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Sample records for eugenia cerro atajo

  1. Potentiation of antibiotic activity by Eugenia uniflora and Eugenia jambolanum.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Costa, José G M; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S; Siqueira-Júnior, José P; Lima, Edeltrudes O

    2010-08-01

    This is the first report about the modifying antibiotic activity of Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia jambolanum L. In this study the ethanol extract of E. uniflora and E. jambolanum was tested for their antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli. The growth of the two strains of E. coli bacteria tested was not inhibited in a clinically relevant form by the extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration was >or=1,024 microg/mL for both strains of E. coli assayed. Synergism between this extract and gentamicin was demonstrated. In the same extract synergism was observed between chlorpromazine and kanamycin and between amikacin and tobramycin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. It is therefore suggested that extracts from E. uniflora L. and E. jambolanum L. could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with modifying antibiotic activity to gentamicin. PMID:20482280

  2. Overview of Cerro Prieto studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The studies performed on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, since the late 1950's are summarized. Emphasis is given to those activities leading to the identification of the sources of heat and mass, the fluid flow paths, and the phenomena occurring in the field in its natural state and under exploitation.

  3. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  4. Modeling studies on Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1982-10-01

    Numerical simulation techniques are employed in studies of the natural flow of heat and mass through the Cerro Prieto reservoir and of the effects of exploitation on the field's behavior. We consider a two-dimensional model that is based on the hydrogeologic model of Halfman et al. (this volume). The numerical code MULKOM is used in the simulation studies. In the simulations of the natural state of the Cerro Prieto system, we employ five models that differ in prescribed material properties, boundary conditions, or geologic features. For each of these models we compute the steady-state pressure and temperature distributions and compare them against known preproduction pressures and temperatures. A good match between observed and calculated temperature and pressure distributions was obtained, and a natural hot-water flow rate of about 10/sup -2/ kg/s m through the geothermal system was calculated. The models are then used to simulate the behavior of the field under exploitation during the years 1973 to 1978. An acceptable match of temperature and pressure changes in the producing reservoir was obtained. The resulting flow patterns illustrate the effects of cold water recharge, boiling zones and hot fluid flow from depth on the overall field performance. The fluid recharge patterns agree with some of those postulated in earlier studies.

  5. Resistivity monitoring at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1980-02-01

    In 1978 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in cooperation with Comision Federal de Electricidad, began a program of dipole-dipole resistivity monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Dipole-dipole measurements were first made in 1978, then repeated in 1979: (a) to determine whether the field boundaries could be defined by surface resistivity measurements; and (b) to determine if changes in reservoir conditions due to production may be monitored by surface measurements. In 1979 data accuracy was improved to where estimated measurement errors were less than 3%. In addition, data coverage on a line over the field was expanded by 40% for greater depth of investigation and more information on the newer, eastern part of the field. Resistivity modeling of the expanded 1979 profile indicates that the resistive body associated with the zone of production (Wilt et al., 1978) dips steeply eastward, and may underlie the eastern part of the field. The model also shows a thin steeply dipping conductor adjacent to the resistive body that may be associated with faulting and fluid movement. Model perturbation studies have shown that small changes associated with cold-water influx, fault zone migrations, and formation of a steam zone would all be detectable with precision dipole-dipole measurements. Telluric profile measurements taken along line E-E' were found to yield a significant amount of reconnaissance information but are unsuitable for monitoring purposes.

  6. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  7. Structure of anthocyanins from Eugenia jambolana fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P

    2009-02-01

    The purple color of the ripe Eugenia jambolana fruit is attributed to anthocyanins, a class of plant pigments that has attracted immense attention due to the potential health benefits of these compounds. There is disagreement in the literature on whether E. jambolana fruit anthocyanins are found as 3,5- or 3-diglucosides. Therefore, we used a combination of HPLC-UV, tandem LC-MS, and NMR techniques to identify the structures of anthocyanins present in E. jambolana fruit collected in the U.S.A. and India. Our results indicate that the anthocyanins from both locations occur as 3,5-, but not 3-diglucosides, of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin. This is the first report to use a combination of spectrometric and spectroscopic methods to identify unequivocally the structures of E. jambolana fruit anthocyanins. PMID:19370926

  8. Geohydrology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez R, J.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer is summarized, with special emphasis on the initial production zone where the wells completed in the Alpha aquifer are located. These wells produce steam for power plant units 1 and 2. Brief comments also are made on the Beta aquifer, which underlies the Alpha aquifer in the Cerro Prieto I area and which extends to the east to what is known as the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas. The location of the area studied is shown. The Alpha and Beta aquifers differ in their mineralogy and cementing mineral composition, temperatures, and piezometric levels. The difference in piezometric levels indicates that there is no local communication between the two aquifers. This situation has been verified by a well interference test, using well E-1 as a producer in the Beta aquifer and well M-46 as the observation well in the Alpha aquifer. No interference between them was observed. Information on the geology, geohydrology, and geochemistry of Cerro Prieto is presented.

  9. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Neil; Callmander, Martin; Phillipson, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae) are proposed from Madagascar, including: Eugenia andapae N. Snow, Eugenia barriei N. Snow, Eugenia bemangidiensis N. Snow, Eugenia calciscopulorum N. Snow, Eugenia delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, Eugenia echinulata N. Snow, Eugenia gandhii N. Snow, Eugenia hazonjia N. Snow, Eugenia iantarensis N. Snow, Eugenia malcomberi N. Snow, Eugenia manomboensis N. Snow, Eugenia obovatifolia N. Snow, Eugenia ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, Eugenia ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and Eugenia wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume) N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known), digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species), Endangered (2 species), and Critically Endangered (4 species). Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and Eugenia scottii H. Perrier respectively. PMID:25987885

  10. LBL resistivity studies at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Razo, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of dc resistivity studies were performed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. In the present study dipole-dipole resistivity data have been collected and two-dimensional modeling studies have been performed using these and existing Schlumberger data taken by the CFE. 10 refs.

  11. Antifungal activity of Eugenia umbelliflora against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Karina E; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruz, Rosana C B; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cruz, Alexandre Bella

    2009-09-01

    Antifungal activities of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae) were tested in vitro against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of human fungal pathogens (dermatophytes and opportunistic saprobes). Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of E. umbelliflora were separately prepared and partitioned, to yield dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions (Aq). Three compounds (1-3) were obtained from the DCM extract using chromatographic procedures. Antifungal assays were performed using agar dilution techniques. Both extracts (fruits and leaves), their DCM and EtOAc fractions, and compound 2 (betulin and betulinic acid) presented selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes), with MIC values between 200 and 1000 microg/mL, and interestingly, inhibited 4/5 species with MIC values of < or = 500 microg/mL. The aqueous fractions of fruits and leaves, and compounds 1 (alpha, beta amyrin) and 3 (taraxerol) were inactive up to the maximum concentrations tested (1000 microg/mL). PMID:19831024

  12. Asteroid 45 Eugenia - Lightcurves and the pole orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. C.; Birch, P. V.; Surdej, J.; Pospieszalska-Surdej, A.

    1988-01-01

    Three lightcurves obtained in 1969 and six from 1984 are presented for the 250-km U-type asteroid Eugenia. The asteroid's north pole is within + or - 10 deg of ecliptic longitude 106 deg and a latitude of +26 deg, in keeping with an amplitude-aspect pole analysis. While only one maximum and one minimum are present when observations are closest to both the north and south poles, there are two of each at other oppositions. It is suggested that this effect may be due to the surface albedo features of Eugenia.

  13. Quantitative model of the Cerro Prieto field

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, is under development. It is based on an updated version of LBL's hydrogeologic model of the field. It takes into account major faults and their effects on fluid and heat flow in the system. First, the field under natural state conditions is modeled. The results of this model match reasonably well observed pressure and temperature distributions. Then, a preliminary simulation of the early exploitation of the field is performed. The results show that the fluid in Cerro Prieto under natural state conditions moves primarily from east to west, rising along a major normal fault (Fault H). Horizontal fluid and heat flow occurs in a shallower region in the western part of the field due to the presence of permeable intergranular layers. Estimates of permeabilities in major aquifers are obtained, and the strength of the heat source feeding the hydrothermal system is determined.

  14. Quantitative Model of the Cerro Prieto Field

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1986-01-21

    A three-dimensional model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, is under development. It is based on an updated version of LBL's hydrogeologic model of the field. It takes into account major faults and their effects on fluid and heat flow in the system. First, the field under natural state conditions is modeled. The results of this model match reasonably well observed pressure and temperature distributions. Then, a preliminary simulation of the early exploitation of the field is performed. The results show that the fluid in Cerro Prieto under natural state conditions moves primarily from east to west, rising along a major normal fault (Fault H). Horizontal fluid and heat flow occurs in a shallower region in the western part of the field due to the presence of permeable intergranular layers. Estimates of permeabilities in major aquifers are obtained, and the strength of the heat source feeding the hydrothermal system is determined.

  15. Exploration and development of Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Teilman, M.A.; Cordon, U.J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief retrospective of the exploration and field model development at Cerro Prieto are presented. Representative field models are presented for each of the work phases. These models demonstrate how the concept of the field evolved - from a small 2 km/sup 2/ area with a relatively unknown reservoir configuration - to a geothermal resource area over 20 km/sup 2/ where the hydrothermal processes and structural environment are being studied in detail. A model integrating information from these studies was developed.

  16. Euglobal-like compounds from the genus Eugenia.

    PubMed

    Faqueti, Larissa G; Petry, Christiane Maes; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Machado, Karima E; Cruz, Alexandre Belle; Garcia, Pablo A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; San Feliciano, Arturo; Monache, Franco Delle

    2013-01-01

    Two regioisomeric meroterpenoids, Eugenial A and B, have been isolated from the fruits of Eugenia multiflora and their structures established on the basis of NMR evidences. They possess a phloroglucinol-monoterpene structure similar to the euglobals occurring in the sister genus Eucaliptus. A simple method to distinguish between regioisomeric pairs was pointed. PMID:22304004

  17. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  18. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  19. Gas reaction in the Cerro Prieto reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nehring, N.L.; Valette-Silver, J.N.

    1982-08-10

    Gases in an undisturbed geothermal reservoir should be in equilibrium with the surrounding rock and water. Production of fluid at rapid rates may cause physical changes in the reservoir that are reflected as changes in gas composition. At Cerro Prieto production has lowered the reservoir pressure enough in places to induce boiling in the aquifer, leading to high enthalpy, low production and eventual drawndown of cold water into the reservoir. These changes are reflected in gas compositions. Differences, in gas composition between well and surface samples reflect changing equilibrium in temperature-dependent chemical reactions and a mixture of gases dissolved in groundwater.

  20. α-Glucosidase inhibitory hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambolana seeds.

    PubMed

    Omar, Raed; Li, Liya; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-08-24

    Three new hydrolyzable tannins including two gallotannins, jamutannins A (1) and B (2), and an ellagitannin, iso-oenothein C (3), along with eight known phenolic compounds were isolated from the seeds of Eugenia jambolana fruit. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory effects compared to the clinical drug acarbose. PMID:22867049

  1. Antidiarrhoeic effect of Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae) leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Galheigo, Maria Raquel Unterkircher; Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Mundin, Angélica Martins Moreira; Gomes, Dayane Olímpia; Chang, Roberto; Lima, Anna Monteiro Correia; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2016-05-01

    Essential oil from Eugenia dysenterica leaves was able to inhibit both the diarrhoea and enteropooling induced by castor oil; however, the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the intestine was not change. These data suggest that the antidiarrhoeic effect of the essential oil from E. dysenterica leaves is related to its ability to inhibit intestinal secretion and/or to increase intestinal absorption. PMID:26150261

  2. Geothermal development in Cerro Prieto Baja California, Mexico (1983)

    SciTech Connect

    Manon M.A.

    1983-09-01

    The actual stage of the expansion program and some of the main characteristics of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field are presented. This is similar to the one presented in this same conference back in 1981, but it has been updated.

  3. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Schapoval, E E; Silveira, S M; Miranda, M L; Alice, C B; Henriques, A T

    1994-12-01

    In view of the extensive use of Eugenia uniflora in folk medicine, different extracts of dried and fresh leaves of the plant were assayed to test its possible pharmacological activities. The infusion of fresh leaves had a highly significant anti-inflammatory effect when administered p.o. to rats 1 h before subplantar injection of carrageenin. The infusion increased the pentobarbital sleeping time and also had an effect on intestinal transit, and had no acute toxic effect. No analgesic or antimicrobial activities were observed with any of the extracts used. PMID:7898120

  4. Analysis of Cerro Prieto production data

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.; Vonder Haar, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Heat and mass production data from the Cerro Prieto field are analyzed in order to provide a basis for a detailed quantitative model of the system. It is found, in general, that the production from the individual wells decreased with time. This can be due to a reduction in permeability by silica deposition in the aquifer pores, relative permeability effects in a two-phase flow, and/or a reduced pressure gradient over years of production. Specific increases in the total mass production rate of the field are associated with the increased number of producing wells. Average enthalpy of the produced fluid varied over the years. It first increased, then decreased, and again increased. An increase in enthalpy was usually the result of adding higher enthalpy wells to those already in the field. The decrease in the enthalpy is thought to be mostly due to the mixing of relatively cold water with the geothermal aquifer fluid. Downhole pressures, temperatures and saturations in the flowing wells were calculated from the known wellhead data. Between 1973 and 1980, the pressures and temperatures have decreased by about 15 bars and 20/sup 0/C respectively, and the steam saturations have slightly increased in the near-well regions.

  5. Evaluation of geologic characteristics at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.H.; Halfman, S.E.; Vonder Haar, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Computerized well-log analysis of Cerro Prieto has led to the identification of a relatively large and irregular low-density volume extending from near the surface in the vicinity of Laguna Volcano to greater depths toward the northeast. This low-density volume is located about a plane of symmetry of a self-potential anomaly and a group of northeast trending active faults. The presence of a volume of relatively high-density rock has been recognized at shallow depths in the initially developed part of the resource. It is believed to be due to minerals deposited by cooled, rising geothermal brine. Storativity calculated from well logs at the south end of the western part of the field shows acceptable comparison with storativity calculated from well tests. The amount of fluid produced from the field during the period 1973-1977 is greater than the amount in situ calculated from the completed interval thicknesses. Because this part of the field is still producing today, fluid must be recharging this part of the field.

  6. Production characteristics of some Cerro Prieto wells

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, K.P.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-01

    An areal distribution of heat and mass production in the Cerro Prieto field has been presented for two different times to determine the initial state of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. aquifers and the behavior of the field under production. It was found that, initially, the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. aquifers were hot and very hot respectively. Cold boundaries to the field were found to be located toward the west and northeast. Initially, fluid production from most wells was very high. M-53 and some wells southeast of Fault H produced very hot fluids at very high rates. Production from most wells declined over the years, possibly due to scaling in the wellbore, reduced recharge to the aquifer, high resistance to flow due to silica precipitation in the reservoir pores and/or relative permeability effects in the two-phase regions surrounding the wells. In most wells fluid enthalpies declined over the years, perhaps due to mixing with colder waters either drawn in from upper strata and/or from the cold lateral boundaries depending upon well location.

