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Sample records for eugen sanger eminent

  1. Eugen Sänger: Eminent space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago

    2007-12-01

    In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Sänger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Sänger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space shuttle flights. Taking a look at Sänger's work and heritage, it is obvious that he greatly influenced the development of astronautics in terms of purely theoretical dissertations on achievable limits of space research as well as in terms of technical approaches to achieving the short- and long-term goals of astronautics, and in terms of setting tasks for organizing mankind to achieve these goals. Sänger's book "The Technology of Rocket Flight" was the first study based not only on basic research, but also on the applied research that he conducted and the findings of which he published in various papers. Sänger was clearly connected with and influenced the development of two experimental research groups in the US in the 1930s, which resulted in two of the most significant companies in the US in the 1950s that manufactured liquid propellant rocket engines. Basic and applied research in the field of space planes resulted in construction of rocket planes such as the US space shuttle and Soviet Buran shuttle. Sänger's research on subsonic and supersonic ramjets in combination with a turbojet engine provided a basis for developing this promising propulsion for use in subsequent space planes designed for flights into low Earth orbits. His pioneering work on the photon rocket represents human achievements in reaching almost unimaginable limits of space research. By striving for a peaceful international approach to space research, Sänger participated in establishing the non-governmental organization IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and realized his idea that

  2. The role of the physician: Eugene Sanger and a standard of care at the Elmira prison camp.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    The conduct of American military physicians in prisoner of war (POW) camps has been called into question by the abuse scandals at Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo Bay. This essay explores the experiences of the first U.S. military physicians to confront POW patients in large numbers-events that occurred during the American Civil War. While POWs received sub-standard care in camps north and south, the war also saw the issuance of the first document to outline the rights of POWs. This ambivalence toward the proper care and treatment of the POW is evident in the career of Dr. Eugene Sanger, the first Union surgeon at the prison camp in Elmira, New York. Sanger demonstrated both concern about the sanitary condition of the camp and pride in the deaths of POWs as furthering the overall war aims. His cruelty attracted some censure, but Sanger never faced disciplinary action. He was honorably discharged and went on to become the Surgeon General of his home state. This article places his actions at Elmira in the context of medical ethics, Army orders, and Northern opinion in 1864, and it will argue that the lack of Federal response to Eugene Sanger's poor record while serving at the prison set a precedent for inferior medical care of POWs by American military physicians. PMID:17681973

  3. Margaret Sanger: birth control's successful revolutionary.

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, D

    1980-01-01

    The year 1979 marked the centennial of Margaret Sanger, birth control pioneer. Sanger worked to secure two new human rights: the right to decide whether to have a child and the right of a child to be wanted. Beginning in 1873, antipornography crusader Anthony Comstock lobbied through Congress and the state legislatures laws forbidding the distribution of contraceptive devices and even information. He equated these with erotic postcards as "obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, indecent and disgusting." Sanger's strategy was to challenge the Comstock laws in the courts. She studied birth control methods abroad and published a pamphlet, Family Limitation, in 1914. It was the first modern marriage manual; it was also illegal. The publicity her trial generated was immense and highly sympathetic. The government dropped its case when it saw it could only make her a martyr. An obstetrical nurse, Sanger had seen the plight of factory women in the poorest sections of New York City. In order to provide the medical advice and supplies women clamored for, Sanger opened the first U.S. birth control clinic, in Brooklyn in 1916. The New York City Vice Squad raided and closed it, and jailed Sanger. Margaret Sanger underwent other trials, raids, and harassments, but each time won additional public support for her organization--Planned Parenthood--and her cause. Images p737-a p740-a p741-a PMID:6992603

  4. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties. PMID:22164927

  5. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  6. Eugenics and prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R

    1986-01-01

    Prejudices against people with disabilities, poor people, and immigrants during the nineteenth century generated a science of "race improvement" called eugenics. In the United States, a number of eugenic measures were enacted early in this century, but it was in Nazi Germany that eugenics flourished under the name of racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene). In the guise of furthering the health of the German people, German scientists and physicians initially designed programs of sterilization. Next came euthanasia and finally mass extermination of "lives not worth living." Remembering this history, many German women oppose the new technical developments in prenatal diagnosis because they see them as yet another way to specify what kinds of people are and are not fit to inhabit the world. This paper tries to place the new technologies in the context of eugenics and to point out some of the ways in which the new, supposedly liberating, choices in fact limit women's control over our lives. PMID:3516893

  7. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  8. The politics of population: birth control and the eugenics movement.

    PubMed

    Gordon, L

    1974-01-01

    The birth control movement and the population control movement became inseparable in people's minds during the early years of the birth control movement, led by Margaret Sanger in 1915. Emma Goldman and Margaret Sanger defied obscenity laws by disseminating information on contraception. The birth control movement was concerned with individual choice and reproductive self determination. Population control referred to a large-scale social policy of limiting births throughout a whole society or in certain groups for the purpose of changing economic, ecological and/or political conditions. Population control ideas were dominated by eugenics and marred by racism and nativism in the United States. Unfortunately, eugenic ideas and population control were often confused with birth control, especially by poor, lower class women. Real democracy in population control requires that women, not men, have the reproductive choice. It is the material basis for liberation. If a woman's desire for children interferes with a reasonable and democratic social plan to lower birth rates, the woman should be offered educational and economic opportunities as an alternative to childbearing. Eugenics and imperialism were closely related in American and English history, focussing first on one group of immigrants then another. PMID:11615086

  9. Would Fred Sanger Get Funded Today?

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Fred Sanger developed technologies that won him two Nobel Prizes and revolutionized biological research. Yet, in spite of this record, the question has been raised as to whether, in the current scientific climate, he might be unsuccessful in obtaining a grant because of a productivity that would be viewed as too limited. In imagining how a National Institutes of Health study section today might treat a proposal from Sanger to sequence DNA, we can ask whether there are lessons from his career that suggest changes to the grant review process. PMID:24939989

  10. Medical Genetics Is Not Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Ruth Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    The connection that critics make between medical genetics and eugenics is historically fallacious. Activists on the political right are as mistaken as activists on the political left: Genetic screening was not eugenics in the past, is not eugenics in the present, and, unless its technological systems become radically transformed, will not be…

  11. Can we learn from eugenics?

    PubMed Central

    Wikler, D

    1999-01-01

    Eugenics casts a long shadow over contemporary genetics. Any measure, whether in clinical genetics or biotechnology, which is suspected of eugenic intent is likely to be opposed on that ground. Yet there is little consensus on what this word signifies, and often only a remote connection to the very complex set of social movements which took that name. After a brief historical summary of eugenics, this essay attempts to locate any wrongs inherent in eugenic doctrines. Four candidates are examined and rejected. The moral challenge posed by eugenics for genetics in our own time, I argue, is to achieve social justice. PMID:10226926

  12. Eugene Filmore Stoermer

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Lawrence Great Lakes has lost a champion and prominent researcher with the passing of Eugene F. Stoermer, during the early winter of 2012, after a two-year battle with esophageal cancer. Indeed the international community of diatom and algal research has lost a scholar i...

  13. In vitro eugenics.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2014-11-01

    A series of recent scientific results suggest that, in the not-too-distant future, it will be possible to create viable human gametes from human stem cells. This paper discusses the potential of this technology to make possible what I call 'in vitro eugenics': the deliberate breeding of human beings in vitro by fusing sperm and egg derived from different stem-cell lines to create an embryo and then deriving new gametes from stem cells derived from that embryo. Repeated iterations of this process would allow scientists to proceed through multiple human generations in the laboratory. In vitro eugenics might be used to study the heredity of genetic disorders and to produce cell lines of a desired character for medical applications. More controversially, it might also function as a powerful technology of 'human enhancement' by allowing researchers to use all the techniques of selective breeding to produce individuals with a desired genotype. PMID:23557913

  14. [Eugenics: morality or pragmatism].

    PubMed

    Gómez Fröde, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The subject of eugenics is as old as humanity itself, but since World War II it has been related almost automatically with the policies and practices implemented by the National Socialist regime. This happened despite the fact that these despicable practices were inspired by legislation in place in the United Sates since the 19th century and which, in some cases, were modified until the 1970's. Today, some state governments are still paying compensation to victims of these policies. PMID:23999641

  15. Anton's Syndrome and Eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Frahm-Falkenberg, Siska

    2011-01-01

    Anton's syndrome is arguably the most striking form of anosognosia. Patients with this syndrome behave as if they can see despite their obvious blindness. Although best known for his description of asomatognosia and visual anosognosia, Gabriel Anton (1858-1933) made other significant contributions to the clinical neurosciences, including pioneering work in neurosurgery, neuropsychology, and child psychiatry. However, it has not been recognized in the English literature that Anton was also a dedicated advocate of eugenics and racial hygiene. This paper provides a case of Anton's syndrome and puts the works of Gabriel Anton into their historic context. PMID:21779298

  16. Eugenics--a side effect of progressivism? analysis of the role of scientific and medical elites in the rise and fall of eugenics in pre-war Poland.

    PubMed

    Blach, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas. PMID:20977151

  17. Human enhancement: The new eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    Supporters of human enhancement through genetic and other reproductive technologies claim that the new liberal eugenics, based on science and individual consent differs from the old eugenics which was unscientific and coercive. Supporters claim it is the parent's moral obligation to produce the best children possible. At this time, a defective gene that is identified in an unborn child cannot be repaired. To prevent the manifestation of the undesirable trait the unborn child is destroyed. The arguments in support of human enhancement are based on an ethic of consequence that could allow for nearly any means as long as the desired end is reached. Medical enhancement may affect the parent–child family unit; the parents’ love for the child may be conditioned on the expected results. The new eugenics, although based on science, continues to pursue the same goal as the old eugenics, the development of a superior individual and the elimination of those considered inferior. PMID:25249705

  18. Delineation, characterization, and classification of topographic eminences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Gaurav

    Topographic eminences are defined as upwardly rising, convex shaped topographic landforms that are noticeably distinct in their immediate surroundings. As opposed to everyday objects, the properties of a topographic eminence are dependent not only on how it is conceptualized, but is also intrinsically related to its spatial extent and its relative location in the landscape. In this thesis, a system for automated detection, delineation and characterization of topographic eminences based on an analysis of digital elevation models is proposed. Research has shown that conceptualization of eminences (and other landforms) is linked to the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of people. However, the perception of stimuli from our physical environment is not subject to cultural or linguistic bias. Hence, perceptually salient morphological and spatial properties of the natural landscape can form the basis for generically applicable detection and delineation of topographic eminences. Six principles of cognitive eminence modeling are introduced to develop the philosophical foundation of this research regarding eminence delineation and characterization. The first step in delineating eminences is to automatically detect their presence within digital elevation models. This is achieved by the use of quantitative geomorphometric parameters (e.g., elevation, slope and curvature) and qualitative geomorphometric features (e.g., peaks, passes, pits, ridgelines, and valley lines). The process of eminence delineation follows that of eminence detection. It is posited that eminences may be perceived either as monolithic terrain objects, or as composites of morphological parts (e.g., top, bottom, slope). Individual eminences may also simultaneously be conceived as comprising larger, higher order eminence complexes (e.g., mountain ranges). Multiple algorithms are presented for the delineation of simple and complex eminences, and the morphological parts of eminences. The proposed eminence

  19. Eugenics and modern biology: critiques of eugenics, 1910-1945.

    PubMed

    Allen, Garland E

    2011-05-01

    Eugenics in most western countries in the first four decades of the 20th century was based on the idea that genes control most human phenotypic traits, everything from physical features such as polydactyly and eye colour to physiological conditions such as the A-B-O blood groups to mental and personality traits such as "feeblemindedness," alcoholism and pauperism. In assessing the development of the eugenics movement-its rise and decline between 1900 and 1950-it is important to recognise that its naïve assumptions and often flawed methodologies were openly criticised at the time by scientists and nonscientists alike. This paper will present a brief overview of the critiques launched against eugenicists' claims, particularly criticisms of the American school led by Charles B. Davenport. Davenport's approach to eugenics will be contrasted to his British counterpart, Karl Pearson, founder and first editor of the Annals of Eugenics. It was not the case that nearly everyone in the early 20th century accepted eugenic conclusions as the latest, cutting-edge science. There are lessons from this historical approach for dealing with similar naïve claims about genetics today. PMID:21488848

  20. Eugenics: The Threat of the Feeble Minded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winzer, Margaret; O'Connor, Anne

    1982-01-01

    The history of the eugenics movement is reviewed. The authors conclude that, despite changed terminology and a shifting emphasis, advocacy of eugenics and its discrimination against poor and mentally retarded persons still persists today. (MC)

  1. Moderate eugenics and human enhancement.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Though the reputation of eugenics has been tarnished by history, eugenics per se is not necessarily a bad thing. Many advocate a liberal new eugenics--where individuals are free to choose whether or not to employ genetic technologies for reproductive purposes. Though genetic interventions aimed at the prevention of severe genetic disorders may be morally and socially acceptable, reproductive liberty in the context of enhancement may conflict with equality. Enhancement could also have adverse effects on utility. The enhancement debate requires a shift in focus. What the equality and/or utility costs of enhancement will be is an empirical question. Rather than philosophical speculation, more social science research is needed to address it. Philosophers, meanwhile, should address head-on the question of how to strike a balance between liberty, equality, and utility in cases of conflict (in the context of genetics). PMID:23728949

  2. Eugenics in Education: Apologetics for Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D.

    2008-01-01

    For many people an esoteric educational topic is eugenics. This brief text analysis will provide a textual as well as contextual analysis of Dr. Ann Gibson Winfield's book (2007) Eugenics and Education in America: Institutionalized Racism and the Implications of History, Ideology, and Memory. Winfield objectively critiques eugenic apologetics.…

  3. Human Eugenics: Whose Perception of Perfection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Parendi

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the science of eugenics beginning in ancient Greece. Discusses the use of "racial hygiene" by the Nazis' Third Reich and its effect on eugenics. Addresses the pros and cons of eugenics and genetic engineering. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  4. "Eugenics talk" and the language of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-06-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether "eugenics talk", in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people's critical-rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical-rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics. PMID:18511622

  5. Reproductive genetic testing and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Suzanne

    1993-04-01

    The situation concerning reproductive genetic testing in Switzerland is briefly described. Growing awareness of eugenic implications especially by women is reported. This is also true for all the other German-speaking countries in Europe to a higher extent than in the other European countries. Better professional education and public information are required. PMID:11653020

  6. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  7. Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes strategies…

  8. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the 'new' eugenics.

    PubMed

    King, D S

    1999-04-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PID) is often seen as an improvement upon prenatal testing. I argue that PID may exacerbate the eugenic features of prenatal testing and make possible an expanded form of free-market eugenics. The current practice of prenatal testing is eugenic in that its aim is to reduce the numbers of people with genetic disorders. Due to social pressures and eugenic attitudes held by clinical geneticists in most countries, it results in eugenic outcomes even though no state coercion is involved. I argue that technological advances may soon make PID widely accessible. Because abortion is not involved, and multiple embryos are available, PID is radically more effective as a tool of genetic selection. It will also make possible selection on the basis of non-pathological characteristics, leading, potentially, to a full-blown free-market eugenics. For these reasons, I argue that PID should be strictly regulated. PMID:10226925

  9. Evangelizing Eugenics: A Brief Historiography of Popular and Formal American Eugenics Education (1908-1948)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history of the American Eugenics movement's penetration into the formal and popular educational milieu during the first half of the 20th Century, and includes a review of some recent scholarly research on eugenic themes in education and popular culture. Apologists have dismissed the American Eugenics movement as a…

  10. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  11. Eugenics and Curriculum: 1860-1929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1978-01-01

    Examines ideas about heredity, racism, and the development of the eugenics movement, which influenced curriculum thinkers in the period of the "naturalistic mind" and progressivism; the eugenics movement's influence upon education for the gifted; and continuing similar attitudes as to the limited effect of environment on individuals compared to…

  12. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19602363

  13. Francis Galton: and eugenics today.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J; Galton, C J

    1998-01-01

    Eugenics can be defined as the use of science applied to the qualitative and quantitative improvement of the human genome. The subject was initiated by Francis Galton with considerable support from Charles Darwin in the latter half of the 19th century. Its scope has increased enormously since the recent revolution in molecular genetics. Genetic files can be easily obtained for individuals either antenatally or at birth; somatic gene therapy has been introduced for some rare inborn errors of metabolism; and gene manipulation of human germ-line cells will no doubt occur in the near future to generate organs for transplantation. The past history of eugenics has been appalling, with gross abuses in the USA between 1931 and 1945 when compulsory sterilization was practised; and in Germany between 1933 and 1945 when mass extermination and compulsory sterilization were performed. To prevent such abuses in the future statutory bodies, such as a genetics commission, should be established to provide guidance and rules of conduct for use of the new information and technologies as applied to the human genome. PMID:9602996

  14. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907–1940

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of ‘orthodox’ theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over ‘mainline’ versus ‘reform’ eugenics. PMID:24778464

  15. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907-1940.

    PubMed

    Baker, Graham J

    2014-05-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over 'mainline' versus 'reform' eugenics. PMID:24778464

  16. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    PubMed Central

    Pernick, M S

    1997-01-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well. PMID:9366633

  17. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups. PMID:26322647

  18. AB118. Validation of next generation sequencing by Sanger sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Low, Meow Hong Wendy; Lai, Hwei Meeng Angeline; Jamuar, Saumya Shekhar; Law, Hai Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Development of the next generation sequencing (NGS) platform was driven by the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003. With the availability of NGS, the time taken for sequencing of humongous genomic regions was greatly reduced and data generated per unit DNA was also significantly increased. Though the cost to use NGS in a clinically setting is far from ideal, economically speaking, there is a significant decrease in the average cost per sequenced base. To validate findings of NGS on mutation detected for FBN1, TGFBR2, RAF1, RTEL1, LMNA, MID2, KCNK9, DMD, SMARCA2 and IQSEC2 by using gold standard, Sanger Sequencing. Methods The coordinate of the mutation identified by NGS was used to retrieve the adjacent genomic sequence in UCSC Genome Browser (Available from URL: https://genome.ucsc.edu/). Targeted primers were designed with Primer 3 software (Available from URL: http://primer3.ut.ee/) based on the genomic sequence obtained from UCSC. The following step involves the optimization of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with the designed primers to amplify the desired DNA template for the targeted region. Upon optimization, the template is purified and subjected to dye terminator sequencing to generate multiple DNA fragments of varying sizes. Lastly, the DNA fragments will be purified and analysed with an automated sequencer. The sequencer separates the DNA fragments based on their size by carrying out capillary electrophoresis. Results A total of 28 cases were validated with Sanger sequencing. Of them, 25 (89.3%) cases concur with the findings from NGS and 3 (10.7%) cases were false-positive calls. Conclusions NGS shows promise in the future molecular diagnostic regime, however, at the present moment, it needs to be done concurrently with Sanger sequencing for clinical applications.

  19. CRISP-ID: decoding CRISPR mediated indels by Sanger sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dehairs, Jonas; Talebi, Ali; Cherifi, Yacine; Swinnen, Johannes V.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next generation gene editing technologies has revolutionized the fields of genome engineering in allowing the generation of gene knockout models and functional gene analysis. However, the screening of resultant clones remains challenging due to the simultaneous presence of different indels. Here, we present CRISP-ID, a web application which uses a unique algorithm for genotyping up to three alleles from a single Sanger sequencing trace, providing a robust and readily accessible platform to directly identify indels and significantly speed up the characterization of clones. PMID:27363488

  20. CRISP-ID: decoding CRISPR mediated indels by Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dehairs, Jonas; Talebi, Ali; Cherifi, Yacine; Swinnen, Johannes V

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next generation gene editing technologies has revolutionized the fields of genome engineering in allowing the generation of gene knockout models and functional gene analysis. However, the screening of resultant clones remains challenging due to the simultaneous presence of different indels. Here, we present CRISP-ID, a web application which uses a unique algorithm for genotyping up to three alleles from a single Sanger sequencing trace, providing a robust and readily accessible platform to directly identify indels and significantly speed up the characterization of clones. PMID:27363488

  1. Childhood Sibling Relationships of Eminent Canadian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn R.; Schlosser, Grace A.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared differences between 72 eminent Canadian women who reported close sibling relationships and 72 similar women who reported no close sibling relationships. Those with close siblings expressed their responsibility within the relationship and rivalry within the sibship. Those not close to siblings often blamed this on age…

  2. The Sanger-concept - A fully reusable winged launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, R. E.; Wolf, D. M.

