva, urine, vital signs and other variables on the same subjects covers a span of 34 years. Dr. Robert B. Sothern (RBS), of the University of Minnesota, USA, the major analyst of Gene's investigations, in addition to being an add-on subject as he was in three studies, set up the half-hourly monitoring of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in the 2003 study that yielded the data suggesting that the standard deviations (SD) of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP and HR are infl uenced by a magnetic storm. Since the standard deviation rather than the amplitude of a vascular spectral component was affected, we may be dealing with a stochastic rather than frequency window-dependent resonance with a magnetic storm. Gene and RBS

  5. Characterization of the rainbow trout transcriptome using Sanger and 454-pyrosequencing approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rainbow trout is an important fish for aquaculture and recreational fisheries and serves as a model species for research investigations associated with carcinogenesis, comparative immunology, toxicology and the evolutionary biology. However, to date there is no genome reference sequence...

  6. Dr. Sanger's Apprentice: A Computer-Aided Instruction to Protein Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Thomas G.; Place, Allen R.

    1985-01-01

    Modeled after the program "Mastermind," this program teaches students the art of protein sequencing. The program (written in Turbo Pascal for the IBM PC, requiring 128K, a graphics adapter, and an 8070 mathematics coprocessor) generates a polypeptide whose sequence and length can be user-defined (for practice) or computer-generated (for grading).…

  7. Characterization of the rainbow trout transcriptome using Sanger and 454-Pyrosequencing approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Rainbow trout is an important fish species for aquaculture and a model species for research investigations associated with carcinogenesis, comparative immunology, toxicology and the evolutionary biology. However, to date there is no genome reference sequence to facilitate the development...

  8. Student Evaluations, Research Productivity, and Eminence of College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Arnold S.; Straus, Murray A.

    1975-01-01

    From this data it would appear that teacher ratings are only partly due to individual differences in teaching abilities but also vary with posi tion within the social structure of the university. Some of the conflicting implications of the research findings for university policy are considered. (Editor/PG)

  9. Citation Measures as Criterion Variables in Predicting Scientific Eminence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-01-01

    The target article seems to provide yet another illustration of the classic "It don't make no nevermind" principle in statistical analysis. In particular, relatively simple measures appear to do approximately as well as more complex measures do, even including indicators that represent nonlinear transformations of the simpler measures. The authors…

  10. The Public Use Limitation in Eminent Domain: "Handley v. Cook."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grill, Donna P.

    1979-01-01

    It is time for the courts to rigorously scrutinize allegations of public use in order to protect the property rights of private individuals. Available from West Virginia Law Review, W.V.U. Law Center, Morgantown, WV 26506. (Author)

  11. The Silver Bird story: A memoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saenger-Bredt, I.

    1977-01-01

    A manned recoverable flying machine that operates both in air and space was discussed. This space shuttle precursor was proposed in the early 1900's by Eugen Sanger. The vehicle was especially to be used as the first stage of booster rockets or to ferry, supply and furnish rescue equipment for manned space stations. Basic concepts of the space aircraft, a cross between a powered booster rocket and an aerodynamic glider, are presented.

  12. The road to abortion (II): how government got hooked.

    PubMed

    Meehan, M

    1999-01-01

    The first part of this series traced close links between eugenics (the effort to breed a "better" human race) and population control throughout the greater part of this century up to the 1960s. It stressed the population work of early eugenicists and eugenics sympathizers such as Frederick Osborn, Margaret Sanger, Gunnar Myrdal, Alan Guttmacher, Garrett Hardin and John D. Rockefeller 3rd. This second and concluding part will show how population controllers, from the 60s onward increasingly added economic and foreign-policy concerns to their original "eugenics" motive of improving human genetic stock. Working in both Democratic and Republican administrations, they gained major government backing for their programs and also played a key role in the legalization of abortion. I will use President Richard Nixon's administration as an example of heavy government involvement. PMID:11881670

  13. On human self-domestication, psychiatry, and eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Brüne, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anatomically modern homo sapiens could have undergone changes akin to those observed in domesticated animals has been contemplated in the biological sciences for at least 150 years. The idea had already plagued philosophers such as Rousseau, who considered the civilisation of man as going against human nature, and eventually "sparked over" to the medical sciences in the late 19th and early 20th century. At that time, human "self-domestication" appealed to psychiatry, because it served as a causal explanation for the alleged degeneration of the "erbgut" (genetic material) of entire populations and the presumed increase of mental disorders. Consequently, Social Darwinists emphasised preventing procreation by people of "lower genetic value" and positively selecting favourable traits in others. Both tendencies culminated in euthanasia and breeding programs ("Lebensborn") during the Nazi regime in Germany. Whether or not domestication actually plays a role in some anatomical changes since the late Pleistocene period is, from a biological standpoint, contentious, and the currently resurrected debate depends, in part, on the definitional criteria applied. However, the example of human self-domestication may illustrate that scientific ideas, especially when dealing with human biology, are prone to misuse, particularly if "is" is confused with "ought", i.e., if moral principles are deduced from biological facts. Although such naturalistic fallacies appear to be banned, modern genetics may, at least in theory, pose similar ethical problems to medicine, including psychiatry. In times during which studies into the genetics of psychiatric disorders are scientifically more valued than studies into environmental causation of disorders (which is currently the case), the prospects of genetic therapy may be tempting to alter the human genome in patients, probably at costs that no-one can foresee. In the case of "self-domestication", it is proposed that human characteristics resembling domesticated traits in animals should be labelled "domestication-like", or better, objectively described as genuine adaptations to sedentism. PMID:17919321

  14. Gender eugenics? The ethics of PGD for intersex conditions.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ethics of the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent the birth of children with intersex conditions/disorders of sex development (DSDs), such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While pediatric surgeries performed on children with ambiguous genitalia have been the topic of intense bioethical controversy, there has been almost no discussion to date of the ethics of the use of PGD to reduce the prevalence of these conditions. I suggest that PGD for those conditions that involve serious medical risks for those born with them is morally permissible and that PGD for other "cosmetic" variations in sexual anatomy is more defensible than might first appear. However, importantly, the arguments that establish the latter claim have radical and disturbing implications for our attitude toward diversity more generally. PMID:24024804

  15. Public Attitudes toward Human Genetic Manipulation: A Revitalization of Eugenics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglia, Geremia; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the attitudes of college students across the United States concerning the possible use of genetic manipulation, especially in terms of enhancing human physical and intellectual characteristics. The instrument used was divided into three general areas of inquiry: the first, designed to measure the…

  16. Kallmann Syndrome: Eugenics and the Man behind the Eponym.

    PubMed

    Benbassat, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome is named after Franz Joseph Kallmann, a German-born psychiatrist who described in 1944 twelve subjects from three families who presented with a syndrome of missed puberty, anosmia, and color blindness. Yet, several other eponyms for the same syndrome can be found in the literature. Despite the fact that Kallmann syndrome is the most recognized eponym, very little is known about the man for whom the syndrome is named. A biographical note on Franz Joseph Kallmann and his historical context is presented. PMID:27101217

  17. Kallmann Syndrome: Eugenics and the Man behind the Eponym

    PubMed Central

    Benbassat, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome is named after Franz Joseph Kallmann, a German-born psychiatrist who described in 1944 twelve subjects from three families who presented with a syndrome of missed puberty, anosmia, and color blindness. Yet, several other eponyms for the same syndrome can be found in the literature. Despite the fact that Kallmann syndrome is the most recognized eponym, very little is known about the man for whom the syndrome is named. A biographical note on Franz Joseph Kallmann and his historical context is presented. PMID:27101217

  18. On the Cusp: Corey Harper--University of Oregon, Eugene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A recent library school graduate, Corey Harper was nominated by his colleagues at the University of Oregon (UO) because of the key role he played in implementing digital collections. Along with technical expertise, says Watson, he brought with him "[an ability to] balance idealism with expediency, the striving for perfection with the need to…

  19. Eugene G. Munroe (September 8, 1919-May 31, 2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene Munroe was the acknowledged authority on the Pyraloidea worldwide for many decades; for nearly 30 years, he was one of the few people publishing in the Pyraloidea. Gene's contribution to the systematic knowledge of Pyraloidea includes over 170 research papers and to this day is unparalleled. ...

  20. Chimeric 16S rRNA sequence formation and detection in Sanger and 454-pyrosequenced PCR amplicons

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Brian J.; Gevers, Dirk; Earl, Ashlee M.; Feldgarden, Mike; Ward, Doyle V.; Giannoukos, Georgia; Ciulla, Dawn; Tabbaa, Diana; Highlander, Sarah K.; Sodergren, Erica; Methé, Barbara; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Knight, Rob; Birren, Bruce W.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity among environmental samples is commonly assessed with PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene (16S) sequences. Perceived diversity, however, can be influenced by sample preparation, primer selection, and formation of chimeric 16S amplification products. Chimeras are hybrid products between multiple parent sequences that can be falsely interpreted as novel organisms, thus inflating apparent diversity. We developed a new chimera detection tool called Chimera Slayer (CS). CS detects chimeras with greater sensitivity than previous methods, performs well on short sequences such as those produced by the 454 Life Sciences (Roche) Genome Sequencer, and can scale to large data sets. By benchmarking CS performance against sequences derived from a controlled DNA mixture of known organisms and a simulated chimera set, we provide insights into the factors that affect chimera formation such as sequence abundance, the extent of similarity between 16S genes, and PCR conditions. Chimeras were found to reproducibly form among independent amplifications and contributed to false perceptions of sample diversity and the false identification of novel taxa, with less-abundant species exhibiting chimera rates exceeding 70%. Shotgun metagenomic sequences of our mock community appear to be devoid of 16S chimeras, supporting a role for shotgun metagenomics in validating novel organisms discovered in targeted sequence surveys. PMID:21212162

  1. Guy de Chauliac: pre-eminent surgeon of the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Watters, David A K

    2013-10-01

    Guy de Chauliac (c1300-1368) trained in Toulouse and the University of Montpellier from where he achieved the highest possible degree of Master of medicine. He undertook fellowships in Bologna (anatomical dissection) and Paris (surgery) and was qualified as a physician not a Barber Surgeon. He took Holy Orders and was appointed as physician to three Avignon-based Popes. He survived an epidemic of the Black Death (1348-1350), suffering an axillary bubo. His book Chirugia Magna was written in medieval Latin in 1363, then circulated in manuscript form before its first printing in 1478. There were 70 editions as it became the most influential surgical text for over 200 years, particularly in France, spanning the period from the late 14th century until Paré (1510-1590). He divided surgery into swellings, wounds, ulcers, fractures and dislocations, and special diseases. Well researched and referenced, based on evidence and experience, he succeeded in incorporating antiquarian and contemporary thinking from French, Arabian, Italian (Bologna), Egyptian and Greek scholars about anatomy, surgical disease and treatment. He was a strong advocate for evaluating outcomes, knowing when not to operate, professionalism and the non-technical competencies. His framework of professionalism was based on four domains: being learned, expert, ingenious and adaptable. The surgical aspirants and leaders of the following two centuries recognized the academic, professional and practical value of his teaching through their reference to and use of Chirugia Magna. The Cowlishaw collection in the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons' library contains four French copies, under the title La Grande Chirugie. PMID:24099124

  2. The eminent Italian scholar Pietro d'Abano (1250-1315) and his contribution in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2011-01-01

    Pietro d'Abano is recognized as a leading figure in the early history of European medical faculties. Translator and scholar, he translated and commented in Latin the doctrines of Greek and Arab physicians and philosophers having an ambitious attempt, to reconcile the opposing views of Arab medicine and Greek natural philosophy. Moreover he was one of the first to claim, three centuries before Harvey, that the heart is the source of blood vessels. PMID:21898974

  3. "Creative Collaboration": An "Eminence" Study of Teaching and Learning in Music Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    The image of the composer as a lone seeker of creative inspiration is embedded in popular views of the creative artist. This isolationist view ignores the "thought communities" on which composers draw in their development as musicians, composers and teachers, the relationships that hold between composer-teacher and student-composer, and the role…

  4. State-Funded "Eminent Scholars" Programs: University Faculty Recruitment as an Emerging Policy Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; McLendon, Michael K.; Lacy, T. Austin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, state governments have increasingly invested in programs to recruit accomplished scientists from elsewhere to university positions. This event history analysis suggests that an intriguing mix of comparative state disadvantage and leveragable existing research resources is associated with the likelihood of states adopting…

  5. Stealing Home: Eminent Domain, Urban Renewal, and the Loss of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the historic destruction of the Chavez Ravine neighborhood in Los Angeles--to build Dodger Stadium--paved the way for students to understand changes in their own neighborhood. Through slideshows, poems, newscast transcripts, field trips, and classroom activities, students navigated the complex history of Chavez Ravine to…

  6. [Professor Andelko Wolf, MD, PhD. (1922-2007), eminent epidemiologist and dermatovenerologist].