  7. Sensitivity of fungi isolated from onychomycosis to Eugenia cariophyllata essential oil and eugenol.

    PubMed

    Gayoso, C W; Lima, E O; Oliveira, V T; Pereira, F O; Souza, E L; Lima, I O; Navarro, D F

    2005-03-01

    The antifungal activity of Eugenia cariophyllata essential oil and eugenol, its major constituent, on fungal strains isolated from onychomycosis was evaluated. The natural products presented prominent antifungal action with MIC of 1% and 4%, respectively. PMID:15752642

  8. Emission of Methane by Eudrilus eugeniae and Other Earthworms from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Depkat-Jakob, Peter S.; Hunger, Sindy; Schulz, Kristin; Brown, George G.; Tsai, Siu M.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms emit denitrification-derived nitrous oxide and fermentation-derived molecular hydrogen. The present study demonstrated that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, obtained in Brazil, emitted methane. Other worms displayed a lesser or no capacity to emit methane. Gene and transcript analyses of mcrA (encoding the alpha subunit of methyl-CoM reductase) in gut contents of E. eugeniae suggested that Methanosarcinaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae might be associated with this emission. PMID:22344639

  9. The hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon M., A.

    1989-01-01

    As the exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field continues, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman et al. (1984, 1986) presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. At the present time the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto is 620 MWe requiring the production of more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture. This significant rate of fluid production has resulted in changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. After reviewing the hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto, some of the changes observed in the field due to its exploitation are discussed and interpreted on the basis of the model. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. HIV-1 Ribonuclease H Inhibitory Phenolic Glycosides from Eugenia hyemalis

    PubMed Central

    Bokesch, Heidi R.; Wamiru, Antony; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.; Beutler, John A.; McKee, Tawnya C.; McMahon, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Three new galloyl arbutins, hyemalosides A–C (1–3), along with nine known compounds were isolated from the evergreen tree Eugenia hyemalis. The structures of compounds 1–3 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. Compounds 1–3 inhibited HIV-1 RNase H in vitro with IC50 values of 1.46, >18, and 1.19 μM, respectively. However, in a XTT-based cell viability assay using the human T-cell line CEM-SS infected with HIV-1RT, none of the compounds inhibited the cytopathic effect of HIV-1 infection at the highest dose tested (20 μg/mL). PMID:18763827

  11. The Leaf Essential Oil of Eugenia reinwardtiana Growing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Joseph J; Clarkson, John R; Deseo, Myrna A; Ford, Andrew J; Lawes, Douglas J; Leach, David N

    2015-09-01

    The leaf essential oils of the two chemotypes of Eugenia reinwardtiana (Blume) DC growing in Australia have been investigated. Chemotype 1, isolated in 0.2% yield, w/w, dry weight, contained major amounts of α-pinene (10-26%), limonene (1-15%), β-caryophyllene (0.7-11%), α-humulene (0.9-16%) and bicyclogermacrene (1-23%). The second chemotype, found only on coastal dunes SW of Lockerbie Qld, and isolated in 0.4-0.6% (w/w, dry weight), contained α-pinene (tr-8.5%) β-caryophyllene (12-27%) and α-humulene (1-17%) as the major terpenes. This chemotype also contained the novel aliphatic diketone, 2-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-5-methoxycyclohex-5-en-1,3-dione (18-33%), whose structure determination is reported herein. PMID:26594771

  12. Impact of Parthenium weeds on earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Rajendran, Venckatesh

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Parthenium-mediated compost on Eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. Nine different concentrations of Parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. The earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. The antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the biochemical and oxidative stresses due to the toxin from Parthenium weeds. The earthworms' growth, biomass gain, cocoon production and antioxidant enzymes were in a low level in a high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results clearly indicated that appropriate mixing of P. hysterophorus quantity is an essential factor for the survival of earthworms without causing any harm. PMID:24938809

  13. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Nehring, N.L.; D'Amore, F.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal gases at Cerro Prieto are derived from high temperature reactions within the reservoir or are introduced with recharge water. Gases collected from geothermal wells should, therefore, reflect reservoir conditions. Interpretation of gas compositions of wells indicates reservoir temperatures, controls of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and recharge source and direction.

  14. Searching for Orbits Around the Asteroid 45 Eugenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Antonio

    The present paper has the goal of searching and mapping orbits, with respect to the perturbations, for a spacecraft traveling around the asteroid 45 Eugenia. This asteroid is a triple system, which center of mass is in an elliptic orbit around the Sun. The perturbations considered in the present model are the ones due to the oblateness of the central body, the gravity field of the two satellite bodies, the Sun, the Moon and all the planets of the Solar System. This mapping is important, because it shows the relative importance of each force for a given orbit of the spacecraft, helping to make a decision about which forces needs to be included in the model for a given desired accuracy and nominal orbit. Another important application of this type of mapping is to find better orbits for a spacecraft travelling around this system, since it is expected that orbits that are less perturbed have good potential to require lower fuel consumption for station-keeping maneuvers. Simulations under different conditions are made in order to find those orbits. The main reason to study those trajectories is that, currently, there are several institutions in Brazil studying the possibility to make a mission to send a spacecraft to a triple asteroid (the so called ASTER mission), because there are many important scientific studies that can be performed in a system like that. This mission is still under study and the first choice for the target is the triple asteroid 2001SN263. A similar study that is performed here was made for this triple system recently (Prado, 2014), and the present paper has the goal of studying the system 45 Eugenia, in order to compare the orbits among those two systems with respect to the perturbations suffered by the orbits. The results will show this comparison and can be used if this second choice of target is considered. It is also useful to indicate the conditions of the orbits for a second future mission to a triple asteroid, which may be done in a more

  15. EBV DNA polymerase inhibition of tannins from Eugenia uniflora.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Chiou, J F; Yen, K Y; Yang, L L

    2000-06-30

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the high population malignant tumors among Chinese in southern China and southeast Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human B lymphotropic herpes virus which is known to be closely associated with NPC. EBV DNA polymerase is a key enzyme during EBV replication and is measured by its radioactivity. The addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to Raji cell cultures led to a large increase in EBV DNA polymerase, which was purified by sequential DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Four tannins were isolated from the active fractions of Eugenia uniflora L., which were tested for the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase. The results showed the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of gallocatechin, oenothein B, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) were 26.5 62.3, 3.0 and 3.5 microM, respectively. Furthermore, when compared with the positive control (phosphonoacetic acid), an inhibitor of EBV replication, the IC(50) value was 16.4 microM. In view of the results, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) are the potency principles in the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase from E. uniflora. PMID:10806300

  16. Cytotoxic, trypanocidal, and antifungal activities of Eugenia jambolana L.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is considered a public health problem. Nowadays, chemotherapy is the only available treatment for this disease, and the drugs currently used, nifurtimox and benzonidazole, present high toxicity levels. Alternatives for replacing these drugs are natural extracts from Eugenia jambolana, a plant used in traditional medicine because of its antimicrobial and biological activities. An ethanol extract from E. jambolana was prepared. To research in vitro anti-epimastigote activity, T. cruzi CL-B5 clone was used. Epimastigotes were inoculated at a concentration of 1×10(5)/mL in 200 μL of tryptose-liver infusion. For the cytotoxicity assay J774 macrophages were used. To examine antifungal activity, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei were used. This is the first record of trypanocide activity for E. jambolana. The effective concentration capable of killing 50% of the parasites was 56.42 μg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration was ≤1,024 μg/mL. Metronidazole showed a potentiation of its antifungal effect when combined with the ethanol extract of E. jambolana. Thus our results indicate that E. jambolana could be a source of plant-derived natural products with anti-epimastigote and antifungal modifying activity with moderate toxicity. PMID:21877946

  17. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  18. Progress report on LBL's numerical modeling studies on Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman-Dooley, S.E.; Lippman, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1989-04-01

    An exploitation model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system is needed to assess the energy capacity of the field, estimate its productive lifetime and develop an optimal reservoir management plan. The model must consider the natural state (i.e., pre-exploitation) conditions of the system and be able to predict changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions (and fluid chemistry) in response to fluid production (and injection). This paper discusses the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the natural state conditions of the Cerro Prieto field and compares computed and observed pressure and temperature/enthalpy changes for the 1973--1987 production period. 16 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Criteria for determining casing depth in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas M., H.M.; Vaca S., J.M.E.

    1982-08-10

    On the basis of geological data obtained during drilling and its relation to electric logs, together with the problems that arose when drilling through formations until the production zone was reached, it is possible to establish the most suitable manner to line a well and thus formulate an optimum casings program. The main criteria to be taken into consideration in preparing such a program and its application in the drilling of wells programmed in Cerro Prieto to optimize and economize such drilling and achieve suitable techniques for well completion are presented. The criteria are based on the characteristics of the Cerro Prieto field and on casing design factors, as well as a experience gained during drilling in such a field.

  20. Seismic discrimination of a geothermal field: Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeslee, S.

    1984-04-01

    Extensive reprocessing of a subset of the seismic reflection data from Cerro Prieto has been performed. The formations and faults identified in the resulting seismic profile were correlated to cross-sections constructed from well log data. The production region coincides with a zone of reflection attenuation. A detailed velocity analysis reveals a lid of high velocity events rimming the reflection attenuation zone. This may prove to be a valuable discriminant for locating a geothermal resource using seismic reflection data.

  1. The Cerro LOS Calvos and La Banderia chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Randall; Lewis, Charles F.; Clark, James C.; Moore, Carleton B.

    1991-06-01

    The Cerro los Calvos meteorite is a single stone of 68.5 g found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field of Zacatecas, (Mexico). It is an unusual H4 chondrite. Its olivine (Fa12.5) and orthopyroxene (Fs 11.7, Wo 0.8) are reduced relative to typical H chondrites. The La Banderia meteorite of 54.3 g from the same vicinity is an LL5 chondrite of shock classification e.

  2. Dating thermal events at Cerro Prieto using fission track annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, S.J.; Elders, W..

    1981-01-01

    Data from laboratory experiments and geologic fading studies were compiled from published sources to produce lines of iso-annealing for apatite in time-temperature space. Fission track ages were calculated for samples from two wells at Cerro Prieto, one with an apparently simple and one with an apparently complex thermal history. Temperatures were estimated by empirical vitrinite reflectance geothermometry, fluid inclusion homogenization and oxygen isotope equilibrium. These estimates were compared with logs of measured borehole temperatures.

  3. Correlation between precision gravity and subsidence measurements at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Zelwer, R.; Grannell, R.B.

    1982-10-01

    Precision gravity measurements were made in the region of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field at yearly intervals from 1977 to 1981 to assess the feasibility of using gravity to determine subsurface reservoir changes with time. The extent of mass recharge in response to the continued production of fluids from this field was studied. Changes in gravity and ground elevation were observed throughout the region for the period of observation. Results indicate that the largest changes observed were the result of the Magnitude 6.1 (Caltech) Victoria earthquake of 8 June 1980. The epicenter of this earthquake was located 25 km southeast of the field on the Cerro Prieto Fault, which bounds the field on the southwest. Subsidence of up to 55 cm was measured east of the power plant, in the region between the northern end of the Cerro Prieto Fault and the southern end of the Imperial Fault. This area has been postulated to be the site of an active spreading center or pull-apart basin, and has been characterized by a high level of seismic activity during the last 10 years. Minor subsidence and small related gravity changes for the period preceeding the Victoria earthquake suggest that in spite of large fluid production rates, the reservoir is being almost completely recharged and that a measurable increase in subsurface density may be taking place. The results of measurements of horizontal ground motions made in this area are discussed in relation to the gravity and subsidence observations.

  4. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.L.; Vonder Haar, S.

    1980-01-01

    To aid in a paleoenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495 m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. We found foraminifera in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples, and nannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscs, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations are not possible at this time because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350{sup 0}C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to brackish water environments that correspond, in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-My-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500 m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet, have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  5. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.L.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-08-10

    To aid in a paleonenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. Foraminifera was found in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples and mannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscus, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations at this time cannot be made because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350/sup 0/C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to backish water inviroments that correspond in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-m.y.-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  6. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and cytotoxic action of fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: correlation with polyphenol and flavanoid content.

    PubMed

    Figueirôa, Evellyne de Oliveira; Nascimento da Silva, Luís Cláudio; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Neves, Juliana Kelle de Andrade Lemoine; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae) have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccensis L. It was observed that the polyphenol content was higher in ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions have high antioxidant potential. E. malaccensis L. seeds showed the largest DPPH radical scavenger capacity (EC50 = 22.62). The fractions of E. malaccensis L. leaves showed lower antioxidant capacity. The samples did not alter the profile of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide release. The results indicate that species of the family Myrtaceae are rich in compounds with antioxidant capacity, which can help reduce the inflammatory response. PMID:24089599

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Cytotoxic Action of Fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: Correlation with Polyphenol and Flavanoid Content

    PubMed Central

    Figueirôa, Evellyne de Oliveira; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Neves, Juliana Kelle de Andrade Lemoine; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae) have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccensis L. It was observed that the polyphenol content was higher in ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions have high antioxidant potential. E. malaccensis L. seeds showed the largest DPPH radical scavenger capacity (EC50 = 22.62). The fractions of E. malaccensis L. leaves showed lower antioxidant capacity. The samples did not alter the profile of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide release. The results indicate that species of the family Myrtaceae are rich in compounds with antioxidant capacity, which can help reduce the inflammatory response. PMID:24089599

  9. Release from herbivory does not confer invasion success for Eugenia uniflora in Florida.

    PubMed

    Bohl Stricker, Kerry; Stiling, Peter

    2014-03-01

    One of the most commonly cited hypotheses explaining invasion success is the enemy release hypothesis (ERH), which maintains that populations are regulated by coevolved natural enemies where they are native but are relieved of this pressure in the new range. However, the role of resident enemies in plant invasion remains unresolved. We conducted a field experiment to test predictions of the ERH empirically using a system of native, introduced invasive, and introduced non-invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida. Such experiments are rarely undertaken but are particularly informative in tests of the ERH, as they simultaneously identify factors allowing invasive species to replace natives and traits determining why most introduced species are unsuccessful invaders. We excluded insect herbivores from seedlings of Eugenia congeners where the native and invasive Eugenia co-occur, and compared how herbivore exclusion affected foliar damage, growth, and survival. We found no evidence to support the ERH in this system, instead finding that the invasive E. uniflora sustained significantly more damage than the native and introduced species. Interestingly, E. uniflora performed better than, or as well as, its congeners in terms of growth and survival, in spite of higher damage incidence. Further, although herbivore exclusion positively influenced Eugenia seedling survival, there were few differences among species and no patterns in regard to invasion status or origin. We conclude that the ability of E. uniflora to outperform its native and introduced non-invasive congeners, and not release from insect herbivores, contributes to its success as an invader in Florida. PMID:24141380

  10. Complete Genome Sequence and Methylome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro, a Frequent Dairy Cow Serovar

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Bradd J.; Pirone, Cary; Muruvanda, Tim; Brown, Eric; Allard, Marc; Karns, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cerro is an infrequent pathogen of humans and other mammals but is frequently isolated from the hindgut of asymptomatic cattle in the United States. To further understand the genomic determinants of S. Cerro specificity for the bovine hindgut, the genome of isolate CFSAN001588 was fully sequenced and deposited in the GenBank database. PMID:26823571

  11. Geophysical Investigations of Magma Plumbing Systems at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    Cerro Negro near Leon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6--7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive density anomalies beneath Cerro Negro and Las Pilas-El Hoyo. These findings suggest that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping a large magma reservoir beneath Las Pilas-El Hoyo, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest vent on the Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcanic complex. As such, it is possible that the intensity of volcanic hazards at Cerro Negro may eventually increase in the future to resemble those pertaining to a stratovolcano. Keywords: Cerro Negro; Las Pilas-El Hoyo; Bouguer gravity; magmatic plumbing systems; potential fields; volcano.

  12. Atmospheric conditions at Cerro Armazones derived from astronomical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakićević, Maša; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Kerber, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We studied the precipitable water vapour (PWV) content near Cerro Armazones and discuss the potential use of our technique of modelling the telluric absorbtion lines for the investigation of other molecular layers. The site is designated for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the nearby planned site for the Čerenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Methods: Spectroscopic data from the Bochum Echelle Spectroscopic Observer (BESO) instrument were investigated by using a line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) for the Earth's atmosphere with the telluric absorption correction tool molecfit. All observations from the archive in the period from December 2008 to the end of 2014 were investigated. The dataset completely covers the El Niño event registered in the period 2009-2010. Models of the 3D Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) were used for further comparison. Moreover, we present a direct comparison for those days for which data from a similar study with VLT/X-Shooter and microwave radiometer LHATPRO at Cerro Paranal are available. Results: This analysis shows that the site has systematically lower PWV values, even after accounting for the decrease in PWV expected from the higher altitude of the site with respect to Cerro Paranal, using the average atmosphere found with radiosondes. We found that GDAS data are not a suitable basis for predicting local atmospheric conditions - they usually systematically overestimate the PWV values. The large sample furthermore enabled us to characterize the site with respect to symmetry across the sky and variation with the years and within the seasons. This technique of studying the atmospheric conditions is shown to be a promising step into a possible monitoring equipment for the CTA. Based on archival observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile and of the Cerro Armazones Observatory facilities of the Ruhr Universität Bochum.Full Table 1

  13. Prediction of reinjection effects on the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.; Mangold, D.C.; Doughty, C.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1982-08-10

    The response of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to different reinjection schemes is predicted using a two-dimensional vertical reservoir model with single- or two-phase flow. The advance of cold fronts and pressure changes in the system associated with the inection operations are computed, taking into consideration the geologic characteristics of the field. The effects of well location, depth, and rates of injection are analyzed. Results indicate that significant pressure maintenance effects may be realized in a carefully designed reinjection operation.

  14. Precision gravity studies at Cerro Prieto: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Grannell, R.B.; Kroll, R.C.; Wyman, R.M.; Aronstam, P.S.