    The present study compares winged space transportation systems with horizontal take-off (HTO) and vertical take-off (VTO), respectively. HTO vehicles were investigated at various take-off speeds and with various types of gear. While the type of acceleration till lift-off is a dominant factor for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles, its influence on two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles is of lesser importance. This finding holds for lift-off velocity as well as for the type of gear. Among SSTO vehicles, a comparison of payload capability with HTO and VTO proves to be in favor of VTO in nearly all ranges. The only exceptions are at lift-off velocity Mach 0.6 in the range of lower GLOW and in a certain range for the sled-propelled vehicles. Concerning TSTO vehicles no essential differences between VTO and HTO can be discerned. Finally, different launch vehicles (SSTO and SANGER) with 20 Mg payload were compared, resulting in a definite advantage of the TSTO-SANGER solution in terms of performance and lower developmental risks.

  3. Social imaginaries: the literature of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Alison

    2008-06-01

    This paper starts from a premise relating to the act of fictional writing about eugenics and the way it may be understood as the embodiment and enactment of social imaginaries. It proposes that literature (in the sense of fiction) frequently, if not habitually, expresses the underside of what is expressed in public discourse. That is, far from being the implement of state policy or intervention, it acts in counterpoint to the state, constituting a type of social fantasy in that it explores through the realm of the imagination what might happen. It becomes the arena for contestation, exploration, and nuancing as it essays how ideas from public, 'real' life, might transform when acted out. The paper considers two sorts of literary case. First it looks at that of 'naïve' literature, harnessed unashamedly to a specific sociological discourse of eugenics. Then, using primarily Ibsen, it considers a subset, the case of literature that does not set out to be explicitly in the service of the cause of eugenics, but is appropriated and disseminated from a platform of eugenics. Lastly, taking the example of Unamuno's Amor y pedagogía (1902) the paper considers literature that exists in a quite different sphere of public awareness. It shows awareness of the arguments and precepts of eugenics and related beliefs and practices, but acts as a transitional space (in the terms of Winnicott) to enable such ideas to be entertained and thought about, without a requirement of acceptance or belief. PMID:18534355

  4. Eugenics: past, present, and the future.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, K L; Garver, B

    1991-01-01

    During the past 20 years there has been a resurgence of interest in the history of the eugenics movements, particularly those of the United States and Germany. Unfortunately, most of these accounts have been published in nonmedical and nongenetic journals, so they are not readily available to geneticists or physicians. The authors of this article are concerned about the lack of information that geneticists, physicians, and students have concerning the origin and progress of these movements. This article provides a short history of the American and German eugenics programs and concludes with a review of their possible relations to our current practices. It is hoped that this will encourage institutions to include, in master's Ph.D., and M.D. programs in human genetics, lectures, seminars, and journal clubs on the topic of eugenics. PMID:1928094

  5. Eugenics and the Social Construction of Merit, Race, and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Contends that eugenics is an example of normalization. Outlines an aspect of this process by analyzing: (1) the popular eugenic knowledge exhibited at U.S. state fairs; and (2) the mainstream eugenic knowledge found in the work of Leta S. Hollingworth who was an early leader in gifted education. (CMK)

  6. Scout Project - portrait of Eugene D. Schult

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Portrait of Eugene D. Schult who became head of Scout project in June 1963. Schult was part of the original nine members of the Scout Project Office. He, C.T. Brown, Jr., and William M. Moore were the project's three engineers. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 202, 211.

  7. Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy--An Andragogical Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeng, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy's work related to andragogy is insufficiently discussed in adult pedagogical literature, although most of his work deals with this field, if we employ his own definition of andragogy. This paper makes visible his role as an andragogical pioneer, and clarifies his understanding of andragogy and basic perspectives in his…

  8. Eugene's Story: A Case for Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Vicki Dodds

    1999-01-01

    As this story about a mischievous, underachieving 10th grader shows, meeting standards and showing caring, compassion, and respect are not mutually exclusive. Unless students experience a positive, supportive climate, some may never achieve minimal standards or realize their full potential. The author later discovered she had inspired Eugene to…

  9. Frederick Sanger, Erwin Chargaff, and the metamorphosis of specificity.

    PubMed

    Judson, H F

    1993-12-15

    That a transformation of ruling ideas in genetics and biochemistry took place at the dawn of molecular biology, in the late 1940s, is a commonplace; but the nature and components of that transformation are widely misunderstood. The change is often identified with the importation into biology of new styles of thought and new rigor by the many scientists trained in physics or chemistry who came into the nascent field--notably, Max Delbrück, Max Perutz, Francis Crick, John Kendrew, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin. Most generally, the change is supposed to be the realization that genes are made not of protein but of nucleic acid--and this change was initiated, of course, by the work of Oswald Avery and his colleagues. These changes are not mutually exclusive, and both were surely important to the genesis of molecular biology. But logically prior to them, more fundamental, was another transformation in ruling preconceptions, one that has been neglected: the revolution in understanding of the chemical structures--the sequences of subunits--of proteins and of nucleic acids which was wrought by the work of Frederick Sanger and of Erwin Chargaff. This was a metamorphosis in the understanding of biochemical specificity, and while it astonished many biochemists it set free the small groups of those who were beginning to call themselves molecular biologists, enabling them to think of the relationship between genes and proteins in entirely new ways. PMID:8276259

  10. Electrostatic Potential Maps and Natural Bond Orbital Analysis: Visualization and Conceptualization of Reactivity in Sanger's Reagent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottishaw, Jeffery D.; Erck, Adam R.; Kramer, Jordan H.; Sun, Haoran; Koppang, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Frederick Sanger's early work on protein sequencing through the use of colorimetric labeling combined with liquid chromatography involves an important nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S[subscript N]Ar) reaction in which the N-terminus of a protein is tagged with Sanger's reagent. Understanding the inherent differences between this S[subscript…

  11. Advertising eugenics: Charles M. Goethe's campaign to improve the race.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William; Peck, Danielle

    2010-06-01

    Over the last several decades historians have shown that the eugenics movement appealed to an extraordinarily wide constituency. Far from being the brainchild of the members of any one particular political ideology, eugenics made sense to a diverse range of Americans and was promoted by professionals ranging from geneticists and physicians to politicians and economists.(1) Seduced by promises of permanent fixes to national problems, and attracted to the idea of a scientifically legitimate form of social activism, eugenics quickly grew in popularity during the first decades of the twentieth century. Charles M. Goethe, the land developer, entrepreneur, conservationist and skilled advertiser who founded the Eugenics Society of Northern California, exemplifies the broad appeal of the eugenics movement. Goethe played an active role within the American eugenics movement at its peak in the 1920s. The last president of the Eugenics Research Association,(2) he also campaigned hard against Mexican immigration to the US and he continued open support for the Nazi regime's eugenic practices into the later 1930s.(3) This article examines Goethe's eugenic vision and, drawing on his correspondence with the leading geneticist Charles Davenport, explores the relationship between academic and non-academic advocates of eugenics in America. PMID:20510454

  12. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Garver, K.L.; Garver, B. )

    1994-01-01

    The US Human Genome Project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the US and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided. 142 refs.

  13. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns.

    PubMed

    Garver, K L; Garver, B

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Human Genome project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the U.S. and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided. PMID:8279465

  14. [Eugen Bleuler and Carl Gustav Jung's habilitation].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H R

    1996-01-01

    Eugen Bleuler's letter of recommendation for Carl Gustav Jung's appointment as a lecturer In January 1905, Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) wrote a letter of recommendation to the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich, urging them to accept the application of Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) as a lecturer there. Bleuler's letter mentions the contribution to Jung's writing made by Franz Riklin (1878-1938), although he does not define it precisely. It is safe to say that, judging from the way in which Bleuler expresses his opinions in this letter, this may be regarded at the very least as an early sign of his receptiveness to the psychoanalytical ideas of the time. PMID:8928214

  15. Better science and better race? Social Darwinism and Chinese eugenics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuehtsen Juliette

    2014-12-01

    This essay explores the variegated roles played by racial, eugenic, and Social Darwinist discourse in China over roughly the last century. Using Japan as a parallel for comparison, it analyzes the introduction of the term "eugenics" into Japanese and Chinese. It then locates the deployment of eugenics and Social Darwinism as counterimperial discourse in East Asia. It offers a brief history of eugenics thinking in China across the twentieth century, focusing on the Chinese eugenicist Pan Guangdan, who used race as a category of analysis yet without any sense of hierarchy. He was critically aware of the scientific basis of eugenics and helped craft the study of eugenics in China, from biology to sociology, from economics to ethnology. PMID:25665386

  16. [Scandinavian eugenics: Nordic historians provide new approaches].

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underpriviledged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favour in the middle of the sixties. PMID:15461971

  17. ['Negative' eugenics, psychiatry, and Catholicism: clashes over eugenic sterilization in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Wegner, Robert; Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes the dialogue between eugenicist Renato Kehl and a group of Brazilian psychiatrists who turned their interest to so-called negative eugenics in the early 1930s. Enthused about research into eugenics and the application of eugenic methods in countries such as the United States and Germany, authors like Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani, and Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva blamed Catholicism for impeding Brazil from moving in a similar direction, especially the church's resistance to the sterilization of 'degenerates', which entered into effect in Germany in 1934. The article charts the various strategies these authors proposed for engaging in dialogue with the Catholic Church. PMID:23429742

  18. Obituary: Eugene Richard Tomer, 1932-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkl, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Eugene R. Tomer passed away on 2 July 2007 at his home in San Francisco, California. The cause of death was cancer. Tomer was a consulting applied mathematician with a wide range of interests in dynamical astronomy, electromagnetic theory for use in communications, and computational methods of applied mathematics. He was a member of AAS, and the Society for Applied and Industrial Mathematics [SIAM]. With K. H. Prendergast, he co-wrote the influential paper "Self-consistent Models of Elliptical Galaxies," published in the Astronomical Journal 75 (1970), 674-679. This paper has been cited over eighty times. Tomer was born on 13 June 1932. He earned the Ph.D. in Mathematics at the University of California-Berkeley in 1978 (title of dissertation: On the C*-algebra of the Hermite Operator). In 1996 he and A. F. Peterson wrote "Meeting the Challenges Presented by Computational Electromagnetics," a publication of the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. This writer met Eugene at the 1992 Annual SIAM meeting in Los Angeles in connection with the Activity Group on Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions, which the writer chaired at the time. Eugene volunteered to edit the Newsletter of the group, which he did from July 1992 to July 1995. Thanks to his skills and efforts, the Newsletter became a carefully edited, professional publication. Eugene not only organized a Problems Column, attracting questions in pure and applied mathematics, but he also designed the logo for the group. He gave much time and effort to this service, in an era when copy had to be physically assembled and mailed to SIAM Headquarters. Eventually he felt he had done what he could for the Activity Group. He told me that he hoped the Group would get seriously involved with applications such as in astronomy, physics, and sciences that use special function solutions of differential equations. During Tomer's editorship, we communicated mostly by e-mail, our homes being far apart. He

  19. Hughes, Twain, Child, and Sanger: Four Who Locked Horns with the Censors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton

    1969-01-01

    A look at the lives and conflicts of four writers--Langston Hughes, Mark Twain, Lydia Maria Child, and Margaret Sanger--who faced public criticism and censorship because oftheir views on controversial issues. (RM)

  20. Science in the Publicity Laboratory: The Case of Eugenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Edward

    The eugenicists of the 1920s and 1930s aggressively pursued media attention and sought policy change for their cause of improving the human race by selective breeding. Eugenics gained momentum in the United States when the American Eugenics Society (AES) was organized in 1921. Policy formation and information dissemination were central to the…

  1. Eugenics, Mental Deficiency and Fabian Socialism between the Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Eugenics was not exclusively the concern of conservatives; it also appealed to certain socialists, particularly those whose middle class status was dependent upon their expert services and who believed that social problems could be resolved scientifically. Reasons for the appeal of eugenics to this group are discussed. (IS)

  2. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    PubMed

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers. PMID:19244735

  3. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into Medial Ganglionic Eminence vs. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sandra; Kim, Tae-Gon; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Chung, Sangmi

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an opportunity to study human development in vitro, to model diseases in a dish, to screen drugs as well as to provide an unlimited and ethically unimpeded source of therapeutic cells. Cortical GABAergic interneurons, which are generated from Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) cells and Caudal Ganglionic Eminence (CGE) cells during embryonic development, regulate cortical neural networks by providing inhibitory inputs. Their malfunction, resulting in failure to intricately regulate neural circuit balance, has been implicated in brain diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy. In this study, using combinatorial and temporal modulation of developmentally relevant dorsoventral and rostrocaudal signaling pathways, we efficiently generated MGE cells vs. CGE cells from human PSCs, which predominantly generate Parvalbumin-expressing or Somatostatin-expressing interneurons vs. Calretinin-expressing interneurons, respectively. Efficient generation of specific differentiated progenies of hPSCs as shown in this study will be a pivotal step to realize the full potential of hPSCs for regenerative medicine, developmental studies, disease modeling, bioassay, and drug screening. PMID:26364591

  4. Distinguishing genetics and eugenics on the basis of fairness.

    PubMed Central

    Ledley, F D

    1994-01-01

    There is concern that human applications of modern genetic technologies may lead inexorably to eugenic abuse. To prevent such abuse, it is essential to have clear, formal principles as well as algorithms for distinguishing genetics from eugenics. This work identifies essential distinctions between eugenics and genetics in the implied nature of the social contract and the importance ascribed to individual welfare relative to society. Rawls's construction of 'justice as fairness' is used as a model for how a formal systems of ethics can be used to proscribe eugenic practices. Rawls's synthesis can be applied to this problem if it is assumed that in the original condition all individuals are ignorant of their genetic constitution and unwilling to consent to social structures which may constrain their own potential. The principles of fairness applied to genetics requires that genetic interventions be directed at extending individual liberties and be applied to the greatest benefit of individuals with the least advantages. These principles are incompatible with negative eugenics which would further penalize those with genetic disadvantage. These principles limit positive eugenics to those practices which are designed to provide absolute benefit to those individuals with least advantage, are acceptable to its subjects, and further a system of basic equal liberties. This analysis also illustrates how simple deviations from first principles in Rawls's formulation could countenance eugenic applications of genetic technologies. PMID:7996561

  5. Eugenics talk” and the language of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-01-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people’s critical–rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical–rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics. PMID:18511622

  6. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  7. Comparison of the Equine Reference Sequence with Its Sanger Source Data and New Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo-Mendez, Jovan; Hestand, Matthew S.; Coleman, Stephen J.; Zeng, Zheng; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N.; Kalbfleisch, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The reference assembly for the domestic horse, EquCab2, published in 2009, was built using approximately 30 million Sanger reads from a Thoroughbred mare named Twilight. Contiguity in the assembly was facilitated using nearly 315 thousand BAC end sequences from Twilight’s half brother Bravo. Since then, it has served as the foundation for many genome-wide analyses that include not only the modern horse, but ancient horses and other equid species as well. As data mapped to this reference has accumulated, consistent variation between mapped datasets and the reference, in terms of regions with no read coverage, single nucleotide variants, and small insertions/deletions have become apparent. In many cases, it is not clear whether these differences are the result of true sequence variation between the research subjects’ and Twilight’s genome or due to errors in the reference. EquCab2 is regarded as “The Twilight Assembly.” The objective of this study was to identify inconsistencies between the EquCab2 assembly and the source Twilight Sanger data used to build it. To that end, the original Sanger and BAC end reads have been mapped back to this equine reference and assessed with the addition of approximately 40X coverage of new Illumina Paired-End sequence data. The resulting mapped datasets identify those regions with low Sanger read coverage, as well as variation in genomic content that is not consistent with either the original Twilight Sanger data or the new genomic sequence data generated from Twilight on the Illumina platform. As the haploid EquCab2 reference assembly was created using Sanger reads derived largely from a single individual, the vast majority of variation detected in a mapped dataset comprised of those same Sanger reads should be heterozygous. In contrast, homozygous variations would represent either errors in the reference or contributions from Bravo's BAC end sequences. Our analysis identifies 720,843 homozygous discrepancies between new

  8. How a Small Double-Stranded Trick Can Mislead Sanger Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Notwithstanding the arrival of “third-generation sequencing,” Sanger sequencing, developed in 1980, is still the most accurate and used method for sequencing, although on a smaller scale. It is a powerful resource for studying sequences and discovering polymorphisms and genes, as well as regulatory elements. There has already been described a wide range of possible problems with this very sensitive and accurate technology. Here, we show that a specific event, related to genomes rich in repetitive sequences, can mislead operators working with Sanger sequencing. PMID:26190945

  9. Eugene Wigner, The First Nuclear Reactor Engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    2002-04-01

    All physicists recognize Eugene Wigner as a theoretical physicist of the very first rank. Yet Wigner's only advanced degree was in Chemical Engineering. His physics was largely self-taught. During WWII, Wigner brilliantly returned to his original occupation as an engineer. He led the small team of theoretical physicists and engineers who designed, in remarkable detail, the original graphite-moderated, water-cooled Hanford reactor, which produced the Pu239 of the Trinity and Nagasaki bombs. With his unparalleled understanding of chain reactors (matched only by Fermi) and his skill and liking for engineering, Wigner can properly be called the Founder of Nuclear Engineering. The evidence for this is demonstrated by a summary of his 37 Patents on various chain reacting systems.

  10. Eugen Bleuler's schizophrenia—a modern perspective

    PubMed Central

    Maatz, Anke; Hoff, Paul; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of the term and concept schizophrenia earned its inventor, Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, worldwide fame. Prompted by the rejection of the main principle of Kraepelinian nosology, namely prognosis, Bleuler's belief in the clinical unity of what Kraepelin had described as dementia praecox required him to search for alternative characterizing features that would allow scientific description and classification. This led him to consider psychological, and to a lesser degree, social factors alongside an assumed underlying neurobiological disease process as constitutive of what he then termed schizophrenia, thus making him an early proponent of a bio-psycho-social understanding of mental illness. Reviewing Bleuler's conception of schizophrenia against the background of his overall clinical and theoretical work, this paper provides a critical overview of Bleuler's key nosological principles and links his work with present-day debates about naturalism, essentialism, and stigma. PMID:25987862

  11. Reusable space systems (Eugen Saenger Lecture, 1987)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The history and current status of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) development are surveyed, with emphases on the contributions of Eugen Saenger and ongoing NASA projects. Topics addressed include the capabilities and achievements of the Space Shuttle, the need to maintain a fleet with both ELVs and RLVs to meet different mission requirements, the X-30 testbed aircraft for the National Aerospace Plane program, current design concepts for Shuttle II (a 1000-ton fully reusable two-stage rocket-powered spacecraft capable of carrying 11,000 kg to Space Station orbit), proposals for dual-fuel-propulsion SSTO RLVs, and the Space Station Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Orbital Transfer Vehicle. The importance of RLVs and of international cooperation in establishing the LEO infrastructure needed for planetary exploration missions is stressed.

  12. [Beyond eugenics: posthumanism as Homo patiens denials].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Llompart, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history there have been attempts to overcome human limitations by means of technique. The novelty of the 20th century has been to try to extirpate all the faults, the suffering, the disease, and even the death. This power has been attributed successively to machines (the futurism), to the genetic information (the eugenism) and to the electronic information (the posthumanism). In all cases, it's unknown the distinction between inevitable faults, ontological deficiencies, as the reality of death, and avoidable ones, sociological deficiencies, as the deaths due to circumstances as lack of drinkable water, of medicaments, wars or any other type of violence. The due way of confronting the human faults is to try to eradicate their avoidable causes and at the same time to understand the sense of those that cannot be avoided, as occasion of the self-overcoming and the opening to the Transcendence. PMID:22548654

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 WEST ELEVATION (RIO GRANDE RIVER FACADE). - Leocadia Leandro Garcia House, Southwest corner of Main Plaza, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 NORTHWEST ELEVATION (RIO GRANDE RIVER FACADE). - Leocadia Leandro Garcia House, Southwest corner of Main Plaza, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  15. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Diane B.

    2012-11-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical facts. In this paper, I will show how different—indeed, diametrically-opposed—morals have been drawn from the history of eugenics and link these contrasting messages both to different underlying conceptions of what constitutes the central wrong of eugenics and differing degrees of enthusiasm for reprogenetic technologies. I will then argue that, for several reasons, the history of eugenics simply cannot provide the kind of direct guidance that many participants in current debates would like. Although the history does have implications for policy, the insights to be gleaned are both subtle and indirect.