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franjo; Peris, Zdravko

    2009-01-01

    Professor Andelko Wolf graduated medicine from the University of Zagreb School of Medicine in 1947. First he specialised in epidemiology and became head of the Brucellosis Centre in Rijeka for the Istria region. Later he also specialised in dermatovenerology at the Department for Skin and Venereal diseases in Rijeka. He passed the specialty board exam in dermatovenerology in 1958 and became teaching assistant. In 1973, he became assistant professor and in 1981 full professor. At the Department he founded the Laboratory for Mycology and allergology. Later he focused on occupational skin diseases and photodermatology. His doctoral thesis was on the action of light on the skin. He chaired the Clinic and was a member of various Hospital and Medical School committees. He was an excellent clinician undergraduate and graduate student teacher in Rijeka and Zagreb. He published around eighty papers on dermatology, but also on the necessity to reform medical studies. PMID:20500011

  7. EAG Eminent Speaker: Cold war biogeochemistry: Microbes as architects for metal attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küsel, K.

    2012-04-01

    Legacy uranium mining in the area of Ronneburg, Germany, has resulted in extensive outflow of highly heavy metal contaminated ground and upcoming mine waters. Mine water flows along a grassland into a small creek and forms iron-rich precipitates yielding rust-colored terraces at the creek bank. These iron oxyhydroxides could have been formed by iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) or by chemical oxidation. Precipitates may serve as important biogeochemical interfaces, because heavy metals can adsorb or co-precipitate with Fe(II) or Fe(III) minerals. Thus, microbial Fe(II) oxidation but also the reductive dissolution of iron oxides can be important processes affecting the stability of metal contaminants. Here we present a study on the potential for iron cycling processes and on indigenous bacterial communities in this acidic creek. Oxic and anoxic in vitro sediment incubations revealed iron oxidation and reduction rates of same magnitude, indicating active iron cycling regardless of pH. XRD and TEM comparing the suspended particle load of water samples with fresh creek sediment showed that amorphous particles likely formed first, then aged to become more crystalline iron oxyhydroxides, such as akaganeite and goethite. During this aging process some of the initially smooth, 50-300 nm spherical particles may have formed nano-sized needles, which could potentially provide high reactive surface area for chemical and biological reactions. Surprisingly, total and dissolved metal concentrations in creek water and sediment revealed that elements such as Mn, Si, Ni, or Zn stayed mostly in solution. Only some metals such as Cu, Cr, and U seemed to be particle-associated in the water, likely co-precipitated with or adsorbed onto freshly-precipitating minerals. Pelagic and particle-associated organisms from water as well as fresh sediments were used for 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing and showed that members of the Proteobacteria (mainly Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria) dominated bacterial communities. The relative fraction of FeOB-related clones was especially high in upcoming underground water and sediment of the adjacent creek site. Up to 80% of clones in sediment microbial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries had ≥97% sequence similarity to reported FeOM or FeRM, demonstrating a strong link to function, even on RNA level. Three novel moderately acidophilic FeOM strains, Thiomonas sp. FB-Cd and FB-6 and Bordetella sp. FB-8, were isolated from pH 6.3 sediment. FB-6 is likely involved in in situ iron oxidation as it has high similarity to a RNA-derived clone from this sediment. Our results demonstrated active microbial iron cycling in heavy metal contaminated creeks, which have important implications for understanding natural attenuation.

  8. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  9. 77 FR 47652 - Use of Eminent Domain To Restructure Performing Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    .... ACTION: Notice; input accepted. The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) oversees the Federal National... arrangements that are traded in national and international markets. Input FHFA will accept input from...

  10. EAG Eminent Speaker: Two types of Archean continental crust: plume and plate tectonics on early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Over 4.5 billion years, Earth has evolved from a molten ball to a cooler planet with large continental plates, but how and when continents grew and plate tectonics started remain poorly understood. In this paper, I review the evidence that 3.5-3.2 Ga continental nuclei of the Pilbara (Australia) and Kaapvaal (southern Africa) cratons formed as thick volcanic plateaux over hot, upwelling mantle and survived due to contemporaneous development of highly depleted, buoyant, unsubductable mantle roots. This type of crust is distinct from, but complimentary to, high-grade gneiss terranes, as exemplified by the North Atlantic Craton of West Greenland, which formed through subduction-accretion tectonics on what is envisaged as a vigorously convecting early Earth with small plates. Thus, it is proposed that two types of crust formed on early Earth, in much the same way as in modern Earth, but with distinct differences resulting from a hotter Archean mantle. Volcanic plateaux provided a variety of stable habitats for early life, including chemical nutrient rich, shallow-water hydrothermal systems and shallow marine carbonate platforms.

  11. Paul Broca and French Brains: Portraits from the Life of an Eminent Neuroscientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Leonard L.

    2014-01-01

    Pierre Paul Broca is one of the most legendary neuroscientists of the last few centuries. His name graces a region of the brain, and his work is richly associated with human communication and its disorders. This article traces the contributions of this man and the historical context of his remarkable discoveries. After approval to visit and access…

  12. All Carbon-Based Photodetectors: An eminent integration of graphite quantum dots and two dimensional graphene

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Hao; Weng, Tong-Min; Lu, Meng-Lin; Tan, Wei-Chun; Chen, Ju-Ying; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Photodetectors with ultrahigh sensitivity based on the composite made with all carbon-based materials consisting of graphite quantum dots (QDs), and two dimensional graphene crystal have been demonstrated. Under light illumination, remarkably, a photocurrent responsivity up to 4 × 107 AW−1 can be obtained. The underlying mechanism is attributed to the spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the charge transfer caused by the appropriate band alignment across the interface between graphite QDs and graphene. Besides, the large absorptivity of graphite QDs and the excellent conductivity of the graphene sheet also play significant roles. Our result therefore demonstrates an outstanding illustration for the integration of the distinct properties of nanostructured carbon materials with different dimensionalities to achieve highly efficient devices. Together with the associated mechanism, it paves a valuable step for the further development of all carbon-based, cheap, and non-toxic optoelectronics devices with excellent performance. PMID:24045846

  13. Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program Rankings: Evaluating Eminence on Faculty Publications and Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Malone, Carrie J.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; McClure, David R.; Laud, Rinita B.; Minshawi, Noha F.

    2005-01-01

    Program rankings and their visibility have taken on greater and greater significance. Rarely is the accuracy of these rankings, which are typically based on a small subset of university faculty impressions, questioned. This paper presents a more comprehensive survey method based on quantifiable measures of faculty publications and citations. The…

  14. Uncommon HLA alleles identified by hemizygous ultra-high Sanger sequencing: haplotype associations and reconsideration of their assignment in the Common and Well-Documented catalogue.

    PubMed

    Voorter, Christina E M; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Groeneveld, Lisette; Tilanus, Marcel G J

    2016-02-01

    Although the number of HLA alleles still increases, many of them have been reported being uncommon. This is partly due to lack of full length gene sequencing, especially for those alleles belonging to an allele ambiguity in which the first discovered allele has been assigned as the most frequent one. As members of the working group on Common and Well Documented (CWD) alleles and since we implemented full length group-specific sequencing as standard method routinely, we have investigated the presence of presumably rare alleles in our collection of HLA typing data. We identified 50 alleles, that were not previously encountered as Common or Well Documented. Sixteen of them should be added to the CWD catalogue, since we encountered them in 5 or more unrelated individuals. Another 11 could be added, based upon our results and the data present in the IMGT database and the rare allele section of the allele frequencies database. Furthermore, tight associations were observed between several different alleles even at the level of synonymous and non-coding sequences. In addition, in several cases the uncommon allele was found to be more frequent than its common counterpart. PMID:26610902

  15. [RESEARCHES ON EMBRYO: THE RISKS OF EUGENIC DRIFTS AND LIVING MATTER UNDER PATENT].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    As a result of scientific progress, embryo, once classified as part of the maternal body, gained recognition in particular with medically assisted reproduction. It became a genuine topic of study, from being analyzed in its development to its characteristics of being a reserchers's object of desire due to its multiple possibilities of reserch and study. Despite belonging to the human species, and even though they are not completely classified as objects, supernumerary embryos, out of parental projects, were gradually reified in order to become the object of all genetic engineering fantasies, especially the quest of the perfect child, free of diseases and anomalies. Notwithstanding all the precautions taken by the legislator and the European institutions, future drifts concerning the enlargement of prenatal diagnostics and of living matter under patent possibilities are to be feared. PMID:27356354

  16. An Anesthetic Drug Demonstration and an Introductory Antioxidant Activity Experiment with "Eugene, the Sleepy Fish"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan

    2016-01-01

    Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…

  17. Report from the July 1982 Assessment Conference (Eugene, Oregon, July 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Caroline J., Ed.; Zeller, Richard W., Ed.

    Eight papers are presented from a July 1982 conference on assessment. S. Wood and F. Hertlein begin with "Integrating Remedial Education in Olympia Public Schools: A Consulting Service Model for Low Performing and Handicapped Students." They describe the model's staff development modules, instructional support strategies, and management…

  18. 76 FR 37147 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Eugene District Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... with the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, Title VI, Secure Schools and Community Self... Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, Title VI, Secure Schools and Community Self-Determination Program...

  19. 75 FR 22622 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Eugene District, Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... with the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, Title VI, Secure Schools and Community Self... 2008, Title VI, Secure Schools and Community Self-Determination Program (H.R. 1424). Topics to...

  20. 75 FR 65663 - Gilbert Eugene Johnson, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ....43(d) and Brinton D. Glisson, 72 FR 54296 (2007)). Accordingly, the ALJ canceled the scheduled... disjunctive.'' Robert A. Leslie, 68 FR 15227, 15230 (2003). I may rely on any one or a combination of factors... (int. quotations and citations omitted). See also Craig H. Bammer, 73 FR 34327, 34328 (2008)....

  1. A Life of Sir Francis Galton: From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.

    2002-01-01

    This biography explores the many scientific interests and contributions of Francis Galton and outlines his psychological studies as a "detour" from his major works that lasted from 1877 to 1885. Galton's interest in heredity was a focus of the second half of his life, the first having concentrated on geography and exploration. (SLD)

  2. [The silent disappearance: report of screening eugenics of people with Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vilarroig Martín, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we try to reflext an avident fact: since the last 20 years, the percentage of births of Down Sindrome in Spain is decreasing. This fact is so silenciated in the mass media, that we can call "the silent dissapearance". But this is a bit of a more big problem more preocupated: the rejection of our society against the disabled people. For this, first, we present the facts, and then we will make a bioethical reflexión about the meaning of the rejection of disabled people, a serious fact that contradict the human responsability for others. PMID:22548661

  3. Shoemaker, Eugene [`Gene'] Merle (1928-97) and Shoemaker, Carolyn [née Spellman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astrogeologist Gene Shoemaker was born in Los Angeles, California and became chief scientist at the USGS Center of Astrogeology (Flagstaff) and professor of geology at CalTech. He worked with his wife Carolyn on cratering, both on the Moon and the Earth, by volcanoes and by meteor and cometary impact. He discovered, with Edward Chao, coesite, a type of silica produced in a violent impact and a si...

  4. Eugenics, Genetics, and the Minority Group Model of Disabilities: Implications for Social Work Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Gerald V.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, genetic research, as well as policy and practice innovations based on this research, has expanded greatly over the past few decades. This expansion is indicated, for example, by the mapping of the human genome, an expansion of genetic counseling, and other biogenetic research. Also, a disability rights movement that in many…

  5. Reform, Racism and the Centrality of Whiteness: Assessment, Ability and the "New Eugenics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2010-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winning scientist James Watson was vilified when his views on the supposedly inherent deficiencies of black people became public. The scientific establishment, mainstream media and politicians joined a chorus of disapproval that would seem to evidence a widespread rejection of the old myths of racially ordered intelligence.…

  6. The story of an ambivalent relationship: Sigmund Freud and Eugen Bleuler.

    PubMed

    Falzeder, Ernst

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the short-lived flirtation between psychoanalysis and academia and psychiatry in Europe and the reasons for, and consequences of, the fact that their paths diverged. It is argued that Bleuler's break with the psychoanalytic movement is a crucial and, until now, largely underestimated turning point. Bleuler's separation from the psychoanalytic movement was probably more important for the course it has since taken than those of Adler, Stekel, or even Jung. Bleuler's analysis by correspondence by Freud, and its failure, was of paramount importance for the future relationship between Freud and Bleuler, and for Bleuler's assessment of psychoanalysis. PMID:17537145

  7. Eugenic metal-free sensitizers with double anchors for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-I; Liao, You-Ya; Lee, Ting-Hui; Ting, Yu-Chien; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Kao, Wei-Siang; Lin, Jiann T; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Yen, Yung-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    A series of new phenothiazine-based dyes (HL5-HL7) with double acceptors/anchors have been synthesized and used as the sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among them, the HL7-based cell exhibits the best efficiency of 8.32% exceeding the N719-based cell (7.35%) by ∼13%. PMID:25555237

  8. Biography of Dr. Eugene W. Smith Arkansas State University President 1984 to 1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Glenda

    2012-01-01

    A president of a university in the state of Arkansas would benefit from researching the roots of the educational system within the state. Even though the state now has a number of universities that have evolved and are on the cutting-edge of advanced technology, Arkansas was slow in growth and development. Since Arkansas was slow to expand public…

  9. Disability rights, prenatal diagnosis and eugenics: a cross-cultural view.

    PubMed

    Raz, Aviad E

    2005-06-01

    This paper considers the disability rights critique of genetic testing in the context of different communities and the issue of nondirectiveness. Despite the wide usage of genetic diagnosis in Israel, no public debate has emerged there concerning disability rights and prenatal testing. The common attitude that emerged from interviews with Israeli representatives of organizations "of'' and "for'' people with genetic diseases and congenital disabilities can be described as a two-fold view of disability: support of genetic testing during pregnancy, and support of the disabled person after birth. This two-fold view is explained as a secular construction situated in legal, economic and cultural contexts. The paper concludes by considering the implications of the "two-fold view'' of disability for the profession of genetic counseling. It is argued that awareness of the existence of conflicting views among clients--such as the view of the 'disability critique' as well as of the "two-fold view of disability''--should strengthen the significance of nondirectiveness. PMID:15959649

  10. Task A: Theory of elementary particles. [Inst. of Theoretical Science, Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, N.G.; Soper, D.E.