    1981-01-01

    A third and fourth year of precision gravity data collection and reduction have now been completed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. In summary, 66 permanently monumented stations were occupied between December and April of 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 by a LaCoste and Romberg gravity meter (G300) at least twice, with a minimum of four replicate values obtained each time. Station 20 alternate, a stable base located on Cerro Prieto volcano, was used as the reference base for the third year and all the stations were tied to this base, using four to five hour loops. The field data were reduced to observed gravity values by (1) multiplication with the appropriate calibration factor; (2) removal of calculated tidal effects; (3) calculation of average values at each station, and (4) linear removal of accumulated instrumental drift which remained after carrying out the first three reductions. Following the reduction of values and calculation of gravity differences between individual stations and the base stations, standard deviations were calculated for the averaged occupation values (two to three per station). In addition, pooled variance calculations were carried out to estimate precision for the surveys as a whole.

  15. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  16. Fluid evolution of Cerro Colorado Porphyry Copper Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Debbie Pui Wai; Wallis, Simon

    2014-05-01

    The Cerro Colorado porphyry copper deposit is the northernmost currently active copper mine in Chile, producing 90.5kt copper per year. It belongs to one of the Paleocene to early Eocene porphyry copper deposits that are distributed along the western slope of the main Andean Cordillera in Northern Chile (Bouzari & Clark, 2002). Active commercial production began in 1994, and the estimated reserves within the supergene blanket can sustain further 12 years of copper mining. Field studies of the well-exposed geology around the mine site and the access to drilled cores that penetrate into the hypogene zone provide a good opportunity to study the temporal relationship between magmatism, hypogene and supergene ore formation of the region. The geological evolution of Cerro Colorado area can be generalized as follows. The Cretaceous Cerro Empexa Formation, consisting of a sequence of volcanic rocks, mainly andesitic lava and breccia, lahars, some ignimbrite intercalations and dacitic tuff (Charrier, Pinto & Rodrigues, 2007), was intruded by tonalitic to dioritic magma in Middle-Eocene. Magmatic activities generated brecciated rocks accompanying with different alteration zones radiate outward from the intrusion. The mineralized hypogene protore later interacted with ground water, creating the supergene blanket, which is now the principal mining target of Cerro Colorado. Several plutonic lithologies with slight but distinct compositional differences were exposed in the valleys around the mine site. The presence of these several phases of small-scale intrusions suggests the ore genesis may be related to multiple pulses of heating and associated fluid flow. Complementarily, on-site geologists have reported occurrences of early stage biotites vein cutting into phyllitic alteration zone, or across terminal stage quartz-pyrite veins in the drilled cores. These observations are direct evidences of at least two major distinct phases of fluid flow, and imply the ore mineralization

  17. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antioxidative compounds from the bark of Eugenia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Lelono, Raden Arthur Ario; Tachibana, Sanro

    2013-08-15

    Eugenia polyantha bark extracts were found to have potential antioxidative activities. This study is an effort to investigate the antioxidative compounds in E. polyantha. In vitro antioxidatve assay were used as guided tools for the isolation of antioxidative compounds. The methanol-water extracts showed the highest level of free radical-scavenging activity (ED50) = 180 microg mL(-1) and protection from beta-carotene bleaching (8.7 microg mL(-1)). The methanol-water (1:1) extracts exhibited strong DPPH scavenging activity and protection against beta carotene bleaching and was subjected to repeated silica gel column chromatography. The n-butanol, acetone and ethyl acetate solubles exhibited the highest antioxidative activities, derivatization was conducted to the isolated antioxidative compounds prior to identification. Catechin, gallic acid and rutin were isolated from those solubles as active compounds present in the Eugenia polyantha bark. PMID:24498834

  18. Extraction and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonols from Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; Plata-Oviedo, Manuel Salvador Vicente; de Mattos, Gisely; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Branco, Ivanise Guilherme

    2014-10-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds of Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents was investigated in this study. The compounds were identified and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD/UV-vis). Absolute methanol was the most effective extraction agent of phenolic acids and flavonols (588.31 mg/Kg) from Eugenia pyriformis, although similar results (p ≤ 0.05) were observed using methanol/water (1:1 ratio). Our results clearly showed that higher contents of phenolic compounds were not obtained either with the most or the least polar solvents used. Several phenolic compounds were identified in the samples whereas gallic acid and quercetin were the major compounds recovered. PMID:25328239

  19. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil. PMID:26413446

  20. Antioxidant, Antihyperlipidaemic and Antidiabetic Activity of Eugenia Floccosa Bedd Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jelastin, Kala S Mary; Tresina, P.S.; Mohan, V.R.

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa Bedd (Family: Myrtaceae) leaf was investigated for its antioxidant, antihyperlipidaemic and antidiabetic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in Albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p). The ethanol extracts of E. floccosa at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of E. floccosa leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C), high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C) and phospholipid (PL)] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], lipoprotein peroxidation (LPO) antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa leaf elicited significant reductions of blood glucose (P<0.05), lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C and antioxidant enzymes. The extracts also caused significant increase in plasma insulin (P<0.05) in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa possesses significant antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24826030

  1. Review of progress in understanding the fluid geochemistry of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal System

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nehring, N.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Janik, C.J.; Coplen, T.B.

    1982-08-10

    Fluid geochemistry has played a major role in the authors present understanding of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have been used to indicate the origin of water, salts, and gases, original subsurface temperature and fluid flow, fluid-production mechanims, and production-induced aquifer boiling and cold-water entry. The extensive geochemical data and interpretation for Cerro Prieto published from 1964 to 1981 are reviewed and discussed. Fluid geochemistry must continue to play an important role in the further development of the Cerro Prieto field.

  2. A review of progress in understanding the fluid geochemistry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nehring, N.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Janik, C.J.; Coplen, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    Fluid geochemistry has played a major role in our present understanding of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have been used to indicate the origin of water, salts and gases, original subsurface temperature and fluid flow, fluid-production mechanisms, and production-induced aquifer boiling and cold-water entry. The extensive geochemical data and interpretations for Cerro Prieto published from 1964 to 1981 are reviewed and discussed. Fluid geochemistry must continue to play an important role in the further development of the Cerro Prieto field. ?? 1984.

  3. Scale incidence on production pipes of Cerro Prieto geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, S.; Hurtado, R. ); Bermejo, F.; Terrazas, B.; Hernandez, L. . Coordinadora Ejecutiva de Cerro Prieto)

    1989-01-01

    Scaling of geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field is a problem that has been experienced since the plant start-up, but has been diminished by selection of the main productive strata (avoiding the mixing of water from different temperature layers) and using orifice restrictions at the wellhead discharge. This last technique works in some new wells with a wellhead pressure of 120 bars. One hundred fifty wells have been drilled with the deepest production well being 3650 m. The drilling for exploration and production wells continues at the present time. Around one hundred million tons of a water-steam mixture is extracted every year; 40% is separated steam which is used in three geothermoelectric power stations having a total of 620 MWe of installed capacity.

  4. Properties of Cerro Prieto rock at simulated in situ conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Rocks from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field were tested under simulated in situ conditions in the laboratory to determine their properties and response to pore pressure reduction as would be caused by reservoir production. The primary purpose of the project was to provide information on compaction and creep as they may contribute to surface subsidence. Results show typical compressibilities for reservoir rocks of about 1 x 10/sup -6/ psi/sup -1/ and creep compaction rates of about 1 x 10/sup -9/ sec/sup -1/ when triggered by 1000 psi pore pressure reduction. This creep rate would cause significant porosity reduction if it continued for several years. Therefore it becomes important to learn how to correctly extrapolate such data to long times.

  5. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  6. Geochemical evidence of drawdown in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, M.A.; Jimenez, S.M.E.; Sanchez, A.A.; Fausto, L.J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Some wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have undergone changes in the chemistry of fluids produced which reflect reservoir processes. Pressure decreases due to production in the southeastern part of the field have produced both drawdown of lower chloride fluids from an overlying aquifer and boiling in the aquifer with excess steam reaching the wells. These reservoir changes are indicated by changes in fluid chloride concentrations, Na/K ratios and measured enthalpies and by comparisons of aquifer fluid temperatures and chloride concentrations calculated from enthalpy and chemical measurements. Fluid temperatures have not been greatly affected by this drawdown because heat contained in the rock was transferred to the fluid. When this heat is exhausted, fluid temperatures may drop rapidly. ?? 1979.

  7. Results from two years of resistivity monitoring at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and resistivity monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on an annual basis since then. Two 20 km long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at one kilometer spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor controlled signal averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Analysis of collected data indicate little change in the apparent resistivity of the upper 300 m over the field production zone and that in this section measurements are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall cycle. Apparent resistivity increases were observed over the older producing zone at Cerro Prieto at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity were observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. The increase in apparent resistivity in the production region may be due to an increasing fraction of steam in the reservoir resulting from a production related decline in reservoir pressure. Alternatively the increases may be the result of fresh water influx from the Colorado River. The zone of declining resistivity flanking the area of increase may be due to the movement of saline waters into the reservoir region as a result of the pressure decline. Quantitative modeling of observed changes is impractical owing to the high uncertainty in estimating apparent resistivity changes and the nonuniqueness of models.

  8. Biodegradation of Garden Waste, Market Waste Using Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugenia and Assessment of Manure Quality on Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. Mariraj

    2014-06-01

    Comparative study was performed to evaluate the vermicomposting efficiency of two earthworm species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugenia from the garden wastes, vegetable market wastes. Three different experimental works were conducted. For each experiment three plastic vermibins were used. Experiment (1) mentioned for control without earthworms. Experiment (2) bedded with Eudrilus eugenia, Experiment (3) comprised of bedding with Eisenia fetida. Pre composting was allowed for 10 days after that Eudrilus eugenia, Eisenia fetida were added in respective vermibins. The multiplication of earthworms in terms of number was calculated at the end of vermicomposting. The N, P, K value of the manure in each vermibin was estimated before and after the completion of the experiment. High N, P, K value was obtained in Experiment (2) and Experiment (3) compared to control. Among the solid wastes, the vegetable wastes were degraded quickly by Eudrilus eugenia and also it has the best quality of manure. Eudrilus eugenia was found to be efficient for quick degradation of both garden wastes and vegetable wastes. After manure production, field trials were conducted using different fertilizers to assess the manure quality in the growth and yield of tomato plants. Six types of experimental trial pots were prepared where one was kept as control and five others were treated with different category of fertilizers. The treatment pots (P3) showed better growth parameters (leaf numbers, stem diameter, plant height) than the rest of the trial.

  9. Comparison of the radiological dose from the Cerro Grande fire to a natural wildfire.

    PubMed

    Volkerding, John M

    2004-01-01

    Since the Cerro Grande fire burned portions of a Department of Energy facility where nuclear weapons research occurs, it is important to determine if the fire posed greater risk to the public than a natural fire. All wildfires release radioactive as well as other toxic pollutants into the atmosphere. Thus, it is important to determine if the radioactive air emissions from the Cerro Grande fire were statistically different than those from a natural wildfire, specifically the Viveash fire. PMID:14592576

  10. EFFECTS OF LOCALIZED AQUIFER BOILING ON FLUID PRODUCTION AT CERRO PRIETO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, Alfred H.; D'Amore, Franco; Nieva, David

    1984-01-01

    Localized aquifer boiling in the shallow two-phase reservoir of Cerro Prieto has produced excess steam and increased electrical output. Unfortunately it has also caused near-well mineral deposition that has decreased permeability and fluid flow. Inflow of cold water has limited the extent of aquifer boiling and permeability loss. The deeper reservoir at Cerro Prieto may need injection of cold water to decrease boiling and prevent loss of production. Refs.

  11. Chemical composition and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Eugenia platysema.

    PubMed

    Tenfen, Adrielli; Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; Mendes de Córdova, Caio Maurício; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition and evaluates the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Eugenia platysema leaves. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 22 compounds. Different from the other species of the Eugenia genus, the major compound found in the essential oil was the diterpene phytol (66.05%), being this the first report of the presence of this compound in the essential oils from Eugenia genus. The sesquiterpene elixene was the second most concentrated compound in the studied essential oil (9.16%). The essential oil from E. platysema was tested for its antibacterial activity against cell-walled bacteria and mollicute strains of clinical interest using the microdilution broth assay. The results showed that the essential oil of E. platysema was inactive until 1000 μg mL(-1) against tested bacteria. PMID:26595394

  12. Evidence of recent deep magmatic activity at Cerro Bravo-Cerro Machín volcanic complex, central Colombia. Implications for future volcanic activity at Nevado del Ruiz, Cerro Machín and other volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono, John Makario

    2016-09-01

    In the last nine years (2007-2015), the Cerro Bravo-Cerro Machín volcanic complex (CBCMVC), located in central Colombia, has experienced many changes in volcanic activity. In particular at Nevado del Ruiz volcano (NRV), Cerro Machin volcano (CMV) and Cerro Bravo (CBV) volcano. The recent activity of NRV, as well as increasing seismic activity at other volcanic centers of the CBCMVC, were preceded by notable changes in various geophysical and geochemical parameters, that suggests renewed magmatic activity is occurring at the volcanic complex. The onset of this activity started with seismicity located west of the volcanic complex, followed by seismicity at CBV and CMV. Later in 2010, strong seismicity was observed at NRV, with two small eruptions in 2012. After that, seismicity has been observed intermittently at other volcanic centers such as Santa Isabel, Cerro España, Paramillo de Santa Rosa, Quindío and Tolima volcanoes, which persists until today. Local deformation was observed from 2007 at NRV, followed by possible regional deformation at various volcanic centers between 2011 and 2013. In 2008, an increase in CO2 and Radon in soil was observed at CBV, followed by a change in helium isotopes at CMV between 2009 and 2011. Moreover, SO2 showed an increase from 2010 at NRV, with values remaining high until the present. These observations suggest that renewed magmatic activity is currently occurring at CBCMVC. NRV shows changes in its activity that may be related to this new magmatic activity. NRV is currently exhibiting the most activity of any volcano in the CBCMVC, which may be due to it being the only open volcanic system at this time. This suggests that over the coming years, there is a high probability of new unrest or an increase in volcanic activity of other volcanoes of the CBCMVC.