  16. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF MUSEUM GALLERY WITH EUGENE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF MUSEUM GALLERY WITH EUGENE ALLEN SMITH'S VEHICLE WITH WHICH HE AS STATE GEOLOGIST (FROM 1873 TO 1927) CONDUCTED SURVEYS OF DISTRICT MINERAL RESOURCES - Smith Hall, Capstone Drive at Sixth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. Eugenics without the state: anarchism in Catalonia, 1900-1937.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Current historiography has considered eugenics to be an emanation from state structures or a movement which sought to appeal to the state in order to implement eugenic reform. This paper examines the limitations of that view and argues that it is necessary to expand our horizons to consider particularly working-class eugenics movements that were based on the dissemination of knowledge about sex and which did not aspire to positions of political power. The paper argues that anarchism, with its contradictory practice afforded by the convulsive social situation of the Civil War in Spain, allows us to assess critically the parameters of the social action of eugenics, its many alliances, and its struggle for existence in changing political circumstances not of its own making. PMID:18534354

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Eugene F. Schrand, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Eugene F. Schrand, Photographer, 1937 GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE SIDE AND GABLE END. - Charles Krebs Place, South of Morning Sun, State Route 224, Darrtown, Butler County, OH

  19. Eugene Island Block 330 Field - development and production history. [Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.L.; Dupuy, H.J. Jr.; Holland, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Eugene Island Block 330 Field is currently the largest oil producing field in federally owned offshore waters of the United States. The field is located about 272 kilometers southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana. This paper discusses the total geological complex and then follows the development and production history of the primary block: Eugene Island Block 330. A discussion of the sand control and safety features used in the offshore is also included. 1 ref.

  20. A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of pigeonpea (Cajanauscajan L.) using sanger and second-generation sequencing platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly for pigeonpea has been developed by analyzing 128.9 million short Illumina GA IIx single end reads, 2.19 million single end FLX/454 reads, and 18,353 Sanger expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from more than 16 genotypes. The resultant transcriptome assembly, refer...

  1. Deep sequencing increases hepatitis C virus phylogenetic cluster detection compared to Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Vincent; Olmstead, Andrea; Tang, Patrick; Cook, Darrel; Janjua, Naveed; Grebely, Jason; Jacka, Brendan; Poon, Art F Y; Krajden, Mel

    2016-09-01

    Effective surveillance and treatment strategies are required to control the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. Phylogenetic analyses are powerful tools for reconstructing the evolutionary history of viral outbreaks and identifying transmission clusters. These studies often rely on Sanger sequencing which typically generates a single consensus sequence for each infected individual. For rapidly mutating viruses such as HCV, consensus sequencing underestimates the complexity of the viral quasispecies population and could therefore generate different phylogenetic tree topologies. Although deep sequencing provides a more detailed quasispecies characterization, in-depth phylogenetic analyses are challenging due to dataset complexity and computational limitations. Here, we apply deep sequencing to a characterized population to assess its ability to identify phylogenetic clusters compared with consensus Sanger sequencing. For deep sequencing, a sample specific threshold determined by the 50th percentile of the patristic distance distribution for all variants within each individual was used to identify clusters. Among seven patristic distance thresholds tested for the Sanger sequence phylogeny ranging from 0.005-0.06, a threshold of 0.03 was found to provide the maximum balance between positive agreement (samples in a cluster) and negative agreement (samples not in a cluster) relative to the deep sequencing dataset. From 77 HCV seroconverters, 10 individuals were identified in phylogenetic clusters using both methods. Deep sequencing analysis identified an additional 4 individuals and excluded 8 other individuals relative to Sanger sequencing. The application of this deep sequencing approach could be a more effective tool to understand onward HCV transmission dynamics compared with Sanger sequencing, since the incorporation of minority sequence variants improves the discrimination of phylogenetically linked clusters. PMID:27282472

  2. EUGENE'HOM: A generic similarity-based gene finder using multiple homologous sequences.

    PubMed

    Foissac, Sylvain; Bardou, Philippe; Moisan, Annick; Cros, Marie-Josée; Schiex, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    EUGENE'HOM is a gene prediction software for eukaryotic organisms based on comparative analysis. EUGENE'HOM is able to take into account multiple homologous sequences from more or less closely related organisms. It integrates the results of TBLASTX analysis, splice site and start codon prediction and a robust coding/non-coding probabilistic model which allows EUGENE'HOM to handle sequences from a variety of organisms. The current target of EUGENE'HOM is plant sequences. The EUGENE'HOM web site is available at http://genopole.toulouse.inra.fr/bioinfo/eugene/EuGeneHom/cgi-bin/EuGeneHom.pl. PMID:12824408

  3. Eugene Wigner and Symmetries In Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshinsky, Marcos

    2002-04-01

    Concepts of symmetry in physics have had a long history, particularly if they are of a geometric or crystallographic origin, yet in classical physics they had a somewhat esoteric position. This situation changed radically when in the XX Century we passed from classical to quantum mechanics. In the former a state for a system of particles was given by a number of points in phase space and the transformation groups related with symmetries mainly gave the invariance of concepts such as energy or angular momentum. In the latter the state is characterized by a vector in Hilbert space in which the transformations had a representation. Eugene Wigner was the right man (for his mathematical ability and physical intuition) at the right place and time (Germany, in the twenties) to take full advantage of this new situation. His first interest was atomic spectroscopy (then a very active field) and the fact that its basic states were related with irreducible representation of the orthogonal group in three dimensions O(3). The German version of his book on ``Group theory and Application" published in 1931 established, as he quotes ``that almost all rules of spectroscopy follow from the symmetry of the problem". His later extension to the direct product of two or more representations led to his development of the 3-j symbol, that he explicitly derived, and his interest in the properties of 6-j, 9-j, etc. His awareness of the time inversion as an antiunitary operator, and the analysis of its combination with the unitary representations of other symmetries, proved fundamental for deriving the features of time reversed reactions from their direct behavior. His interest in space reflection and the concept of parity led to important selection rules, and was of relevance even in weak interactions where parity is not a good symmetry. His later interest in nuclear physics, solid state, elementary particles etc., was almost never without a component of the role of symmetry in these

  4. What Contributes to Talent Development in Eminent Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronborg, Leonie

    2010-01-01

    The lives of ten eminent Australian women across seven talent domains were explored for factors that contributed to the development of their talent. Nine themes and related sub-themes emerged that were linked to the Model of Adult Female Talent Development (MAFTD) developed by Noble, Subotnik & Arnold (1996, 1999). Results provided support for…

  5. Significant Samples: The Psychological Study of Eminent Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1999-01-01

    Psychologists occasionally study eminent individuals, such as Nobellaureates, U.S. presidents, Olympic athletes, chess grandmasters, movie stars, and even distinguished psychologists. Studies using such significant samples may be differentiated along 7 distinct dimensions: qualitative versus quantitative, single versus multiple case, nomothetic…

  6. Eugenic Sterilization: Medico-Legal and Sociological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Felipe C.; Robinson, Shirley W.; Williams, Loretta J.

    1979-01-01

    The court-ordered sterilization of a normal 18-year-old black female in North Carolina focused attention on the unfortunate impact of eugenic statutes that allow sterilization as a method of social control. The existence of these laws in many states allows misapplication and abuse of authority which, not infrequently, is directed liberally to blacks and other minority groups. Eugenic sterilization is, at this time, a legally accepted form of “medical treatment.” The justification of such sterilization is the vague concept that the presumed “mentally deficient” individual is probably a potential parent of socially inadequate offspring who would likewise be socially inadequate. Since there never has been factual substantiation of whether the sterilization of these individuals will diminish the incidence of mental retardation, it is necessary to focus attention on the concept of eugenic sterilization and point out its many fallacies. PMID:480398

  7. The Testing and Militarization of K-12 Education: Eugenic Assault on Urban School Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss eugenics in education and how this eugenic legacy continues to haunt American schooling and nonwhite students. Eugenic praxes and pedagogy continue to proliferate inside the American school systems' teachers may be unaware that they are teaching in such a way that maintains this ethos. This paper and seminar's…

  8. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

  9. Designing a brave new world: eugenics, politics, and fiction.

    PubMed

    Woiak, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Aldous Huxley composed Brave New World in the context of the Depression and the eugenics movement in Britain. Today his novel is best known as satirical and predictive, but an additional interpretation emerges from Huxley's nonfiction writings in which the liberal hurmanist expressed some surprising opinions about eugenics, citizenship, and meritocracy. He felt that his role as an artist and public intellectual was to formulate an evolving outlook on urgent social, scientific, and moral issues. His brave new world can therefore be understood as a serious design for social reform, as well as a commentary about the social uses of scientific knowledge. PMID:18175454

  10. Slurry line eminent domain urged over rail lands

    SciTech Connect

    Bagge, C.E.

    1980-06-09

    According to C.E. Bagge of the National Coal Association (NCA), Congress should pass a bill that would grant coal slurry pipelines the right-of-eminent-domain across land held by railroads. An NCA study determined that 85% of the coal shipped by U.S. railroads in 1977 could not have been shipped in any other way, and the NCA feels that the coal market would be improved if the railroads' transport dominance were reduced by the presence of slurry lines. NCA and Senator D. Bumpers would prefer that the bill under consideration be broadened to give slurry lines eminent domain over private lands, but this expansion of powers is considered politically infeasible. According to Senator W. Ford, the proposed bill would be applied primarily in eastern states, rather than in western states, as is generally thought, since eastern railroads usually own their track beds but western railroads are built on federal easements which slurry lines can cross.

  11. Modified arthroscopic suture fixation of a displaced tibial eminence fracture.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Murphy, Kevin P; Machen, M Shaun; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-02-01

    This study describes a new arthroscopic method using a whip-stitch technique for treating a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture. A 12-year-old girl who sustained a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture was treated with arthroscopic fixation using the Arthrosew disposable suture device (Surgical Dynamics, Norwalk, CT) to place a whip stitch into the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The Arthrex ACL guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to reduce the avulsed tibial spine fragment. Sutures were then passed through the tibial tunnel and secured over a bony bridge with the knee in 20 degrees of flexion. At 9 months, the patient has a full range of motion with normal Lachman and anterior drawer testing, and she has returned to competitive basketball. Radiographs show complete fracture healing. KT-1000 and isokinetic testing at 9-month follow-up show only minimal side-to-side differences. The Arthrosew device provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the ACL, thus obviating arthrotomy and hardware placement. This technique also restores the proper length and tension to the ACL, and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treatment for this injury. PMID:12579135

  12. 75 FR 66750 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power... Transmission Line Rebuild Project EIS and requesting comments about the potential environmental impacts it should consider as it prepares the EIS for the proposed project. DATES: Written comments are due to...

  13. Last Interview with W. Eugene Smith on the Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobre, Ken

    An interview with W. Eugene Smith, well-known photographer and photographic essayist, is presented in this paper. The introductory section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of Smith and a discussion of his photographic essays on a number of topics, including World War II scenes, life in a Spanish village, the work of a black midwife in…

  14. The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…

  15. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society as problems for…

  16. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  17. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical…

  18. Chris Woodhead: A New Champion of Eugenic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2009-01-01

    Eugenic Theories are clearly alive and well in present-day society--or this is at least true of those theories relating to the passing on of abilities and talents from one generation to the next. This depressing thought was prompted by a reading of Chris Woodhead's latest book "A Desolation of Learning."

  19. Echoes of a Forgotten Past: Eugenics, Testing, and Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoskopf, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Review of the work of Goddard, Terman, and Thorndike and the role of eugenics and the intelligence quotient in testing points out dangers to be avoided in the current testing climate, such as use of the business model, single-number scores, and tracking. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  20. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record of Decision (ROD..., based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE/EIS-0457, March 2012). BPA has decided... will continue to operate at 115 kV. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and EIS may be obtained by calling...

  1. Astronaut Eugene Cernan eating a meal aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A fellow crewman took this photograph of Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, eating a meal under the weightless conditions of space during the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. Cernan appears to be eating chocolate pudding.

  2. Final-Offer Arbitration: "Sudden Death" in Eugene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary; Feuille, Peter

    1974-01-01

    A case study on final offer arbitration experiences in Eugene, Oregon, is presented and discussed. Basic criticisms leveled against the final-offer system are opposed by the authors and evidence is given in support of the use of final-offer arbitration. (DS)

  3. Television transmission of Astronaut Eugene Cernan using Lunar Surface Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan operates the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Cernan is the commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission.

  4. Eugenic utopias/dystopias, reprogenetics, and community genetics.

    PubMed

    Raz, Aviad E

    2009-05-01

    The impetus for this review is the intriguing realisation that eugenics, viewed as dystopian and authoritarian in most of the 20th century, is in the process of being reinterpreted today--in the context of reproductive genetics--as utopian and liberal. This review offers an analytical framework for mapping the growing literature on this subject in order to provide a summary for both teaching and research in medical sociology. Recent works are subsumed and explored in three areas: historical criticism of the 'old eugenics'; the continuation of this stream in the form of criticism of reprogenetics as a new, 'backdoor' eugenic regime of bio-governmentality--an area which also includes the application of Foucauldian and feminist perspectives; and the recent enthusiasm regarding 'liberal eugenics,' claiming that reprogenetic decisions should be left to individual consumers thus enhancing their options in the health market. The review concludes by discussing and illustrating potential research directions in this field, with a focus on the social and ethical aspects of 'community genetics' and its emerging networks of individuals genetically at risk. PMID:19397763

  5. Screening PCR Versus Sanger Sequencing: Detection of CALR Mutations in Patients With Thrombocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Hun; Lee, Hwan Tae; Seo, Ja Young; Seo, Yiel Hea; Kim, Kyung Hee; Kim, Moon Jin; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Jinny; Hong, Jun Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in calreticulin (CALR) have been reported to be key markers in the molecular diagnosis of myeloid proliferative neoplasms. In most previous reports, CALR mutations were analyzed by using Sanger sequencing. Here, we report a new, rapid, and convenient system for screening CALR mutations without sequencing. Methods Eighty-three bone marrow samples were obtained from 81 patients with thrombocytosis. PCR primers were designed to detect wild-type CALR (product: 357 bp) and CALR with type 1 (product: 302 bp) and type 2 mutations (product: 272 bp) in one reaction. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and compared with results from fragment analysis. Results The minimum detection limit of the screening PCR was 10 ng for type 1, 1 ng for type 2, and 0.1 ng for cases with both mutations. CALR type 1 and type 2 mutants were detected with screening PCR with a maximal analytical sensitivity of 3.2% and <0.8%, respectively. The screening PCR detected 94.1% (16/17) of mutation cases and showed concordant results with sequencing in the cases of type 1 and type 2 mutations. Sanger sequencing identified one novel mutation (c.1123_1132delinsTGC). Compared with sequencing, the screening PCR showed 94.1% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity, 100.0% positive predictive value, and 98.5% negative predictive value. Compared with fragment analysis, the screening PCR presented 88.9% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity. Conclusions This screening PCR is a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for the detection of major CALR mutations. PMID:27139600

  6. [The characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in the colonial period represented in the bulletin, Woosaeng].

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Jeon

    2006-12-01

    Woosaeng, meaning "eugenic" in Korean, was a bulletin published by the Korean Eugenics Association in 1934. With detailed review of the contributors to Woosaeng, its publication background and the contents, the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and its historical implications of public health are studied. Intellectuals, especially some medical doctors educated abroad, played the pivotal role in publishing Woosaeng and leading the eugenic movement in 1930's. Lee Gabsoo, a medical doctor educated in Germany, is identified as the key person in the whole process. Most of contributors including Lee considered medical science, especially genetics, as the foundation of eugenics and had strong confidence in their belief. A variety of eugenic movements and activities, including enactment of the national eugenic law around the world. was introduced to the Korean society through Woosaeng and it reinforced the eugenic activities in Korea. Although colonial Korea at the time was being heavily imposed with Japan's culture, the eugenic activities were also influenced by Germany and the US through the contributors educated oversea. The overall content and tone of Woosaeng, revealed its 'soft' characteristics, yet it also implied its vulnerability to 'hard' eugenics. Korea's eugenic movement around Woosaeng faces turnover right before 'The Go Fast Imperialism' period. The high class intellectuals tamed by Japanese colonial paradigm in eugenics took the lead and ended up having a significant influence upon the activities around Woosaeng. And even after Koreans' liberation from Japan's annexation, they were able to retain their influence in public health area in the Korean society. In summary, Woosaeng guided us to understand the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and the historical context of public health in Korea. Moreover, Woosaeng provided a large amount of information about the eugenic movements around the world as well as in Korea. It

  7. De novo genome sequence assembly of a filamentous fungus using Sanger, 454 and Illumina sequence data

    PubMed Central

    DiGuistini, Scott; Liao, Nancy Y; Platt, Darren; Robertson, Gordon; Seidel, Michael; Chan, Simon K; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Holt, Robert A; Hirst, Martin; Mardis, Elaine; Marra, Marco A; Hamelin, Richard C; Bohlmann, Jörg; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven JM

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing-by-synthesis technologies can reduce the cost of generating de novo genome assemblies. We report a method for assembling draft genome sequences of eukaryotic organisms that integrates sequence information from different sources, and demonstrate its effectiveness by assembling an approximately 32.5 Mb draft genome sequence for the forest pathogen Grosmannia clavigera, an ascomycete fungus. We also developed a method for assessing draft assemblies using Illumina paired end read data and demonstrate how we are using it to guide future sequence finishing. Our results demonstrate that eukaryotic genome sequences can be accurately assembled by combining Illumina, 454 and Sanger sequence data. PMID:19747388

  8. Analysis of the Pythium ultimum transcriptome using Sanger and Pyrosequencing approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Foo; Win, Joe; Lang, Jillian M; Hamilton, John; Vuong, Hue; Leach, Jan E; Kamoun, Sophien; André Lévesque, C; Tisserat, Ned; Buell, C Robin

    2008-01-01

    Background Pythium species are an agriculturally important genus of plant pathogens, yet are not understood well at the molecular, genetic, or genomic level. They are closely related to other oomycete plant pathogens such as Phytophthora species and are ubiquitous in their geographic distribution and host rage. To gain a better understanding of its gene complement, we generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from the transcriptome of Pythium ultimum DAOM BR144 (= ATCC 200006 = CBS 805.95) using two high throughput sequencing methods, Sanger-based chain termination sequencing and pyrosequencing-based sequencing-by-synthesis. Results A single half-plate pyrosequencing (454 FLX) run on adapter-ligated cDNA from a normalized cDNA population generated 90,664 reads with an average read length of 190 nucleotides following cleaning and removal of sequences shorter than 100 base pairs. After clustering and assembly, a total of 35,507 unique sequences were generated. In parallel, 9,578 reads were generated from a library constructed from the same normalized cDNA population using dideoxy chain termination Sanger sequencing, which upon clustering and assembly generated 4,689 unique sequences. A hybrid assembly of both Sanger- and pyrosequencing-derived ESTs resulted in 34,495 unique sequences with 1,110 sequences (3.2%) that were solely derived from Sanger sequencing alone. A high degree of similarity was seen between P. ultimum sequences and other sequenced plant pathogenic oomycetes with 91% of the hybrid assembly derived sequences > 500 bp having similarity to sequences from plant pathogenic Phytophthora species. An analysis of Gene Ontology assignments revealed a similar representation of molecular function ontologies in the hybrid assembly in comparison to the predicted proteomes of three Phytophthora species, suggesting a broad representation of the P. ultimum transcriptome was present in the normalized cDNA population. P. ultimum sequences with similarity to oomycete

  9. MutAid: Sanger and NGS Based Integrated Pipeline for Mutation Identification, Validation and Annotation in Human Molecular Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Pabinger, Stephan; Kriegner, Albert; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Sanger sequencing as well as Next-Generation Sequencing have been used for the identification of disease causing mutations in human molecular research. The majority of currently available tools are developed for research and explorative purposes and often do not provide a complete, efficient, one-stop solution. As the focus of currently developed tools is mainly on NGS data analysis, no integrative solution for the analysis of Sanger data is provided and consequently a one-stop solution to analyze reads from both sequencing platforms is not available. We have therefore developed a new pipeline called MutAid to analyze and interpret raw sequencing data produced by Sanger or several NGS sequencing platforms. It performs format conversion, base calling, quality trimming, filtering, read mapping, variant calling, variant annotation and analysis of Sanger and NGS data under a single platform. It is capable of analyzing reads from multiple patients in a single run to create a list of potential disease causing base substitutions as well as insertions and deletions. MutAid has been developed for expert and non-expert users and supports four sequencing platforms including Sanger, Illumina, 454 and Ion Torrent. Furthermore, for NGS data analysis, five read mappers including BWA, TMAP, Bowtie, Bowtie2 and GSNAP and four variant callers including GATK-HaplotypeCaller, SAMTOOLS, Freebayes and VarScan2 pipelines are supported. MutAid is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/mutaid. PMID:26840129

  10. Arnold Gesell's progressive vision: child hygiene, socialism and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ben

    2011-08-01

    In October 1913, The American Magazine published an article by Arnold Gesell that portrayed Alma, Wisconsin (his hometown) as overflowing with the mentally and morally unfit. In "The Village of a Thousand Souls", Gesell called for the observation and segregation of the unfit as a eugenic measure. This article explores the reasons behind this infamous article by someone who became a famous developmental psychologist and pediatrician. Gesell's papers at the Library of Congress reveal his socialist views of poverty, injustice, and human development. The archives of his father's photography studio at the Wisconsin Historical Society reveal his manipulation of the photographic record to fit his negative view of Alma. Typical of the era, Gesell's Progressive vision combined social control and negative eugenics with egalitarianism and the benevolent engineering of the environment. PMID:21936236

  11. Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Gillham, N W

    2001-01-01

    The eugenics movement was initiated by Sir Francis Galton, a Victorian scientist. Galton's career can be divided into two parts. During the first, Galton was engaged in African exploration, travel writing, geography, and meteorology. The second part began after he read the Origin of Species by his cousin Charles Darwin. The book convinced Galton that humanity could be improved through selective breeding. During this part of his career he was interested in the factors that determine what he called human "talent and character" and its hereditary basis. Consequently, he delved into anthropometrics and psychology and played a major role in the development of fingerprinting. He also founded the field of biometrics, inventing such familiar statistical procedures as correlation and regression analysis. He constructed his own theory of inheritance in which nature and not nurture played the leading role. He actively began to promote eugenics and soon gained important converts. PMID:11700278

  12. Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach.