    1992-10-16

    Brief summaries of work are given in the following areas: grandunification, properties of neutrinos, rare decays of heavy quarks, jet production in hadron collisions (theory, structure, two-jet cross section, null-plane field theory), neutrino physics, and QCD calculations of annihilation of e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  11. Professor Herman Burger (1893-1965), eminent teacher and scientist, who laid the theoretical foundations of vectorcardiography--and electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    van Herpen, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Einthoven not only designed a high quality instrument, the string galvanometer, for recording the ECG, he also shaped the conceptual framework to understand it. He reduced the body to an equilateral triangle and the cardiac electric activity to a dipole, represented by an arrow (i.e. a vector) in the triangle's center. Up to the present day the interpretation of the ECG is based on the model of a dipole vector being projected on the various leads. The model is practical but intuitive, not physically founded. Burger analysed the relation between heart vector and leads according to the principles of physics. It then follows that an ECG lead must be treated as a vector (lead vector) and that the lead voltage is not simply proportional to the projection of the vector on the lead, but must be multiplied by the value (length) of the lead vector, the lead strength. Anatomical lead axis and electrical lead axis are different entities and the anatomical body space must be distinguished from electrical space. Appreciation of these underlying physical principles should contribute to a better understanding of the ECG. The development of these principles by Burger is described, together with some personal notes and a sketch of the personality of this pioneer of medical physics. PMID:24506911

  12. Remote Determination of the <em>in situ Sensitivity of a Streckeisen STS-2 Broadband Seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrhammer, R. A.; Taira, T.; Hellweg, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sensitivity of a STS-2 broadband seismometer can be determined remotely by two basic methods: 1) via comparison of the inferred ground motions with a reference seismometer, and: 2) via excitation of the calibration coil with a simultaneously recorded stimulus signal. The first method is limited by the accuracy of the reference seismometer and the second method is limited by the accuracy of the motor constant (Gc) of the calibration coil. The accuracy of both methods is also influenced by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of background seismic noise and the degree of orthogonality of the tri-axial suspension in the STS-2 seismometer. The Streckeisen STS-2 manual states that the signal coil sensitivity (Gs) is 1500 V/(m/s) (+/-1.5%) and it gives Gc to only one decimal place (ie, Gc = 2 g/A). Unfortunately the factory Gc value is not given with sufficient accuracy to be useful for determining the sensitivity of Gs to within 1.5%. Thus we need to determine Gc to enable accurate calibration of the STS-2 via remote excitation of the Gc with a known stimulus. The Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) has 12 STS-2 seismometers with co-sited reference sensors (strong motion accelerometers) and they are all recorded by Q330HR data loggers with factory cabling. The procedure is to first verify the sensitivity of the STS-2 signal coils (Gs) via comparison of the ground motions recorded by the STS-2 with the ground motions recorded by the co-sited strong motion accelerometer for an earthquake with has sufficiently high SNR in a passband common to both sensors. The second step in the procedure is to remotely (from Berkeley) excite to calibration coil with a 1 Hz sinusoid which is simultaneously recorded and, using the above measured Gs values, solve for Gc of the calibration coils. The resulting Gc values are typically 2.20-2.50 g/A (accurate to 3+ decimal places) and once the Gc values are found, the STS-2 absolute sensitivity can be determined remotely to an accuracy of better than 1%. The primary advantage of using strong motion accelerometers as the reference instrument is that their absolute calibration can be checked via tilt tests if the need arises.

  13. Insights about children for parents from eminent writers: from Dante and Castiglione to Mark Twain and Bertrand Russell.

    PubMed

    Carey, William B

    2006-02-01

    Behavioral science and literature have had a long and complex relationship with each other, sometimes differing and sometimes similar in ways of portraying human development. In the ancient world nature seems to have been the dominant explanation of human variations in both science and literature. That speculative philosophical view persisted into the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance among the academicians, while the best literature moved ahead by introducing the modern view of an interaction between nature and nurture. In the modern era literature began to describe the inner world of children a century before the birth of child psychology, and literature has generally continued to describe the interactions between nature and nurture without taking sides in the academic battles of science. The great wealth of insights into the origins of children's behavior in the nonscientific literature should be incorporated into the education of child health professionals because the richer understanding that it engenders would lead to better child rearing and educational practice. PMID:16511372

  14. 78 FR 18340 - The Neiman Marcus Group, Inc.; Dr.Jays.com, Inc., Eminent, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION The... Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent Agreements. SUMMARY: The... to the following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room H-113 (Annex...

  15. In Search of Eminence: A Personal Brand-Building Perspective on the Achievement of Scholarly Prominence in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Charles H.; Bentley, John P.; Campbell, David; Singh, Jatinder J.

    2010-01-01

    In marketing, as in many other academic disciplines, new scholars are often taught a simple formula for the achievement of professional success: the single-minded pursuit of "A"-level journal publications. Although the goal of producing high-quality research that is ultimately published in top level journals is certainly worthwhile, the attainment…

  16. John D. Lattin: Festschrift for an eminent and a passionate heteropterist, with a list of his publications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. John D. (“Jack”) Lattin, Professor Emeritus at Oregon State University, Corvallis, is recognized on the occasion of his 80th birthday for his many contributions to the knowledge of true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). This paper provides an introduction to a special tribute volume to appear in t...

  17. [Randomized clinical trials in trauma surgery: decision-making in an area of conflict between eminence and evidence].

    PubMed

    Trentzsch, H; Piltz, S; Täger, G; Berger, F; Steinhausen, E; Neugebauer, E A M; Rixen, D

    2009-08-01

    Well-designed, prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) define the gold standard of evidence-based medicine. The results of such trials represent the most solid rationale for therapeutic recommendations in the S3 guideline of medical societies (http://www.leitlinie.de). The performance of studies according to good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines (Guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization on Good Clinical Practice) is extremely demanding. The findings can shake long established principles and practices to the core. For more than 20 years now, the management of femoral shaft fractures in critically injured patients has been controversially discussed. There are two different concepts competing against each other: Early total care (ETC) aiming at definitive care by immediate femoral nailing and damage control orthopedics (DCO), where nailing is performed at a later time point after initial retention by the use of external fixation. In order to answer this still unresolved question, the Damage Control Study is currently under way involving 25 trauma centers throughout Germany. This study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Association), it is endorsed by the board of Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie (DGU, German Society for Casualty Surgery) and it is embedded in a joint program of the DFG and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to support clinical studies in Germany. Moreover, the study is supported by the ChirNet Site at Witten/Herdecke-Köln (http://www.chir-net.de). Without a doubt, this RCT is one of the most important studies carried out in the field of care for the critically injured patient, because the results will have a profound influence on the future management of femoral shaft fractures in multiple trauma patients and because successful completion of this study will underline the high scientific competence and skills claimed by German trauma surgeons. At the same time, ironically, the success of this study is endangered by the dilemma of an as yet insufficient recruitment of suitable patients to be enrolled into the trial. In this article possible explanations for this problem will be discussed based on a case report and the specific challenges in performing RCTs that scrutinize questions in the field of surgery will be analyzed. PMID:19597770

  18. Visual indictment: a contextual analysis of the Kallikak Family photographs.

    PubMed

    Elks, Martin A

    2005-08-01

    The Kallikak Family is a pre-eminent text in the history of mental retardation and psychology in which Goddard (1912) claimed he proved the heritability of feeble-mindedness and the necessity of institutionalization. The book contains 14 photographs, some of which have been retouched. These photographs were interpreted in this paper within the context of clinical photography of the feeble-minded during the eugenics era, and the conclusion was made that the photographs are masterpieces of visual indictment propaganda that worked on the levels of assumed scientific objectivity, hovel imagery, mutually amplifying juxtapositions, stereotypic images of imbecility, and religious symbolism to achieve persuasiveness. A resolution of alleged "skullduggery" surrounding the retouching is presented. PMID:16000027

  19. Eugène Apert and his Contributions to Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    French pediatrician Eugène Apert is best known for his 1906 description of the eponymous Apert’s Syndrome: the widely recognized congenital condition that is known as acrocephalosyndactyly, which is characterized by distinct craniofacial deformities and bilateral syndactyly of the hands and feet. Subsequent efforts to study and treat this condition have led to contributions from numerous medical and surgical specialties under the guidance of plastic surgery. Apert’s influence on medicine, however, extends far beyond what can be appreciated by the impact of his eponymous syndrome. Considered one of France’s eminent pediatricians, Apert additionally made important contributions to the study of adult diseases. He was also a founding member of the French Eugenics Society, serving as its secretary general and president in a tenure that lasted for most of his career. Apert’s medical contributions within the context of this scientific ideology make him an important and potentially controversial figure in medicine. PMID:20179491

  20. 75 FR 34049 - FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...The Audio Division dismisses a Petition for Reconsideration jointly filed by Portland Broadcasting, LLC (``Portland Broadcasting''), licensee of Station KXPC-FM, Channel 279C, Lebanon, Oregon, Bicoastal Media Licenses IV, LLC (``Bicoastal''), licensee of Station KACI-FM, Channel 249C2, The Dalles, Oregon, and Station KMSW(FM), Channel 224C3, The Dalles, Oregon, and Extra Mile Media, Inc.,......

  1. Doctors and nurses of death: a case study of eugenically motivated killing under the Nazi 'euthanasia' programme.

    PubMed

    Ost, Suzanne

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews newly declassified US intelligence files and other sources, including relevant trial documents, related to the Nazi killing of mentally and physically sick individuals deemed to be of little further use to society. It both supplements and revises existing work on the so-called 'Euthanasia' programme at the Kaufbeuren psychiatric institution in Bavaria, and highlights a series of gender issues related to the involvement of women nurses including Catholic nuns, in this institute. In addition, this study not only casts new light on the way in which patients were, from admission onwards, redefined as disposable objects but also emphasises contradictions within the defence case of the defendants. PMID:17340766

  2. "Strong Mothers Make Strong Children": Sports, Eugenics and Nationalism in Brazil at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goellner, Silvana Vilodre; Votre, Sebastiao Josue; Pinheiro, Maria Claudia Brandao

    2012-01-01

    Based on post-structural feminist and gender studies, the present article analyses the importance given to the practice of physical education, sports and exercise as part of the national policy to strengthen the Caucasian-Brazilian population at the beginning of the twentieth century, emphasising the priority made of the White female body as the…

  3. The Oregon Conference Monograph 1995. Volume 7. [Proceedings of a Conference (Eugene, Oregon, February 2-4, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbaugh, Abe, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph presents 23 papers presented at a 1995 Oregon conference which focused on students in trouble due to disabilities or context problems. Paper titles and authors are: "Identifying Students Who Have Learning Disabilities" (Barbara D. Bateman and David J. Chard); "ADHD: A Teachers' Guide" (Rosalyn A. Templeton); "Knowledge about the…

  4. Labor in a Global Economy. Perspectives from the U.S. and Canada. Conference Proceedings (Eugene, Oregon, September 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecker, Steven, Ed.; Hallock, Margaret, Ed.

    The following papers are included: "Introduction: Labor in a Global Economy" (Hecker, Hallock); "Labor in a Global Economy" (Marshall); "Canadian Labor Strategies for a Global Economy" (Carr); "Recent Developments in the Canadian Political Economy" (Watkins); "Labor and Politics in the U.S. and Canada" (Bernard); "The Political Action Strategy of…

  5. The Education of Mathematics Teachers in the United States: David Eugene Smith, Early Twentieth-Century Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoghue, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    In the USA, authority over teacher education and certification rests with the individual states rather than the federal government. Nonetheless, US mathematics teacher-education programs bear a strong resemblance in their fundamental structure to one another and to the earliest such programs established in the 1890s. This paper examines an…

  6. Community Colleges at the Crossroads. Summary Report [and] Proceedings of a Legislative Workshop (Eugene, Oregon, September 28, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenth, Charles; Romero, Martha

    Presented are a summary and proceedings of a workshop on community college issues of legislative concern. The summary report begins with Patrick Callan's paper, "The Question of Mission," which assesses the changing role of community colleges in the western states. The remainder of the report highlights the key points of the formal presentations…

  7. Concerns about eroding the ethical barrier to in vitro eugenics: lessons from the hESC debate.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    In his discussion of in vitrogametogenesis, Rob Sparrow claims that an ethical barrier to development of this technology is that many jurisdictions currently prohibit the practice of creating embryos solely for the purpose of research. However, he suggests that this ethical barrier will soon be eroded, in view of the fact that in vitro gametogenesis could serve as a powerful new technology to overcome infertility. In this commentary, I argue that Sparrow is being overly optimistic in his analysis here. I claim that the debate over so-called compromise positions in the human embryonic stem cell debate suggests that the purpose of the research for which a research embryo is created is unlikely to be considered as having any significant bearing on the moral permissibility of the practice for those who oppose it. Even though in vitro gametogenesis could serve as a powerful new technology to overcome infertility, I argue that opponents of the practice of creating embryos solely for research purposes would still view the creation of research embryos that the development of in vitro gametogenesis would require, as being incompatible with affording the embryo proper moral respect. I conclude by suggesting that Sparrow's analysis of the potential benefits of in vitro gametogenesis provides us with further reasons to scrutinise the unconvincing arguments that are often cited in favour of prohibiting the practice of creating embryos solely for research purposes. PMID:23918813

  8. Challenge '84: State and Local Initiatives for School Reform (Eugene, Oregon, July 26-27, 1984). Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Center for Educational Policy and Management.