  13. Methanogenic food web in the gut contents of methane-emitting earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kristin; Hunger, Sindy; Brown, George G; Tsai, Siu M; Cerri, Carlos C; Conrad, Ralf; Drake, Harold L

    2015-08-01

    The anoxic saccharide-rich conditions of the earthworm gut provide an ideal transient habitat for ingested microbes capable of anaerobiosis. It was recently discovered that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil can emit methane (CH4) and that ingested methanogens might be associated with this emission. The objective of this study was to resolve trophic interactions of bacteria and methanogens in the methanogenic food web in the gut contents of E. eugeniae. RNA-based stable isotope probing of bacterial 16S rRNA as well as mcrA and mrtA (the alpha subunit of methyl-CoM reductase and its isoenzyme, respectively) of methanogens was performed with [(13)C]-glucose as a model saccharide in the gut contents. Concomitant fermentations were augmented by the rapid consumption of glucose, yielding numerous products, including molecular hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), formate, acetate, ethanol, lactate, succinate and propionate. Aeromonadaceae-affiliated facultative aerobes, and obligate anaerobes affiliated to Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with the diverse fermentations. Methanogenesis was ongoing during incubations, and (13)C-labeling of CH4 verified that supplemental [(13)C]-glucose derived carbon was dissimilated to CH4. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens affiliated with Methanobacteriaceae and Methanoregulaceae were linked to methanogenesis, and acetogens related to Peptostreptoccocaceae were likewise found to be participants in the methanogenic food web. H2 rather than acetate stimulated methanogenesis in the methanogenic gut content enrichments, and acetogens appeared to dissimilate supplemental H2 to acetate in methanogenic enrichments. These findings provide insight on the processes and associated taxa potentially linked to methanogenesis and the turnover of organic carbon in the alimentary canal of methane-emitting E. eugeniae. PMID:25615437

  14. Methanogenic food web in the gut contents of methane-emitting earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Kristin; Hunger, Sindy; Brown, George G; Tsai, Siu M; Cerri, Carlos C; Conrad, Ralf; Drake, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    The anoxic saccharide-rich conditions of the earthworm gut provide an ideal transient habitat for ingested microbes capable of anaerobiosis. It was recently discovered that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil can emit methane (CH4) and that ingested methanogens might be associated with this emission. The objective of this study was to resolve trophic interactions of bacteria and methanogens in the methanogenic food web in the gut contents of E. eugeniae. RNA-based stable isotope probing of bacterial 16S rRNA as well as mcrA and mrtA (the alpha subunit of methyl-CoM reductase and its isoenzyme, respectively) of methanogens was performed with [13C]-glucose as a model saccharide in the gut contents. Concomitant fermentations were augmented by the rapid consumption of glucose, yielding numerous products, including molecular hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), formate, acetate, ethanol, lactate, succinate and propionate. Aeromonadaceae-affiliated facultative aerobes, and obligate anaerobes affiliated to Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with the diverse fermentations. Methanogenesis was ongoing during incubations, and 13C-labeling of CH4 verified that supplemental [13C]-glucose derived carbon was dissimilated to CH4. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens affiliated with Methanobacteriaceae and Methanoregulaceae were linked to methanogenesis, and acetogens related to Peptostreptoccocaceae were likewise found to be participants in the methanogenic food web. H2 rather than acetate stimulated methanogenesis in the methanogenic gut content enrichments, and acetogens appeared to dissimilate supplemental H2 to acetate in methanogenic enrichments. These findings provide insight on the processes and associated taxa potentially linked to methanogenesis and the turnover of organic carbon in the alimentary canal of methane-emitting E. eugeniae. PMID:25615437

  15. Preliminary pharmacological studies on Eugenia uniflora leaves: xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Theoduloz, C; Franco, L; Ferro, E; de Arias, A R

    1987-11-01

    Eugenia uniflora is widely used in Paraguayan folk medicine. A hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves showed some central nervous system activity in hippocratic screening when given intraperitoneally, but little to no acute or subacute toxicity in doses up to 4200 mg/kg orally in BALB c mice. The LD50 of the extract was 220 mg/kg i.p. in mice. A decoction or infusion of the leaves is recommended for treating gout by native herbalists. The known flavonoids quercitrin, quercetin, myricitrin and myricetin were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action of the plant extract. PMID:3437769

  16. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. PMID:21796701

  17. Structure, fluorescence quenching and antioxidant activity of a carbohydrate polymer from Eugenia jambolana.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ghosh, Debjani; Micard, Valérie; Sinha, Sharmistha; Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Bimalendu

    2012-01-01

    Natural products provide an excellent source for novel antioxidants. Herein, we have studied the water-extracted carbohydrate polymer (WE) of Eugenia jambolana using chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. A 116 kDa arabinogalactan containing p-coumaric and ferulic acids in monomeric and dimeric forms has been isolated. Cellulase generated oligomeric fragments containing ester linked phenolic acids were also characterized. The antioxidant capacity of this carbohydrate polymer is comparable to butylated hydroxy anisole and butylated hydroxy toluene. Interaction of WE with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence quenching measurement. Conformational change of BSA at high carbohydrate polymer concentration was indicated. PMID:22521621

  18. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity. PMID:23819641

  19. Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Antimicrobial Drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Karla K.A.; Matias, Edinardo F.F.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Souza, Celestina E.S.; Braga, Maria F.B.M.; Guedes, Gláucia M.M.; Costa, José G.M.; Menezes, Irwin R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity. PMID:23819641

  20. Performance of casings in Cerro Prieto production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez A, B.; Vital B, F.; Bermejo M, F.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    A careful evaluation of different production casings used at Cerro Prieto from 1964 to date has shown that the following casings have yielded particularly impressive results: 7 5/8-in. diameter, J-55, 26 lb/ft; 7 5/8-in. diameter, K-55, 45.3 lb/ft; and 5-in. diameter, K-55, 23.2 lb/ft. These casings differ from others of the same diameter but lighter weight which were also used at the field. The results are favorable in spite of severe construction problems, especially the loss of circulation during cementing operations, which we encountered in some of the wells where these casings were used. The use of gravity-fed fine sand as packing material and the arrangement of the production and intermediate casings were important in avoiding damage due to tension-compression stresses and, above all, damage due to internal or external corrosion over time. This situation is clearly evidenced if we compare the damage to the above casings with that experienced by grade N-80 production casings, especially in a corrosive environment.

  1. Earthquake monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1980-02-01

    A three-week study in spring 1978 revealed more moderate earthquake activity (one or two events/day, M/sub L/ greater than or equal to 1) in the Cerro Prieto production zone. Plotting these events on a Wadati diagram we estimated an 0.4 Poisson's ratio for the upper 1 to 2 km of the field. The events were centered near the western edge of the production zone, near well M-6, and indicated strikeslip movement on north-south faults. To monitor the earthquake activity and propagation characteristics within the production zone, a five-station, semi-permanent array was put into operation in September 1979. The stations are closely spaced (1 to 2 km), surrounding a central station at M-6. Each station consists of a three-component 4.5-Hz geophone in a 100-m well connected to a 12-bit triggered-digital-cassette recorder. Although each station operates independently, they are interconnected via a hard-wire link to a central site. The purpose of this link is twofold: first, to allow telemetry of any selected station to the central site for visual monitoring; second, to provide an automatic daily time calibration to keep inter-station errors to less than 5 ms. The data from these stations will be used to monitor earthquake activity and wave propagation characteristics associated with fluid withdrawal and/or injection in the geothermal reservoir.

  2. Detailed microearthquake studies at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    There appears to be an increase in seismic activity within the Cerro Prieto production zone since early 1978. The microearthquake activity is now more or less constant at a rate of 2 to 3 events per day. The b-values within the field are significantly higher inside the production zone than are those for events on faults outside of the production region. The earthquakes seem to be controlled by the Hidalgo fault, although slight clustering was observed in the center of the main production region. The earthquakes within the production zone may reflect the reservoir dynamics associated with heat and mass withdrawal. Mechanisms such as volume change, thermal stresses and weakening of materials associated with boiling (i.e., phase changes, dissolution) may all be responsible for the increased seismic activity. Although a small reinjection program has started, the pressure drawdown conditions existing within the field would imply that increased pore pressure resulting from the injection activities is not responsible for the increased seismic activity.

  3. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto reservoirs under exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; Puente, H.G.

    1997-07-01

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal field of Baja California (Mexico) has been under commercial production to generate electricity since 1973. Over the years, the large amount of Geothermal fluids extracted (at present about 12,000 tons per hour) to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in a reduction of pressures, changes in reservoir processes, and increased flow of cooler groundwater into the geothermal system. The groundwater recharging the reservoir moves horizontally through permeable layers, as well as vertically through permeable fault zones. In addition, the supply of deep hot waters has continued unabated, and perhaps has increased as reservoir pressure decreased. Since 1989, this natural fluid recharge has been supplemented by injection which presently amounts to about 20% of the fluid produced. Changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the reservoir fluids due to the drop in pressures and the inflow of cooler groundwaters and injectate have been detected on the basis of wellhead data. These changes point to reservoir processes like local boiling, phase segregation, steam condensation, mixing and dilution. Finally, the study identified areas where fluids are entering the reservoir, as well as indicated their source (i.e. natural Groundwater recharge versus injectate) and established the controlling geologic structures.

  4. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  5. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  6. Alkaline magmatism in the Amambay area, NE Paraguay: The Cerro Sarambí complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, C. B.; Velázquez, V. F.; Azzone, R. G.; Paula, G. S.

    2011-07-01

    The Early Cretaceous alkaline magmatism in the northeastern region of Paraguay (Amambay Province) is represented by stocks, plugs, dikes, and dike swarms emplaced into Carboniferous to Triassic-Jurassic sediments and Precambrian rocks. This magmatism is tectonically related to the Ponta Porã Arch, a NE-trending structural feature, and has the Cerro Sarambí and Cerro Chiriguelo carbonatite complexes as its most significant expressions. Other alkaline occurrences found in the area are the Cerro Guazú and the small bodies of Cerro Apuá, Arroyo Gasory, Cerro Jhú, Cerro Tayay, and Cerro Teyú. The alkaline rocks comprise ultramafic-mafic, syenitic, and carbonatitic petrographic associations in addition to lithologies of variable composition and texture occurring as dikes; fenites are described in both carbonatite complexes. Alkali feldspar and clinopyroxene, ranging from diopside to aegirine, are the most abundant minerals, with feldspathoids (nepheline, analcime), biotite, and subordinate Ti-rich garnet; minor constituents are Fe-Ti oxides and cancrinite as the main alteration product from nepheline. Chemically, the Amambay silicate rocks are potassic to highly potassic and have miaskitic affinity, with the non-cumulate intrusive types concentrated mainly in the saturated to undersaturated areas in silica syenitic fields. Fine-grained rocks are also of syenitic affiliation or represent more mafic varieties. The carbonatitic rocks consist dominantly of calciocarbonatites. Variation diagrams plotting major and trace elements vs. SiO 2 concentration for the Cerro Sarambí rocks show positive correlations for Al 2O 3, K 2O, and Rb, and negative ones for TiO 2, MgO, Fe 2O 3, CaO, P 2O 5, and Sr, indicating that fractional crystallization played an important role in the formation of the complex. Incompatible elements normalized to primitive mantle display positive spikes for Rb, La, Pb, Sr, and Sm, and negative for Nb-Ta, P, and Ti, as these negative anomalies are

  7. Pharmacological basis for the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive.

    PubMed

    Consolini, A E; Baldini, O A; Amat, A G

    1999-07-01

    The rational basis for the use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive in Northeastern Argentina was assessed in normotensive rats. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous crude extract (ACE) decreased blood pressure (BP) of normotensive rats dose-dependently until 47.1 +/- 8.2% of control. The effective-dose 50 was 3.1 +/- 0.4 mg dried leaves/kg (d.l./kg) (yielding of ACE: 17% w/w). To determine the origin of hypotensive activity. Alpha-adrenergic antagonistic and vasorelaxant ACE activities were tested. The dose-response curve for phenylephrine on BP was inhibited non-competitively until 80% of its maximal effect (at 8 mg d.l. ACE/kg). Perfusion pressure (PP) of rat hindquarters (previously vasoconstricted by high-K+) was decreased by ACE in a concentration-dependent manner until -32.3 +/- 11.5% of tonic contraction at 1.2 g d.l. ACE/100 ml. In addition, A.C.E demonstrated diuretic activity at a dose (120 mg d.l./kg) higher than the hypotensive one. It was almost as potent as amiloride, but while amiloride induced loss of Na+ and saving of K+, ACE induced decrease in Na+ excretion. The results suggest that the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is mostly due to a hypotensive effect mediated by a direct vasodilating activity, and to a weak diuretic effect that could be related to an increase in renal blood flow. PMID:10432205

  8. Maturation of Eugenia pyriformis seeds under different hydric and thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Lamarca, Edmir V; Prataviera, Juliana S; Borges, Igor F; Delgado, Liliana F; Teixeira, Carmen C; de Camargo, Marcelo B P; Faria, José M R; Barbedo, Claudio J

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the maturation and dispersal of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seeds produced in different years, and the influence of variation in thermal and hydric environment on seed physical and physiological characteristics at dispersal. Fruits at different developmental stages were harvested in the city of São Paulo between 2003 and 2010, as well as in the cities of Campinas and Lavras, in 2009 and 2010 and analyzed for size and color. The seeds were extracted from the fruits and their dry mass, water content, germination and vigor were assessed. Results showed that seed maturation is unsynchronized to the maturation of the fruit, taking 45 days on average (430 growing degree-days), longer in rainy times or lower temperatures. Seeds with higher physiological quality were produced in rainy years and when the temperature range was larger. We concluded therefore that hydric and thermal environmental variations during development influence the maturation of Eugenia pyriformis seeds and are able to determine the formation cycle and the final seed quality. PMID:23460438

  9. Multiple asteroid systems (45) Eugenia and (87) Sylvia: Sensitivity to external and internal perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.

    2014-10-01

    Satellites of asteroids are a widely used way to determine the masses and other dynamical parameters of their systems. We make such a determination here, using data from the two triple-asteroid systems, (45) Eugenia and (87) Sylvia, that come from the Hubble Space Telescope and adaptive optics on three 8-10 m class telescopes (Keck, VLT, Gemini North). First, we determined what set of parameters can be precisely derived from a limited number of observations. Next, we deduced constraints on the inner structure of the main body of the systems. To do this, we fit our dynamical model ODIN to simulated observations to determine at what confidence level we can constrain the dynamical parameters. We deduced that the mass of the satellites is too small to be fitted with confidence, while the polar oblateness J2 of the primary can be constrained. Then, ODIN was fitted to observations of the systems to obtain the values of the polar oblateness J2. The difference between the theoretical value of J2, and our estimate deduced from the motion of the satellites, suggests that Eugenia is differentiated. We explore the properties needed by a dense and spherical core, surrounded by a less dense layer, to explain this difference. The lack of agreement between the different dynamical studies of Sylvia prevents us from making any definitive conclusion, but the large range of possible solutions points to an interesting inner structure.

  10. Vermicomposting of paper mill solid waste using epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Ponmani, S; Udayasoorian, C; Jayabalakrishnan, R M; Kumar, K Vinoth

    2014-07-01

    A 90 day study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic earthworm species (Eudrilus eugeniae) for decomposition of different types of organic substrates (mixed liquor suspended solids, cow dung and leaf litter) into valuable vermicompost. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and leaf litter (LL) were mixed with cow dung (CD) in eight different ratios with three replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH, organic carbon, C:N ratio and an increase in total nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. Overall, earthworms could maximize decomposition and mineralization efficiency in bedding with lower proportions of MLSS. Maximum value for earth worm zoo mass and higher concentration of nutrient content was observed in CD + MLSS + LL in 1:1:2 ratios. Earthworm mortality tended to increase with increasing proportion of MLSS and maximum mortality in E. eugeniae was recorded for MLSS treatment alone. Results indicate that vermicomposting might be useful for managing the energy and nutrient of MLSS on a low-input basis. Products of this process can be used for sustainable land restoration practices. PMID:25004743

  11. Conserved lamin A protein expression in differentiated cells in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Kalidas, Ramamoorthy M; Raja, Subramanian Elaiya; Mydeen, Sheik Abdul Kader Nagoor Meeran; Samuel, Selvan Christyraj Johnson Retnaraj; Durairaj, Selvan Christyraj Jackson; Nino, Gopi D; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Vaithi, Arumugaswami; Sudhakar, Sivasubramaniam

    2015-09-01

    Lamin A is an intermediate filament protein found in most of the differentiated vertebrate cells but absent in stem cells. It shapes the skeletal frame structure beneath the inner nuclear membrane of the cell nucleus. As there are few studies of the expression of lamin A in invertebrates, in the present work, we have analyzed the sequence, immunochemical conservation and expression pattern of lamin A protein in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, a model organism for tissue regeneration. The expression of lamin A has been confirmed in E. eugeniae by immunoblot. Its localization in the nuclear membrane has been observed by immunohistochemistry using two different rabbit anti-sera raised against human lamin A peptides, which are located at the C-terminus of the lamin A protein. These two antibodies detected 70 kDa lamin A protein in mice and a single 65 kDa protein in the earthworm. The Oct-4 positive undifferentiated blastemal tissues of regenerating earthworm do not express lamin A, while the Oct-4 negative differentiated cells express lamin A. This pattern was also confirmed in the earthworm prostate gland. The present study is the first evidence for the immunochemical identification of lamin A and Oct-4 in the earthworm. Along with the partial sequence obtained from the earthworm genome, the present results suggest that lamin A protein and its expression pattern is conserved from the earthworm to humans. PMID:25858151

  12. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  13. The complete genome sequence and methylome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cerro, a frequent dairy cow strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cerro is an infrequent pathogen of humans and other mammals, but is frequently isolated from the hindgut of asymptomatic cattle in the United States. To further understand the genomic determinants of S. Cerro specificity for the bovine hindgut, the genome ...

  14. Interaction of cold-water aquifers with exploited reservoirs of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, Alfred; Lippmann, Marcelo

    1990-01-01

    Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoirs tend to exhibit good hydraulic communication with adjacent cool groundwater aquifers. Under natural state conditions the hot fluids mix with the surrounding colder waters along the margins of the geothermal system, or discharge to shallow levels by flowing up fault L. In response to exploitation reservoir pressures decrease, leading to changes in the fluid flow pattern in the system and to groundwater influx. The various Cerro Prieto reservoirs have responded differently to production, showing localized near-well or generalized boiling, depending on their access to cool-water recharge. Significant cooling by dilution with groundwater has only been observed in wells located near the edges of the field. In general, entry of cool water at Cerro Prieto is beneficial because it tends to maintain reservoir pressures, restrict boiling, and lengthen the life and productivity of wells.