    PubMed

    Gulecal-Pektas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces. PMID:27281996

  13. A high-throughput Sanger strategy for human mitochondrial genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A population reference database of complete human mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) sequences is needed to enable the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region data in forensic casework applications. However, the development of entire mtGenome haplotypes to forensic data quality standards is difficult and laborious. A Sanger-based amplification and sequencing strategy that is designed for automated processing, yet routinely produces high quality sequences, is needed to facilitate high-volume production of these mtGenome data sets. Results We developed a robust 8-amplicon Sanger sequencing strategy that regularly produces complete, forensic-quality mtGenome haplotypes in the first pass of data generation. The protocol works equally well on samples representing diverse mtDNA haplogroups and DNA input quantities ranging from 50 pg to 1 ng, and can be applied to specimens of varying DNA quality. The complete workflow was specifically designed for implementation on robotic instrumentation, which increases throughput and reduces both the opportunities for error inherent to manual processing and the cost of generating full mtGenome sequences. Conclusions The described strategy will assist efforts to generate complete mtGenome haplotypes which meet the highest data quality expectations for forensic genetic and other applications. Additionally, high-quality data produced using this protocol can be used to assess mtDNA data developed using newer technologies and chemistries. Further, the amplification strategy can be used to enrich for mtDNA as a first step in sample preparation for targeted next-generation sequencing. PMID:24341507

  14. Reanalyze unassigned reads in Sanger based metagenomic data using conserved gene adjacency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Investigation of metagenomes provides greater insight into uncultured microbial communities. The improvement in sequencing technology, which yields a large amount of sequence data, has led to major breakthroughs in the field. However, at present, taxonomic binning tools for metagenomes discard 30-40% of Sanger sequencing data due to the stringency of BLAST cut-offs. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of metagenomic data, we re-analyzed the discarded metagenomes by using less stringent cut-offs. Additionally, we introduced a new criterion, namely, the evolutionary conservation of adjacency between neighboring genes. To evaluate the feasibility of our approach, we re-analyzed discarded contigs and singletons from several environments with different levels of complexity. We also compared the consistency between our taxonomic binning and those reported in the original studies. Results Among the discarded data, we found that 23.7 ± 3.9% of singletons and 14.1 ± 1.0% of contigs were assigned to taxa. The recovery rates for singletons were higher than those for contigs. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a high degree of similarity (0.94 ± 0.03 at the phylum rank and 0.80 ± 0.11 at the family rank) between the proposed taxonomic binning approach and those reported in original studies. In addition, an evaluation using simulated data demonstrated the reliability of the proposed approach. Conclusions Our findings suggest that taking account of conserved neighboring gene adjacency improves taxonomic assignment when analyzing metagenomes using Sanger sequencing. In other words, utilizing the conserved gene order as a criterion will reduce the amount of data discarded when analyzing metagenomes. PMID:21083935

  15. When The Time Seems Ripe: Eugenics, the Annals, and the subtle persistence of typological thinking

    PubMed Central

    WEISS, KENNETH M; LAMBERT, BRIAN W

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This journal began in 1926 as the Annals of Eugenics. Much has changed since then. The original Editors’ primary eugenic objective was not achieved, and eugenics justifiably became notorious for racism and gross abuse of human rights. But one founding aim was to publish advances in statistical genetics, and that objective prospered in the journal’s pages from its beginning to the present day. The online availability of the original issues will be useful to those interested in the history of both eugenics and human genetics, and will provide a reminder of how the careless use of genetical concepts can go astray. PMID:21488850

  16. Modeling the biomechanics of articular eminence function in anthropoid primates

    PubMed Central

    Terhune, Claire E

    2011-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cranial component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articular eminence (AE). This bar of bone is the primary surface upon which the condyle translates and rotates during movements of the mandible, and is therefore the primary point at which forces are transmitted from the mandible to the cranium during loading of the masticatory apparatus. The shape of the AE is highly variable across primates, and the raised eminence of humans has often been considered a defining feature of the human TMJ, yet few data exist to address whether this variation is functionally significant. This study used a broad interspecific sample of anthropoid primates to elaborate upon and test the predictions of a previously proposed model of AE function. This model suggests that AE inclination acts to resist non-normal forces at the TMJ, thereby maximizing bite forces (BFs). AE inclination was predicted to covary with two specific features of the masticatory apparatus: height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane; and inclination of the masticatory muscles. A correlate of this model is that taxa utilizing more resistant food objects should also exhibit relatively more inclined AEs. Results of the correlation analyses found that AE inclination is strongly correlated with height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane, but less so with inclination of the masticatory muscles. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa with documented dietary differences found that the AE is consistently more inclined in taxa that utilize more resistant food items. These data preliminarily suggest that variation in AE morphology across anthropoid primates is functionally related to maximizing BFs, and add to the growing dataset of masticatory morphologies linked to feeding behavior. PMID:21923720

  17. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using Sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-quality transcriptome assembly for chickpea has been developed using ~135 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads, and 139 thousand Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs). This hybrid transcriptome assembly, which we refer to as the "Cicer arietinum Transcripto...

  18. Science and Society in the Eugenic Thought of H. J. Muller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Garland E.

    1970-01-01

    Traces the growth of theories of eugenics during the twentieth century, focussing on the work of H. J. Muller. Concludes that "Muller's lasting contribution was to write the hereditarian attitudes associated with traditional eugenics and the environmentalist's viewpoint associated with modern sociology to obtain a humane and reasoned approach to…

  19. Resistance in School and Society: Public and Pedagogical Debates about Eugenics, 1900-1947.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews positions of scientists, educators and publicists who resisted eugenics and determinism. The nature nurture controversy is discussed, as well as the impact of eugenics on American classrooms. Specific attention is given to four resisters: Dewey, Bagley, Jennings, and Lippmann. (IAH)

  20. Eugenics and education: Implications of ideology, memory, and history for education in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, Ann Gibson

    Eugenics has been variously described "as an ideal, as a doctrine, as a science (applied human genetics), as a set of practices (ranging from birth control to euthanasia), and as a social movement" (Paul 1998 p. 95). "Race Suicide" (Roosevelt 1905) and the ensuing national phobia regarding the "children of worm eaten stock" (Bobbitt 1909) prefaced an era of eugenic ideology whose influence on education has been largely ignored until recently. Using the concept of collective memory, I examine the eugenics movement, its progressive context, and its influence on the aims, policy and practice of education. Specifically, this study examines the ideology of eugenics as a specific category and set of distinctions, and the role of collective memory in providing the mechanism whereby eugenic ideology may shape and fashion interpretation and action in current educational practice. The formation of education as a distinct academic discipline, the eugenics movement, and the Progressive era coalesced during the first decades of the twentieth century to form what has turned out to be a lasting alliance. This alliance has had a profound impact on public perception of the role of schools, how students are classified and sorted, degrees and definitions of intelligence, attitudes and beliefs surrounding multiculturalism and a host of heretofore unexplored ramifications. My research is primarily historical and theoretical and uses those material and media cultural artifacts generated by the eugenics movement to explore the relationship between eugenic ideology and the institution of education.

  1. A Cabinet of Mathematical Curiosities at Teachers College: David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a history of David Eugene Smith's collection of historical books, manuscripts, portraits, and instruments related to mathematics. The study analyzes surviving documents, images, objects, college announcements and catalogs, and secondary sources related to Smith's collection. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944) travelled…

  2. Between two worlds: Yamanouchi Shigeo and eugenics in early twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Sumiko

    2005-04-01

    This paper explores the eugenic through of Yamanouchi Shigeo (1876-1973), who was trained in plant cytology under the tutelage of botanist and eugenicist John Coulter (1851-1928) in the USA, and later become one of the early and important popularizers of eugenic ideas in Japan. His career demonstrates a direct link between Japanese and US eugenics. Despite his academic training and research at various internationally renowned institutions, numerous publications, and longevity, his life has received little scholarly attention. By the early twentieth century, most biologists in Japan, as in the USA, began accepting Mendelian evolutionary theory and rejecting the Lamarckian notion of inheritance of acquire characteristics. However, Yamanouchi Shigeo's eugenic view represents a paradox: he was a mendelian cytologist sympathetic to Lamarckism. Was his 'nurture'-oriented eugenic view unscientific? is that why he was largely ignored in the history of botany in Japan? This study attempts to answer these questions and to analyse the origins and distinct features of Yamanouchi's eugenic ideas by situating Yamanouchi's eugenic through historically and culturally. After examining his scientific papers, popular writings, and documents of various organizations to which he belonged, I argue that Yamanouchi's 'softer' (or less biologically deterministic) perspective may have reflected the Japanese desire to catch up with the dominant 'race' by using eugenics without accepting permanent inferior status. PMID:15789487

  3. The Emergence of Genetic Counseling in Sweden: Examples from Eugenics and Medical Genetics.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the intertwined relations between eugenics and medical genetics from a Swedish perspective in the 1940s and 1950s. The Swedish case shows that a rudimentary form of genetic counseling emerged within eugenic practices in the applications of the Swedish Sterilization Act of 1941, here analyzed from the phenomenon of "heredophobia" (ärftlighetsskräck). At the same time genetic counseling also existed outside eugenic practices, within the discipline of medical genetics. The paper argues that a demand for genetic counseling increased in the 1940s and 1950s in response to a sense of reproductive responsibility engendered by earlier eugenic discourse. The paper also questions the claim made by theoreticians of biopolitics that biological citizens have emerged only during the last decades, especially in neoliberal societies. From the Swedish case it is possible to argue that this had already happened earlier in relation to the proliferation of various aspects of eugenics to the public. PMID:26256508

  4. Noncontinuously binding loop-out primers for avoiding problematic DNA sequences in PCR and sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Kelli; Swensen, Jeffrey J; Procter, Melinda; Jama, Mohamed; Wooderchak-Donahue, Whitney; Lewis, Tracey; Fong, Michael; Hubley, Lindsey; Schwarz, Monica; Ha, Youna; Paul, Eleri; Brulotte, Benjamin; Lyon, Elaine; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Mao, Rong; Pont-Kingdon, Genevieve; Best, D Hunter

    2014-09-01

    We present a method in which noncontinuously binding (loop-out) primers are used to exclude regions of DNA that typically interfere with PCR amplification and/or analysis by Sanger sequencing. Several scenarios were tested using this design principle, including M13-tagged PCR primers, non-M13-tagged PCR primers, and sequencing primers. With this technique, a single oligonucleotide is designed in two segments that flank, but do not include, a short region of problematic DNA sequence. During PCR amplification or sequencing, the problematic region is looped-out from the primer binding site, where it does not interfere with the reaction. Using this method, we successfully excluded regions of up to 46 nucleotides. Loop-out primers were longer than traditional primers (27 to 40 nucleotides) and had higher melting temperatures. This method allows the use of a standardized PCR protocol throughout an assay, keeps the number of PCRs to a minimum, reduces the chance for laboratory error, and, above all, does not interrupt the clinical laboratory workflow. PMID:25017792

  5. Implementing a genomic data management system using iRODS in the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasingly large amounts of DNA sequencing data are being generated within the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI). The traditional file system struggles to handle these increasing amounts of sequence data. A good data management system therefore needs to be implemented and integrated into the current WTSI infrastructure. Such a system enables good management of the IT infrastructure of the sequencing pipeline and allows biologists to track their data. Results We have chosen a data grid system, iRODS (Rule-Oriented Data management systems), to act as the data management system for the WTSI. iRODS provides a rule-based system management approach which makes data replication much easier and provides extra data protection. Unlike the metadata provided by traditional file systems, the metadata system of iRODS is comprehensive and allows users to customize their own application level metadata. Users and IT experts in the WTSI can then query the metadata to find and track data. The aim of this paper is to describe how we designed and used (from both system and user viewpoints) iRODS as a data management system. Details are given about the problems faced and the solutions found when iRODS was implemented. A simple use case describing how users within the WTSI use iRODS is also introduced. Conclusions iRODS has been implemented and works as the production system for the sequencing pipeline of the WTSI. Both biologists and IT experts can now track and manage data, which could not previously be achieved. This novel approach allows biologists to define their own metadata and query the genomic data using those metadata. PMID:21906284

  6. "A century of civilization under the influence of eugenics": Dr. Enrique Diego Madrazo, socialism and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the thought of one of the pioneers of eugenics in Spain, Dr. Enrique Diego Madrazo. In particular, it analyses his 1930 essay Un siglo de civilización bajo la influencia eugenésica [A Century of Civilization under the Influence of Eugenics], as the most explicit work on the eugenic utopia he advocated. This work, because of its breadth, was also one of the most extensive and detailed accounts of the steps to be taken towards the eugenic society that was produced. The present analysis of his work assesses the degree to which his thought, which has been described as "utopian socialist", in fact corresponded to that epithet, given the politically authoritarian nature and the gender bias of some aspects of his one-hundred year plan for the creation of a eugenic society. The article also places Madrazo's thought in the context of his time and other national currents of eugenic thought. PMID:17214140

  7. Confronting the stigma of eugenics: genetics, demography and the problems of population.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2009-12-01

    Building upon the work of Thomas Gieryn and Erving Goffman, this paper will explore how the concepts of stigma and boundary work can be usefully applied to history of population science. Having been closely aligned to eugenics in the early 20th century, from the 1930s both demographers and geneticists began to establish a boundary between their own disciplines and eugenic ideology. The eugenics movement responded to this process of stigmatization. Through strategies defined by Goffman as 'disclosure' and 'concealment', stigma was managed, and a limited space for eugenics was retained in science and policy. Yet by the 1960s, a revitalized eugenics movement was bringing leading social and biological scientists together through the study of the genetic demography of characteristics such as intelligence. The success of this programme of 'stigma transformation' resulted from its ability to allow geneticists and demographers to conceive of eugenic improvement in ways that seemed consistent with the ideals of individuality, diversity and liberty. In doing so, it provided them with an alternative, and a challenge, to more radical and controversial programmes to realize an optimal genotype and population. The processes of stigma attribution and management are, however, ongoing, and since the rise of the nature-nurture controversy in the 1970s, the use of eugenics as a 'stigma symbol' has prevailed. PMID:20506743

  8. The strength of a loosely defined movement: eugenics and medicine in imperial Russia.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the 'infiltration' of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900-17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859-1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879-1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia's and Iudin's attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  9. The Strength of a Loosely Defined Movement: Eugenics and Medicine in Imperial Russia

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the ‘infiltration’ of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900–17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859–1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879–1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia’s and Iudin’s attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  10. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  11. Homozygosity Mapping and Targeted Sanger Sequencing Reveal Genetic Defects Underlying Inherited Retinal Disease in Families from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani; Mustafa, Bilal; Ayub, Humaira; Ali, Liaqat; Ahmad, Shakeel; Micheal, Shazia; Hussain, Alamdar; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Ahmed, Waqas; Khan, Yar Muhammad; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Collin, Rob W. J.; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Qamar, Raheel; Cremers, Frans P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Homozygosity mapping has facilitated the identification of the genetic causes underlying inherited diseases, particularly in consanguineous families with multiple affected individuals. This knowledge has also resulted in a mutation dataset that can be used in a cost and time effective manner to screen frequent population-specific genetic variations associated with diseases such as inherited retinal disease (IRD). Methods We genetically screened 13 families from a cohort of 81 Pakistani IRD families diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), or cone dystrophy (CD). We employed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals and performed Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes located in the sizeable homozygous regions. In addition, based on population specific mutation data we performed targeted Sanger sequencing (TSS) of frequent variants in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, GUCY2D, LCA5, RPGRIP1 and TULP1, in probands from 28 LCA families. Results Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes revealed the underlying mutations in 10 families. TSS revealed causative variants in three families. In these 13 families four novel mutations were identified in CNGA1, CNGB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1. Conclusions Homozygosity mapping and TSS revealed the underlying genetic cause in 13 IRD families, which is useful for genetic counseling as well as therapeutic interventions that are likely to become available in the near future. PMID:25775262

  12. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations. PMID:25090126

  13. Inbreeding, eugenics, and Helen Dean King (1869-1955).

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey

    2007-01-01

    Helen Dean King's scientific work focused on inbreeding using experimental data collected from standardized laboratory rats to elucidate problems in human heredity. The meticulous care with which she carried on her inbreeding experiments assured that her results were dependable and her theoretical explanations credible. By using her nearly homozygous rats as desired commodities, she also was granted access to venues and people otherwise unavailable to her as a woman. King's scientific career was made possible through her life experiences. She earned a doctorate from Bryn Mawr College under Thomas Hunt Morgan and spent a productive career at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology in Philadelphia where she had access to the experimental subjects which made her career possible. In this paper I examine King's work on inbreeding, her participation in the debates over eugenics, her position at the Wistar Institute, her status as a woman working with mostly male scientists, and her involvement with popular science. PMID:18348398

  14. Eugene Island Block 330 field-development and production history

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.L.; Dupuy, M.J.

    1983-11-01

    Eugene Island Block 330 field is currently the largest oilproducing field in federally owned offshore waters of the U.S. The field is located about 170 miles southwest of New Orleans (Fig. 1). The first leases were purchased in Dec. 1970. Three months later, a major discovery was apparent when exploratory wells drilled by Pennzoil and Shell on adjoining Blocks 330 and 331, respectively, established a 900-ft column of hydrocarbon-bearing sands. By the end of 1971, two platforms had been set, and development was under way. Four more platforms were set during 1972 and ultimately nine platforms were installed in the field. Initial production began in Sept. 1972 from Block 331. Hydrocarbon accumulation occurs in more than 25 sandstone reservoirs located at 2,200 to 12,000 ft. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be greater than 225 million bbl of liquid hydrocarbons and 950 Bcf of gas. Improved recovery operations began in Aug. 1975, utilizing water injection on Blocks 331 and 314 and through-gas injection in Dec. 1979 on Block 330. Through Dec. 1982, cumulative production was 224 million bbl of liquid and 1.03 Tcf of gas. This production is graphically illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3. This field is unique in the quick timing of operations to develop and initiate production. In summary, the Eugene Island Block 330 field is a major oil and gas field in which the hydrocarbons have accumulated in more than 25 Plio-Pleistocene deltaic sandstone reservoirs. Trapping mechanisms are combinations of structural and stratigraphic varieties including fourway dip closure, fault closure, and facies changes.