    This document contains summaries of 12 presentations given at a conference held in reponse to the comprehensive Oregon school improvement plan entitled "Oregon Action Plan for Excellence." The plan provides a framework for improving public schools in the areas of graduation requirements, academic expectations and assessment, teacher and…

  9. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analysis with Sanger and next-generation sequencing shows that, in Área de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, the skipper butterfly named Urbanus belli (family Hesperiidae) comprises three morphologically cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) are a relatively well-studied family of Lepidoptera. However, a combination of DNA barcodes, morphology, and natural history data has revealed several cryptic species complexes within them. Here, we investigate three DNA barcode lineages of what has been identified as Urbanus belli (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Results Although no morphological traits appear to distinguish among the three, congruent nuclear and mitochondrial lineage patterns show that “Urbanus belli” in ACG is a complex of three sympatric species. A single strain of Wolbachia present in two of the three cryptic species indicates that Urbanus segnestami Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ01), Urbanus bernikerni Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ02), and Urbanus ehakernae Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ03) may be biologically separated by Wolbachia, as well as by their genetics. Use of parallel sequencing through 454-pyrosequencing improved the utility of ITS2 as a phylogenetic marker and permitted examination of the intra- and interlineage relationships of ITS2 variants within the species complex. Interlineage, intralineage and intragenomic compensatory base pair changes were discovered in the secondary structure of ITS2. Conclusion These findings corroborate the existence of three cryptic species. Our confirmation of a novel cryptic species complex, initially suggested by DNA barcode lineages, argues for using a multi-marker approach coupled with next-generation sequencing for exploration of other suspected species complexes. PMID:25005355

  10. Giftedness as a Developmental Construct That Leads to Eminence as Adults: Ideas and Implications from an Occupational/Career Decision-Making Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jae Yup

    2012-01-01

    The proposal of Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Worrell (2011) on rethinking giftedness and gifted education has a number of implications from an occupational/career decision-making perspective. In this examination of their ideas, consideration is given to the literature in vocational psychology/career development, the emerging findings on the…

  11. <em>In Situ X-ray Diffraction of Forsterite Under Shock Compression to 52 GPa: Time Resolved Observation of Changes in Crystal Structure and Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, M. C.; Maddox, B.; Teruya, A.; Asimow, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's mantle is composed primarily of ferromagnesian silicates, of which Forsterite (Fo) is the magnesium-rich end member of the dominant upper mantle phase, olivine. Fo is thought to undergo a chemical decomposition associated with a structural phase transition when dynamically loaded to 40-71 GPa, but previous inferences about such decomposition have been based only on pressure-density data with no direct phase identification. To obtain direct data on the phase evolution of shocked Fo, synthetic single crystal samples of Mg2SiO4 Fo were loaded to pressures of 52 GPa using a two stage light gas gun. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were collected on the static and the loaded samples in situ using a single pulse Mo Kα anode to provide a 17 keV X-ray source. X-ray polycapillary optics were used to couple the source to the sample. Clear Laue spots were observed in the static images, while the dynamic images show the appearance of new spots at early times and powder-like rings at late times. The angles of the dynamically driven spots and rings overlap with each other and indicate the change in phase of forsterite under pressure through a process that begins with the formation of single crystals and ends with polycrystalline material. Efforts are underway to identify the high-pressure phases from among the library of dense magnesium silicates, and further experiments covering a larger pressure range will be completed shortly. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Methodological Issues of Role Delineation for Professional Credentialing. The Pre-eminence of Political Realities over Technical Considerations in the Role Delineation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Andrew S.

    The value of a role in a profession is often tied to demand for and supply of practitioners in this role. Since a profession may seek to sustain its role's value by influencing supply of recognized practitioners, the National Commission for Health Certifying Agencies has included in its membership criteria a requirement for administrative…

  13. The pre-eminence of k(cat) in the manifestation of optimal enzymic activity delineated by using the Briggs-Haldane two-step irreversible kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Brocklehurst, K; Cornish-Bowden, A

    1976-10-01

    The suggestion by Fersht [(1974) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 187, 397-407] that enzymes that provide maximal rates of catalysis should be characterized by values of Ks, the dissociation constant of the enzyme-substrate complex, greater than 10 times the value of the ambient substrate concentration has been examined. 2. For such enzymes, Ks is not relevant, and attention is best focused on the relative numerical values of k(cat). (in units of s(-1) and the substrate molarity. It is necessary only that the former be about 10(10)-10(11) times the latter to ensure that the rate of product formation be diffusion-limited and thus maximal. PMID:999634

  14. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes <em>in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  15. [The scientific conference: Konstanty Janicki (1876-1932): Professor of Warsaw University, eminent zoologist and protistologist, creator of the Polish parasitological school].

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bozena; Siński, Edward; Kazubski, Stanisław L

    2005-01-01

    The conference was organized for celebrating the memory of professor Konstanty Janicki, one of the most important Polish zoologist, protistologist and parasitologist. Professors Joanna Pijanowska, Edward Siński and Maria Doligalska were the hosts of the meeting at the Warsaw University. Four lectures were given during the conference. Professor Leszek Kuźnicki presented professor Janicki's life and followers who continued his research. Professor Stanisław Kazubski reminded the main topics of the parasitological studies conducted by professor Janicki. That lecture was illustrated by coloured diagrams taken from original papers published by Janicki. In the next lecture, professor Teresa Pojmańska reminded "the theory of the cercomer". She viewed some polemics and discussions made by the opponents of the theory. Professor Alicja Guttowa presented a paper on the history of the exploration of the D. latum life cycle and the main scientific researches carried out on each life stages of the broad tapeworm. Afterwards the lectures, professor Kazubski showed several pictures taken inside and outside of the Main School of the Warsaw University at the time when professor Janicki had been working there. The professor's students were also seen in these pictures. Next, associate professor Bozena Moskwa, the President of the Polish Parasitological Society presented the Konstanty Janicki Medal, awarded for outstanding activities for the benefit of parasitology. Up to data, 17 scientists and one school: the Warsaw Uniwersity was honored with this Medal. After the conference, participants visited the Powazki Cementary, where the renovated sepulchral monument of professor Konstanty Janicki was uncovered. PMID:16913506

  16. Chemometric evaluation of nine alcohol biomarkers in a large population of clinically-classified subjects: pre-eminence of ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair for confirmatory classification.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Valentina; Valente, Valeria; Oliveri, Paolo; De Bernardis, Angela; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco

    2011-10-01

    An important goal of forensic and clinical toxicology is to identify biological markers of ethanol consumption that allow an objective diagnosis of chronic alcohol misuse. Blood and head hair samples were collected from 175 subjects-objectively classified as non-drinkers (N=65), social drinkers (N=51) and active heavy drinkers (N=59)-and analyzed to determine eight traditional indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and cholesterol and triglycerides in blood] and one direct biomarker [ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in head hair]. The experimental values obtained from these determinations were submitted to statistical evaluations. In particular, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and ROC curve analyses, together with principal component analysis (PCA), allowed the diagnostic performances of the various biomarkers to be evaluated and compared consistently. From these evaluations, it was possible to deduce that EtG measured in head hair is the only biomarker that can conclusively discriminate active heavy drinkers from social and non-drinkers, using a cut-off value of 30 pg/mg. In contrast, a few indirect biomarkers such as ALP, cholesterol, and triglycerides showed extremely low diagnostic abilities and may convey misleading information. AST and ALT proved to be highly correlated and exhibited quite low sensitivity and specificity. Consequently, either of these parameters can be discarded without compromising the classification efficiency. Among the indirect biomarkers, γ-GT provided the highest diagnostic accuracy, while CDT and MCV yielded high specificity but low sensitivity. It was therefore concluded that EtG in head hair is the only biomarker capable of supporting a confirmatory diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse in both forensic and clinical practice, while it was found that γ-GT, CDT, MCV, and AST--whether used alone or in combination--do not allow the conclusive classification of subjects according to ethanol consumption. However, a diagnostic strategy combining these four parameters could be formulated in order to create a multivariate model capable of screening suspected active heavy drinkers. PMID:21901464

  17. Pre-Eminent Curriculum in Islamic Basic School Integrated Comparative Studies in Islamic Basic School Integrated Al-Izzah Serang and Al-Hanif Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauz, Anis; Hasbullah

    2016-01-01

    Compare to General SD (Primary school), the superiority of SD Islam Terpadu (Integrated Islamic Primary School) lies on the development of the curriculum and learning that is more emphasize on integrated curriculum and integrated learning. Curriculum model applied in Sekolah Dasar Islam Terpadu (SDIT) is integrated curriculum. This curriculum is…

  18. Walter Max Dale (formerly Deutsch) (1894-1969): pioneer and eminent radiobiochemist at the Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester.

    PubMed

    Shreeve, David R

    2010-05-01

    The political upheaval in Germany in 1933 and subsequent movement of medical scholars with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation allowed Manchester to benefit from the arrival of Dr Walter Deutsch, later known as Dr Walter Dale. His research background enabled him to develop a radiobiochemistry laboratory at the Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute where he became a world authority on the effects of X-rays on enzymes and also the protective effect of additional solutes. In 1959 he initiated and then edited the International Journal of Radiation Biology. By the time of his retirement in 1962 the strength of his research resulted in his laboratory being recognized by the Medical Research Council. PMID:20519710

  19. Laser Ablation <em>in situ (U-Th-Sm)/He and U-Pb Double-Dating of Apatite and Zircon: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, B.; Danišík, M.; Evans, N.; McDonald, B.; Becker, T.; Vermeesch, P.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new laser-based technique for rapid, quantitative and automated in situ microanalysis of U, Th, Sm, Pb and He for applications in geochronology, thermochronometry and geochemistry (Evans et al., 2015). This novel capability permits a detailed interrogation of the time-temperature history of rocks containing apatite, zircon and other accessory phases by providing both (U-Th-Sm)/He and U-Pb ages (+trace element analysis) on single crystals. In situ laser microanalysis offers several advantages over conventional bulk crystal methods in terms of safety, cost, productivity and spatial resolution. We developed and integrated a suite of analytical instruments including a 193 nm ArF excimer laser system (RESOlution M-50A-LR), a quadrupole ICP-MS (Agilent 7700s), an Alphachron helium mass spectrometry system and swappable flow-through and ultra-high vacuum analytical chambers. The analytical protocols include the following steps: mounting/polishing in PFA Teflon using methods similar to those adopted for fission track etching; laser He extraction and analysis using a 2 s ablation at 5 Hz and 2-3 J/cm2fluence; He pit volume measurement using atomic force microscopy, and U-Th-Sm-Pb (plus optional trace element) analysis using traditional laser ablation methods. The major analytical challenges for apatite include the low U, Th and He contents relative to zircon and the elevated common Pb content. On the other hand, apatite typically has less extreme and less complex zoning of parent isotopes (primarily U and Th). A freeware application has been developed for determining (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the raw analytical data and Iolite software was used for U-Pb age and trace element determination. In situ double-dating has successfully replicated conventional U-Pb and (U-Th)/He age variations in xenocrystic zircon from the diamondiferous Ellendale lamproite pipe, Western Australia and increased zircon analytical throughput by a factor of 50 over conventional methods.Reference: Evans NJ, McInnes BIA, McDonald B, Becker T, Vermeesch P, Danisik M, Shelley M, Marillo-Sialer E and Patterson D. An in situ technique for (U-Th-Sm)/He and U-Pb double dating. J Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 30, 1636 - 1645.

  20. Pressure (Pp), overburden (Sv), and minimum horizontal stress (SHMIN) in Eugene Island Block 330, offshore Gulf of Mexico. Topical report, April 1-July 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Finkbeiner, T.; Stump, B.B.; Zoback, M.D.; Flemings, P.B.

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) characterize minimum principal stress (Shmin), pore pressure (Pp), and overburden (Sv); and (2) characterize the interrelationships between these 3 variables based on available leak-off test (LOT) and fracture completion data within the RI-330 field.