  15. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  16. MOSE: verification of Meso-NH forecasts of the atmospheric surface parameters at Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones using contingency tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascaux, Franck; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

    2014-08-01

    This study is done in the framework of the MOSE (MOdeling ESO Sites) project, and focused above the two ESO ground-bases sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. In a precedent study we have already treated the model performances obtained in reconstructing some key atmospherical parameters in the surface layer 0-30 m studying the bias and the RMSE of a statistical sample of 20 nights. These statistical operators provide fundamental information on statistical and systematic errors of the model but they are not exhaustive. In this paper, with the help of contingency tables, we investigate the ability of the Meso-NH model in reconstructing some specific atmospherical parameters near the surface (absolute temperature and wind speed) providing complementary key informations. For this we analyzed 20 nights for which observations were available at both sites, in 2007.

  17. Predicting floodplain boundary changes following the Cerro Grande wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, Stephen G.; Springer, Everett P.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2001-10-01

    A combined ArcView GIS-HEC modelling application for floodplain analysis of pre- and post-burned watersheds is described. The burned study area is located on Pajarito Plateau near Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory), where the Cerro Grande Wildfire burned 42 878 acres (17 352 ha) in May 2000. This area is dominated by rugged mountains that are dissected by numerous steep canyons having both ephemeral and perennial channel reaches. Vegetation consists of pinon-juniper woodlands located between 6000 and 7000 ft (1829-2134 m) above mean sea level (MSL), and Ponderosa pine stands between 7000 and 10000 ft MSL (2134-3048 m). Approximately 17% of the burned area is located within the Laboratory, and the remainder is located in upstream or adjacent watersheds. Pre-burn floodplains were previously mapped in 1990-91 using early HEC models as part of the hazardous waste site permitting process. Precipitation and stream gauge data provide essential information characterizing rainfall-runoff relationships before and after the fire. They also provide a means of monitoring spatial and temporal changes as forest recovery progresses. The 2000 summer monsoon began in late June and provided several significant runoff events for model calibration. HEC-HMS modelled responses were sequentially refined so that observed and predicted hydrograph peaks were matched at numerous channel locations. The 100 year, 6 h design storm was eventually used to predict peak hydrographs at critical sites. These results were compared with pre-fire simulations so that new flood-prone areas could be systematically identified. Stream channel cross-sectional geometries were extracted from a gridded 1 ft (0·3 m) digital elevation model (DEM) using ArcView GIS. Then floodpool topwidths, depths, and flow velocities were remapped using the HEC-RAS model. Finally, numerous surveyed channel sections were selectively made at crucial sites for DEM verification. These evaluations provided timely guidance

  18. Activity of in vitro forms of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jovito, Vanessa C; Freires, Irlan A; Almeida, Leopoldina F D; Moura, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo D; Paulo, Marçal Q; Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557) and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469). Five dentifrices were used: D1: containing hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D2: containing fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D3: containing triclosan and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L; D4: containing triclosan, fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D5: positive control (Colgate Total 12). To determine the antibacterial activity, the technique used was the minimum inhibitory concentration by the diffusion method in solid culture medium. At the concentration 0.05 g/mL, the best results were achieved with D1 (18 mm) and D4 (24 mm) on L.casei, and with D3 (19 mm) on S. oralis. The dentifrices D3 and D4 were found to have greater activity on the Streptococcus oralis, while D4 and D1 were found to have greater activity on Lactobaccilus casei. It is concluded that dentifrices with Eugenia uniflora L. have antimicrobial activity, suggesting that clinical trials should be conducted. PMID:22010405

  19. a-glucosidase Inhibitors From Paraguayan Natural Medicine, Ñangapiry, The Leaves Of Eugenia Uniflora.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, T; Kasai, M; Hayashi, T; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y; Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y

    2000-01-01

    The water-soluble extract from a Paraguayan natural medicine, Nangapiry, the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), which has been used as an antidiabetic agent, was found to show inhibitory activities on the increase of plasma glucose level in the sucrose tolerance test (STT) conducted with mice. The portion adsorbed on a cation exchange resin was also found to inhibit a-glucosidases. From the active portion, two new active compounds named uniflorines A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ) and known (+)-(3a, 4a, 5ß)-1-methylpiperidine-3, 4, 5-triol ( 3 ) were isolated. The structures of uniflorines A and B were determined as (-)-(1S, 2R, 6S, 7R, 8R, 8aR)-1,2,6,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine and (+)-(1S, 2R, 5R, 7R, 8S, 8aS)-1,2,5,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine by spectral means, respectively. PMID:21214481

  20. Essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L.: antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli; Perin, Gelson; Jacob, Raquel Guimarães; Alves, Diego; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Nascente, Patricia da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian cherry tree) was evaluated for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The acute toxicity of the EO administered by oral route was also evaluated in mice. The EO exhibited antioxidant activity in the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney of mice. The EO also showed antimicrobial activity against two important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and against two fungi of the Candida species, C. lipolytica and C. guilliermondii. Acute administration of the EO by the oral route did not cause lethality or toxicological effects in mice. These findings suggest that the EO of the leaves of E. uniflora may have the potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:22583648

  1. Identification of hydroxychavicol and its dimers, the lipase inhibitors contained in the Indonesian spice, Eugenia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Kato, Eisuke; Nakagomi, Ryo; Gunawan-Puteri, Maria D P T; Kawabata, Jun

    2013-02-15

    Inhibition of pancreatic lipase is effective for a prevention of obesity. Eugenia polyantha is a tropical tree whose leaves are known as a spice and also as an ingredient for Jamu, the traditional medicine of Indonesia. We found inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase in the extract of E. polyantha leaves. Purification of the active principals resulted in isolation of hydroxychavicol, and two structurally new dimers. All of the isolated compounds showed inhibitory activity against the porcine pancreatic lipase and high content of hydroxychavicol (1.83 wt.%) indicated this compound to be responsible for the majority of inhibitory activity of E. polyantha extract. Furthermore, hydroxychavicol is reported to possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity which is related to traditional usage of this plant. These results offer this plant as an attractive material for treating various health problems including obesity. PMID:23194519

  2. Detection of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective activities of Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Pabline Marinho; Veronezi, Eduardo; Silva, Carolina R; Chen-Chen, Lee

    2012-06-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae), popularly known in Brazil as cagaiteira, is a widespread plant species in the Brazilian Cerrado. In folk medicine, the leaves of this plant are used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The fruits are used for fresh consumption and industrial purposes. Because of the use of this plant as a therapeutic resource and food, the present study evaluated the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of the lyophilized ethanolic leaf extract of E. dysenterica using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of this extract were evaluated using the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, and the cytotoxicity and anticytotoxicity were assessed by the polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio. According to our results, the lyophilized ethanolic leaf extract of E. dysenterica exhibited genotoxic and cytotoxic effects at the higher doses and protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxic and cytotoxic actions at all doses tested. PMID:22404573

  3. Development and characterization of new microsatellites for Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Telles, M P C; Silva, J B; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Chaves, L J; Soares, T N; Collevatti, R G

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed for population genetic analyses of the Neotropical tree Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae), after construction of a shotgun genomic library for microsatellite discovery. Nine primers were designed, of which 5 yielded amplified product. These primers were polymorphic for 97 individuals collected in 3 distinct localities. The number of alleles per locus (primer) ranged from 3 to 11 and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.309 to 0.884. The probability of locus identity was ~1.88 x 10(-4) and the probability of paternity exclusion was ~0.9367. The 5 microsatellite primer pairs may be suitable for population genetic studies such as parentage and fine-scale genetic analyses of this species. PMID:23420405

  4. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxic activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, being considered a public health problem. An alternative to combat this pathogen is the use of natural products isolated from fruits such as Eugenia uniflora, a plant used by traditional communities as food and medicine due to its antimicrobial and biological activities. Ethanolic extract from E. uniflora was used to evaluate in vitro anti-epimastigote and cytotoxic activity. This is the first record of anti-Trypanosoma activity of E. uniflora, demonstrating that a concentration presenting 50% of activity (EC(50)) was 62.76 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 1024 μg/mL. Our results indicate that E. uniflora could be a source of plant-derived natural products with anti-epimastigote activity with low toxicity. PMID:22426246

  5. Characterization of anthocyanins from the fruits of baguaçu (Eugenia umbelliflora Berg).

    PubMed

    Kuskoski, E Marta; Vega, José M; Rios, José J; Fett, Roseane; Troncoso, Ana M; Asuero, Agustin G

    2003-08-27

    Anthocyanin pigments in the berries of baguaçu (Eugenia umbelliflora Berg), a tropical fruit from Brazil, were extracted with 0.1% HCl in ethanol, and the crude anthocyanin extract was purified by Amberlite XAD-7 open-column chromatography. Six major anthocyanins were isolated by preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (TLC, UV-vis, MS, and (1)H NMR). Delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, petunidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, pelargonidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, and malvidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside were identified. On the basis of chromatographic data the total anthocyanin content was 342 mg/100 g of fresh baguaçu berries. Therefore, the concomitant presence of six anthocyanins in a single plant species makes this product promising as a new pigment source. PMID:12926896

  6. Efficacy of an essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Flamini, G; Giovanelli, F; Otranto, D; Perrucci, S

    2007-02-01

    The acaricidal activity of Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil was evaluated in vitro and in vivo on Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite. In vitro, different concentrations of the oil were tested and the observed mites mortality was compared with that observed in untreated and treated (Acacerulen R) controls. In vivo, six P. cuniculi infected rabbits were topically treated with the oil diluted at 2.5% and compared with untreated and treated control groups of six rabbits each. In vitro, up to the concentration of 0.10% the oil gave highly significant (P<0.01) percentages of mite mortality respect to the untreated controls, but only up to 0.16% it showed the same efficacy of Acacerulen R. In vivo, the treatment with the essential oil cured all infested rabbits and no statistical differences were observed respect to the treated control group. The untreated rabbits remained infested. PMID:16973163

  7. Voltammetric and spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant activity of Eugenia dysenterica DC leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Clementino, Silva Elton; Garcia, Rezende Stefani; Moreira, Béda Roanna C Clícia; Pagliarini, Balest Aiessa; Cabral, Reis Bruna; Dâmaris, Silveira; de Souza, Gil Eric

    2016-03-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC (cagaiteira) is a native tree from Cerrado biome. Cagaita fruits are known and consumed in natura, mainly by inhabitants from Cerrado. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of leaves of this plant. For this evaluation we used four methods, the reduction of phosphomolybdenum, scanning by hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical scavenging assay and determination of electrochemical parameters by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that all extracts from leaves of this species have significant antioxidant potential, following the order: crude ethanol extract CEE) >crude aqueous extract (CAE) >crude hexane extract (CHE). The voltammetric approaches were also applied in order to evaluate the redox behavior of the hydrophilic extracts, as well as of their sub-extracts. Thus, the results suggest the presence of catechol-like polyphenols, which were confirmed by chromatography and phytochemical methods. Voltammetric analysis showed to be a reliable and fast method to determine redox behavior of E. dysenterica extracts. PMID:27087097

  8. Antimycoplasmic activity and seasonal variation of essential oil of Eugenia hiemalis Cambess. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Gabriele Andressa; Zimath, Priscila; Tenfen, Adrielli; Mendes de Cordova, Caio Maurício; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi; Falkenberg, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the chemical composition and antimycoplasmic and anticholinesterase activities of the essential oil of Eugenia hiemalis leaves collected throughout the year. A total of 42 compounds were identified by CG, and are present in almost every seasons. Sesquiterpenes were dominant (86.01-91.48%), and non-functionalised sesquiterpenes comprised the major fraction, which increased in the summer; monoterpenes were not identified. The major components were spathulenol (5.36-16.06%), δ-cadinene (7.50-15.93%), bicyclogermacrene (5.70-14.24%) and β-caryophyllene (4.80-9.43%). The highest oil yield was obtained in summer and autumn. Essential oils presented activity against three evaluated Mycoplasma strains, but no activity was observed in the anticholinesterase assay. PMID:26428391

  9. Unique phenotypes in the sperm of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae for assessing radiation hazards.

    PubMed

    Yesudhason, Beryl Vedha; Jegathambigai, Jothipandi; Thangasamy, Pon Amutha; Lakshmanan, Durga Devi; Selvan Christyraj, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel; Sathya Balasingh Thangapandi, Emmanuel Joshua Jebasingh; Krishnan, Muthukalingan; Sivasubramaniam, Sudhakar

    2013-06-01

    The earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae is a segmented worm. It has two pairs of testes whose cells are highly proliferative. It was found that the earthworm, which is irradiated with X-ray, shows the following phenotypic changes in its sperm: fragmented acrosome in the head, break in the tail, and the appearance of zigzag sperm tail. Sperm morphology can be used as a tool to study radiation hazards in local areas. These three phenotypes were not observed in the sperm of worms exposed to different concentration of toxic chemicals such as sodium arsenate, lead acetate, and mercuric chloride. In contrast, exposure of worms to ethidium bromide caused fragmented acrosome in the head of their sperm cells. PMID:23093367

  10. Identification of MicroRNAs from Eugenia uniflora by High-Throughput Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Frank; Almerão, Mauricio P.; Körbes, Ana P.; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    Background microRNAs or miRNAs are small non-coding regulatory RNAs that play important functions in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNAs for degradation or inhibiting protein translation. Eugenia uniflora is a plant native to tropical America with pharmacological and ecological importance, and there have been no previous studies concerning its gene expression and regulation. To date, no miRNAs have been reported in Myrtaceae species. Results Small RNA and RNA-seq libraries were constructed to identify miRNAs and pre-miRNAs in Eugenia uniflora. Solexa technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library, and the data obtained were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. From 14,489,131 small RNA clean reads, we obtained 1,852,722 mature miRNA sequences representing 45 conserved families that have been identified in other plant species. Further analysis using contigs assembled from RNA-seq allowed the prediction of secondary structures of 25 known and 17 novel pre-miRNAs. The expression of twenty-seven identified miRNAs was also validated using RT-PCR assays. Potential targets were predicted for the most abundant mature miRNAs in the identified pre-miRNAs based on sequence homology. Conclusions This study is the first large scale identification of miRNAs and their potential targets from a species of the Myrtaceae family without genomic sequence resources. Our study provides more information about the evolutionary conservation of the regulatory network of miRNAs in plants and highlights species-specific miRNAs. PMID:23166775

  11. Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of zinc and chromium in Eudrilus eugeniae using biochemical and reproductive parameters.

    PubMed

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Latha, V

    2016-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) act as essential nutrients; however, they can be toxic at higher concentrations. In this study, earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae was studied for its sensitivity to sublethal doses of Cr (8 ppm) and Zn (350 ppm) in terms of alterations occurred in oxidative stress indices and reproductive parameters in the testis. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the rate of food intake was observed on 7, 14 and 21 days of Cr toxicity; while increased rate was evident upon 7 days of Zn exposure. Changes evident in the rate of cocoon production (-39.54 and +38.63 %), hatchability (-77.85 and +30.0 %) highlight higher toxic potential of Cr than Zn, respectively. Moderate to severe vacuolization in spermatic follicles and higher incidence of tailless (+52.6 % in Cr and 20.8 % in Zn), and head bent (+18.8 % in Cr and 0 % in Zn) sperms were evident in Cr(VI) exposed worms emphasizing the higher vulnerability of E. eugeniae to Cr toxicity. A significant (p < 0.05) increase observed in catalase activity (+13.29 % in Zn and +20.88 % in Cr) and glutathione (+52.09 % in Zn and -7.70 % in Cr) suggests a higher compensatory antioxidant response in Zn-exposed worms than Cr. Variations observed in the activities of superoxide dismutase (-9.40 % in Zn and +24.0 % in Cr) and glutathione-s-transferase (-39.39 % in Zn and +1.29 % in Cr) emphasize the metal specific antioxidant responses in testis. Therefore, it can be implied from results that excessive free radical production and inadequate antioxidant defenses have lead to morphological alterations in sperms which sequentially reduced the reproductive rate. PMID:26922588

  12. Metagenomic analysis of the bovine hindgut from Salmonella Kentucky and Cerro-shedding dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from dairy cows that appear asymptomatic. Although they are not major contributors to the salmonellosis burden, these serovars have been implicated in human clinical cases in recent years. To...

  13. Structural and sedimentological study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vonder Haar, S.

    1981-06-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well logs from over fifty wells have been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using both manual and computer interpretation techniques. These logs were studied to make stratigraphic correlations throughout the Cerro Prieto field and to interpret the deltaic depositional environment of the field's lithologic units. Dipmeter and seismic data were of great value in making stratigraphic interpretations and extrapolations. Cross sections were constructed to illustrate lithofacies variations throughout the geothermal field. In turn, these sections were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. Petrographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analyses of well-bore cuttings and cores were utilized to determine the degree and distribution of hydrothermal alteration by fluids at temperatures up to 350{sup 0}C, the origins of dissolution porosity, and the relative degree of fracture versus dissolution porosity. The results of these analyses were confirmed by log-derived determinations of formation fluid properties, porosity, and petrophysical properties and by studies of Cerro Prieto cores conducted under in-situ conditions. The results of this research were integrated into the Cerro Prieto reservoir model.