  15. Eugenics, sexual pedagogy and social change: constructing the responsible subject of governmentality in the Spanish Second Republic.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Alonso, Belén

    2008-06-01

    This study focuses on eugenics in Spain, and more specifically on the 'official' eugenics whose platform was the Primeras Jornadas Eugénicas Españolas (First Spanish Eugenic Days, FSED). The aim of this paper is to relate eugenics to 'governmentality' rather than to State politics alone and to 'Latin eugenics' rather than to 'mainline eugenics'. On the one hand, the FSED were largely centred on the development of a new sexual code which would set Catholic sexual morality aside. For this reason, sexual pedagogy was one of the most relevant topics during the FSED, personal responsibility becoming the first step to social change. The concern about making people play an active role in their own self-regulation is typical of governmentality. The latter refers to societies where power is decentered and where the objective is to structure the field of action of others (the conduct of conduct). On the other hand, the FSED emphasised preventive eugenics such as welfare programmes and health campaigns rather than negative eugenics such as the sterilisation of the unfit. The situation in Spain was mirrored in countries such as Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, which allows us to think about them in terms of 'Latin eugenics' rather than 'mainline eugenics' from countries such as Great Britain, Germany and the USA. PMID:18534356

  16. Official portrait of STS-50 USML payload specialist Eugene H. Trinh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Official portrait of STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-01 payload specialist Dr. Eugene H. Trinh in blue flight suit with US flag and space shuttle model in the background.

  17. Eugene – A Domain Specific Language for Specifying and Constraining Synthetic Biological Parts, Devices, and Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bilitchenko, Lesia; Liu, Adam; Cheung, Sherine; Weeding, Emma; Xia, Bing; Leguia, Mariana; Anderson, J. Christopher; Densmore, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic biological systems are currently created by an ad-hoc, iterative process of specification, design, and assembly. These systems would greatly benefit from a more formalized and rigorous specification of the desired system components as well as constraints on their composition. Therefore, the creation of robust and efficient design flows and tools is imperative. We present a human readable language (Eugene) that allows for the specification of synthetic biological designs based on biological parts, as well as provides a very expressive constraint system to drive the automatic creation of composite Parts (Devices) from a collection of individual Parts. Results We illustrate Eugene's capabilities in three different areas: Device specification, design space exploration, and assembly and simulation integration. These results highlight Eugene's ability to create combinatorial design spaces and prune these spaces for simulation or physical assembly. Eugene creates functional designs quickly and cost-effectively. Conclusions Eugene is intended for forward engineering of DNA-based devices, and through its data types and execution semantics, reflects the desired abstraction hierarchy in synthetic biology. Eugene provides a powerful constraint system which can be used to drive the creation of new devices at runtime. It accomplishes all of this while being part of a larger tool chain which includes support for design, simulation, and physical device assembly. PMID:21559524

  18. Eugenics discourse and racial improvement in Republican China (1911-1949).

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-hwan

    2010-12-31

    This paper aimed to examine the advent of eugenics and its characteristics in republican China. Although eugenics was introduced into China as a discourse to preserve and improve race by the 1898 reformers such as Yan Fu (1854-1921) and Yi Nai (1875-?) in the late imperial period, it was not until the republican period that eugenics discourse started to combine with the discourse and movement related to social reform. The May 4th intellectuals put forward criticisms of Confucian patriarchy, propagating science and democracy. They pointed out that the large family system was a source of every social evil, and argued the need for a small family system based on monogamy. The aim of the small family system was to improve both the race and the environment. Such thinkers argued that freedom of love and the liberation of individuality were necessary for this end. Zhou Jianren (1888-1984), Lu Xun's youngest brother and representative eugenicist in the May 4th period, combined eugenics with freedom of love and the liberation of individuality. Pan Guangdan (1899-1967) and Zhou Jianren debated the eugenics controversy in the 1920s. They raised the freedom of love and the liberation of individuality as central issues related to the eugenics controversy. The eugenics debate was developed into the controversy between biological determinism and environmentalism in the late 1920s. However, these issues did not continue to be brought up in the 1930s. The main issues concerning the eugenics controversy in the 1930s were cultural identity and the population problem. Particularly in the 1930s, the scope of birth control as the solution to the population problem was extended from the individual person and family to nation and race. For eugenicists like Pan Guangdan, birth control violated the aim of eugenics and brought about the degeneration of the race. However, such theorists did not deny the value of birth control itself. The supporters of birth control thought that selecting

  19. Rapid Sanger Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene for Identification of Some Common Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangbiao; Shi, Xiaojun; Su, Jianhui; Chen, Guanwu; Lin, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Conventional Sanger sequencing remains time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a rapid improved sequencing protocol of 16S rRNA for pathogens identification by using a new combination of SYBR Green I real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing with FTA® cards. To compare the sequencing quality of this method with conventional Sanger sequencing, 12 strains, including three kinds of strains (1 reference strain and 3 clinical strains, which were previously identified by biochemical tests), which have 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 Staphyloccocus aureus and 4 Escherichia coli, were targeted. Additionally, to validate the sequencing results and bacteria identification, expanded specimens with 90 clinical strains, also comprised of the three kinds of strains which included 30 samples respectively, were performed as just described. The results showed that although statistical differences (P<0.05) were found in sequencing quality between the two methods, their identification results were all correct and consistent. The workload, the time consumption and the cost per batch were respectively light versus heavy, 8 h versus 11 h and $420 versus $400. In the 90 clinical strains, all of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus strains were correctly identified, but only 26.7% of the Escherichia coli strains were recognized as Escherichia coli, while 33.3% as Shigella sonnei and 40% as Shigella dysenteriae. The protocol described here is a rapid, reliable, stable and convenient method for 16S rRNA sequencing, and can be used for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus identification, yet it is not completely suitable for discriminating Escherichia coli and Shigella strains. PMID:24551186

  20. Comparing Whole-Genome Sequencing with Sanger Sequencing for spa Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Andreas; Worning, Peder; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Larner-Svensson, Hanna; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Andersen, Leif Percival; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Westh, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has traditionally been done by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the spa repeat region. At Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of all MRSA isolates has been performed routinely since January 2013, and an in-house analysis pipeline determines the spa types. Due to national surveillance, all MRSA isolates are sent to Statens Serum Institut, where the spa type is determined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the spa types obtained by 150-bp paired-end Illumina WGS. MRSA isolates from new MRSA patients in 2013 (n = 699) in the capital region of Denmark were included. We found a 97% agreement between spa types obtained by the two methods. All isolates achieved a spa type by both methods. Nineteen isolates differed in spa types by the two methods, in most cases due to the lack of 24-bp repeats in the whole-genome-sequenced isolates. These related but incorrect spa types should have no consequence in outbreak investigations, since all epidemiologically linked isolates, regardless of spa type, will be included in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. This will reveal the close relatedness of the spa types. In conclusion, our data show that WGS is a reliable method to determine the spa type of MRSA. PMID:25297335

  1. Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.

    PubMed

    Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D

    2013-09-01

    The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work. PMID:23179067

  2. [Neurocosmetics, transhumanism and eliminative materialism: toward new ways of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Echarte Alonso, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I present similarities and connections between Transhumanism and Eliminative Materialism. Concretely, I study the arguments with which in both positions it is defended a merely instrumental idea of human body and, because of that, one infinitely mouldable. First, I show the social relevance of this idea and its projections in phenomena as medicalization of human condition and, especially, cosmetic psychopharmacology. Besides, I denounce that such influences are caused by illegitimate transference of authority between philosophical and scientific forums. Second, according to my analysis, these new postmodern fashions of chemical sentimentalism (related with radical changes on personal identity and human nature) drive to new eugenic forms what I name autoeugenics. Finally, I call attention to the important role of utopian speeches about the science of tomorrow and super-human civilization in a Carpe Diem society. In my conclusions, I claim that historical reasoning or warnings about what is coming are not efficient strategies to control neither new psychopharmacological habits nor passivity generated by them. Returning social confidence in the power of reason to achieve reality (and other human beings) is, in my opinion, the best way to rehabilitate a more and more devalued human action. PMID:22548656

  3. Eugenics, politics and the state: social democracy and the Swiss 'gardening state'.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the connections between eugenics, politics and the state, taking the Swiss case as a particular focus. It is argued that Switzerland provides a historical example of what Bauman [Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.] describes as 'gardening states': states that are concerned with eliminating the 'bad weeds' from the national garden and thereby constructing sharply exclusionary national identities. The Swiss experiments with eugenics (1920s-1960s) can be seen as an example of an ongoing struggle against 'difference'. Against this backdrop I will examine, first, the ways in which state regulation of reproductive sexuality, and other eugenic measures, became central mechanisms for dealing with cultural and other 'differences' in the Swiss nation. Second, I will analyse the gendered nature of such mechanisms, as well as the preoccupation with racial 'difference' exemplified by eugenic policies towards 'Gypsies'. To conclude, I will examine the impact of political institutions and political ideology, in particular, social democracy, on these eugenic gardening efforts. PMID:18534358

  4. From 'beastly philosophy' to medical genetics: eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers an overview of the three distinct periods in the development of Russian eugenics: Imperial (1900-1917), Bolshevik (1917-1929), and Stalinist (1930-1939). Began during the Imperial era as a particular discourse on the issues of human heredity, diversity, and evolution, in the early years of the Bolshevik rule eugenics was quickly institutionalized as a scientific discipline--complete with societies, research establishments, and periodicals--that aspired an extensive grassroots following, generated lively public debates, and exerted considerable influence on a range of medical, public health, and social policies. In the late 1920s, in the wake of Joseph Stalin's 'Great Break', eugenics came under intense critique as a 'bourgeois' science and its proponents quickly reconstituted their enterprise as 'medical genetics'. Yet, after a brief period of rapid growth during the early 1930s, medical genetics was dismantled as a 'fascist science' towards the end of the decade. Based on published and original research, this essay examines the factors that account for such an unusual--as compared to the development of eugenics in other locales during the same period--historical trajectory of Russian eugenics. PMID:21466003

  5. Prenatal diagnosis as a tool and support for eugenics: myth or reality in contemporary French society?

    PubMed

    Gaille, Marie; Viot, Géraldine

    2013-02-01

    Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in this article has been elaborated jointly by a geneticist and a philosopher. Besides a survey of the medical, bioethical, philosophical and social sciences literature on the topic, the methodology is founded on a joint analysis of geneticist's various consults. Evidence from office visits demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis leads to case-by-case decisions. As we have suggested, this conclusion does not mean that prenatal diagnosis is devoid of ethical issues, and we have identified at least two. The first is related to the evaluation of a decision to abort. The second line of ethical questions arises from the fact that the claim for "normality" hardly hides normative and ambiguous views about disability. As a conclusion, ethical dilemmas keep being noticeable in the field of reproductive medicine and genetic counselling, but an enquiry about eugenic tendencies probably does not allow us to understand them in the proper way. PMID:22814726

  6. Childhood Giftedness and Adulthood Genius: A Historiometric Analysis of 291 Eminent African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2008-01-01

    Although the association between giftedness and genius has been the subject of several retrospective, longitudinal, and historiometric studies, this research concentrated on majority-culture samples. In the current study, Cox's (1926) findings regarding 301 geniuses were replicated on a sample of 291 eminent African Americans. Relative genius was…

  7. Eminence-Focused Gifted Education: Concerns about Forward Movement Void of an Equity Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Tarek C.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on Grantham's commentary on an eminence-focused gifted education model developed by Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Worrell. Grantham primarily reviews the model from an equity perspective, taking into account the changing demographics in the nation's public schools. Specifically, Grantham asserts that education leaders…

  8. Alternative Pathways to Talent Development in Music: The Narrative of an Eminent Filipino Singer-Songwriter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2014-01-01

    The narrative of an eminent Filipino singer-songwriter, Noel Cabangon, provides a description of an alternative pathway to musical talent development. Most theories on talent development assume that a young artist would have access to the resources required for one to advance in the domain. The results of multiple in-depth interviews suggested…

  9. Linking Extreme Precocity and Adult Eminence: A Study of Eight Prodigies at International Chess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Do prodigies have extraordinary innate talent or do they just start very early and get much practice? Why do relatively few become eminent as adults? Is it because early and later success often need somewhat different abilities and gatekeepers rule? International chess is a good test domain for both issues because it has objective longitudinal…

  10. Is Mandibular Fossa Morphology and Articular Eminence Inclination Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Abolvardi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Finding a significant relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology and the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) may help early prediction and prevention of these problems. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to determine the morphology of mandibular fossa and the articular eminence inclination in patients with TMD and in control group using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method The CBCT data of bilateral TMJs of 40 patients with TMD and 23 symptom-free cases were evaluated. The articular eminence inclination, as well as the glenoid fossa depth and width of the mandibular fossa were measured. The paired t-test was used to compare these values between two groups. Results The articular eminence inclination and glenoid fossa width and depth were significantly higher in patients with TMD than in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The articular eminence inclination was steeper in patients with TMD than in the control group. Glenoid fossa width and depth were higher in patients with TMD than that in the control group. This information may shed light on the relationship between TMJ morphology and the incidence of TMD. PMID:27284559

  11. Transient structures of the human fetal brain: subplate, thalamic reticular complex, ganglionic eminence.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, N; Neudörfer, F; Bohl, J

    2000-07-01

    Morphological features of the subplate, the thalamic reticular complex and the ganglionic eminence, which represent three major transient structures of the human fetal forebrain, are summarized with special reference to their functional roles. The subplate harboring various neuronal types is an outstandingly wide zone subjacent to the cortical plate in the human fetal brain. Within the subplate various cortical afferents establish synaptic contacts for a prolonged period before entering the cortical plate. Therefore, the subplate is regarded as a "waiting compartment" which is required for the formation of mature cortical connections. Next to the thalamic reticular nucleus, within the fibers of internal capsule, the perireticular nucleus is located which has been established as a distinct entity during development. Its various neuronal types express a number of different neuroactive substances. Perinatally, the perireticular nucleus is drastically reduced in size. It is involved in the guidance of corticofugal and thalamocortical fibers. The ganglionic eminence is a conspicuous proliferative area that persists throughout nearly the entire fetal period. In the human fetal brain it extends medially upon the dorsal thalamic nuclei which receive precursor cells from the ganglionic eminence. Postmitotic cells in the marginal zone of the ganglionic eminence serve as an intermediate target for growing axons. On the whole, all three structures establish transient neural circuitries that may be essential for the formation of adult projections. The characteristics of the three transient structures are particularly relevant for developmental neuropathology as these structures may be damaged in disorders that preferentially occur in preterm infants. PMID:10963122

  12. Comparison of Illumina de novo assembled and Sanger sequenced viral genomes: A case study for RNA viruses recovered from the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mahmoud E; Varsani, Arvind; Ganley, Austen R D; Pearson, Michael N

    2016-07-01

    The advent of 'next generation sequencing' (NGS) technologies has led to the discovery of many novel mycoviruses, the majority of which are sufficiently different from previously sequenced viruses that there is no appropriate reference sequence on which to base the sequence assembly. Although many new genome sequences are generated by NGS, confirmation of the sequence by Sanger sequencing is still essential for formal classification by the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), although this is currently under review. To empirically test the validity of de novo assembled mycovirus genomes from dsRNA extracts, we compared the results from Illumina sequencing with those from random cloning plus targeted PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing for viruses from five Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates. Through Sanger sequencing we detected nine viral genomes while through Illumina sequencing we detected the same nine viruses plus one additional virus from the same samples. Critically, the Illumina derived sequences share >99.3 % identity to those obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Although, there is scope for errors in de novo assembled viral genomes, our results demonstrate that by maximising the proportion of viral sequence in the data and using sufficiently rigorous quality controls, it is possible to generate de novo genome sequences of comparable accuracy from Illumina sequencing to those obtained by Sanger sequencing. PMID:26581665

  13. 77 FR 64349 - Notice of Availability of the Draft West Eugene Wetlands Resource Management Plan/Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... process was initiated on June 8, 2011, through a Notice of Intent published in the Federal Register (76 FR... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft West Eugene Wetlands Resource Management...) for the West Eugene Wetlands and by this notice is announcing the opening of the comment period....

  14. Ethical dimensions of yousheng (healthy birth or eugenics): the perspective of a Chinese ethicist.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kailin

    2002-10-01

    Yousheng meaning eugenics or healthy-birth and youyu meaning good-upbringing are necessary requirements for the development of human beings and therefore of humankind generally. There are enormous ethical issues involved in eugenics. An important task or calling of contemporary bioethics and ethics of population is to discuss these issues in order for people, even people in different countries and cultures, to reach some basic consensus and have practical ethical guidance. Based on the practice of yousheng in contemporary China, this paper offers a Chinese perspective on ethical dimensions of eugenics. It will argue that individuals, as members of society, have a duty to provide society with healthy and normal children. Moreover, this paper examines the relationships between the aim and the means and conflicts between collective value and individual value, in yousheng. PMID:15587510

  15. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    PubMed

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations. PMID:26111842

  16. Emancipation through interaction--how eugenics and statistics converged and diverged.

    PubMed

    Louçã, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the scope and influence of eugenics in defining the scientific programme of statistics and the impact of the evolution of biology on social scientists. It argues that eugenics was instrumental in providing a bridge between sciences, and therefore created both the impulse and the institutions necessary for the birth of modern statistics in its applications first to biology and then to the social sciences. Looking at the question from the point of view of the history of statistics and the social sciences, and mostly concentrating on evidence from the British debates, the paper discusses how these disciplines became emancipated from eugenics precisely because of the inspiration of biology. It also relates how social scientists were fascinated and perplexed by the innovations taking place in statistical theory and practice. PMID:20481126

  17. Differences in articular-eminence inclination between medieval and contemporary human populations.

    PubMed

    Kranjčić, Josip; Vojvodić, Denis; Žabarović, Domagoj; Vodanović, Marin; Komar, Daniel; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-08-01

    The articular-eminence inclination is an important element in the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint and the entire masticatory system; however, very little is known about this inclination in archaeological human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the values of, in addition to the differences between, the articular-eminence inclination in medieval and contemporary human populations. The study was carried out on two dry skull groups. The first group consisted of 14 dry skulls from the medieval culture group Bijelo Brdo (BB) of East Croatia, and the other consisted of 137 recent dry skulls from the osteologic collection of the Institute of Anatomy (IA) in Zagreb. All BB skulls were dentulous, whereas the IA skulls were divided into dentulous and edentulous groups. The articular-eminence inclination was measured in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane on digital images of the skull's two lateral views using AutoCAD computer software. The mean value of the articular-eminence inclination in the BB sample group (49.57°) was lower, with a statistical significance (p<0.01), than those of the IA dentulous (61.56°), the IA edentulous (62.54°), and all the combined IA (61.99°) specimens. Because the values of the articular-eminence inclination can vary a lot with reference to the number of specimens and the different methods used for measuring, the obtained values yield only orientational information. Further investigations including a larger number of medieval specimens are needed to confirm the results obtained from this study. PMID:22721644

  18. [Unwanted memory, the Polish eugenic movement in between-the-wars period: side-notes to Krzysztof Kawalec's article].

    PubMed

    Gawin, M

    2001-01-01

    A polemical response to Krzysztof Kawalec's article 'Dispute over Eugenics in 1918-1939', published in 'Medycyna Nowizytna' ['Modern Medicine'], 2000, vol. 7, fascicle 2. In his article Krzysztof Kawalec overlooks the issue of race, which had been at the centre of the eugenic ideology, and then erroneously situates eugenicists on the political spectrum. The eugenicists were not radicals or totalitarians but constituted a group of leftist-liberal intellectuals. Their views were rejected by the Polish government circles in power at that time, not without the deterring influence of Nazi racism and the opposition of the Catholic Church. The main reason why eugenic notions suffered a defeat in pre-war Poland was the isolation and political weakness of eugenic circles. Therefore, issues relating to Polish eugenics during the two decades between the two World Wars should be consigned to a much greater degree to the realm of learning and social movements rather than to the political sphere. PMID:12568101

  19. Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32

  20. Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32

  1. Reflections on Mental Retardation and Eugenics, Old and New: Mensa and the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the moral and ethical issues of mental retardation and a continuing legacy of belief in eugenics. It discusses the involuntary sterilization of Carrie Buck in 1927, support for legalized killing of subnormal infants by 47% of respondents to a Mensa survey, and implications of the Human Genome Project for the field of mental…

  2. Education Policy and Biological Science: Genetics, Eugenics, and the College Textbook, c. 1908-1931.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1985-01-01

    A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)

  3. The Killing Thought in the Eugenic Era and Today: A Commentary on Hollander's Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    1989-01-01

    Two responses to Hollander (EC 220 057) and the author's counter-response note similarities between "mercy killing" of people with mental retardation and deliberate abortion of the unborn, misuse of the history of eugenics, and a defense of the author's historical scholarship. (DB)

  4. The Human Genome Project and Eugenics: Identifying the Impact on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuna, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)

  5. Eugenics and Education: A Note on the Origins of the Intelligence Testing Movement in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Roy

    1980-01-01

    Examines influence of Francis Galton and the Eugenics Education Society in the intelligence testing movement in England (early 1900s). For eugenicists, the central issue confronting society was the problem of racial deterioration. They responded with modification of the Binet-Simon tests and developed tests to examine the whole ability range.…

  6. Thoughts on the Changing Meaning of Disability: New Eugenics or New Wholeness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the impact of eugenics on people with disabilities and the danger that they will be further devalued in a world of increasing genetic manipulation. Margaret Mead's concept of providing opportunities for all people to learn how to participate wholly in society and the need for an ethical revolution are discussed. (CR)

  7. The Hunt for Disability: The New Eugenics and the Normalization of School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2002-01-01

    Examines issues of sameness, difference, equality, and democracy in present public school systems, focusing on the question of (dis)ability and implications of rethinking (dis)ability as an ontological issue before its inscription as an educational one concerning the politics of inclusion. The paper analyzes old and new discourses of eugenics as…

  8. Professionalization and the Null Curriculum: The Case of the Popular Eugenics Movement and American Educational Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Presents an essay review of three recent books on eugenics, a once popular quasiscientific and politically conservative social movement devoted to the improvement of humankind through programs of selective breeding and marriage restriction. States that educators must study and come to grips with the meaning of this movement in order to appreciate…

  9. Astronaut Eugene Cernan salutes deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander, salutes the deployed U.S. flag on the lunar surface during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The lunar module is at the left background and the lunar roving vehicle, also in background, is partially obscured. The photo was made by Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot.