  1. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-309-1739, Oregon Department of Human Resources, Health Division, Gypsy Moth Control Project, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, L.J.; Huemann, M.; Sokolow, R.; Elefant, S.

    1986-10-01

    Evaluation of occupational and general public exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during application of this microbial agent for control of the gypsy moth was requested by the Oregon State Department of Human Resources, Health Division, located in Portland. Bt was applied by helicopter on about 250,000 acres of forest, rural, and urban areas in 1985 and 1986. Project operational plans, accident prevention, safety plans, personal protective-equipment usage, and work practices were reviewed and evaluated. Personal exposure and area air monitoring for Bt was carried out during application. Air sampling indicated there was a widespread exposure potential. The author recommends that care be taken by those employees handling Bt in solution and that splashing of Bt to the eye be avoided due to possible corneal ulcer development. The dispersing-agent Plyac is recommended for use in handling the waste-disposal problem. Access to the mixing and application areas should be restricted.

  2. Extending the Human Mind: Computers in Education. Program and Proceedings of the Annual Summer Computer Conference (6th, Eugene, Oregon, August 6-9, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Center for Advanced Technology in Education.

    Presented in this program and proceedings are the following 27 papers describing a variety of educational uses of computers: "Learner Based Tools for Special Populations" (Barbara Allen); "Micros and Mainframes: Practical Administrative Applications at the Building Level" (Jeannine Bertrand and Eric Schiff); "Logo and Logowriter in the Curriculum"…

  3. Education for the Gifted: Patterns for the Future. Proceedings, Annual Summer Conference (4th, Eugene, Oregon, July 25-27, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Coll. of Education.

    This collection consists of 11 conference papers on issues pertaining to education of talented and gifted children; 6 are from "general interest" sessions and 5 are from "special interest" sessions. The general interest papers are primarily theoretical in focus. Titles include: Julian C. Stanley's "Finding Intellectually Talented Youths and…

  4. Extending the Human Mind: Computers in Education. Proceedings of the Annual Summer Conference (5th, Eugene, Oregon, July 31 and August 1, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Center for Advanced Technology in Education.

    The 24 papers in these proceedings describe computer technology and its many applications to the educational process. Topics discussed include computer systems in the classroom of the future; how to evaluate a school's computer program; computer use in special education; computer science and the liberal arts; keyboarding issues; making the…

  5. Limits of Human Performance. Annual Meeting (56th, Eugene, Oregon, July 19-26, 1984). American Academy of Physical Education Papers, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David H., Ed.; Eckert, Helen M., Ed.

    The following papers are included in this collection: (1) "The Scientific Study of Athletes and Athletics" (Henry J. Montoye); (2) "The Limits of Human Performance" (David H. Clarke); (3) "Observations of Extraordinary Performances in an Extreme Environment and in a Training Environment" (E.R. Buskirk); (4) "Metabolic Requirements of Distance…

  6. The search for purpose in a post-Darwinian universe: George Bernard Shaw, 'creative evolution', and Shavian eugenics: 'The dark side of the force'.

    PubMed

    Hale, Piers J

    2006-01-01

    The Irish playwright and socialist George Bernard Shaw has been of marginal concern for historians of biology because his vitalist Lamarckism has been viewed as out of step with contemporary science. However, Julian Huxley and J.B.S. Haldane were certainly of the opinion that Shaw was a man of influence in this regard and took pains to counter his views in their own attempts to engage the public in science. Previously, Shaw's colleague and friend H.G. Wells had also agued with Shaw from his own mechanistic neo-Darwinian perspective. The very public debate between Shaw and Wells, which continued to concern Huxley and Haldane, shows that public concern over the moral implications of Darwinism has a long history. Taking into account the opinions of John Maynard Smith on this matter, I suggest that a consideration of Shaw in this context can give us an understanding of the historical popularity of vitalist teleology as well as of the persistent ambivalence to the non-normative character of Darwinism. PMID:17702503

  7. The Computer: Extension of the Human Mind III. Proceedings of the Annual Summer Computer Conference (3rd, Eugene, Oregon, August 1-3, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Center for Advanced Technology in Education.

    The 13 conference presentations in this proceedings are arranged by general and special interest sessions and listed within each session in the order in which they were presented. These papers are: (1) "Key Issues for the Near Future" (David Moursund); (2) "Educating with Computers: Insights from Cognitive Psychology (and Video Games)" (Morton Ann…

  8. Knowledge held in common. Tales of Luther Burbank and science in the American vernacular.

    PubMed

    Pandora, K

    2001-09-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, the horticulturist Luther Burbank was largely considered an irrelevant figure by the scientific community, despite winning acclaim from the public as an eminent scientist. In examining the intellectual, social, and political claims embedded in texts by and about Burbank, this essay argues that consideration of the Burbank stories as they circulated in the vernacular realm can aid historians in understanding the dynamics of science in American life. Among the themes it addresses are how the Burbank stories directly engaged the question of who should legitimately count as a student of nature; the varied philosophical perspectives that derived from siting science within the deomestic sphere; and how these stories played with the possibility of a philosophy of nature based on the concept of "living matter," as opposed to one grounded on mechanistic principles. The essay also discusses how Burbank's views on evolution were mediated by the image of the child and the way in which his convictions regarding the power of the environment to release latent characteristics in physiological material presented a view of the future of the American "race" that was at odds with conventional eugenic thinking and assigned a central role to women in the drama of American evolution. PMID:11810893

  9. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  10. Depression Strikes, Stays with Many Caregivers of Critically Ill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eugene Grudnikoff, a psychiatrist at Northwell Health's South Oaks Hospital in Amityville, N.Y., agreed. The younger ... Eugene Grudnikoff, M.D., psychiatrist, Northwell Health's South Oaks Hospital, Amityville, N.Y., and assistant professor, Hofstra ...

  11. Dr. Caleb Williams Saleeby: The Complete Eugenicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, Grant

    1997-01-01

    Profiles the work of Dr. Caleb Williams Saleeby, a late 19th-century propagandist for eugenics. Eugenics is a science that deals with the transmission of hereditary racial traits, coupled with a desire to use this for the elimination of social ills. Discusses Saleeby's work with the Eugenics Education Society. (MJP)

  12. [Church Archives; Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Terry; And Others

    Papers presented at the Institute which were concerned with keeping of church archives are entitled: "St. Mary's Episcopal Church, Eugene, Oregon;""Central Lutheran Church, Eugene, Oregon: A History;""Mormon Church Archives: An Overview;""Sacramental Records of St. Mary's Catholic Church, Eugene, Oregon;""Chronology of St. Mary's Catholic Church,…

  13. NASA Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Adrien

    2010-01-01

    The genesis of the space shuttle began in the 1930's when Eugene Sanger came up with the idea of a recyclable rocket plane that could carry a crew of people. The very first Shuttle to enter space was the Shuttle "Columbia" which launched on April 12 of 1981. Not only was "Columbia" the first Shuttle to be launched, but was also the first to utilize solid fuel rockets for U.S. manned flight. The primary objectives given to "Columbia" were to check out the overall Shuttle system, accomplish a safe ascent into orbit, and to return back to earth for a safe landing. Subsequent to its first flight Columbia flew 27 more missions but on February 1st, 2003 after a highly successful 16 day mission, the Columbia, STS-107 mission, ended in tragedy. With all Shuttle flight successes come failures such as the fatal in-flight accident of STS 107. As a result of the STS 107 accident, and other close-calls, the NASA Space Shuttle Program developed contingency procedures for a rescue mission by another Shuttle if an on-orbit repair was not possible. A rescue mission would be considered for a situation where a Shuttle and the crew were not in immediate danger, but, was unable to return to Earth or land safely. For Shuttle missions to the International Space Station (ISS), plans were developed so the Shuttle crew would remain on board ISS for an extended period of time until rescued by a "rescue" Shuttle. The damaged Shuttle would subsequently be de-orbited unmanned. During the period when the ISS Crew and Shuttle crew are on board simultaneously multiple issues would need to be worked including, but not limited to: crew diet, exercise, psychological support, workload, and ground contingency support

  14. Designing for the Edge of Space and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Dennis R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the fanciful predictions of Eugen Sanger, Wernher von Braun, and a wealth of science fiction novelists, it was not until the mid-1950s that the first piloted spacecraft design was undertaken in earnest. It was the height of the Cold War, and the paranoia that swept the country and the military had resulted in the largest arms race the world had ever seen. In aviation the desire was to go higher, faster, and farther than ever before. In response to a need for basic research into the ever-increasing speeds and altitudes, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) began preliminary research into a piloted vehicle that could exceed five times the speed of sound. The research was felt necessary to support both unmanned missile programs and the eventual development of hypersonic combat aircraft. Interestingly, the group of researchers that took the lead in developing the concept (led by John V. Becker) at the NACA s Langley Laboratory added a new wrinkle-they wanted to be able to leave the sensible atmosphere for a few minutes in order to gain a preliminary understanding of space flight2 At the time it was generally felt that piloted space flight would not take place until the turn of the century, although contemporary science fiction-a genre that enjoyed a resurgence of popularity in the mid-1 950s-usually showed it coming much earlier. In fact, many serious researchers believed that the group at Langley should remove the "space leap" from their concept for a hypersonic research airlane. However, the basic designs for a very high speed airplane and for one capable of short excursions outside the atmosphere were not radically different, so the capability remained.

  15. The Effects of Collective Bargaining on School Administrative Leadership. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the Center for Educational Policy and Management (Eugene, Oregon, July 9-10, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Kenneth, Ed.; De Bevoise, Wynn, Ed.

    This document records the proceedings of a conference on the effects of collective bargaining on school administrative leadership. The conference brought together participants from two areas of research that usually operate independently--research on collective bargaining and research on school administrative leadership. The conference was divided…

  16. Calculated Sunspot and Quiet-Sun Mg II Profiles Compared With IRIS DataEugene Avrett and Hui TianHarvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrett, Eugene H.

    2014-06-01

    A new sunpsot model has been derived, consistent with the SUMER atlas data of Curdt, et al. and Mg II profile data from IRIS. Comparisons are made with Quiet-Sun results from both sources. It is necessary to include molecules in the sunspot model not only account for the low brightness temperatures near 1850 /AA but also for the density variations higher in the atmosphere. The minimum temperature is roughly 2500 K in the sunspot model and 4500 K for the quiet Sun. The Mg II H line profile is centrally reversed in both cases, with the peak intensity originating where the temperature rises abruptly from the minimum value. The line center is formed at the top of the chromosphere where the temperature rises abruptly from 10,000 K into the chromosphere-corona transition region. The calculated Mg II line center intensity is much smaller than observed, for models constrained by the EUV continuum data.

  17. Genomic analysis reveals Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis as stable element in traditional sourdoughs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Sourdough has played a significant role in human nutrition and culture for thousands of years and is still of eminent importance for human diet and the bakery industry. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the predominant key bacterium in traditionally fermented sourdoughs. The genome of L. sanfranciscensis TMW 1.1304 isolated from an industrial sourdough fermentation was sequenced with a combined Sanger/454-pyrosequencing approach followed by gap closing by walking on fosmids. The sequencing data revealed a circular chromosomal sequence of 1,298,316 bp and two additional plasmids, pLS1 and pLS2, with sizes of 58,739 bp and 18,715 bp, which are predicted to encode 1,437, 63 and 19 orfs, respectively. The overall GC content of the chromosome is 34.71%. Several specific features appear to contribute to the ability of L. sanfranciscensis to outcompete other bacteria in the fermentation. L. sanfranciscensis contains the smallest genome within the lactobacilli and the highest density of ribosomal RNA operons per Mbp genome among all known genomes of free-living bacteria, which is important for the rapid growth characteristics of the organism. A high frequency of gene inactivation and elimination indicates a process of reductive evolution. The biosynthetic capacity for amino acids scarcely availably in cereals and exopolysaccharides reveal the molecular basis for an autochtonous sourdough organism with potential for further exploitation in functional foods. The presence of two CRISPR/cas loci versus a high number of transposable elements suggests recalcitrance to gene intrusion and high intrinsic genome plasticity. PMID:21995419

  18. 39 CFR 777.21 - General procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the case of acquisitions by eminent domain or by the threat of eminent domain. Such notice may be... Postal Service, it is clear that person will in fact be a displaced person. (g) Notice of Availability...

  19. A Statistical Analysis of Special Cases of Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, John C.

    2000-01-01

    A study involving 261 composers, 108 inventors, 392 NFL wide receivers, and 112 eminent inventors found that eminent individuals exhibit a greater rate of creative outputs and that the production of outputs deviates from randomness no more than would be expected from chance fluctuation alone, except for some eminent individuals. (Contains…

  20. Biological Determinism and the Narrative of Adjustment: The High School Biology Textbooks of Truman Jesse Moon, c. 1921-1963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    2007-01-01

    While the mainline eugenics movement in early 20th century was closely associated with racism and the European Holocaust and was present in biology textbooks in the early 20th century, the following article finds that a transformed eugenics could be found the U.S. science curriculum by mid-century. The following article analyzes the content of 73…

  1. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically unfit". The…

  2. 75 FR 14461 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR. The human remains and associated funerary object were removed... Museum of Natural and Cultural History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology professional staff...