  14. The Cerro Grande Fire - From Wildfire Modeling Through the Fire Aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Rudell, T. M.; Gille, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    The Cerro Grande Fire developed from a prescribed burn by the National Park Service at Bandelier National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico. When the burn went out of control and became a wildfire, it attracted worldwide attention because it threatened the birthplace of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Was LANL prepared for a fire? What lessons have been learned?

  15. The Cerro Grande Fire - From Wildlife Modeling Through the Fire Aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Rudell, T. M.; Gille, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    The Cerro Grande Fire developed from a prescribed burn by the National Park Service at Bandelier National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico. When the burn went out of control and became a wildfire, it attracted worldwide attention because it threatened the birthplace of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Was LANL prepared for a fire? What lessons have been learned?

  16. The kinetics of the smectite to illite transformation in Cretaceous bentonites, Cerro Negro, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, W C.; Edenfield, N M.; Wampler, J M.; Matisoff, G; Long, Philip E. )

    1998-12-01

    The thermal effects, as well as the survivability and origins of microorganisms in Cretaceous rocks, are evaluated from the timing and extent of the smectite to illite transformation in Cretaceous bentonites collected from cores outside the thermal aureole of the Pliocene Cerro Negro volcanic neck. Overall, randomly ordered mixed-layered illite-smectite (I-S) is the predominant clay mineral in these bentonites, and the K-Ar ages of I-S range from 36 to 48 Ma (21 analyses, two additional analyses were outside this range). Increased temperature from burial is thought to be the primary factor forming I-S in these bentonites. Kinetic model calculations of the smectite to illite transformation are also consistent with T-S formed by burial without any appreciable thermal effects due to the emplacement of Cerro Negro. In a core angled toward Cerro Negro, the percentages of illite layers in I-S from the bentonite closest to Cerro Negro are slightly higher (32-37%) than in most other bentonites in this study. The K-Ar ages of the closest I-S are slightly younger as a group (38-43 Ma; Average= 41 Ma; N= 4) than those of I-S further from Cerro Negro in the same core (41-48 Ma; Average= 44 Ma; N= 6). A small amount of illite in this I-S may have formed by heat from the emplacement of Gene Negro, but most illite formed from burial. Vitrinite reflectance, however, appears to record the effects of heating from Cerro Negro better than I-S. Tentatively, the temperature of this heat pulse, based on vitrinite data alone, ranged from 100 to 125 degrees C and this is most evident in the CNAR core. The upper temperature, 125 degrees C, approximates the sterilization temperatures for most microorganisms, and these temperatures probably reduced a significant portion of the microbial population. Thermophiles may have survived the increased temperatures from the combined effects of burial and the intrusion of Cerro Negro.

  17. The degassing character of a young volcanic center: Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, Gregor; Stix, John; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Muñoz, Angélica; Carcache, Martha Ibarra

    2014-09-01

    Cerro Negro volcano is a young basaltic cinder cone which is part of the Nicaraguan volcanic arc. Eruptive activity at Cerro Negro is characterized by explosive strombolian to subplinian eruptions driven by volatile-rich basaltic magma ascending rapidly from various crustal depths (>15 to 6 km) resulting in the onset of precursory activity only ˜30 min before an eruption. In this paper, we present a comprehensive degassing characterization of the volcano over a 4-year period aimed at improving our understanding of the magmatic plumbing network and its relationship with regional tectonics. A total of 124 individual soil gas samples were collected between 2010 and 2013 and analyzed for stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) from CO2. High temperature fumaroles were sampled for δ18O, δD, and 3He/4He isotope analysis, and major degassing zones were mapped using soil CO2 flux measurements. Gases at Cerro Negro are characterized by a strong 3He/4He mantle signature (6.3 to 7.3 RA), magmatic δ13C ratios (-2.3 to -3.0 ‰), meteoric δ18O and δD ratios, and stable CO2 fluxes (31 t d-1). The lack of δ13C fractionation and an increase in the relative mantle component from 2002 to 2012 suggest that the volatile flux at Cerro Negro originates from the mantle and ascends to the surface via a series of crustal fractures that act as permeable conduits. Despite the lack of new eruptions, the hydrothermal system of Cerro Negro continues to evolve due to seasonal inputs of meteoric water, slope failures that expose and bury sites of active degassing, and bursts of regional seismicity that have the potential to open up new conduits for gas release as well as magma. Continuing geophysical and geochemical monitoring of the main edifice and the recently formed south zone is essential, as the volcano remains overdue to erupt.

  18. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review.

    PubMed

    Chaieb, Kamel; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Zmantar, Tarek; Kahla-Nakbi, Amel Ben; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Mahdouani, Kacem; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2007-06-01

    The essential oil extracted from the dried flower buds of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata L. Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), is used as a topical application to relieve pain and to promote healing and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. The main constituents of the essential oil are phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The biological activity of Eugenia caryophyllata has been investigated on several microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, Herpes simplex and hepatitis C viruses. In addition to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal and antiviral activity, clove essential oil possesses antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, insect repellent and anaesthetic properties. This short review addresses the chemical composition and biological effects of clove essential oil, and includes new results from GC/MS analysis and a study of its antimicrobial activity against a large number of multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from dialysis biomaterials. PMID:17380552

  19. Phytochemical composition, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial potential of clove flower bud (Eugenia caryophyllus) methanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, R; Nivetha, P; Mohanapriya, C; Sharmila, G; Muthukumaran, C; Gopinath, M

    2016-02-01

    Plant derived pharmacologically active compounds have gained importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study is to identify and study the antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of the phytochemicals present in the crude extract of Eugenia caryophyllus flower buds. The antioxidant activity of the methanol, acetone and chloroform extract was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The methanol extract showed better radical scavenging activity than other selected solvents. Preliminary screening of phytochemicals was carried out in methanol extract and total phenol content was found high. Antibacterial activity was determined by well diffusion assay and methanol extract was found effective against Klebsiella pneumonia. FTIR and GC-MS results indicate the presence of aromatic compounds and major constituents were found to be eugenol and eugenyl acetate. Results of this study implied that Eugenia caryophyllus flower bud extract could be considered as health nutriments in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27162398

  20. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e  = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e  = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m  = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m  - t s  = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev  = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals. PMID:26862083

  1. Occurrences of alunite, prophyllite, and clays in the Cerro La Tiza area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildebrand, Fred Adelbert; Smith, Raymond J.

    1959-01-01

    A deposit of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Cerro La Tiza area located between the towns of Comerio and Aguas Buenas, approximately 25 kilometers southwest of San Juan, Puerto Rico, was mapped and studied to determine the principal minerals, their extent distribution and origin, and the possibility of their economic utilization, especially in Puerto Rico. The Cerro la Tiza area is about 7? kilometers long, has an average width of about 1? kilometers and embraces a total area of approximately 15 square kilometers. The principal mineralized zone, a dike-like mass of light-colored rocks surrounded by dark-colored volcanic country rocks, occupies the crest and upper slopes of east-trending Cerro La Tiza ridge and is believed to be of Late Cretaceous or Eocene age. This zone is approximately 5,300 meters long, 430 meters wide and has an area of approximately 225 hectares (556 acres). The rocks of the mineralized zone are of mixed character and consist mainly of massive quartzose rocks and banded quartz-alunite rocks closely associated with foliated pyrophyllitic, sericitic and clayey rocks. The principal minerals in probably order of abundance are quartz, alunite, pyrophyllite, kaolin group clays (kaolinite and halloysite) and sericite. Minerals of minor abundance are native sulfure, diaspore, svanbergite (?), sunyite (?), hematite, goethite, pyrite, rutile (?) and very small quantities of unidentified minerals. The mineralized zone has broken down to deposits of earth-rock debris of Quaternary age that cover much of the slopes and flanks of Cerro La Tiza. This debris consists generally of fragments and boulders with a very large size range embedded in a clayey matrix. The distribution of the earth-rock debris with respect to the present topography and drainage suggests that it may have undergone at least two cycles of erosion. Underlying the earth-rock debris and completely enclosing the mineralized zone are country rocks of probably Late Cretaceous age. These

  2. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  3. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine he direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  4. Subsurface geological and geophysical study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, D.J.; van de Kamp, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The subsurface investigation of the Cerro Prieto field and surrounding area is described including the stratigraphy, structure, hydrothermal alteration, and reservoir properties for use in designing reservoir simulation models and planning development of the field. Insights into the depositional, tectonic, and thermal history of the area are presented. The following types of data were used: well sample descriptions and analyses, well logs, geophysical surveys; physiography, and regional geology. (MHR)

  5. Identification of fluid-flow paths in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-05-01

    A hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field has been developed based on geophysical and lithologic well logs, downhole temperature, and well completion data from about 90 deep wells. The hot brines seem to originate in the eastern part of the field, flowing in a westward direction and rising through gaps in the shaly layers which otherwise act as partial caprocks to the geothermal resource.

  6. The age and constitution of Cerro Campanario, a mafic stratovolcano in the Andes of central Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Singer, B.; Godoy, E.; Munizaga, F.

    1998-01-01

    Cerro Campanario, a towering landmark on the continental divide near Paso Pehuenche, is a glacially eroded remnant of a mafic stratovolcano that is much younger than previously supposed. Consisting of fairly uniform basaltic andesite, rich in olivine and plagioclase, the 10-15 km3 edifice grew rapidly near the end of the middle Pleistocene, about 150-160 ka, as indicated by 40Ar/39Ar and unspiked K-Ar analyses of its lavas.

  7. Temporal Variations of Magnetic Field Associated with Seismic Activity at Cerro Machin Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono, J. M.; Serna, J. P.; Guzman, J.

    2011-12-01

    A study of magnetic variations was carried out at Cerro Machin Volcano, Colombia for the period 2009 -2010, with two permanent magnetometers located at South and North of the central dome, separated about 2.5 km each other. After corrections, we found that there is no clear correlation between volcanic seismicity and temporal changes of magnetic field for each magnetometer station, if they are analyzed individually. On the contrary, when we calculated the residual Magnetic field (RMF), for each magnetometer, and then we made the subtraction between them, and plot it vs time, we found a clear correlation of changes in local magnetic field with the occurrence of volcanic seismicity (ML >1.6). We found a change in the RMF between 1584 nT and 1608 nT, each time that a volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred. The máximum lapse time between the previous change in RMF and the further occurrence of the earthquake is 24 days, with an average of 11 days. This pattern occurred more than 9 times during the studied period. Based on the results, we believed that the simple methodology proposed here, is a good tool for monitoring changes in seismicity associated with activity at Cerro Machín volcano. We suggest that the temporal changes of RMF at Cerro Machín Volcano, are associated with piezo-magnetic effects, due to changes in strain-stress inside the volcano, produced by the interaction between local faulting and magma movement.

  8. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system as interpreted from vitrinite reflectance under isothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Bostick, N.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Temperature estimates from reflectance data in the Cerro Prieto system correlate with modern temperature logs and temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry indicating that the temperature in the central portion of the Cerro Prieto System is now at its historical maximum. Isoreflectance lines formed by contouring vitrinite reflectance data for a given isothermal surface define an imaginary surface that indicates an apparent duration of heating in the system. The 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface has a complex dome-like form suggesting a localized heat source that has caused shallow heating in the central portion of this system. Isoreflectance lines relative to this 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface define a zone of low reflectance roughly corresponding to the crest of the isothermal surface. Comparison of these two surfaces suggest that the shallow heating in the central portion of Cerro Prieto is young relative to the heating (to 250/sup 0/C) on the system margins. Laboratory and theoretical models of hydrothermal convection cells suggest that the form of the observed 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface and the reflectance surface derived relative to it results from the convective rise of thermal fluids under the influence of a regional hydrodynamic gradient that induces a shift of the hydrothermal heating effects to the southwest.

  9. Relationship between water chemistry and sediment mineralogy in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Thompson, J.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical compositions of waters collected from the Cerro Prieto geothermal production wells and hydrothermal emanations are different. Compared to the Cerro Prieto well waters, the surficial waters generally contain significantly less potassium, slightly less calcium and chloride, and significantly more magnesium and sulfate. In comparison to the unaltered sediments, the changes in the mineralogy of the altered sediments appear to be controlled by the type of emanation (well, spring, mud pot, geyser, fumarole, or cold pool). However, an increase in quartz and potassium feldspar percentages seems to be characteristic of the majority of the sediments in contact with geothermal fluids. Preliminary attempts to model the chemical processes occurring in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field using chemical equilibrium calculations are reported. For this purpose the chemical compositions of thermal waters (well and surficial emanation) were used as input data to make calculations with SOLMNEQ and WATEQ2 computer programs. Then the theoretical mineral composition of altered sediments was predicted and compared to the mineralogy actually observed in the solid samples.

  10. Analysis of Flavonoids from Eugenia uniflora Leaves and Its Protective Effect against Murine Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rattmann, Yanna D; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Malquevicz-Paiva, Simone M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, referred to as Pitanga cherry shrub, is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is cultivated in many countries and it is suitable for the production of juice, frozen pulp, and tea. Besides, it can be used as treatment for inflammatory diseases. We reported that a flavonoid-rich fraction (HE-Bu) obtained from leaves decreased the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The oral administration of HE-Bu reduced the late mortality rate by 30%, prevented neutrophil accumulation in lungs, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels, and markedly decreased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by ileum cells. Chemical investigation showed myricetin and quercetin rhamnosides as the major components of this fraction. The results showed that HE-Bu protected mice from sepsis and indicated that this edible plant produces compounds that could be considered as potential adjuvants for sepsis treatment. PMID:23320032

  11. Improving effects of the extracts from Eugenia uniflora on hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y; Okada, M; Hayashi, T; Kasai, M; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y

    1999-12-15

    EtOH (70%) extracts from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora were separated into six fractions with different polarity and molecular size, i.e. NP-1-NP-6. In an oral glucose tolerance test, NP-1 and 4 inhibited the increase in plasma glucose level. However, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, such an inhibitory effect was not seen. Thus, the effects of NP-1 and 4 were apparently due to the inhibition of glucose absorption from the intestine. In a sucrose tolerance test, all fractions inhibited the increase in plasma glucose level. In an oral corn oil tolerance test, NP-3 and 4 showed an inhibitory effect on the increase in plasma triglycerides level. On the other hand, NP-3, 4, 5 and 6 inhibited maltase and sucrase activities and all fractions except for NP-1 showed an inhibitory effect on lipase activity dose-dependently. The inhibition of the increase in plasma glucose level by NP-3, 4, 5 and 6 in the oral sucrose tolerance test and the inhibition of the increase in plasma triglycerides by NP-3 and 4 in the oral corn oil tolerance test were apparently due to the inhibition of the decomposition of carbohydrates and fats in the intestine, respectively. PMID:10624893

  12. Pharmacological effects of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) aqueous crude extract on rat's heart.

    PubMed

    Consolini, Alicia E; Sarubbio, Marisol Gracía

    2002-06-01

    The effect of aqueous crude extract (ACE) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was studied on rat's perfused ventricles. This plant is used in South American traditional medicine as an antihypertensive and we already demonstrated previously its hypotensive properties. In this paper, maximal left intraventriclular pressure (P) of rat's hearts beating at 0.2 Hz firstly increased to 162.1+/-11.1% of basal value during 1-3 min of perfusing ACE 0.6%. Maximum rate of contraction (+P) also increased to duplicating +P/P ratio. Both types of effect were significantly decreased by either propranolol 0.35 microM, and pre-treatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg), suggesting that they were caused by a compound that releases cathecolamines with beta-adrenergic action. Nevertheless, after 20 min of perfusing ACE, ventricles decreased P to about 50% of their basal value, suggesting a negative-inotropic compound present in the extract. The perfusion of 1.2% ACE decreased P in a pressure-[Ca](o) curve (0.5-2 mM) in a non-competitive manner, suggesting that an irreversible Ca-blocking compound is also present in the extract. In summary, E. uniflora ACE has a dual effect on the heart related to its hypotensive action and is probably responsible for the therapeutic or adverse effects in patients under cardiac risk. PMID:12020928

  13. Analysis of Flavonoids from Eugenia uniflora Leaves and Its Protective Effect against Murine Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Rattmann, Yanna D.; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Malquevicz-Paiva, Simone M.; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gorin, Philip A. J.; Iacomini, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, referred to as Pitanga cherry shrub, is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is cultivated in many countries and it is suitable for the production of juice, frozen pulp, and tea. Besides, it can be used as treatment for inflammatory diseases. We reported that a flavonoid-rich fraction (HE-Bu) obtained from leaves decreased the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The oral administration of HE-Bu reduced the late mortality rate by 30%, prevented neutrophil accumulation in lungs, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels, and markedly decreased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by ileum cells. Chemical investigation showed myricetin and quercetin rhamnosides as the major components of this fraction. The results showed that HE-Bu protected mice from sepsis and indicated that this edible plant produces compounds that could be considered as potential adjuvants for sepsis treatment. PMID:23320032

  14. In Vivo Effects of Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica, DC.) Leaf Extracts on Diarrhea Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, T. B.; Silva, O. N.; Silva, L. P.; Rocha, T. L.; Grossi-de-Sá, M. F.; Franco, O. L.; Leonardecz, E.