  10. 78 FR 21583 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Eugene-Springfield PM10

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 52 and 81 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Eugene-Springfield PM10 Nonattainment Area Limited Maintenance Plan and Redesignation Request AGENCY:...

  11. Eugene F. Kranz wears special vest to celebrate 41-C mission landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Eugene F. Kranz, Director of Mission Operations, wears special red, white and blue striped vest to celebrate 41-C mission landing. He stands at the rear row of consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of JSC's Mission Control Center.

  12. Program Documentation and Evaluation. Workshop (Eugene, Oregon, April 12-14, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Teacher Corps Network, Bellingham, WA.

    Emphasis on the systematic evaluation of federally funded programs has steadily increased over the last several years. In response to this increased emphasis, a workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, on April 12-14, 1977, to familiarize the directors and selected staff members from six Far West Teacher Corps Network projects with the program…

  13. Restoring "Speech" and "Time" to Communication Theory: Contributions of Franz Rosenzweig and Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eugene D.; McConnell, Kathleen

    It has been said that the contribution of Franz Rosenzweig and Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy to the social sciences is their understanding of speech and time. Rosenstock-Huessy criticized modern communication theory because it assumes that one communicates to express thought, claiming instead that because speech necessitates the presence of a listener,…

  14. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence.

    PubMed

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K

    2007-06-01

    Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease. PMID:17499855

  15. A Case of Nonunion Avulsion Fracture of the Anterior Tibial Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is an uncommon injury. If bone union does not occur, knee extension will be limited by impingement of the avulsed fragment and knee instability will be induced by dysfunction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This report describes a 55-year-old woman who experienced an avulsion fracture of the right anterior tibial eminence during recreational skiing. Sixteen months later, she presented at our hospital with limitation of right knee extension. Plain radiography showed nonunion of the avulsion fracture region, and arthroscopy showed that the avulsed fragment impinged the femoral intercondylar notch during knee extension. The anterior region of the bony fragment was debrided arthroscopically until the knee could be extended completely. There was no subsequent instability, and the patient was able to climb a mountain 6 months after surgery. These findings indicate that arthroscopic debridement of an avulsed fragment for nonunion of an avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is a minimally invasive and effective treatment for middle-aged and elderly patients with a low level of sports activity. PMID:27119035

  16. Reduction and fixation of the avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence using mini-open technique.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiong-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Tong; Ding, Yong; Dai, Li-Yang

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to present and evaluate a new technique using suture anchors for the treatment of the avulsion fractures of the tibial eminence. Twenty-three consecutive patients with the displaced avulsion fracture of the tibial attachment of anterior cruciate ligament were treated using mini-open technique with suture anchors between 2005 and 2008. According to the classification of Meyers and McKeever, there were 5 type II, 13 type III, and 5 type IV fractures. The median follow-up period was 18 months (range, 12-32 months). The patient assessment included Lysholm score, Tegner score, IKDC score, and radiographic evaluation. The median Lysholm score improved from 32 (range, 28-48) preoperatively to 98 (range, 85-100) postoperatively. The median preoperative Tegner score was 3 (range, 2-5), and the median postoperative Tegner score was 7 (range, 5-9). The global IKDC objective score was normal (A) in 21 knees and nearly normal (B) in 2 knees. At final follow-up, the Lachman test and anterior drawer test were negative. The results showed that mini-open reduction and fixation of avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence with suture anchors have achieved satisfactory results. We suggest the use of this technique for treating avulsion fractures of the tibial eminence. PMID:20127313

  17. 454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples

    PubMed Central

    Altimari, Annalisa; de Biase, Dario; De Maglio, Giovanna; Gruppioni, Elisa; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; D’Errico, Antonia; Pession, Annalisa; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ΔCt for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues. PMID

  18. A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) using sanger and second-generation sequencing platforms.

    PubMed

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Bharti, Arvind K; Cannon, Steven B; Farmer, Andrew D; Mulaosmanovic, Benjamin; Kramer, Robin; Bohra, Abhishek; Weeks, Nathan T; Crow, John A; Tuteja, Reetu; Shah, Trushar; Dutta, Sutapa; Gupta, Deepak K; Singh, Archana; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R; May, Gregory D; Singh, Nagendra K; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly for pigeonpea has been developed by analyzing 128.9 million short Illumina GA IIx single end reads, 2.19 million single end FLX/454 reads, and 18 353 Sanger expressed sequenced tags from more than 16 genotypes. The resultant transcriptome assembly, referred to as CcTA v2, comprised 21 434 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) with an N50 of 1510 bp, the largest one being ~8 kb. Of the 21 434 TACs, 16 622 (77.5%) could be mapped on to the soybean genome build 1.0.9 under fairly stringent alignment parameters. Based on knowledge of intron junctions, 10 009 primer pairs were designed from 5033 TACs for amplifying intron spanning regions (ISRs). By using in silico mapping of BAC-end-derived SSR loci of pigeonpea on the soybean genome as a reference, putative mapping positions at the chromosome level were predicted for 6284 ISR markers, covering all 11 pigeonpea chromosomes. A subset of 128 ISR markers were analyzed on a set of eight genotypes. While 116 markers were validated, 70 markers showed one to three alleles, with an average of 0.16 polymorphism information content (PIC) value. In summary, the CcTA v2 transcript assembly and ISR markers will serve as a useful resource to accelerate genetic research and breeding applications in pigeonpea. PMID:22241453

  19. "Hopelessly entangled in Nordic pre-suppositions": Catholic participation in the American Eugenics Society in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Leon, Sharon M

    2004-01-01

    While American Catholics stand out as some of the few voices of cultural opposition to the eugenics movement in the United States, Catholics and eugenicists actively engaged in conversational exchanges during the late 1920s. In association with the Committee on Cooperation with Clergymen of the American Eugenics Society, John A. Ryan and John Montgomery Cooper engaged in a process that Sander Gilman and Nancy Leys Stepan call "recontextualization," whereby they challenged the social and scientific basis for eugenics policy initiatives while constantly urging American eugenicists to rid their movement of racial and class prejudice. In the process, they participated in a revealing debate on immigration restriction, charity, racial hierarchies, feminism, birth control, and sterilization that points to both the instances of convergence and divergence of Catholic and eugenic visions for the national community. PMID:15011811

  20. Comparison of Sanger and next generation sequencing performance for genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates at the 18S rRNA and actin loci.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Gofton, Alexander; Yang, Rongchang; White, Nicole; Bunce, Michael; Ryan, Una M

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important enteric pathogen that infects a wide range of humans and animals. Rapid and reliable detection and characterisation methods are essential for understanding the transmission dynamics of the parasite. Sanger sequencing, and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) on an Ion Torrent platform, were compared with each other for their sensitivity and accuracy in detecting and characterising 25 Cryptosporidium-positive human and animal faecal samples. Ion Torrent reads (n = 123,857) were obtained at both 18S rRNA and actin loci for 21 of the 25 samples. Of these, one isolate at the actin locus (Cattle 05) and three at the 18S rRNA locus (HTS 10, HTS 11 and HTS 12), suffered PCR drop-out (i.e. PCR failures) when using fusion-tagged PCR. Sanger sequences were obtained for both loci for 23 of the 25 samples and showed good agreement with Ion Torrent-based genotyping. Two samples both from pythons (SK 02 and SK 05) produced mixed 18S and actin chromatograms by Sanger sequencing but were clearly identified by Ion Torrent sequencing as C. muris. One isolate (SK 03) was typed as C. muris by Sanger sequencing but was identified as a mixed C. muris and C. tyzzeri infection by HTS. 18S rRNA Type B sequences were identified in 4/6 C. parvum isolates when deep sequenced but were undetected in Sanger sequencing. Sanger was cheaper than Ion Torrent when sequencing a small numbers of samples, but when larger numbers of samples are considered (n = 60), the costs were comparative. Fusion-tagged amplicon based approaches are a powerful way of approaching mixtures, the only draw-back being the loss of PCR efficiency on low-template samples when using primers coupled to MID tags and adaptors. Taken together these data show that HTS has excellent potential for revealing the "true" composition of species/types in a Cryptosporidium infection, but that HTS workflows need to be carefully developed to ensure sensitivity, accuracy and contamination are

  1. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement. PMID:20027757

  2. Detection of hepatitis B virus genotypic resistance mutations by coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR coupled with sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Lin, Jinpiao; Chen, Huijuan; Shang, Hongyan; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Jing; Ye, Yang; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the reverse transcriptase (rt) region of the DNA polymerase gene are the primary cause of hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug resistance. In this study, we established a novel method that couples coamplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and we applied it to the detection of known and unknown HBV mutations. Primers were designed based on the common mutations in the HBV rt sequence at positions 180 to 215. The critical denaturation temperature (Tc) was established as a denaturing temperature for both fast and full COLD-PCR procedures. For single mutations, when a melting temperature (Tm)-reducing mutation occurred (e.g., C-G → T-A), the sensitivities of fast and full COLD-PCR for mutant detection were 1% and 2%, respectively; when the mutation caused no change in Tm (e.g., C-G → G-C) or raised Tm (e.g., T-A → C-G), only full COLD-PCR improved the sensitivity for mutant detection (2%). For combination mutations, the sensitivities of both full and fast COLD-PCR were increased to 0.5%. The limits of detection for fast and full COLD-PCR were 50 IU/ml and 100 IU/ml, respectively. In 30 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cases, no mutations were detected by conventional PCR, whereas 18 mutations were successfully detected by COLD-PCR, including low-prevalence mutations (<10%), as confirmed by ultradeep pyrosequencing. In conclusion, COLD-PCR provides a highly sensitive, simple, inexpensive, and practical tool for significantly improving amplification efficacy and detecting low-level mutations in clinical CHB cases. PMID:24899029

  3. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. PMID:27082205

  4. From species ethics to social concerns: Habermas's critique of "liberal eugenics" evaluated.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2014-10-01

    Three arguments of Habermas against "liberal eugenics" -- the arguments from consent, responsibility, and instrumentalization -- are critically evaluated and explicated in the light of his discourse ethics and social theory. It is argued that these arguments move partly at a too deep level and are in part too individualistic and psychological to sufficiently counter the liberal position that he sets out to criticize. This is also due to limitations that prevent discourse ethics from connecting effectively to the moral and political domains, e.g., through a discussion of justice. In spite of these weaknesses, Habermas's thesis is of major relevance and brings up neglected issues in the discussion about eugenic reproductive practices. This relevance has not been duly recognized in bioethics, largely because of the depth of his speculations of philosophical anthropology. It is argued that Habermas's notion of the colonization of the lifeworld could provide the analytical tool needed to build that bridge to the moral and political domain. PMID:25234409

  5. Treatment of tibial eminence fractures with arthroscopic suture fixation technique: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanhao; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yanjie; Wang, Zhanchao

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The present study aims to investigate the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic suture fixation in treating tibial eminence fracture with a retrospective study design of two years’ follow-up. Methods: A total of 33 patients with imaging evidence of tibial eminence avulsion fractures who underwent arthroscopic surgery between 2008 and 2012 were included in this study. The inclusion criteria for the study were a displaced tibial eminence avulsion fracture and anterior knee instability of grade II or higher inskeletally mature patients. These patients were treated with arthroscopic suture fixation and followed with a mean period of 24 months. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were obtained 3 months postoperatively to assess fracture healing. At 24 months after surgery, all patients were evaluated by an independent orthopaedic professor with clinical examination like anteroposterior laxity (Lachman-Noulis and anterior drawer tests) and Rolimeter knee tester (Aircast, Vista, CA). Knee range of motion was evaluated actively and passively with a goniometer. Knee function was evaluated by the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Knee radiographs in standing anteroposterior, standing lateral, and Merchant views were examined for alignment, joint space narrowing, and degenerative knee changes. Results: No major complication like infection, deep venous thrombosis, or neurovascular deficit happened peri-operatively. At the final follow-up, there were no symptoms of instability and no clinical signs of ACL deficiency. Radiographs showed that all fractures healed 3 months post-operative, but at the last follow-up, there was one person with degenerative changes like joint space narrowing in radiographs. Anterior translation of the tibia was 0.47 mm on average (0 to 2.5 mm) compared with the uninjured side. Range-of-motion measurement showed a mean extension deficit of 1.5° (0° to 5°) and a mean flexion deficit of 2.7° (0° to 10

  6. Glomus Tumor of the Thenar Eminence in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Scaravilli, Gabriele; Rossi, Roberto; Artiaco, Stefano; Merolla, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a disease characterized by increased tumorigenesis susceptibility, caused by mutations of the oncosuppressor gene NF1. The glomus tumor (GT) is a rare, very painful mesenchymal neoplasm, arising from the glomus body. In recent years, it has been highlighted the association between NF1 and GT. We report a case of a man aged 65 years, suffering from NF1, with intense pain at the thenar eminence of the right hand, successfully treated with the excision of the mass. PMID:25674553

  7. The eminent need for an academic program in universities to teach nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Manuel; Vélez, Juan Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Nanomedicine is on the cutting edge of technology applied to medical and biological sciences. Nanodevices, nanomaterials, nanoinstruments, nanotechnologies, and nanotechniques (laboratory methods and procedures) are important for the modern practice of medicine and essential for research that could stimulate the discovery of new medical advances. Accordingly, there is an eminent need for implementing an academic program in universities to teach this indispensable and pragmatic discipline, especially in the departments of graduate studies and research in the areas of pharmacology, genetic engineering, proteomics, and molecular and cellular biology. PMID:21984868

  8. In memory of Eugene (Jenő) von Gothard: a pioneering nineteenth century Hungarian astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Ildikő J.; Jankovics, István

    2012-07-01

    Eugene von Gothard was a Hungarian engineer/scientist, instrument-maker and astrophysicist who founded the Herény Astrophysical Observatory in 1881 and carried out pioneering work in astronomical photography and spectroscopy. In this paper we provide biographical material about von Gothard and describe his observatory, before discussing his astronomical observations and the contribution that hemade to the early development of astrophysics.

  9. [Agnes Bluhm, the woman scientist among the eugenics specialists, and the women's movement].

    PubMed

    Bleker, Johanna

    2007-01-01

    The paper tries to assess the early female physician Agnes Bluhm (1862-1943) as one of the outstanding German female scientists of her time and draws up a connection from her achievements in early genetics to her commitments in eugenics and feminism. This leads to a more precise judgement on her position within the German racial hygiene and allows to correct misunderstandings that have assigned Bluhm to the right wing in the German women's movement. PMID:18447190

  10. The doers of good. Scandinavian historians revise the social history of eugenics(1997-2001).

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underprivileged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favor in the middle of the sixties. PMID:19848224

  11. Eugenics, medical education, and the Public Health Service: Another perspective on the Tuskegee syphilis experiment.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Paul A; Dorr, Gregory M

    2006-01-01

    The Public Health Service (PHS) Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro (1932-72) is the most infamous American example of medical research abuse. Commentary on the study has often focused on the reasons for its initiation and for its long duration. Racism, bureaucratic inertia, and the personal motivations of study personnel have been suggested as possible explanations. We develop another explanation by examining the educational and professional linkages shared by three key physicians who launched and directed the study. PHS surgeon general Hugh Cumming initiated Tuskegee, and assistant surgeons general Taliaferro Clark and Raymond A. Vonderlehr presided over the study during its first decade. All three had graduated from the medical school at the University of Virginia, a center of eugenics teaching, where students were trained to think about race as a key factor in both the etiology and the natural history of syphilis. Along with other senior officers in the PHS, they were publicly aligned with the eugenics movement. Tuskegee provided a vehicle for testing a eugenic hypothesis: that racial groups were differentially susceptible to infectious diseases. PMID:16809865

  12. Retinoic acid influences neuronal migration from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, James E.; Goodman, Timothy; McCarthy, Deirdre M.; Duester, Gregg; Bhide, Pradeep G.; Dräger, Ursula C.; McCaffery, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ganglionic eminence contributes cells to several forebrain structures including the cerebral cortex, for which it provides GABAergic interneurons. Migration of neuronal precursors from the retinoic-acid rich embryonic ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex is known to be regulated by several factors, but retinoic acid has not been previously implicated. We found retinoic acid to potently inhibit cell migration in slice preparations of embryonic mouse forebrains, which was reversed by an antagonist of the dopamine-D2 receptor, whose gene is transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid. Histonedeacetylase inhibitors, which amplify nuclear receptor-mediated transcription, potentiated the inhibitory effect of retinoic acid. Surprisingly, when retinoic acid signalling was completely blocked with a pan-retinoic acid receptor antagonist, this also decreased cell migration into the cortex, implying that a minimal level of endogenous retinoic acid is necessary for tangential migration. Given these opposing effects of retinoic acid in vitro, the in vivo contribution of retinoic acid to migration was tested by counting GABAergic interneurons in cortices of adult mice with experimental reductions in retinoic acid signalling: a range of perturbations resulted in significant reductions in the numerical density of some GABAergic interneuron subpopulations. These observations suggest functions of retinoic acid in interneuron diversity and organization of cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance. PMID:21895658

  13. Bioinformatic analysis of ESTs collected by Sanger and pyrosequencing methods for a keystone forest tree species: oak

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody species worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest tree species in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few genomic resources have yet been generated for these species. Here, we describe the development of an EST catalogue that will support ecosystem genomics studies, where geneticists, ecophysiologists, molecular biologists and ecologists join their efforts for understanding, monitoring and predicting functional genetic diversity. Results We generated 145,827 sequence reads from 20 cDNA libraries using the Sanger method. Unexploitable chromatograms and quality checking lead us to eliminate 19,941 sequences. Finally a total of 125,925 ESTs were retained from 111,361 cDNA clones. Pyrosequencing was also conducted for 14 libraries, generating 1,948,579 reads, from which 370,566 sequences (19.0%) were eliminated, resulting in 1,578,192 sequences. Following clustering and assembly using TGICL pipeline, 1,704,117 EST sequences collapsed into 69,154 tentative contigs and 153,517 singletons, providing 222,671 non-redundant sequences (including alternative transcripts). We also assembled the sequences using MIRA and PartiGene software and compared the three unigene sets. Gene ontology annotation was then assigned to 29,303 unigene elements. Blast search against the SWISS-PROT database revealed putative homologs for 32,810 (14.7%) unigene elements, but more extensive search with Pfam, Refseq_protein, Refseq_RNA and eight gene indices revealed homology for 67.4% of them. The EST catalogue was examined for putative homologs of candidate genes involved in bud phenology, cuticle formation, phenylpropanoids biosynthesis and cell wall formation. Our results suggest a good coverage of genes involved in these traits. Comparative orthologous

  14. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications.

    PubMed

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Azam, Sarwar; Sharpe, Andrew G; Taran, Bunyamin; Li, Rong; Deonovic, Benjamin; Cameron, Connor; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinumTranscriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201), comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8%) of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%). The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and intron spanning regions (ISRs) for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding applications in

  15. Activation of transcription factors STAT1 and STAT5 in the mouse median eminence after systemic ciliary neurotrophic factor administration.