  3. The Future Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates why selective breeding for intelligence is biologically practical and suggests that positive eugenics is the only answer now available to our need for more intelligence. Procedure does not seem immoral. Quotes H. J. Muller's values to be recognized in eugenic planning." Does not prescribe program. (AL)

  4. "The Role of the Teaching Assistant in the Unitized, Differentiated Staffing, Elementary School." DSP Progress Report No. 4: Paraprofessionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arends, Richard I.; Essig, Don M.

    This report is the fourth in a series describing the background, theory, and progress of the Differentiated Staffing Project in the Eugene, Oregon, School District. This report discusses the effects of the addition of paid paraprofessionals, or Teaching Assistants (TAs), to the unitized, differentiated staffing schools in Eugene. Specifically, it…

  5. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general categories: (1) case or…

  6. A question of trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-08-01

    I used to host family dinners at which the guests included my uncle Eugene, who was a Marxist, and my great-aunt Debbie, an ardent anti-Communist. Debbie and Eugene were interesting people for different reasons. However, they knew that their beliefs were incompatible, and so they avoided each other in public.

  7. Web-based software tool for constraint-based design specification of synthetic biological systems.

    PubMed

    Oberortner, Ernst; Densmore, Douglas

    2015-06-19

    miniEugene provides computational support for solving combinatorial design problems, enabling users to specify and enumerate designs for novel biological systems based on sets of biological constraints. This technical note presents a brief tutorial for biologists and software engineers in the field of synthetic biology on how to use miniEugene. After reading this technical note, users should know which biological constraints are available in miniEugene, understand the syntax and semantics of these constraints, and be able to follow a step-by-step guide to specify the design of a classical synthetic biological system-the genetic toggle switch.1 We also provide links and references to more information on the miniEugene web application and the integration of the miniEugene software library into sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools for synthetic biology ( www.eugenecad.org ). PMID:25426642

  8. Havelock Ellis, eugenicist.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Ivan

    2008-06-01

    This article examines the contributions made towards eugenic thought in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by Havelock Ellis (1859-1939). Ellis was a significant social reformer who worked on the problems of sexuality from a scientific-naturalist secular perspective. In the later phases of his work, after he had completed much of his writing on sexuality, Ellis concentrated on issues of feminism and eugenics--problems he thought were interlinked. In this paper, I integrate his ideas about these subjects, and consider the ways in which Ellis and other liberal social reformers created a 'eugenic subject' in order to frame their arguments about social problems. PMID:18534349

  9. Politics of heredity--Germany 1900-1940, a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Weingart, P

    1989-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of the main stages of development of eugenics and race hygiene in Germany between 1900 and 1940. Two main stages can be differentiated: one, the formation of the eugenics movement and its development parallel to quantitative population policy before and after World War I, and the second beginning toward the end of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) when the financial crisis of the public health system favored eugenic schemes implemented by an authoritarian government, such as the Nazi regime. PMID:2698849

  10. Research in Higher Education: Papers Prepared for the First Regional Conference on Higher Education Held under the Joint Auspices of the United States Office of Education and the University of Oregon at Eugene, Oregon, April 14, 15, and 16, 1931. Bulletin, 1931, No. 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1932

    1932-01-01

    The application of scientific method to the study of college problems in the field of curricula, methods, administration, and student personnel is increasing rapidly. The experimental method--the setting up of alternative procedures in such a way that the factor under study may be isolated for measurement--appeals more to college faculty members…

  11. 39 CFR 777.21 - General procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... relocation needs and availability analysis. The Postal Service representative shall include in the analysis a... needs and availability analysis and establish a specific plan for providing the assistance covered by... in the case of acquisitions by eminent domain or by the threat of eminent domain. Such notice may...

  12. 39 CFR 777.21 - General procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... relocation needs and availability analysis. The Postal Service representative shall include in the analysis a... needs and availability analysis and establish a specific plan for providing the assistance covered by... in the case of acquisitions by eminent domain or by the threat of eminent domain. Such notice may...

  13. Government Acquisition of Private Property for Public Use: An Analysis of United States Supreme Court Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenell, William H.; Davis, Bobby

    2006-01-01

    Several decisions of the United States Supreme Court on eminent domain and the impact of these decisions were explore. These decisions involved the Fifth Amendment, which provides the legal standard for eminent domain. We reviewed the history of the Court regarding what is "public use" within the Fifth Amendment. Moreover, what the Court…

  14. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM) | NIH ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD, Director, National Library of Medicine Distinguished Health Communications Award Eugene Braunwald, MD, Distinguished Hersey Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Chairman, TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital ...

  15. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  16. Inside Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... in our genomes are millions of jumping genes. Originally discovered by Barbara McClintock, transposons are DNA sequences ... Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory . All rights reserved DNA Learning Center Home MORE DNALC SITES: DNA Interactive Eugenics ...

  17. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  18. Astronauts Stafford and Cernan leave Pad 19 after Gemini 9 mission postponed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, walk away from Pad 19 after Gemini 9 mission was postponed. Failure of the Agena Target Vehicle to achieve orbit caused the postponement of the mission.

  19. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  20. 76 FR 82296 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...: Eugene T. Flannery (415) 701-5598. EIS No. 20110431, Draft EIS, USFS, NV, Geothermal Leasing on the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, To Facilitate the Development and Production of Geothermal Energy,...

  1. Assimilation and Cultural Pluralism in American Social Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, R. Fred

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the philosophies of assimilationist liberalism and cultural pluralism as they emerged between 1900 and 1925 in opposition to social Darwinism and the immigration restriction, eugenics, and Americanization movements. (GC)

  2. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Xeroxing Human Beings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Paul A.

    1972-01-01

    If the aim of new research is to improve the genetic inheritance of future generations, then decisions regarding who should decide what research should be done needs to be established. Positive and negative eugenics need to be considered thoroughly. (PS)

  3. 77 FR 2979 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    .... Revision to FR Notice Published 12/30/2011: Extending Comment Period from 2/13/2012 to 2/28/2012. Dated..., Draft EIS, BPA, OR, Albany-Eugene 115 kilovolt No. 1 Transmission Line Rebuild Project, Extending...

  4. Wright State Expands Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    By leasing the Eugene W. Kettering Engineering and Science Center in downtown Dayton, Ohio, Wright State University plans to enlarge significantly its activities in continuing education for engineers, scientists, and others. (JR)

  5. 30. Interior detail view of arched, steelframed stainedglass windows at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Interior detail view of arched, steel-framed stained-glass windows at the landing of the south stairs in main lobby, view looking south - University of Oregon Museum of Art, 1470 Johnson Lane, Eugene, Lane County, OR

  6. 20. Detail view of the P.L. Campbell Memorial Courtyard, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail view of the P.L. Campbell Memorial Courtyard, view looking northeast at the roof and arcaded walkway at the north side of the courtyard - University of Oregon Museum of Art, 1470 Johnson Lane, Eugene, Lane County, OR

  7. CORRADO GINI AND THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF FASCIST RACISM.

    PubMed

    Macuglia, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    It is controversial whether the development of Fascist racism was influenced by earlier Italian eugenic research. Before the First International Eugenics Congress held in London in 1912, Italian eugenics was not characterized by a clear program of scientific research. With the advent of Fascism, however, the equality "number = strength" became the foundation of its program. This idea, according to which the improvement of a nation relies on the amplitude of its population, was conceived by statistician Corrado Gini (1884-1965) already in 1912. Focusing on the problem of the degeneration of the Italian race, Gini had a tremendous influence on Benito Mussolini's (1883-1945) political campaign, and shaped Italian social sciences for almost two decades. He was also a committed racist, as documented by a series of indisputable statements from the primary literature. All these findings place Gini in a linking position among early Italian eugenics, Fascism and official state racism. PMID:26292521

  8. 36. Historic view of the Museum of Art, general perspective ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic view of the Museum of Art, general perspective view of side and rear elevations, view looking northwest (date unknown) - University of Oregon Museum of Art, 1470 Johnson Lane, Eugene, Lane County, OR

  9. 35. Historic view of the Museum of Art, general perspective ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic view of the Museum of Art, general perspective view of front facade, view looking northeast (date unknown) - University of Oregon Museum of Art, 1470 Johnson Lane, Eugene, Lane County, OR

  10. Moving Toward Self-directed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mae L.

    1973-01-01

    Independent learning and self direction is emphasized in an upper-grade classroom in Eugene, Oregon. The children take part in activities like spinning thread, role-playing, and constructing picture-story books for kindergarteners. (ST)

  11. [Carl Gustav Jung: promotion records. Documents from the state archives of the Zurich canton].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H R

    1995-01-01

    Two documents dated 1902 show Eugen Bleuler as the supervisor of Carl Gustav Jung's thesis. In his expert opinion Bleuler declares himself convinced of the high scientific qualities of Jung. PMID:8658591

  12. Assessing the necessity of confirmatory testing for exome sequencing results in a clinical molecular diagnostic laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Samuel P.; Lee, Hane; Das, Kingshuk; Vilain, Eric; Nelson, Stanley F.; Grody, Wayne W.; Deignan, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Sanger sequencing is currently considered the gold standard methodology for clinical molecular diagnostic testing. However, next generation sequencing (NGS) has already emerged as a much more efficient means to identify genetic variants within gene panels, the exome, or the genome. We sought to assess the accuracy of NGS variant identification in our clinical genomics laboratory with the goal of establishing a quality score threshold for confirmatory Sanger-based testing. Methods Confirmation data for reported results from 144 sequential clinical exome sequencing cases (94 unique variants) and an additional set of 16 variants from comparable research samples were analyzed. Results 103 of 110 total SNVs analyzed had a quality score ≥Q500, 103 (100%) of which were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Of the remaining 7 variants with quality scores Sanger sequencing (85%). Conclusions For single nucleotide variants, we predict we will be able to reduce our Sanger confirmation workload going forward by 70–80%. This serves as a proof of principle that as long as sufficient validation and quality control measures are implemented, the volume of Sanger confirmation can be reduced, alleviating a significant amount of the labor and cost burden on clinical laboratories wishing to utilize NGS technology. However, Sanger confirmation of low quality single nucleotide variants and all indels (insertions or deletions less than 10 bp) remains necessary at this time in our laboratory. PMID:24406459

  13. The Virginia Racial Integrity Act revisited: the Plecker-Laughlin correspondence: 1928-1930.

    PubMed

    Reilly, P

    1983-12-01

    Correspondence between Walter Ashby Plecker, Virginia State Registrar of Vital Statistics between 1912 and 1938, and Harry Hamilton Laughlin, Superintendent of the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor between 1910 and 1939, provides evidence of efforts to enforce the Virginia Racial Integrity Act of 1924. After antimiscegenation policy is placed in a historical context, excerpts from the letters are offered to demonstrate the zeal with which one state official pursued this "eugenic" policy. PMID:6362410

  14. The Dynamics of DNA Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morvillo, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a paper-and-pencil activity that helps students understand DNA sequencing and expands student understanding of DNA structure, replication, and gel electrophoresis. Appropriate for advanced biology students who are familiar with the Sanger method. (DDR)

  15. Memory Efficient Sequence Analysis Using Compressed Data Structures (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema

    Simpson, Jared [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

    2013-01-22

    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Jared Simpson on "Memory efficient sequence analysis using compressed data structures" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011

  16. Memory Efficient Sequence Analysis Using Compressed Data Structures (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Jared

    2011-10-13

    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Jared Simpson on "Memory efficient sequence analysis using compressed data structures" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011

  17. Treatment options after virological failure of first-line tenofovir-based regimens in South Africa: an analysis by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Casadellà, Maria; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Sunpath, Henry; Gordon, Michelle; Rodriguez, Cristina; Parera, Mariona; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Marconi, Vincent C; Paredes, Roger

    2016-04-24

    In a South African cohort of participants living with HIV developing virological failure on first-line tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (TDF)-based regimens, at least 70% of participants demonstrated TDF resistance according to combined Sanger and MiSeq genotyping. Sanger sequencing missed the K65R mutation in 30% of samples. Unless HIV genotyping is available to closely monitor epidemiological HIV resistance to TDF, its efficacy as second-line therapy will be greatly compromised. PMID:26807968

  18. Endoscopic-Assisted Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yew Song; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is a bony defect of the superior canal that can cause vestibular and/or auditory symptoms. Surgical repair of SCD provides effective relief from symptoms, and the middle fossa craniotomy approach with binocular microscopy offers direct visualization and surgical access to the arcuate eminence. However, for SCDs located along the downsloping tegmen medial to the peak of the arcuate eminence, a direct light of sight may be obscured, rendering visualization with traditional microscopy difficult. The endoscope is the ideal adjunct in middle fossa craniotomy approach SCD surgery and offers a safe, effective means to identify and repair arcuate eminence defects hidden from microscopic view. PMID:27565386

  19. Response to "Language, Politics, and Composition: A Conversation with Noam Chomsky."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledd, James

    1991-01-01

    Responds to the conversation of two eminent compositionists with Noam Chomsky. Discusses the alleged literary crisis, sensible prescriptivism versus linguistic permissiveness, police and thought control, intellectually interesting versus humanly significant topics, and rhetorical theory. (PRA)

  20. KSC Wildlife Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This video highlights footage of the many forms of animal and plant life that inhabit the environs surrounding KSC. Shown are birds, alligators, butterflies, and plants as they react to shuttle launches and other activities eminating from KSC.