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia dysenterica is a plant typically found in the Cerrado biome and commonly used in popular medicine due to its pharmacological properties, which include antidiarrheal, skin healing, and antimicrobial activities. The effects of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract and infusion of E. dysenterica leaves on intestinal motility and antidiarrheal activity were evaluated using ricin oil-induced diarrhea in rats. At doses of 400 and 800 mg·Kg−1, the ethanolic extract decreased intestinal motility while the other extracts showed no significant effects. Moreover, serum levels of chloride, magnesium, and phosphorus were also measured in rats. Histopathologic and enzymatic analyses were also performed to investigate any toxic effect. Animals treated with infusion, ethanolic extract, ricin oil, and loperamide presented morphological alterations in the small intestine, such as mucosa lesion, epithelial layer damage, and partial loss and/or morphological change of villi. Furthermore, the liver showed congestion and hydropic degeneration. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase increased significantly in all treatments, but none rose above reference values. In summary, our results suggest that compounds present in leaves of E. dysenterica may have therapeutic benefits on recovery from diarrhea despite their toxic effects. PMID:20953423

  15. Hybrid nanomaterial for stabilizing the antibiofilm activity of Eugenia carryophyllata essential oil.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Saviuc, Crina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Hristu, Radu; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Stanciu, George A; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that Fe(3)O(4)/oleic acid core/shell nanostructures could be used as systems for stabilizing the Eugenia carryophyllata essential oil (EO) on catheter surface pellicles, in order to improve their resistance to fungal colonization. EO microwave assisted extraction was performed in a Neo-Clevenger (related) device and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Fe(3)O(4)/oleic acid-core/shell nanoparticles (NP) were obtained by a precipitation method under microwave condition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) was used as a primary characterization method. The NPs were processed to achieve a core/shell/EO coated-shell nanosystem further used for coating the inner surface of central venous catheter samples. The tested fungal strains have been recently isolated from different clinical specimens. The biofilm architecture was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Our results claim the usage of hybrid nanomaterial (core/shell/coated-shell) for the stabilization of E. carryophyllata EO, which prevented or inhibited the fungal biofilm development on the functionalized catheter, highlighting the opportunity of using these nanosystems to obtain improved, anti-biofilm coatings for biomedical applications. PMID:22949098

  16. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Jeromini, Tatiane S; Mussury, Rosilda M; Dresch, Daiane M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and photosynthetic metabolism of "uvaia" seedlings (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess.) on different substrates and water regimes. The seeds were sown in tubes of 50 x 190 mm in the following substrates: Sand (S), Latosol + Sand (L + S) (1:1), Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S1 + PL) ( 1:1:0.5), Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S2 + PL) (1:2:0.5), Latosol + Bioplant® (L + B) (1:1), and the water levels assessed were 50, 75 and 100% of water retention capacity. At 60, 90, 120 and 150 days the seedlings were evaluated according to their chlorophyll index, leaf area (cm2) and Dickson Quality Index (DQI) and at 150 days their internal concentration of carbon (mol m-2 s-1), stomatal conductance (mol m-2 s-1), transpiration rate (mmol m-2 s-1), photosynthesis (µmol m-2 s-1) and efficiency of water use (µmol de CO2 / mmol de H2O). Until their 150th days, the seedlings had higher quality and photosynthetic metabolism when cultured with substrates containing latosol + sand + poultry litter on the two variations assessed and water retention capacity of 50%. PMID:25590738

  17. In-vitro evaluation of anti-trichomonal activities of Eugenia uniflora leaf.

    PubMed

    Ibikunle, Gabriel Femi; Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Famuyiwa, Funmilayo Gladys; Aladesanmi, Adetunji Joseph; Adewunmi, Clement Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, used ethnomedically in some tropical countries as an anti-infective, has shown anti-malarial and anti-trypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against Trichomonas gallinae as well as their cytotoxicities using an in vitro haemaglutination assay were determined. Anti-trichomonacidal activities of the extract improved on purification up to a stage. Subfractions E(2-5) had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 4.77 - 5.28, 18.49 - 25.00 and 4.53 - 5.18, 18.32 - 19.07 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hrs, respectively that were better than those of metronidazole. Further purification of E(2-5) led to loss of activity suggesting that the active components were probably working synergistically and additively. Demonstration of low haemaglutination titre values of 0.00 - 5.33 by methanolic extract and its partition fractions suggested their low toxicity profile. The established safety of the leaf indicated that its anti-trichomonal activity was not due to non-specific cytotoxicity, hence could be used in ethnomedicine as an anti-trichomonal agent. PMID:22238499

  18. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms. PMID:23594212

  19. Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·−), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using α-amylase, α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·−) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 μg/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24078187

  20. Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of black plum (Eugenia jambolana lam.).

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Despite good understanding of the molecular basis of the disease and advances in treatment, globally cancer is still a major cause of death. Estimates are that it will surpass cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death, with higher incidences in the developing countries that have minimal resources. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the two most commonly used treatment modalities, are associated with untoward side effects. This has necessitated the search for alternatives that are effective, non toxic and easily affordable for patients and traditional medicinal plants are an ideal source. Eugenia jambolana Lam., commonly known as black plum or 'jamun' is an important medicinal plant in various traditional systems of medicine. It is effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea and preclinical studies have also shown it to possess antineoplastic, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties. Here, for the first time, the effects of jamun in treatment and prevention of cancer, and the mechanisms responsible for these effects are appraised. Additionally the drawbacks in existing knowledge are also stressed to emphasize the possible avenues that need to be investigated, so that maximum effects on both prevention and cure can be attained. PMID:21517226

  1. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract on activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Parisi, Mariana M; Martins, Leo A M; Terra, Silvia R; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Perry, Marcos L S; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima T C R

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phenolic compounds in fruit- and vegetable-rich diets has attracted researchers' attention due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract on cell proliferation, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death and cell cycle in murine activated hepatic stellate cells (GRX). Cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was significantly decreased on cells treated with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) of purple pitanga extract for 48 and 72 h, and the percentage of dead cell stained with 7-amino-actinomycin D was significantly higher in treated cells. The reduction of cell proliferation was dose dependent, and we also observed alterations on cell cycle progression. At all times studied, GRX cells treated with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) of purple pitanga showed a significant reduction in cellular mitochondrial content as well as a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, our results indicated that purple pitanga extract induces early and late apoptosis/necrosis and necrotic death in GRX cells. This is the first report describing the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptotic activity for E. uniflora fruits in hepatic stellate cells. The present study provides a foundation for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis, and more studies will be carried to elucidate this effect. PMID:23475531

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition by Pterocarpus marsupium and Eugenia jambolana ameliorates streptozotocin induced Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Madhunapantula, Subbarao V; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Dubala, Anil; Muthureddy Nataraj, Satish Kumar; Basavan, Duraiswamy

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by the loss of normal functions of brain cells and neuronal death, ultimately leading to memory loss. Recent accumulating evidences have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of anti-diabetic agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing opportunities to explore and test the DPP-4 inhibitors for treating this fatal disease. Prior studies determining the efficacy of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM, Fabaceae) and Eugenia jambolana (EJ, Myrtaceae) extracts for ameliorating type 2 diabetes have demonstrated the DPP-4 inhibitory properties indicating the possibility of using of these extracts even for the treating AD. Therefore, in the present study, the neuroprotective roles of PM and EJ for ameliorating the streptozotocin (STZ) induced AD have been tested in rat model. Experimentally, PM and EJ extracts, at a dose range of 200 and 400mg/kg, were administered orally to STZ induced AD Wistar rats and cognitive evaluation tests were performed using radial arm maze and hole-board apparatus. Following 30 days of treatment with the extracts, a dose- and time-dependent attenuation of AD pathology, as evidenced by decreasing amyloid beta 42, total tau, phosphorylated tau and neuro-inflammation with an increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels was observed. Therefore, PM and EJ extracts contain cognitive enhancers as well as neuroprotective agents against STZ induced AD. PMID:24667360

  3. In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Pal, Nishith Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2012-06-20

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible in vitro antibacterial potential of extracts of Eugenia jambolana seeds against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assay methods were used for antibacterial susceptibility testing. Kill-kinetics study was done to know the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography were performed by colour tests to characterize the putative compounds responsible for this antibacterial activity. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated on human erythrocytes by haemolytic assay method and acute oral toxicity study was done in mice. The plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against all the test isolates. Further, ethyl acetate fraction obtained from fractionation of most active ethanol extract showed maximum antibacterial effect against all the test isolates. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction revealed that phenolics were the major active phytoconstituents. Ethyl acetate fraction also demonstrated no haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes and no gross behavioural changes as well as toxic symptoms were observed in mice at recommended dosage level. The results provide justification for the use of E. jambolana in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases and may contribute to the development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections caused by these drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:22444436

  4. Variation in the carotenoid composition of the lycopene-rich Brazilian fruit Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Ornella M; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2008-12-01

    The indigenous pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is now marketed and commercially processed in Brazil. In the present work, the carotenoids of the pitanga fruit from two states and at two stages of ripening, as well as of processed pitanga products (frozen pulp and juice, the brands being designated as A, B and C) commercialized in Campinas, São Paulo, were determined by HPLC. As compared to ripe pitanga from Medianeira, Paraná, those from Campinas had significantly higher (all-E)-lycopene (14.0 vs. 71.1 microg/g), (13Z)-lycopene (1.1 vs. 5.0 microg/g) and (all-E)-gamma-carotene (1.6 vs. 3.8 microg/g) levels. Significant increases in most of the carotenoids occurred from the partially ripe to the ripe fruits, with (all-E)-lycopene doubling its concentration in fruits from both states. Pitanga was found to be one of the richest fruit sources of carotenoids, particularly lycopene, but the processed products had much lower lycopene content. The mean (all-E)-lycopene concentration was 16.6 microg/g for frozen pulp brand A, 23.0 microg/g for bottled juice brand B and 25.6 microg/g for bottled juice brand C. Optimization of processing is therefore needed to guarantee better retention of this important carotenoid. PMID:18679799

  5. The traditional Ayuverdic medicine, Eugenia Jambolana (Jamun Fruit) decreases liver inflammation, injury, and fibrosis during cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Donepudi, Ajay C.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Seeram, Navindra P.; Slitt, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cholestasis is a common disease of the liver. Chronic cholestasis eventually leads to hepatic cirrhosis and fibrosis, and rodent chronic cholestasis models are used to study aspects of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cholestasis-induced liver injury and fibrosis are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Few pharmacological therapies exist for treatment of cholestasis or cirrhosis, but it is known that humans with better nutritional intake are less likely to develop certain types of cirrhosis. Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) is a tropical berry fruit rich in antioxidant anthocyanin compounds. Aim Because anthocyanins decrease cellular lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, it was hypothesized that Jamun fruit extract (JFE) administration could protect against cholestatic liver injury and inflammation in mice. Method Starting 24 h after sham or bile-duct ligation (BDL) surgery, male C57Bl/6 mice were administered vehicle or JFE (100 mg/kg, po) for ten days. Results Mice that underwent BDL had elevated serum ALT levels, which were reduced 60% by JFE treatment. Likewise, BDL caused hepatic inflammation, macrophage infiltration, fibrosis, and necrosis, all of which were largely improved by JFE. Interestingly, hepatoprotection was observed in JFE-treated BDL mice, despite suppressed transporter expression and increased hepatic bile acid concentrations. Conclusion Jamun fruit phytochemicals decreased hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress, and protected against hepatocellular injury in mice. Jamun warrants further investigation as a potential antioxidant/anti-inflammatory therapy to treat not only cholestasis, but also other liver diseases with an inflammatory component. PMID:22212619

  6. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Magina, Michele Debiasi Alberton; Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Caroline Fernandes; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Barcellos, Michele; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-04-01

    Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., a plant from the south of Brazil, is used in the popular medicine for rheumatism treatment. This study reports that topical application of hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from E. brasiliensis caused an inhibition of ear oedema in response to topical application of croton oil on the mouse ear. For oedema inhibition, the estimated ID50 values (dose reducing the inflammatory response by 50% relative to the control value) for hydroalcoholic extract and fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) were 0.17, 0.29, 0.13 and 0.14 mg/ear, respectively, with inhibition of 79+/-7%, 87+/-6%, 88+/-5% and 96+/-2%, respectively. Isolated phenolic compounds (quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin) were also effective in inhibiting the oedema (inhibition of 61+/-5%, 66+/-2% and 37+/-9%, respectively). Moreover, both extract and isolated compounds caused inhibition of polymorphonuclear cells influx (inhibition of 85+/-6%, 81+/-5%, 73+/-6% and 76+/-6%, respectively). The histological analysis of the ear tissue clearly confirmed that the extract and compounds of E. brasiliensis inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear cells to mouse ear skin after application of croton oil. Furthermore, hydroalcoholic extract was also effective in inhibiting the arachidonic acid-mediated mouse ear oedema (ID50 value was 1.94 mg/ear and inhibition of 60+/-7%). Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that E. brasiliensis possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18380921

  7. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future. PMID:26826833

  8. New data on the bottom topography, recent sedimentation and water balance of Cerro Prieto dam, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yutsis, Vsevolod; Levchenko, Oleg; Lowag, Jens; Krivosheya, Konstantin; de León Gómez, Héctor; Kotsarenko, Anatolyi

    2010-05-01

    Cerro Prieto Dam, a small water reservoir in the NE Mexico, is characterized by very high velocity of recent sedimentation, high sub-bottom seepage and erosion, and as a result, nonlinear water balance. These phenomenons never were studied since construction of the dam in the beginning of 1980th. So the goal of our work was to investigate the bottom topography and also sub-bottom near surface structure using the parametric acoustical effect. High-resolution sub-bottom profiling, using the Innomar SES-2000 compact echosounder, was carried out in Cerro Prieto Dam during February-April of 2008. The survey was conducted onboard of a small motor boat. The SES transducer was mounted on the front side of the boat using light metal pipe, and all electronic equipment was installed on the deck. Accurate positioning of the boat was reached by GPS. Average speed was 8-10 km/h. Innomar's software tool ISE was provides near real-time post-processing of the collected SES data and operation procedure could be corrected on-line. Acoustic signal ensured vertical resolution of 10-15 cm at acceptable penetration up to 15 m. Bathymetry map was compiled assuming average sound velocity of 1450 m/s. The irregular bottom topography of Cerro Prieto dam was discovered. The present elevation of the water surface is about 181 m above see level, and the lake depth varies from 1-2 to 28 m. The SES records show a distinct bottom layer of recent sediments by 0.5 - 4 m thickness which follows reservoir floor topography. Very specific acoustic anomalies, which seem to be related with gas sediments, are observed. The integrated SES, gravity, magnetic and geoelectrical data interpretation allows assuming a series of the superficial fractures focused in a NW direction, perpendicular (NE-SW) to the general deep fault zone. Hydrological balance for the Cerro Prieto water reservoir has been analyzed for last two decades. There are three types of water level fluctuations on the Cerro Prieto dam: long

  9. 1. Fourteen Years Of Diffuse CO2 Monitoring At Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos Martinez, Jose; Melián, Gladys; Ibarra, Martha; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Fátima; Nolasco, Dácil; Padilla, Germán; Calvo, David; Dionis, Samara; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Muñoz, Angélica

    2013-04-01

    7. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Belt, which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. Until 2012, twelve soil CO2 emission surveys covering an area of 0,6 km2 have been performed by means of the accumulation chamber method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1,869 t•d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the April, 2002 and March, 2008 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 10 t•d-1, respectively, except a small increment in 2004, to 256 t d-1, associated with an anomalous seismic activity. The higher anomalies are located around the crater of 1995 and 1999. An increasing on the total CO2 emission has been observed, from December 2008 to February 2011, with total diffuse CO2 output estimates from 12 t•d-1 to 43 t•d-1, respectively. These temporal variations show a close relationship between diffuse CO2 emission and the eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro. This relationship indicates that monitoring CO2 emission is an important geochemical tool for the volcanic surveillance at Cerro Negro. References: (1) Rodríguez et al. (2009) AGU Fall Meeting 2009. EOS, AGU,V21-2017 . (2) Padilla et al. (2008). IV Reunión de la Red Española de Volcanología, Almagro 2008

  10. Fine Analysis of 121 Hermione, 45 Eugenia, and 90 Antiope Binary Asteroid Systems With AO Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Descamps, P.; Hestroffer, D.; Berthier, J.; de Pater, I.