    PubMed

    Severi, Ilenia; Senzacqua, Martina; Mondini, Eleonora; Fazioli, Francesca; Cinti, Saverio; Giordano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Exogenously administered ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) causes weight loss in obese rodents and humans through leptin-like activation of the Jak-STAT3 signaling pathway in hypothalamic arcuate neurons. Here we report for the first time that 40min after acute systemic treatment, rat recombinant CNTF (intraperitoneal injection of 0.3mg/kg of body weight) induced nuclear translocation of the tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of STAT1 and STAT5 in the mouse median eminence and other circumventricular organs, including the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis and the subfornical organ. In the tuberal hypothalamus of treated mice, specific nuclear immunostaining for phospo-STAT1 and phospho-STAT5 was detected in ependymal cells bordering the third ventricle floor and lateral recesses, and in median eminence cells. Co-localization studies documented STAT1 and STAT5 activation in median eminence β-tanycytes and underlying radial glia-like cells. A few astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus responded to CNTF by STAT5 activation. The vast majority of median eminence tanycytes and radial glia-like cells showing phospho-STAT1 and phospho-STAT5 immunoreactivity were also positive for phospho-STAT3. In contrast, STAT3 was the sole STAT isoform activated by CNTF in arcuate nucleus and median eminence neurons. Finally, immunohistochemical evaluation of STAT activation 20, 40, 80, and 120min from the injection demonstrated that cell activation was accompanied by c-Fos expression. Collectively, our findings show that CNTF activates STAT3, STAT1, and STAT5 in vivo. The distinctive activation pattern of these STAT isoforms in the median eminence may disclose novel targets and pathways through which CNTF regulates food intake. PMID:26133794

  16. Is age kinder to the initially more able? A study of eminent scientists and academics.

    PubMed

    Christensen, H; Henderson, A S

    1991-11-01

    Elderly eminent academics and blue-collar workers were compared with Doctor of Philosophy students and trade apprentices to investigate whether intelligence and memory deteriorate at a slower rate in persons with high ability. The elderly groups showed decline on tests of perceptual-motor speed, visuospatial reasoning, inferential thinking and memory relative to the young subjects. Initial ability determined the level of intellectual performance, such that elderly academics maintained their initial advantage over the elderly blue-collar workers. However, with the exception of the Similarities subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the rate of change on tests of memory and intelligence did not differ for the high- and low-ability groups. The hypothesis that high ability is associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline was not supported. PMID:1780406

  17. [Distant functional outcomes of treatment and physiotherapy of tibial eminence fractures in adults].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Sebastian; Golec, Edward; Golec, Joanna; Szczygieł, Elzbieta; Ciszek, Elzbieta; Walocha, Jerzy; Mizia, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Authors of paper present distant functional outcomes of treatment and physiotherapy of tibial eminence fractures basing on clinical material covering years from 1998 to 2006, that make up 15 patients, 7 women (46.7%) and 8 men (53.3%), aged between 18 and 57 years, on average 37.5-years-old. Subject fractures ware classified basing on Meyers i McKeever criteria, however obtained outcomes basing on IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) system. Obtained outcomes persuade authors to standpoint, that inoperative treatment of fractures type I leads to good functional outcomes, operative treatment of fracture type II leads to good functional outcomes too and operative treatment of fracture type III and III+ leads to sufficient outcomes. PMID:20201332

  18. Inherently Undesirable: American Identity and the Role of Negative Eugenics in the Education of Visually Impaired and Blind Students in Ohio, 1870-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Free, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, studies of eugenics artificially confine their focus to the movement's application to race, socio-economic status, and the forced sterilization of the so-called feebleminded. However, the segregationist aspect of the eugenics design in the United States brought with it damaging policies toward individuals with physical and mental…

  19. Pneumatized Articular Eminence and Assessment of Its Prevalence and Features on Panoramic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Khojastepour, Leila; Ezoddini, Fatemeh; Zeighami, Noshafarin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Pneumatized articular eminence or tubercle (PAT) is an air cell cavity in the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. Pneumatization of articular eminence may be seen incidentally on panoramic radiographs (PRs) as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucent defect. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and the pattern of PAT on PR in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 3,098 PRs belonging to 1,735 females and 1,363 males were retrospectively investigated for the presence and radiographic features of PAT. All PRs were taken for routine dental examination. Chi-square test, univariate odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Overall, PAT was found in 2.1 % of cases including 41 females and 23 males (with a mean age of 33.23±12.43 and 35.64±13.24 years, respectively, range 19–69 years). There were 40 unilateral and 24 bilateral cases (total: 88 PATs) including 49 unilocular and 39 multilocular cases. There was no significant difference in PAT between males and females or different age groups (P>0.05 and all CIs included 1.00). Binary logistic regression indicated that there was no relationship between the presence of PAT and age or sex. Conclusion: Knowledge about this anatomical variation is helpful for clinicians who are planning to perform temporomandibular joint surgery. They should assess the radiographic imaging thoroughly before the surgery. It can also provide valuable information to understand the differential diagnosis of pathological entities in this region. PMID:26622277

  20. Racial science in social context: John R. Baker on eugenics, race, and the public role of the scientist.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2004-09-01

    In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole. PMID:15747772

  1. Throwing the baby out with the bathwater: a critique of Sparrow's inclusive definition of the term 'in vitro eugenics'.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Misao; Yashiro, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Mika

    2014-11-01

    Sparrow highlights three potential applications of in vitro eugenics, that is, (a) research into the heredity of genetic disorders, (b) production of cell lines with specific genotypes, and (c) breeding better babies, and points to the need for researchers to discuss in advance the potential ethical problems that may emerge if the realization of this technology occurs in the near future. In this commentary, we pose a question for the sake of discussion. Is it, in fact, appropriate to label all three applications raised by Sparrow as eugenics? By doing so, an unnecessary level of concern might be borne among the public, and as a result, the sound development of this specialized technology would be affected. If the label of eugenics is to be applied to all three of these applications, then Sparrow must justify how he perceives (a) and (b) as not inherently different from (c). PMID:23986606

  2. Eugene P. Wigner's Visionary Contributions to Generations-I through IV Fission Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Among Europe's greatest scientists who fled to Britain and America in the 1930s, Eugene P. Wigner made instrumental advances in reactor physics, reactor design and technology, and spent nuclear fuel processing for both purposes of developing atomic weapons during world-war II and nuclear power afterwards. Wigner who had training in chemical engineering and self-education in physics first gained recognition for his remarkable articles and books on applications of Group theory to Quantum mechanics, Solid state physics and other topics that opened new branches of Physics.

  3. Music and Affective Phenomena: A 20-Year Content and Bibliometric Analysis of Research in Three Eminent Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish trends in the study of music and affective phenomena through a content and bibliometric analysis of three eminent music research journals, the "Journal of Research in Music Education", "Psychology of Music", and "Music Perception", for the years 1990 through 2009. Excluding…

  4. Down to the Bone: The Essential Thinking and Productivity of Professor Phillip Tobias, Eminent Paleoanthropologist from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Eminent individuals have made significant contributions to their fields that have impacted on fundamental knowledge and practices around the world, a description that aptly describes the world-known South African paleoanthropologist and scientist, Professor Phillip Tobias. This article presents evidence from his early childhood and schooling that…

  5. From the 'Village of a Thousand Souls' to 'Race Crossing in Jamaica': Arnold Gesell, eugenics and child development.

    PubMed

    Weizmann, Fredric

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps best known for providing age-related norms in early development, norms that are still used as a basis for measures of developmental maturity, Arnold Gesell was a key figure in developmental psychology from the 1920s through the 1950s. After examining Gesell's reputation and status in the field, we explore Gesell's changing relationship to eugenics, both in terms of Gesell's often contradictory attitudes about the role of hereditary and environmental influences in development, and in terms of the broader relationship between the eugenics movement and science. PMID:20623743

  6. Biotypology, Endocrinology, and Sterilization: The Practice of Eugenics in the Treatment of Argentinian Women during the 1930s

    PubMed Central

    ERASO, YOLANDA

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This article looks at medical approaches to women’s fertility in Argentina in the 1930s and explores the ways in which eugenics encouraged the reproduction of the fit and attempted to avoid the reproduction of the unfit. The analysis concentrates on three main aspects: biotypology (the scientific classification of bodies), endocrine therapy, and sterilization. The article concludes by suggesting that a eugenically oriented obstetrical and gynecological practice encouraged both endocrine treatments (to achieve the ideal fertile woman) and sterilization, which, in spite of being legally banned, found a subtle application. PMID:18084107

  7. Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing Pipeline Outperforms a Combined Approach Using Sanger Sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification in Targeted Gene Panel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schenkel, Laila C; Kerkhof, Jennifer; Stuart, Alan; Reilly, Jack; Eng, Barry; Woodside, Crystal; Levstik, Alexander; Howlett, Christopher J; Rupar, Anthony C; Knoll, Joan H M; Ainsworth, Peter; Waye, John S; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-09-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have facilitated parallel analysis of multiple genes enabling the implementation of cost-effective, rapid, and high-throughput methods for the molecular diagnosis of multiple genetic conditions, including the identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in high-risk patients for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. We clinically validated a NGS pipeline designed to replace Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis and to facilitate detection of sequence and copy number alterations in a single test focusing on a BRCA1/BRCA2 gene analysis panel. Our custom capture library covers 46 exons, including BRCA1 exons 2, 3, and 5 to 24 and BRCA2 exons 2 to 27, with 20 nucleotides of intronic regions both 5' and 3' of each exon. We analyzed 402 retrospective patients, with previous Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification results, and 240 clinical prospective patients. One-hundred eighty-three unique variants, including sequence and copy number variants, were detected in the retrospective (n = 95) and prospective (n = 88) cohorts. This standardized NGS pipeline demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, uniformity, and high-depth nucleotide coverage per sample (approximately 7000 reads per nucleotide). Subsequently, the NGS pipeline was applied to the analysis of larger gene panels, which have shown similar uniformity, sample-to-sample reproducibility in coverage distribution, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of sequence and copy number variants. PMID:27376475

  8. Very high resolution single pass HLA genotyping using amplicon sequencing on the 454 next generation DNA sequencers: Comparison with Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, F; Höglund, B; Fernandez-Vina, M; Tyan, D; Rastrou, M; Williams, T; Moonsamy, P; Goodridge, D; Anderson, M; Erlich, H A; Holcomb, C L

    2015-12-01

    Compared to Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing offers advantages for high resolution HLA genotyping including increased throughput, lower cost, and reduced genotype ambiguity. Here we describe an enhancement of the Roche 454 GS GType HLA genotyping assay to provide very high resolution (VHR) typing, by the addition of 8 primer pairs to the original 14, to genotype 11 HLA loci. These additional amplicons help resolve common and well-documented alleles and exclude commonly found null alleles in genotype ambiguity strings. Simplification of workflow to reduce the initial preparation effort using early pooling of amplicons or the Fluidigm Access Array™ is also described. Performance of the VHR assay was evaluated on 28 well characterized cell lines using Conexio Assign MPS software which uses genomic, rather than cDNA, reference sequence. Concordance was 98.4%; 1.6% had no genotype assignment. Of concordant calls, 53% were unambiguous. To further assess the assay, 59 clinical samples were genotyped and results compared to unambiguous allele assignments obtained by prior sequence-based typing supplemented with SSO and/or SSP. Concordance was 98.7% with 58.2% as unambiguous calls; 1.3% could not be assigned. Our results show that the amplicon-based VHR assay is robust and can replace current Sanger methodology. Together with software enhancements, it has the potential to provide even higher resolution HLA typing. PMID:26037172

  9. The life of Eugene Braunwald: a remarkable journey that began in Vienna.

    PubMed

    Schlossmacher, M G

    1998-01-16

    The life of Dr. Eugene Braunwald, who is without doubt the preeminent cardiologist of our time, represents a remarkable journey that began in Vienna, Austria. It took an early and decisive turn in July 1938 when his family was forced into exile by Austrian Nazism, ultimately settling in the United States. During his career Dr. Braunwald has provided unprecedented contributions to the theory and practice of medicine, foremost in cardiovascular research and clinical cardiology. Professionally, his pursuit of excellence continues in the roles of physician-scientist, academic teacher, editor and administrator. Personally, Dr. Braunwald's voyage came full circle in the summer of 1995, some fifty seven years after his emigration, when the University of Vienna awarded him an honorary Medical Doctorate. This article reviews Dr. Eugene Braunwald's remarkable journey from his childhood in pre-World War II Vienna to the current titles of Distinguished Hersey Professor of Medicine and Faculty Dean for Academic Programs at Harvard Medical School and Vice President of Partner's HealthCare Systems in Boston, Massachusetts. This essay is also intended to raise awareness of, and foster academic investigation into, the long-lasting implications of Austrian Nazism on the "Viennese School of Medicine". PMID:9499476

  10. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Wetlands Planning Area in the State of Oregon and Associated Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau... Wetlands Planning Area and by this notice is announcing the beginning of the scoping process to solicit public comments and identify issues. The West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area comprises approximately...

  11. 78 FR 21547 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Oregon: Eugene-Springfield PM10

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... pollution. On July 1, 1987, EPA promulgated a NAAQS for PM 10 (52 FR 24634). EPA established a 24-hour... 10 standard (71 FR 61144, effective December 18, 2006). B. Eugene-Springfield NAA and Planning... measured violations of the 24-hour PM 10 standard (52 FR 29383). The notice announcing the...

  12. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  13. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  14. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  15. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  16. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  17. 77 FR 4806 - Eugene Water and Electric Board; Notice of Application for Surrender of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eugene Water and Electric Board; Notice of Application for Surrender of... Water and Electric Board. e. Name of Project: Blue River Project. f. Location: The proposed project... the last three digits in the docket number field to access the document. You may also register...

  18. Preserving Precious Instruments in Mathematics History: The Educational Museum of Teachers College and David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A history is given of the Educational Museum of Teachers College, which began in 1886, and David Eugene Smith's extensive collection of mathematical tools used in the Museum's exhibits is discussed. Historic mathematical instruments including, the astrolabe, abacus and counting rods, and the slide rule are examined. The author uses digitized…

  19. Validation of targeted next-generation sequencing for RAS mutation detection in FFPE colorectal cancer tissues: comparison with Sanger sequencing and ARMS-Scorpion real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Wu, Huanwen; Wang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Huanli; Lu, Junliang; Liang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform-Ion Torrent PGM for KRAS exon 2 and expanded RAS mutations detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens, with comparison of Sanger sequencing and ARMS-Scorpion real-time PCR. Setting Beijing, China. Participants 51 archived FFPE CRC samples (36 men, 15 women) were retrospectively randomly selected and then checked by an experienced pathologist for sequencing based on histological confirmation of CRC and availability of sufficient tissue. Methods RAS mutations were detected in the 51 FFPE CRC samples by PGM analysis, Sanger sequencing and the Therascreen KRAS assay, respectively. Agreement among the 3 methods was assessed. Assay sensitivity was further determined by sequencing serially diluted DNA from FFPE cell lines with known mutation statuses. Results 13 of 51 (25.5%) cases had a mutation in KRAS exon 2, as determined by PGM analysis. PGM analysis showed 100% (51/51) concordance with Sanger sequencing (κ=1.000, 95% CI 1 to 1) and 98.04% (50/51) agreement with the Therascreen assay (κ=0.947, 95% CI 0.844 to 1) for detecting KRAS exon 2 mutations, respectively. The only discrepant case harboured a KRAS exon 2 mutation (c.37G>T) that was not covered by the Therascreen kit. The dilution series experiment results showed that PGM was able to detect KRAS mutations at a frequency of as low as 1%. Importantly, RAS mutations other than KRAS exon 2 mutations were also detected in 10 samples by PGM. Furthermore, mutations in other CRC-related genes could be simultaneously detected in a single test by PGM. Conclusions The targeted NGS platform is specific and sensitive for KRAS exon 2 mutation detection and is appropriate for use in routine clinical testing. Moreover, it is sample saving and cost-efficient and time-efficient, and has great potential for clinical application to expand testing to include mutations in RAS and other CRC-related genes. PMID

  20. A novel GABA-mediated corticotropin-releasing hormone secretory mechanism in the median eminence.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Miho; Mutoh, Hiroki; Okawa, Yuta; Yamashita, Miho; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Itoi, Keiichi; Suda, Takafumi; Oki, Yutaka; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2016-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the endocrine stress response. The excitability of CRH neurons is regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing neurons projecting to the PVN. We investigated the role of GABA in the regulation of CRH release. The release of CRH was impaired, accumulating in the cell bodies of CRH neurons in heterozygous GAD67-GFP (green fluorescent protein) knock-in mice (GAD67(+/GFP)), which exhibited decreased GABA content. The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), but not the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2), were expressed in the terminals of the CRH neurons at the median eminence (ME). In contrast, CRH neuronal somata were enriched with KCC2 but not with NKCC1. Thus, intracellular Cl(-) concentrations ([Cl(-)]i) may be increased at the terminals of CRH neurons compared with concentrations in the cell body. Moreover, GABAergic terminals projecting from the arcuate nucleus were present in close proximity to CRH-positive nerve terminals. Furthermore, a GABAAR agonist increased the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) levels in the CRH neuron terminals but decreased the Ca(2+) levels in their somata. In addition, the increases in Ca(2+) concentrations were prevented by an NKCC1 inhibitor. We propose a novel mechanism by which the excitatory action of GABA maintains a steady-state CRH release from axon terminals in the ME. PMID:27540587

  1. Semaphorin7A regulates neuroglial plasticity in the adult hypothalamic median eminence

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Jyoti; Messina, Andrea; Langlet, Fanny; Cimino, Irene; Loyens, Anne; Mazur, Danièle; Gallet, Sarah; Balland, Eglantine; Malone, Samuel A.; Pralong, François; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Schellino, Roberta; De Marchis, Silvia; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent; Giacobini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive competence in mammals depends on the projection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the hypothalamic median eminence (ME) and the timely release of GnRH into the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. In adult rodents, GnRH neurons and the specialized glial cells named tanycytes periodically undergo cytoskeletal plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate this plasticity are still largely unknown. We demonstrate that Semaphorin7A, expressed by tanycytes, plays a dual role, inducing the retraction of GnRH terminals and promoting their ensheathment by tanycytic end feet via the receptors PlexinC1 and Itgb1, respectively. Moreover, Semaphorin7A expression is regulated during the oestrous cycle by the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids. Genetic invalidation of Semaphorin7A receptors in mice induces neuronal and glial rearrangements in the ME and abolishes normal oestrous cyclicity and fertility. These results show a role for Semaphorin7A signalling in mediating periodic neuroglial remodelling in the adult ME during the ovarian cycle. PMID:25721933

  2. Semaphorin7A regulates neuroglial plasticity in the adult hypothalamic median eminence.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Jyoti; Messina, Andrea; Langlet, Fanny; Cimino, Irene; Loyens, Anne; Mazur, Danièle; Gallet, Sarah; Balland, Eglantine; Malone, Samuel A; Pralong, François; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Schellino, Roberta; De Marchis, Silvia; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent; Giacobini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive competence in mammals depends on the projection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the hypothalamic median eminence (ME) and the timely release of GnRH into the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In adult rodents, GnRH neurons and the specialized glial cells named tanycytes periodically undergo cytoskeletal plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate this plasticity are still largely unknown. We demonstrate that Semaphorin7A, expressed by tanycytes, plays a dual role, inducing the retraction of GnRH terminals and promoting their ensheathment by tanycytic end feet via the receptors PlexinC1 and Itgb1, respectively. Moreover, Semaphorin7A expression is regulated during the oestrous cycle by the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids. Genetic invalidation of Semaphorin7A receptors in mice induces neuronal and glial rearrangements in the ME and abolishes normal oestrous cyclicity and fertility. These results show a role for Semaphorin7A signalling in mediating periodic neuroglial remodelling in the adult ME during the ovarian cycle. PMID:25721933

  3. A novel GABA-mediated corticotropin-releasing hormone secretory mechanism in the median eminence

    PubMed Central

    Kakizawa, Keisuke; Watanabe, Miho; Mutoh, Hiroki; Okawa, Yuta; Yamashita, Miho; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Itoi, Keiichi; Suda, Takafumi; Oki, Yutaka; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the endocrine stress response. The excitability of CRH neurons is regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)–containing neurons projecting to the PVN. We investigated the role of GABA in the regulation of CRH release. The release of CRH was impaired, accumulating in the cell bodies of CRH neurons in heterozygous GAD67-GFP (green fluorescent protein) knock-in mice (GAD67+/GFP), which exhibited decreased GABA content. The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and the Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1), but not the K+-Cl− cotransporter (KCC2), were expressed in the terminals of the CRH neurons at the median eminence (ME). In contrast, CRH neuronal somata were enriched with KCC2 but not with NKCC1. Thus, intracellular Cl− concentrations ([Cl−]i) may be increased at the terminals of CRH neurons compared with concentrations in the cell body. Moreover, GABAergic terminals projecting from the arcuate nucleus were present in close proximity to CRH-positive nerve terminals. Furthermore, a GABAAR agonist increased the intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels in the CRH neuron terminals but decreased the Ca2+ levels in their somata. In addition, the increases in Ca2+ concentrations were prevented by an NKCC1 inhibitor. We propose a novel mechanism by which the excitatory action of GABA maintains a steady-state CRH release from axon terminals in the ME. PMID:27540587

  4. Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Daniel; Wu, Pei-Rung; Sorrells, Shawn F.; Arnold, Christine; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic cortical interneurons, derived from the embryonic medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE), are functionally and morphologically diverse. Inroads have been made in understanding the roles of distinct cortical interneuron subgroups, however, there are still many mechanisms to be worked out that may contribute to the development and maturation of different types of GABAergic cells. Moreover, altered GABAergic signaling may contribute to phenotypes of autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Specific Cre-driver lines have begun to parcel out the functions of unique interneuron subgroups. Despite the advances in mouse models, it is often difficult to efficiently study GABAergic cortical interneuron progenitors with molecular approaches in vivo. One important technique used to study the cell autonomous programming of these cells is transplantation of MGE cells into host cortices. These transplanted cells migrate extensively, differentiate, and functionally integrate. In addition, MGE cells can be efficiently transduced with lentivirus immediately prior to transplantation, allowing for a multitude of molecular approaches. Here we detail a protocol to efficiently transduce MGE cells before transplantation for in vivo analysis, using available Cre-driver lines and Cre-dependent expression vectors. This approach is advantageous because it combines precise genetic manipulation with the ability of these cells to disperse after transplantation, permitting greater cell-type specific resolution in vivo. PMID:25938985

  5. [The hypertensive effect of vasopressin administered into the median eminence of the hypothalamus in rats].