  1. Aerospace Education for the Melting Pot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Kerry M.

    1979-01-01

    Aerospace education is eminently suited to provide a framework for multicultural education. Effective programs accommodating minorities' frames of reference to the rapidly developing disciplines of aerospace studies have been developed. (RE)

  2. 77 FR 52700 - Reestablishment of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... eminent authorities in the fields of defense, management, leadership, academia, national military strategy... recommendations on the overall management and governance of the National Defense University in achieving its... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Advisory Committee Management Officer for the...

  3. Clarendon's Dialogue Concerning Education: A Neglected Document in Seventeenth-Century Educational History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, A.

    1972-01-01

    Illuminating the social history of the time and presenting the thoughts of an eminent Royalist statesman, Clarendon's Dialogue ought to assume a significance at least equal to some of the better-known Puritan tracts. (Author)

  4. Throwing the book at bad ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Several eminent science authors have recently claimed that bad scientific ideas "held back" good ones throughout human history, delaying the progress of science. But as Philip Ball argues, it just isn't that simple.

  5. Canada as an Immigrant Nation: Implications for Educators Excerpts from an Interview with John Ralston Saul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Ralston Saul, one of Canada's pre-eminent thinkers. In the interview, Mr. Saul shares his provocative and compelling thoughts on the state of Canada's public education systems.

  6. Institute on rights of access and surface use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This document describes various regulations governing surface use, zoning and mineral development, and right of way. Topics include: surface use agreements, eminent domain, mineral law, state lands surface use restrictions, zoning and mineral development, and land use planning.

  7. THE PERIOD OF LIFE AT WHICH INFECTION FROM TUBERCULOSIS OCCURS MOST FREQUENTLY

    PubMed Central

    Knopf, S. Adolphus

    1916-01-01

    This paper not only contains Doctor Knopf's own valuable conclusions upon the subject presented, but it is also a compendium of the opinions which Doctor Knopf has secured from a number of other eminent physicians. PMID:18009535

  8. The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Francis; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

  9. The Creation of a New System of Scientific Pedagogical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Presents chapter 2 from Ele Isaevich Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Focuses on achievements of the 1920s in establishing a Soviet system of education. Reviews biographies and ideas of five eminent Soviet educators. (CH)

  10. ISOLATION AND DIVERSITY OF ACTINOMYCETES IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to creen for production of novel bioactive compounds. he presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes, chemotype IID actinomycetes in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that is an eminently suitable...

  11. The trochanter tertius in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pinna, S; Grandis, A; Spadari, A

    2015-01-01

    The tuberositas glutaea is a rudimentary structure in the dog's os femoris. It gives attachment to the superficial gluteal muscle, and is known by veterinary anatomists and orthopedic surgeons as trochanter tertius. We report an atypical eminence exposed through a surgical approach on a Cane Corso Dog. Anatomic and radiographic investigations led us to recognize this eminence as an abnormally grown tuberositas glutaea. PMID:25720655

  12. Contour mapping of the TMJ temporal component and the relationship to articular soft tissue thickness and disk displacement.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, A G; Bibb, C A; Ding, X; Baldioceda, F

    1993-11-01

    The osseous architecture of central sagittal histologic sections of the temporal component of 51 temporomandibular joints of young adults at autopsy was studied to determine if this predicted the thickness of the overlying articular soft tissue and disk displacement. Geometric groupings of fossa-eminence shapes were generated using a hierarchical cluster analysis of the osseous fossa-eminence sigmoid curve, size, and slope. Six cluster groups were evolved and tested for relationship to soft tissue thickness measured at the eminence crest, mid-point of the eminence slope, closed pack location of the condyle, the inflection point, and the depth of the fossa. Soft tissue thickness at the inflection point and depth of the fossa was remarkably constant between cluster groups. Increased soft tissue thickness at the eminence crest and lower part of the posterior slope was weakly correlated to a flatter eminence slope and curve, explaining 10% to 20% of the variance (r2). There were no relationships between the parameters studied to the fossa curvature. An ANOVA showed no statistical difference in the posterior slope angle between the categories of disk position (p = 0.715) or to the six cluster groupings. The results suggest that the osseous contours seen on radiographs may not accurately predict the actual articular surface of the temporal component. PMID:8247506

  13. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit. PMID:27161556

  14. Sexological deliberation and social engineering: Albert Moll and the sterilisation debate in late imperial and Weimar Germany.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The physician and sexologist Albert Moll, from Berlin, was one of the main protagonists within the German discourse on the opportunities and dangers of social engineering, by eugenic interventions into human life in general, as well as into reproductive hygiene and healthcare policy in particular. One of the main sexological topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. As is clear from Moll's conservative principles of medical ethics, and his conviction that the genetic knowledge required for eugenically indicated sterilisations was not yet sufficiently elaborated, he had doubts and worries about colleagues who were exceedingly zealous about these surgical sterilisations--especially Gustav Boeters from Saxony. PMID:23002295

  15. Sexological Deliberation and Social Engineering: Albert Moll and the Sterilisation Debate in Late Imperial and Weimar Germany

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The physician and sexologist Albert Moll, from Berlin, was one of the main protagonists within the German discourse on the opportunities and dangers of social engineering, by eugenic interventions into human life in general, as well as into reproductive hygiene and healthcare policy in particular. One of the main sexological topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. As is clear from Moll’s conservative principles of medical ethics, and his conviction that the genetic knowledge required for eugenically indicated sterilisations was not yet sufficiently elaborated, he had doubts and worries about colleagues who were exceedingly zealous about these surgical sterilisations – especially Gustav Boeters from Saxony. PMID:23002295

  16. Regional discrimination studies: Phase II. Scientific report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, J.; Hayward, C.; Herrin, E.; Sorrell, G.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report consists of four parts and an appendix. Part (1) `Seismic Acoustic Studies at TXAR`, is by Eugene Herrin and C.G. Sorrells. Part (2) `Inversion of Surface Waves for Shallow Velocity Structure in the Fort Worth Basin,` is by Jessie Bonner. Part (3) `A Preliminary Investigation of the Use of Acoustic and Seismic Acoustic Observations to Identify Vented Explosive Seismic Sources`, is by C.G. Sorrells and Eugene Herrin. Part (4) consists of the Acknowledgments called for by the contract. Appendix 1 Preliminary Report` Characteristics of the Broadband Acoustic Sensors Installed in the SMU Lajitas CSE Array, is by Chris Hayward.

  17. Choosing among possible persons: The ethics of prenatal selection in the postgenomic age.

    PubMed

    Mauron, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The "spectre of eugenics" is often raised about various current reproductive practices that imply a form of choice between future possible persons. Some of these practices are linked to genetic technologies such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, others merely entail the choice of a procreator having specific traits, such as in artificial insemination with donor. The weight and limits of this reproof of eugenics are examined, with special attention to the conceptual problems resulting from confusing choices involving virtual persons with the selection of existing persons. PMID:26228932

  18. A comparison of three methods for detecting KRAS mutations in formalin-fixed colorectal cancer specimens

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez de Castro, D; Angulo, B; Gomez, B; Mair, D; Martinez, R; Suarez-Gauthier, A; Shieh, F; Velez, M; Brophy, V H; Lawrence, H J; Lopez-Rios, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: KRAS mutation testing is required to select patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) to receive anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies, but the optimal KRAS mutation test method is uncertain. Methods: We conducted a two-site comparison of two commercial KRAS mutation kits – the cobas KRAS Mutation Test and the Qiagen therascreen KRAS Kit – and Sanger sequencing. A panel of 120 CRC specimens was tested with all three methods. The agreement between the cobas test and each of the other methods was assessed. Specimens with discordant results were subjected to quantitative massively parallel pyrosequencing (MPP). DNA blends were tested to determine detection rates at 5% mutant alleles. Results: Reproducibility of the cobas test between sites was 98%. Six mutations were detected by cobas that were not detected by Sanger, and five were confirmed by MPP. The cobas test detected eight mutations which were not detected by the therascreen test, and seven were confirmed by MPP. Detection rates with 5% mutant DNA blends were 100% for the cobas and therascreen tests and 19% for Sanger. Conclusion: The cobas test was reproducible between sites, and detected several mutations that were not detected by the therascreen test or Sanger. Sanger sequencing had poor sensitivity for low levels of mutation. PMID:22713664

  19. Community gene annotation in practice

    PubMed Central

    Loveland, Jane E.; Gilbert, James G.R.; Griffiths, Ed; Harrow, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Manual annotation of genomic data is extremely valuable to produce an accurate reference gene set but is expensive compared with automatic methods and so has been limited to model organisms. Annotation tools that have been developed at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI, http://www.sanger.ac.uk/.) are being used to fill that gap, as they can be used remotely and so open up viable community annotation collaborations. We introduce the ‘Blessed’ annotator and ‘Gatekeeper’ approach to Community Annotation using the Otterlace/ZMap genome annotation tool. We also describe the strategies adopted for annotation consistency, quality control and viewing of the annotation. Database URL: http://vega.sanger.ac.uk/index.html PMID:22434843

  20. The ICR142 NGS validation series: a resource for orthogonal assessment of NGS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruark, Elise; Renwick, Anthony; Clarke, Matthew; Snape, Katie; Ramsay, Emma; Elliott, Anna; Hanks, Sandra; Strydom, Ann; Seal, Sheila; Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-01-01

    To provide a useful community resource for orthogonal assessment of NGS analysis software, we present the ICR142 NGS validation series. The dataset includes high-quality exome sequence data from 142 samples together with Sanger sequence data at 730 sites; 409 sites with variants and 321 sites at which variants were called by an NGS analysis tool, but no variant is present in the corresponding Sanger sequence. The dataset includes 286 indel variants and 275 negative indel sites, and thus the ICR142 validation dataset is of particular utility in evaluating indel calling performance. The FASTQ files and Sanger sequence results can be accessed in the European Genome-phenome Archive under the accession number EGAS00001001332. PMID:27158454

  1. STINGRAY: system for integrated genomic resources and analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The STINGRAY system has been conceived to ease the tasks of integrating, analyzing, annotating and presenting genomic and expression data from Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms. Findings STINGRAY includes: (a) a complete and integrated workflow (more than 20 bioinformatics tools) ranging from functional annotation to phylogeny; (b) a MySQL database schema, suitable for data integration and user access control; and (c) a user-friendly graphical web-based interface that makes the system intuitive, facilitating the tasks of data analysis and annotation. Conclusion STINGRAY showed to be an easy to use and complete system for analyzing sequencing data. While both Sanger and NGS platforms are supported, the system could be faster using Sanger data, since the large NGS datasets could potentially slow down the MySQL database usage. STINGRAY is available at http://stingray.biowebdb.org and the open source code at http://sourceforge.net/projects/stingray-biowebdb/. PMID:24606808

  2. Ultra-deep sequencing leads to earlier and more sensitive detection of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mutation T315I in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Baer, Constance; Kern, Wolfgang; Koch, Sarah; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Schindela, Sonja; Meggendorfer, Manja; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia cells acquire resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors through mutations in the ABL1 kinase domain. The T315I mutation mediates resistance to imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutinib, whereas sensitivity to ponatinib remains. Mutation detection by conventional Sanger sequencing requires 10%-20% expansion of the mutated subclone. We studied the T315I mutation development by ultra-deep sequencing on the 454 XL+ platform (Roche) in comparison to Sanger sequencing. By ultra-deep sequencing, mutations were detected at loads of 1%-2%. We selected 40 patients who had failed first-line to third-line treatment (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib) and had high loads of the T315I mutation detected by Sanger sequencing. We confirmed T315I mutations by ultra-deep sequencing and investigated the mutation dynamics by backtracking earlier samples. In 20 of 40 patients, we identified the T315I three months (median) before Sanger sequencing detection limits were reached. To exclude sporadic low percentage mutation development without subsequent mutation outgrowth, we selected 42 patients without resistance mutations detected by Sanger sequencing but loss of major molecular response. Here, no mutation was detected by ultradeep sequencing. Additional non-T315I resistance mutations were found in 20 of 40 patients. Only 15% had two mutations per cell; the other cases showed multiple independently mutated clones and the T315I clone demonstrated a rapid outgrowth. In conclusion, T315I mutations could be detected earlier by ultra-deep sequencing compared to Sanger sequencing in a selected group of cases. Earlier mutation detection by ultra-deep sequencing might allow treatment to be changed before clonal increase of cells with the T315I mutation. PMID:27102501

  3. Ultra-deep sequencing leads to earlier and more sensitive detection of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mutation T315I in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Constance; Kern, Wolfgang; Koch, Sarah; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Schindela, Sonja; Meggendorfer, Manja; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia cells acquire resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors through mutations in the ABL1 kinase domain. The T315I mutation mediates resistance to imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutinib, whereas sensitivity to ponatinib remains. Mutation detection by conventional Sanger sequencing requires 10%–20% expansion of the mutated subclone. We studied the T315I mutation development by ultra-deep sequencing on the 454 XL+ platform (Roche) in comparison to Sanger sequencing. By ultra-deep sequencing, mutations were detected at loads of 1%–2%. We selected 40 patients who had failed first-line to third-line treatment (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib) and had high loads of the T315I mutation detected by Sanger sequencing. We confirmed T315I mutations by ultra-deep sequencing and investigated the mutation dynamics by backtracking earlier samples. In 20 of 40 patients, we identified the T315I three months (median) before Sanger sequencing detection limits were reached. To exclude sporadic low percentage mutation development without subsequent mutation outgrowth, we selected 42 patients without resistance mutations detected by Sanger sequencing but loss of major molecular response. Here, no mutation was detected by ultradeep sequencing. Additional non-T315I resistance mutations were found in 20 of 40 patients. Only 15% had two mutations per cell; the other cases showed multiple independently mutated clones and the T315I clone demonstrated a rapid outgrowth. In conclusion, T315I mutations could be detected earlier by ultra-deep sequencing compared to Sanger sequencing in a selected group of cases. Earlier mutation detection by ultra-deep sequencing might allow treatment to be changed before clonal increase of cells with the T315I mutation. PMID:27102501

  4. 4. VIEW LOOKING DOWN ON PROPERTY, SHOWING NEW BARN, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING DOWN ON PROPERTY, SHOWING NEW BARN, LOOKING NORTH. BEHIND IT ARE THE CHICKEN COOP, CA-2078-A (small structure) AND THE OLD BARN, CA-2078-B - Eugene O'Neill House, New Barn, Kuss Road, Danville, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. Gemini 9-A astronauts welcomed aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan (right) receive a warm welcome as they arrive aboard the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. John C. Stonesifer, with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, stands next to microphone at left. The Gemini 9 spacecraft can be seen in the right background of the view.

  6. CRAWLER HIDDEN UNDER MOBILE LAUNCHER MOVES APOLLO 17 FROM VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING AS TRIP TO LAUNC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 17 space vehicle was moved today from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Complex 39's pad A in preparation for its launch with Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Commander; Ronald A. Evans, Command Module Pilot; and Dr. Harrison H. ''Jack'' Schmitt, Lunar Module Pilot, on the sixth U.S. manned lunar landing mission on December 6, 1972.

  7. 78 FR 67462 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... System (FDMS) published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...) Eugene C. Murphy (FL) John H. Voigts (AZ) Daniel G. Wilson (IL) The exemptions are extended subject to... obtaining an exemption from the vision requirements (65 FR 45817; 65 FR 77066; 66 FR 53826; 66 FR 66966;...

  8. Making Outreach Visible: A Guide to Documenting Professional Service and Outreach. AAHE Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Amy; Lynton, Ernest A.

    This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…

  9. Conference of the Society for Literature and Science. Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, October 10-13, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkowitz, Sidney, Ed.

    The papers contained in these proceedings from the 1996 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections based on theme. Some of these themes are: (1) Secularizing Enlightenment; (2) Eugenics and the Politics of Knowledge; (3) Reading the Discourses of Psychology; (4) Women and Medicine; (5) The Rhetoric of Public Health;…

  10. Subscriber Behavior and Attitudes One Year after PM-AM Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rarick, Galen R.; Lemert, James B.

    Because newspapers have begun switching from evening to morning publication with increasing frequency, a study investigated subscriber response to change in publication time and in subscriber behavior over time. In follow-up to an earlier study on subscriber reactions to the conversion to morning publication of the weekday Eugene (Oregon)…

  11. "Library Quarterly," 1956-2004: An Exploratory Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arthur P.

    2006-01-01

    "Library Quarterly's" seventy-fifth anniversary invites an analysis of the journal's bibliometric dimension, including contributor attributes, various author rankings, and citation impact. Eugene Garfield's HistCite software, linked to Thomson Scientific's Web of Science, as made available by Garfield, for the period 1956-2004, was used as the…

  12. Pedagogical Imagination in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Patricia Killen and Eugene Gallagher make a strong case for "constructive possibilities" in the scholarship of teaching and learning theology and religion. They clarify its relationship and hence its contributions to the larger discussion of the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education, identify operative standards and procedures…

  13. Oliver North's Testimony before the U.S. Congress' Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and Nicaraguan Opposition: A Fantasy Theme Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gayle

    How did Oliver North, who appeared to be a criminal and a liar, become an American hero? First the context must be considered. The Iran-Contra Affair was extremely complex with actors ranging from Eugene Hasenfus to President Ronald Reagan and settings ranging from Nicaragua to Israel to Iran. This complexity extended to the televised hearings…

  14. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders, Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon L., Ed.; Wild, Estelle, Ed.

    This collection of 13 author-contributed papers addresses various aspects of programming for students with behavioral disorders. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "System Support and Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents with Seriously Disordered Behaviors: Orchestrating Successful Transitions" (Eugene Edgar); (2) "Targets for…

  15. [The dream of eternal youth].

    PubMed

    Zykan, Michaela

    2012-05-01

    Eugen Steinach (1861-1944) was one of the best known hormone researchers in the early 20th century. Above all he was famous for his work in the field of sexual physiology. Particularly controversial was his method of transplanting testicles under the abdominal wall that was supposed to lead to the patient's rejuvenation. PMID:22950136

  16. Clarifying and Teaching Bohm-Bawerk's "Marginal Pairs."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Briefly defines and provides some background on Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk's "marginal pairs" theory of pricing. Asserts that Bohm-Bawerk's theory is a good introduction to the Austrian school of economics and illustrates the differences between this approach and neoclassical economic theory. Includes several graphs and tables of data. (MJP)

  17. Children at Risk: Poverty, Minority Status, and Other Issues in Educational Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barona, Andres, Ed.; Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive perspective on the issues of at-risk children. Twenty individual chapters by 32 contributors include: (1) "Bilingual Education's 20-Year Failure To Provide Rights Protection for Language-Minority Students" (Keith Baker); (2) "Language-Minority Education Litigation Policy: 'The Law of the Land'" (Eugene Garcia);…

  18. Accountability to Whom? Testing and Social Justice. A Response to "Imagining No Child Left Behind Freed from Neoliberal Hijackers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritt, David W.

    2011-01-01

    In response to Eugene Matusov's article in this journal, Kritt addresses assumptions of the large-scale testing central to NCLB. Discussion of studies of urban kindergarten children that examine cognitive variability, including the assertion of ability, focuses on how this affects the student as a learner, as well as as a teacher. In contrast,…

  19. Collaborative Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cota-Robles, Eugene; Doby, Winston

    Two conference papers describing various collaborative arrangements within the educational community among teachers, students and others are presented in this document. The first paper, "Successful Collaborations" (Eugene Cota-Robles), describes the following projects in California that seek to forge collaborations to improve the education of…

  20. Who Was Deborah Kallikak?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    "The Kallikak Family" was, along with "The Jukes: A Study in Crime, Pauperism, Disease, and Heredity", one of the most visible eugenic family narratives published in the early 20th century. Published in 1912 and authored by psychologist Henry Herbert Goddard, director of the psychological laboratory at the Vineland Training School for Feebleminded…

  1. Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring. ERIC Digest, Number 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…

  2. Ernest Boyer's "Scholarship of Engagement" in Retrospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, R. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author R. Eugene Rice reflects on Ernest Boyer's 1996 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Scholarship of Engagement," (EJ532751) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." Boyer opened his essay with a celebratory review of…

  3. Gemini 9-A astronauts talk to reporters at Ellington field at end of mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A prime crew, Astronauts Thomas Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene Cernan (right), pilot, express their feelings about being home to their families, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Officials, newsmen and well-wishers gathered at Ellington Air Force Base to welcome the astronauts home. At right is George M. Low, MSC Deputy Director.

  4. Renewing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1997-01-01

    This publication reviews works on educational reform that represent attempts to do more than merely respond in knee-jerk fashion to political pressure for reform. Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun, in "Learning Experiences in School Renewal: An Exploration of Five Successful Programs" (Eugene, Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management,…

  5. The Effectiveness of Two Systems for Delivering Occupational Information: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Larry Lynn

    This study compares the effectiveness of the computer-based Occupational Information Access System (OIAS) with the Lane Community Counseling Center, Eugene, Oregon, in terms of their abilities to deliver occupational information to 1970-71 students. Cost models were developed for both. Research findings include: (1) OIAS rated "good" and the…

  6. Critical Thinking: Ionesco's "Rhinoceros" and Faulty Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Daniel W.

    Eugene Ionesco's play "Rhinoceros" is a paradigm of mindlessness in action, of the bizarre, absurd, and sometimes frightening humor of uncritical thinking. A false or presumed cause is dramatized at the very opening of Act I, the first of a string of fallacies braided throughout all three acts. A standard reading of the play holds that Ionesco's…

  7. The Desire for Structure: A Deconstructive Analysis of "Desire under the Elms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joel K.; Bowman, Michael S.

    A brief reading of "Desire under the Elms" by Eugene O'Neill illustrates how a conventional Oedipal reading of the playscript opens up spaces within the text for deconstructive free-play. In this case, a tension is identified and foregrounded between this conventional application of the Oedipal complex and Freud's interpretation of the Oedipal…

  8. What Does Your Town Spray?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Caroline

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the hazards associated with the use of pesticides in urban areas. This article focuses on Eugene, Oregon, as an example of how to find out about pesticide applications in an urban area and what can be done with that information to change the way that pesticides are used. (LZ)

  9. Access Denied: Race, Ethnicity, and the Scientific Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, George, Jr., Ed.; Denes, Ronni, Ed.; Morrison, Catherine, Ed.

    This book presents selected papers from a conference whose objective was to determine the policies needed to foster the involvement of minorities in science, engineering, and mathematics. The following papers were presented: (1) "Introduction" (Eugene Cota-Robles); (2) "United States Demographics" (George Campbell, Jr.); (3) "A Practitioner's…

  10. Working in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnulle, Linda

    Primarily the result of observations made during an eighteen-day tour of the People's Republic of China (conducted by Professor Eugene Gilliom at Ohio State University), this paper examines working conditions and attitudes toward work in China. Focus in the first half of the paper is on motivation to work in China and how it differs from U.S.…

  11. Inflammation. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Stephen

    This courseware evaluation rates the "Inflammation" program developed by Lane Community College in Eugene, Oregon. (This program--not contained in this document--introduces students to the possible causes, signs, and protective benefits of inflammation.) Part A describes the program in terms of subject area (allied health, nursing), and hardware…

  12. High School Internship Project Dissemination Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugene School District 4J, OR.

    Intended to help other school districts who may be interested in starting a similar program, the report provides information about a high school internship project in career education for gifted and talented 11th and 12th graders in Eugene, Oregon. For a 12-to 18-week period, students spend 4 days a week as non-paid interns working with…

  13. School District 4J Facilities Siting Report, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Dan; And Others

    Eugene (OR) School District 4J is experiencing declining enrollments on a district-wide basis, but these declines have not been evenly distributed throughout the district. Schools in the Central city and older neighborhoods are experiencing declines, while schools in newer neighborhoods at the periphery are generally more crowded. At some future…

  14. Schoolhouse of Cards: An Inside Story of No Child Left Behind and Why America Needs a Real Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickok, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    As the Obama Administration wrestles with the impending reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the continuing need for education reform, Eugene Hickok provides an insider's account of this historic legislation. A former key player in the Department of Education during the Bush administration, Hickok describes how Bush's education…

  15. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Brian Lewis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Fulgham, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Brian Lewis, International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) chief executive officer, is an education advocate and leader specializing in management and governance, policy, corporate communications, branding, and marketing. He provides leadership to ISTE's Washington, DC, and Eugene, Oregon, offices and directs organizational…

  16. Differing Views of Human Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a talk that was given by the author at the Institute of Historical Research on 3 February 2011, on the Victorian polymath Francis Galton and the malign legacy of his eugenic theories. It pays tribute to the pioneering work of the late Brian Simon in challenging the whole idea of "fixed innate intelligence" and in…

  17. Sexual Health Care in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servais, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    In the past, preventive health concerning sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities was addressed through surgical sterilization as part of nationwide eugenic programs in many countries. For more than 30 years now, it has come progressively to light in the scientific literature that, besides major ethical and legal problems, these…

  18. How to Curb the Fertility of the Unfit: The Feeble Minded in Edwardian Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David

    1983-01-01

    Eugenists in Edwardian Great Britain believed that society was in imminent danger because degenerate individuals were outbreeding normal people. Four strategies to prevent the unfit from reproducing--regulation, birth control, sterilization, and segregation--are discussed as well as the political and social climate in which eugenics developed. (IS)

  19. The Racial Context of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Documents the systematic extermination of Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, and the handicapped by the Nazis between 1933 and 1945. Notes eugenic and racial measures such as forced sterilization of mulatto and handicapped children were used. Discusses Nazi policies of deportations and mass murder. Identifies need for research to explain the racial context of…

  20. A Room for the Humanists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    2013-01-01

    In their essay, Patricia O'Connell Killen and Eugene Gallagher focus on the scholarship of teaching and learning in theology and religion, which, they say, is "identifiable" though "varied," and "exhibits standards of excellence recognizable in other forms of scholarship." Their purpose is descriptive, in large part, to share what they have…