    PubMed

    Gindeva, R; Pencheva, T

    1991-01-01

    Data about direct effect of vasopressin (VP) on the central arterial pressure (AP) orientated us to investigate the effect of its local administration in the median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus in rats. For this purpose VP was administered in ME under micropellet form. AP was measured indirectly on the tail of rats up to 96th hour after operation. After implantation of VP there was an elevation of AP with maximum in the first hour, which was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Identical manipulation (sham operation) was performed to control the lesion effect. Transitory lowering of AP with maximum in the first hour was also established and it was statistically significant (p less than 0.001), For exclusion a nonspecific systemic effect of VP the same dose was administered in the parietal cortex, during which transitory and short-lasting reaction occurred in the first hour after the operation. The data indicate that the peptide, administered in ME under micropellet form, could induce a longlasting hypertensive effect. PMID:1884687

  6. Adult tibial eminence fracture fixation: arthroscopic procedure using K-wire folded fixation.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Nicolas; Jeunet, Laurent; Obert, Laurent; Dejour, David

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a new and simple technique for arthroscopic fixation of tibial intercondylar eminence avulsion fractures using folded surgical pin. This technique allows reduction and fixation of the bone fragment without using special equipment. After standard arthroscopic procedure to explore the knee and to remove fracture debris and blood clot, the bone block is reduced and advanced with the spike of the anterior cruciate ligament tibial drill guide. A 1.8-mm K-wire is drilled through the guide from the proximal tibia into the reduced fragment. It is bent on its end into the joint with a strong needle case. The K-wire is then pulled back until good fragment compression to the tibia appears with the wire starting unbending. Next, the other side is bent on the anterior tibial cortex and cut. This arthroscopic fixation allows elastic compression fragment stabilization that authorizes early weight bearing and rehabilitation programs. The material is extracted by traction after 6 months. PMID:17235617

  7. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again. PMID:23197125

  8. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Larimer, Phillip; Spatazza, Julien; Espinosa, Juan Sebastian; Tang, Yunshuo; Kaneko, Megumi; Hasenstaub, Andrea R; Stryker, Michael P; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SST) interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE)-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP. PMID:27425623

  9. Hormonal modulation of the quantity and in situ activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in neurites of the median eminence.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P S; Porter, J C

    1986-01-01

    The role of ovarian hormones in the control of the quantity and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrOHase) in neurites of the median eminence of the rat was investigated. TyrOHase was quantified by an immunoblot assay using purified rat TyrOHase as the standard. Treatment of ovariectomized animals with progesterone, but not estradiol, resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of TyrOHase in the median eminence. The in situ activity of the enzyme was assayed by measuring the rate of synthesis of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and the results were expressed as mol of dopa per hr per mol of TyrOHase. In animals treated with both estradiol and progesterone for 3 days, the in situ activity of TyrOHase in the median eminence was 114 +/- 13.5 (mean +/- SEM) compared to 26 +/- 4.7 for the controls. Estradiol or progesterone alone was much less effective than was the combination of estradiol and progesterone. To ascertain whether the effect of estradiol and progesterone on TyrOHase activity was reflected in the secretion of dopamine into hypophyseal portal blood, ovariectomized rats were treated for 3 days with both estradiol and progesterone or with the solvent vehicle. The concentration of dopamine in portal plasma of the hormone-treated animals was 1.93 +/- 0.533 ng/ml compared to 0.34 +/- 0.094 ng/ml in vehicle-treated animals. We conclude that the quantity and in situ molar activity of TyrOHase in neurites of the median eminence as well as the secretion of dopamine from these neurites are modulated by the combined action of estradiol and progesterone. PMID:2879287

  10. Disagreement in genotyping results of drug resistance alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) gene by allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Lather, Manila; Dykes, Cherry L; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum over the past few decades has necessitated intensive monitoring of such resistance for an effective malaria control strategy. P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) genes act as molecular markers for resistance against the antimalarial drugs sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine, respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine which is used as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is associated with several mutations in the Pfdhfr gene, namely A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L. Therefore, routine monitoring of Pfdhfr-drug-resistant alleles in a population may help in effective drug resistance management. Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) is one of the commonly used methods for molecular genotyping of these alleles. In this study, we genotyped 55 samples of P. falciparum for allele discrimination at four codons of Pfdhfr (N51, C59, S108 and I164) by ASPCR using published methods and by Sanger's DNA sequencing method. We found that the ASPCR identified a significantly higher number of mutant alleles as compared to the DNA sequencing method. Such discrepancies arise due to the non-specificity of some of the allele-specific primer sets and due to the lack of sensitivity of Sanger's DNA sequencing method to detect minor alleles present in multiple clone infections. This study reveals the need of a highly specific and sensitive method for genotyping and detecting minor drug-resistant alleles present in multiple clonal infections. PMID:26407876

  11. Comparison of three human papillomavirus DNA detection methods: Next generation sequencing, multiplex-PCR and nested-PCR followed by Sanger based sequencing.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Galvão, Renata Silva; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Chen, Zigui

    2016-05-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance for HPV infection using three laboratorial techniques. Ninty-five cervicovaginal samples were randomly selected; each was tested for HPV DNA and genotypes using 3 methods in parallel: Multiplex-PCR, the Nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing, and the Next_Gen Sequencing (NGS) with two assays (NGS-A1, NGS-A2). The study was approved by the Brazilian National IRB (CONEP protocol 16,800). The prevalence of HPV by the NGS assays was higher than that using the Multiplex-PCR (64.2% vs. 45.2%, respectively; P = 0.001) and the Nested-PCR (64.2% vs. 49.5 %, respectively; P = 0.003). NGS also showed better performance in detecting high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and HPV16. There was a weak interobservers agreement between the results of Multiplex-PCR and Nested-PCR in relation to NGS for the diagnosis of HPV infection, and a moderate correlation for HR-HPV detection. Both NGS assays showed a strong correlation for detection of HPVs (k = 0.86), HR-HPVs (k = 0.91), HPV16 (k = 0.92) and HPV18 (k = 0.91). NGS is more sensitive than the traditional Sanger sequencing and the Multiplex PCR to genotype HPVs, with promising ability to detect multiple infections, and may have the potential to establish an alternative method for the diagnosis and genotyping of HPV. J. Med. Virol. 88:888-894, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26496186

  12. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden. PMID:24909018

  13. Contraception or eugenics? Sterilization and "mental retardation" in the 1970s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Taylor, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s. PMID:24909024

  14. "Our power to remodel civilization": the development of eugenic feminism in Alberta, 1909-1921.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    In addition to being a prominent political figure in equal rights legislation, Emily Murphy was a vital contributor to programs which sought to improve the human race through forced sterilization. These negative aspects of this period in feminist history tend to be described as outside of the women's sphere, representing instead the patriarchal realm of men. However, both eugenics and the first-wave feminist ambitions for equal political rights were connected through an agrarian construction of "mothers of the race." As "mothers of the race," women in Alberta were responsible for the physical and moral betterment of the nation, and were directly engaged in concepts of intelligent motherhood, healthy childhood, and an overarching moral philosophy that was politically driven. PMID:24909021

  15. "More than just boots! The eugenic and commercial concerns behind A. R. Kaufman's birth controlling activities".

    PubMed

    Revie, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A. R. Kaufman (1885-1979), founder of the Kitchener-based Kaufman Rubber Company, was nicknamed "Canada's Mr. Birth Control" because he established the Parents' Information Bureau (PIB)-a birth control information centre that functioned out of his factory office. Besides creating mail order/home visiting services, Kaufman also funded birth control clinics. Because he was a rubber manufacturer, it was widely believed that commercial concerns were behind his activities. This article examines recently archived material, local newspaper accounts, and court transcripts to connect A. R. Kaufman and the PIB with the manufacture of contraceptive products. It also outlines Kaufman's involvement with the eugenics movement, especially his dealings with medical practitioners who carried out sterilization procedures for the PIB. PMID:17152242

  16. Direct Comparison of Rat- and Human-Derived Ganglionic Eminence Tissue Grafts on Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Lelos, Mariah J; Roberton, Victoria H; Vinh, Ngoc-Nga; Harrison, Carl; Eriksen, Peter; Torres, Eduardo M; Clinch, Susanne P; Rosser, Anne E; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating, genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorder that results in early loss of medium spiny neurons from the striatum and subsequent degeneration of cortical and other subcortical brain regions. Behavioral changes manifest as a range of motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric impairments. It has been established that replacement of the degenerated medium spiny neurons with rat-derived fetal whole ganglionic eminence (rWGE) tissue can alleviate motor and cognitive deficits in preclinical rodent models of HD. However, clinical application of this cell replacement therapy requires the use of human-derived (hWGE), not rWGE, tissue. Despite this, little is currently known about the functional efficacy of hWGE. The aim of this study was to directly compare the ability of the gold standard rWGE grafts, against the clinically relevant hWGE grafts, on a range of behavioral tests of motor function. Lister hooded rats either remained as unoperated controls or received unilateral excitotoxic lesions of the lateral neostriatum. Subsets of lesioned rats then received transplants of either rWGE or hWGE primary fetal tissue into the lateral striatum. All rats were tested postlesion and postgraft on the following tests of motor function: staircase test, apomorphine-induced rotation, cylinder test, adjusting steps test, and vibrissae-evoked touch test. At 21 weeks postgraft, brain tissue was taken for histological analysis. The results revealed comparable improvements in apomorphine-induced rotational bias and the vibrissae test, despite larger graft volumes in the hWGE cohort. hWGE grafts, but not rWGE grafts, stabilized behavioral performance on the adjusting steps test. These results have implications for clinical application of cell replacement therapies, as well as providing a foundation for the development of stem cell-derived cell therapy products. PMID:26727032

  17. NKCC1-Deficiency Results in Abnormal Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Cathia; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type (WT) and NKCC1 knockout (KO) mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced phospho-Histone H3 (PH3)-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. PMID:27582690

  18. NKCC1-Deficiency Results in Abnormal Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Cathia; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type (WT) and NKCC1 knockout (KO) mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced phospho-Histone H3 (PH3)-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. PMID:27582690

  19. Nursing, obedience, and complicity with eugenics: a contextual interpretation of nursing morality at the turn of the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Berghs, M; de Casterlé, B Dierckx; Gastmans, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Urban Walker's “expressive collaborative” method of moral inquiry to examine and illustrate the morality of nurses in Great Britain from around 1860 to 1915, as well as nursing complicity in one of the first eugenic policies. The authors aim to focus on how context shapes and limits morality and agency in nurses and contributes to a better understanding of debates in nursing ethics both in the past and present. PMID:16446419

  20. A combined strategy involving Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing increases genomic resources to aid in the management of reproduction, disease control and genetic selection in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic resources for plant and animal species that are under exploitation primarily for human consumption are increasingly important, among other things, for understanding physiological processes and for establishing adequate genetic selection programs. Current available techniques for high-throughput sequencing have been implemented in a number of species, including fish, to obtain a proper description of the transcriptome. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive transcriptomic database in turbot, a highly priced farmed fish species in Europe, with potential expansion to other areas of the world, for which there are unsolved production bottlenecks, to understand better reproductive- and immune-related functions. This information is essential to implement marker assisted selection programs useful for the turbot industry. Results Expressed sequence tags were generated by Sanger sequencing of cDNA libraries from different immune-related tissues after several parasitic challenges. The resulting database (“Turbot 2 database”) was enlarged with sequences generated from a 454 sequencing run of brain-hypophysis-gonadal axis-derived RNA obtained from turbot at different development stages. The assembly of Sanger and 454 sequences generated 52,427 consensus sequences (“Turbot 3 database”), of which 23,661 were successfully annotated. A total of 1,410 sequences were confirmed to be related to reproduction and key genes involved in sex differentiation and maturation were identified for the first time in turbot (AR, AMH, SRY-related genes, CYP19A, ZPGs, STAR FSHR, etc.). Similarly, 2,241 sequences were related to the immune system and several novel key immune genes were identified (BCL, TRAF, NCK, CD28 and TOLLIP, among others). The number of genes of many relevant reproduction- and immune-related pathways present in the database was 50–90% of the total gene count of each pathway. In addition, 1,237 microsatellites and 7,362 single

  1. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness. PMID:25733067

  2. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences. PMID:27066627

  3. [Arthroscopic fracture fixation of intercondylar eminence in children using instrumentarium for the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Sleczka, Paweł; Krzywoń, Jerzy; Ambrozy, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    In our article we introduce a proposal of intercondylar tibial eminence fracture in children management. When dealing with II and III type fracture according to Mes and McKeever classification, we would like to suggest artroscopic fracture fixation with the help of a tension band wiring technique using single bundle reconstruction set of anterior cruciate ligament.The method mentioned above was presented on two cases managed in our ward. Stable fixation of this type fracture allows for quick mobilization and physiotherapy of a patient. It appears to be the key element to full recovery in articular surface fracture. PMID:21648155

  4. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  5. Screening for major driver oncogene alterations in adenosquamous lung carcinoma using PCR coupled with next-generation and Sanger sequencing methods

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaohua; Wu, Huanwen; Lu, Junliang; Duan, Huanli; Liu, Xuguang; Liang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the frequency of major driver oncogenes in lung adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASC) cases. Frequency of EGFR, K-Ras, B-Raf, PIK3CA, DDR2, ALK, and PDGFRA gene mutations was examined in 56 patients using next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, and Sanger sequencing. Macrodissection or microdissection was performed in 37 cases to separate the adenomatous and squamous components of ASC. The overall mutation rate was 64.29%, including 55.36%, 7.14%, and 1.79% for EGFR, K-Ras, and B-Raf mutations, respectively. PIK3CA mutation was detected in three cases; all involved coexisting EGFR mutations. Of the 37 cases, 34 were convergent in two components, while three showed EGFR mutations in the glandular components and three showed PIK3CA mutations in the squamous components. With respect to EGFR mutations, the number of young female patients, nonsmokers, and those with positive pleural invasion was higher in the mutation-positive group than that in the mutation-negative. K-Ras mutation was significantly associated with smoking. Overall survival in the different EGFR mutation groups differed significantly. The frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of EGFR- and K-Ras-mutated adenosquamous lung carcinoma were similar to that noted in Asian adenocarcinomas patients. The high convergence mutation rate in both adenomatous and squamous components suggests monoclonality in ASC. PMID:26923333

  6. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  7. Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias (1911): A Centenary Appreciation and Reconsideration

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Andrew; Heim, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    On the 100th anniversary of the publication of Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias, his teachings on schizophrenia from that seminal book are reviewed and reassessed, and implications for the current revision of the category of schizophrenia, with its emphasis on psychotic symptoms, drawn. Bleuler's methods are contrasted with Kraepelin's, and 4 myths about his concept of schizophrenia addressed. We demonstrate that (1) Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia has close ties to historical and contemporary concepts of dissociation and as such the public interpretation of schizophrenia as split personality has some historical basis; (2) Bleuler's concept of loosening of associations does not refer narrowly to a disorder of thought but broadly to a core organically based psychological deficit which underlies the other symptoms of schizophrenia; (3) the “4 A's,” for association, affect, ambivalence, and autism, do not adequately summarize Bleuler's teachings on schizophrenia and marginalize the central role of splitting in his conception; and (4) Bleuler's ideas were more powerfully influenced by Pierre Janet, particularly with regard to his diagnostic category Psychasthenia, than by Sigmund Freud. We conclude that Bleuler's ideas on schizophrenia warrant reexamination in the light of current criticism of the emphasis on psychotic symptoms in the schizophrenia diagnosis and argue for the recognition of the dissociative roots of this most important psychiatric category. PMID:21505113

  8. In Genes We Trust: Germline Engineering, Eugenics, and the Future of the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being. In this article, I argue that germline intervention will be necessary merely to sustain the levels of genetic health that we presently enjoy for future generations-a goal that should appeal to bioliberals and bioconservatives alike. This is due to the population-genetic consequences of relaxed selection pressures in human populations caused by the increasing efficacy and availability of conventional medicine. This heterodox conclusion, which I present as a problem of intergenerational justice, has been overlooked in medicine and bioethics due to certain misconceptions about human evolution, which I attempt to rectify, as well as the sordid history of Darwinian approaches to medicine and social policy, which I distinguish from the present argument. PMID:26475170

  9. Eugenics and Mandatory Informed Prenatal Genetic Testing: A Unique Perspective from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ng, Vincent H; Wang, Zhaochen; Zhai, Xiaomei; Lie, Reidar K

    2016-08-01

    The application of genetic technologies in China, especially in the area of prenatal genetic testing, is rapidly increasing in China. In the wealthy regions of China, prenatal genetic testing is already very widely adopted. We argue that the government should actively promote prenatal genetic testing to the poor areas of the country. In fact, the government should prioritize resources first to make prenatal genetic testing a standard routine care with an opt-out model in these area. Healthcare professions would be required to inform pregnant women about the availability of genetic testing and provide free testing on a routine basis unless the parents choose not to do so. We argue that this proposal will allow parents to make a more informed decision about their reproductive choices. Secondarily, this proposal will attract more healthcare professionals and other healthcare resources to improve the healthcare infrastructures in the less-developed regions of the country. This will help to reduce the inequity of accessing healthcare services between in different regions of China. We further argue that this policy proposal is not practicing eugenics. PMID:26222676

  10. More than a Mentor: Leonard Darwin's Contribution to the Assimilation of Mendelism into Eugenics and Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution to evolutionary theory of Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), the eighth child of Charles Darwin. By analysing the correspondence Leonard Darwin maintained with Ronald Aylmer Fisher in conjunction with an assessment of his books and other written works between the 1910s and 1930s, this article argues for a more prominent role played by him than the previously recognised in the literature as an informal mentor of Fisher. The paper discusses Leonard's efforts to amalgamate Mendelism with both Eugenics and Darwinism in order for the first to base their policies on new scientific developments and to help the second in finding a target for natural selection. Without a formal qualification in biological sciences and as such mistrusted by some "formal" scientists, Leonard Darwin engaged with key themes of Darwinism such as mimicry, the role of mutations on speciation and the process of genetic variability, arriving at important conclusions concerning the usefulness of Mendelian genetics for his father's theory. PMID:26391791