    2004-11-01

    We report on a campaign of adaptive optics observations which focuses on 121 Hermione, 45 Eugenia, and 90 Antiope binary asteroids performed with ESO-VLT and Keck II telescopes in 2003-2004. A precessing Keplerian model was used to describe the motion of their companion. The orbital elements are determined accurately using data spanning more than 2 years. The satellite of 121 Hermione revolves at a= 775+/-14 km from the primary in P=2.5714+/-0.001 days with a low eccentricity (e=0.008+/-0.004) and retrograde orbit w.r.t. to the primary's equator (i=175+/-4 deg considering a pole solution (1.9,13.2) deg in ecliptic EQJ2000). The sense of revolution was unambiguously estimated from images separated by a few hours. Keck AO data taken in December 2003 revealed the bi-lobated shape of the primary. The nominal bulk density as derived from observed size of the primary and its 209 km IRAS diameter is 1.2+/-0.3 g/cm3 (Marchis et al., Icarus, 2004). Future observations with better angular resolution will allow us to see if 121 Hermione is a triple system. The orbit of Petit-Prince, moonlet of 45 Eugenia, was constrained using Feb. and Mar. 2004 AO data recorded at the VLT (a=1196+/-4 km, P= 4.7244+/-0.001 days, e=0, i=163+/-6 deg with a pole solution (133+/-3,-40+/-3 deg) in ecliptic B1950), leading to a bulk density of 1.17 g/cm3 considering its 215 km IRAS diameter. Both models predict successfully the positions reported for the discovery of Petit-Prince on Nov. 1998 and of S/2001 (121) 1 by Merline et al. (1999 and 2002). We will also present results on the same-size binary asteroid 90 Antiope, using the same analysis. Feb. and Mar. 2004 VLT-NACO data confirmed that both components are similar (with a Dm 2.4 and a diameter of 110+/-16 km). A preliminary analysis of Feb. and Mar. 2004 VLT data confirms that both components, separated by 170+/-1 km, with a revolution period P=16.5268 +- 0.0001h, are quasi-similar (with a Dm ˜ 2.4% and a diameter of 110+/-16 km) leading to

  11. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. Objective: To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast cells. Materials and Methods: Protective ability of flavonoid-enriched (FE) fraction of clove was studied against UV-B induced cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2 ARE) pathway. Results: FE fraction showed a significant antioxidant potential. Pretreatment of cells with FE fraction (10–40 μg/ml) reversed the effects of UV-B induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated for the first time that the FE fraction from clove could confer UV-B protection probably through the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which included the down-regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1. These findings suggested that the flavonoids from clove could potentially be considered as UV-B protectants and can be explored further for its topical application to the area of the skin requiring protection. SUMMARY Pretreatment of human dermal fibroblast with flavonoid-enriched fraction of Eugenia caryophylata attenuated effects of ultraviolet-B radiationsIt also conferred protection through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response pathway and increased tolerance of cells against oxidative stress

  12. Comparison of the interfacial properties of Eugenia uniflora and Triticum vulgaris lectins.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Maria D L; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S; Correia, Maria T S; de Melo, Celso P

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the interfacial and dielectric properties of EuniSL, a recently purified lectin obtained from seeds of Eugenia uniflora (EuniSL), through surface pressure (Pi) and surface potential (DeltaV) measurements of its floating monolayers at the 2.0

  13. Municipal solid waste management through vermicomposting employing exotic species of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, R D; Datar, M T; Babookani, M Rabiei

    2011-01-01

    Majority of municipal (urban) solid waste (MSW) is disposed of in landfills (anaerobic composting). However, this disposal system is reported to produce hazardous environmental impacts and new policies are initiated to protect the environment from such impacts by discouraging the practice of disposal of solid waste in landfills. Eco-friendly disposal alternatives to landfills need to be explored. One of the technological options for treatment and disposal of organic solid wastes is vermicomposting. Commercial vermicomposting is reported to be practicable for treatment and disposal of many organic solids and byproducts in agricultural production and processing industries. However, this alternative has not been tried for MSW on large scale. This paper highlights the application of vermicomposting for treatment of organic solid waste, generated at urban residential area at Pune [organic component of this urban solid waste (MSW)]. Vermicomposting was tried on this segregated solid waste using exotic species of earthworm--Eudrilus eugeniae--commonly called 'African Night Crawler'. Bench scale reactor studies were carried out on organic solid waste under controlled optimum environmental conditions (moisture content: 48-52 percent, pH: 7.0-7.2, temperature: ambient), with variable vermi-loading [40-80 g of worms/kg of urban solid waste (MSW)]. Characteristics of solid waste were monitored through conventional parameters and additional environmental parameters like BOD5 and COD. The results of investigative studies are encouraging and indicate that organic solid waste can be treated in a reasonable period of 32-34 days through vermicomposting with around 60 percent reduction in the volume. PMID:22324158

  14. Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Santhivardhan; Dubala, Anil; Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Kannan, Elango

    2014-11-01

    The fruit of Eugenia jambolana Lam. is very popular for its anti-diabetic property. Previous studies on the crude extract of E. jambolana (EJE) have successfully explored the scientific basis for some of its traditional medicinal uses. Considering its wide use and consumption as a seasonal fruit, the present study investigates the ability of E. jambolana to interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. The standardized EJE was incubated with pooled human liver microsomes to assess the CYP2C9-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of diclofenac, dextromethorphan, and testosterone, respectively. The metabolites formed after the enzymatic reactions were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. EJE showed differential effect on cytochrome P450 activities with an order of inhibitory potential as CYP2C9 > CYP3A4 > CYP2D6 having IC50 of 76.69, 359.02, and 493.05 µg/mL, respectively. The selectivity of EJE for CYP2C9 rather than CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 led to perform the enzyme kinetics to explicate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. EJE was notably potent in inhibiting the reaction in a non-competitive manner with Ki of 84.85 ± 5.27 µg/mL. The results revealed the CYP2C9 inhibitory potential of EJE with lower Ki value suggesting that EJE should be examined for its potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when concomitantly administered with other drugs. PMID:24590863

  15. Implant of polymer containing pentacyclic triterpenes from Eugenia punicifolia inhibits inflammation and activates skeletal muscle remodeling.

    PubMed

    Leite, Paulo Emílio C; Lima-Araújo, Katia G; França, Guilherme R; Lagrota-Candido, Jussara; Santos, Wilson C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2014-12-01

    Sustained chronic inflammation induces activation of genes involved in cellular proliferation and apoptosis, thereby causing skeletal muscle degeneration. To investigate in vitro effects of isolated pentacyclic triterpenes from Eugenia punicifolia (Ep-CM) upon signaling pathways involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle cell line proliferation, and in vivo muscular tissue remodeling. C2C12 cells were seeded on eight-well plates and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, TUNEL assays, mitochondria viability, zymography for matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), Western blot analysis for MAPKinase signaling pathway, NFκB activation and HMGB1 production subsequently determined under basal conditions and after Ep-CM treatment. A polymer containing Ep-CM was implanted on the volar surface of gastrocnemius muscles subjected to acute injury induced by bupivacaine for local slow and gradual release of bioactive compounds, and mice killed 4 days after surgery. Ep-CM inhibited proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner, confirmed by reduction of [(3)H]-thymidine uptake without affecting cell viability or inducing apoptosis. The cytostatic effect of Ep-CM occurred mainly via inhibition of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) activation and DNA synthesis, possibly inhibiting the G1 phase of the cell cycle, since Ep-CM increased pAkt and p27(kip1) but reduced Cyclin D1. Ep-CM in vitro treatment increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 activities of C2C12 myoblast cells, but reduced in vivo MMP-9 activity and acute muscular inflammation. Besides cytostatic and anti-inflammatory effects, Ep-CM pentacyclic triterpenes also contributed to degradation of basement membrane components by activating mechanisms of skeletal muscle remodeling in response to local injury. PMID:24830560

  16. The gastroprotective effects of Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract: the possible role of condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Oliveira-Silva, Grasielle Lopes; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2014-01-01

    We applied a taxonomic approach to select the Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract, known in Brazil as "cagaita," and evaluated its gastroprotective effect. The ability of the extract or carbenoxolone to protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced lesions was evaluated in mice. The contributions of nitric oxide (NO), endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and alterations in HCl production to the extract's gastroprotective effect were investigated. We also determined the antioxidant activity of the extract and the possible contribution of tannins to the cytoprotective effect. The extract and carbenoxolone protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced ulcers, and the former also decreased HCl production. The blockage of SH groups but not the inhibition of NO synthesis abolished the gastroprotective action of the extract. Tannins are present in the extract, which was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI); the tannins identified by fragmentation pattern (MS/MS) were condensed type-B, coupled up to eleven flavan-3-ol units and were predominantly procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Partial removal of tannins from the extract abolished the cytoprotective actions of the extract. The extract exhibits free-radical-scavenging activity in vitro, and the extract/FeCl3 sequence stained gastric surface epithelial cells dark-gray. Therefore, E. dysenterica leaf extract has gastroprotective effects that appear to be linked to the inhibition of HCl production, the antioxidant activity and the endogenous SH-containing compounds. These pleiotropic actions appear to be dependent on the condensed tannins contained in the extract, which bind to mucins in the gastric mucosa forming a protective coating against damaging agents. Our study highlights the biopharmaceutical potential of E. dysenterica. PMID:24789995

  17. Session 10: The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico: The Experiences Gained from Its Exploration and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Cerro Prieto case study demonstrated the value of a multidisciplinary effort for exploring and developing a geothermal field. There was no problem in recognizing the geothermal potential of the Cerro Prieto area because of the many obvious surface manifestations. However, the delineation of the geothermal reservoir at depth was not so straightforward. Wells drilled near the abundant surface manifestations only produced fluids of relatively low enthalpy. Later it was determined that these zones of high heat loss corresponded to discharge areas where faults and fractures allowed thermal fluids to leak to the surface, and not to the main geothermal reservoir. The early gravity and seismic refraction surveys provided important information on the general structure of the area. Unaware of the existence of a higher density zone of hydrothermally altered sediments capping the geothermal reservoir, CFE interpreted a basement horst in the western part of the field and hypothesized that the bounding faults were controlling the upward flow of thermal fluids. Attempting to penetrate the sedimentary column to reach the ''basement horst'', CFE discovered the {alpha} geothermal reservoir (in well M-5). The continuation of the geothermal aquifer (actually the {beta} reservoir) east of the original well field was later confirmed by a deep exploration well (M-53). The experience of Cerro Prieto showed the importance of chemical ratios, and geothermometers in general, in establishing the subsurface temperatures and fluid flow patterns. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have also been helpful to determine the origin of the fluids, fluid-production mechanisms and production induced effects on the reservoir.

  18. Modeling discharge requirements for deep geothermal wells at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, MX

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, Anthony J.; Granados, Eduardo E.; Puente, Hector Gutierrez; Pierres, Luis Ortega

    1995-01-26

    During the mid-l980's, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) drilled a number of deep wells (M-200 series) at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico to investigate the continuation of the geothermal reservoir to the east of the Cerro Prieto-II and III production areas. The wells encountered permeability at depths ranging from 2,800 to 4,400 m but due to the reservoir depth and the relatively cold temperatures encountered in the upper 1,000 to 2,000 m of the wells, it was not possible to discharge some of the wells. The wells at Cerro Prieto are generally discharged by injecting compressed air below the water level using 2-3/8-inch tubing installed with either a crane or workover rig. The objective of this technique is to lift sufficient water out of the well to stimulate flow from the reservoir into the wellbore. However, in the case of the M-200 series wells, the temperatures in the upper 1,000 to 2,000 m are generally below 50 C and the heat loss to the formation is therefore significant. The impact of heat loss on the stimulation process was evaluated using both a numerical model of the reservoir/wellbore system and steady-state wellbore modeling. The results from the study indicate that if a flow rate of at least 300 liters/minute can be sustained, the well can probably be successfully stimulated. This is consistent with the flow rates obtained during the successful stimulations of wells M-202 and M-203. If the flow rate is closer to 60 liters/minute, the heat loss is significant and it is unlikely that the well can be successfully discharged. These results are consistent with the unsuccessful discharge attempts in wells M-201 and M-205.

  19. The Cerro Negro accumulation of Venezuela's Orinoco Belt - the favorable convergence of several geological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.C. ); Tarache, C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Cerro Negro Area is a major part of eastern Venezuela's Orinoco Belt. Here upper Eocene fluvial-deltaic deposits of the Oficina Fm. reservoir billions of barrels of heavy oil, much of which is in valley-fill deposits. Maturation, migration and accumulation of these hydrocarbons in thick, porous and permeable sandstones were the logical conclusion to several major geological events in eastern Venezuela during the Tertiary. In the Cerro Negro Area, Cretaceous clastics were deposited on an igneous and metamorphic basement after which the sea withdrew northward toward the axial part of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. The basement and Cretaceous deposits were weathered and eroded during the Eocene, Oligocene, and early Miocene, forming the unconformity on which the Oficina Fm. is deposited. Historic reconstruction begins with this unconformity, a paleotopographic surface strongly influencing the character and distribution of the overlying Oficina Fm. As relative sea level fell and gradients increased, streams incised into the shelf while transporting great amounts of coarse clastic load northward. At Cerro Negro, a mature topography of low ridges and hills were developed with differential elevations of several hundred feet. During the Miocene, a sea transgressed across the stream-etched unconformity. Streams carrying large amounts of clastic load encountered an elevating sea level. They consequently dropped their coarse load, forming long, linear, transgressive, valley-fill deposits. By Late Miocene, hydrocarbons generated in the deeper basin began to migrate southward through the long linear fluvial-deltaic clastic conduits that were separated laterally and vertically into complex [open quotes]plumbing systems.[close quotes] As the hydrocarbons moved shelfward, normal faults cut the conduits into numerous reservoir segments. The timing between migration and faulting is critical to present-day hydrocarbon distribution in these segments.

  20. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a. PMID:11000042

  1. Two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections in the Cerro Prieto region

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, R.; Martinez, M.

    1981-01-01

    Using a finite-difference program (Dey, 1976) for two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained by different measuring arrays, four apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained at Cerro Prieto with a Schlumberger array by CFE personnel were modeled (Razo, 1978). Using geologic (Puente and de la Pena, 1978) and lithologic (Diaz, et al., 1981) data from the geothermal region, models were obtained which show clearly that, for the actual resistivity present in the zone, the information contained in the measured pseudosections is primarily due to the near-surface structure and does not show either the presence of the geothermal reservoir or the granitic basement which underlies it.

  2. Boiling and condensation processes in the Cerro Prieto beta reservoir under exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A. , Menlo Park, CA ); Manon, A.; Quijano, L. ); Coplen, T. ); Lippmann, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The deep Cerro Prieto (Baja California, Mexico) beta reservoir is offset vertically by the southwest-northeast trending, normal H fault. Under exploitation pressures in the upthrown block have decreased strongly resulting in boiling and high-enthalpy production fluids. Significant differences in fluid chemical and isotopic compositions are observed in the two parts of the reservoir and particularly in an anomalous zone associated with the H fault. These differences result from intense boiling and adiabatic steam condensation, as well as from leakage of overlying cooler water along the fault.

  3. Impacts of the Cerro Grande fire on Homestead era and Manhattan Project properties at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, E. D.; Isaacson, J.

    2001-01-01

    In May of 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 8,000 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) managed land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Although the fire was generally of low intensity, it impacted a significant number of LANL's cultural resources. Historic wooden properties were affected more heavily than prehistoric archaeological sites. This paper will provide an overview of the Homestead and Manhattan Project Periods at LANL and will discuss the effects of the Cerro Grande Fire on historic wooden properties. Post-fire cultural resource management issues will also be discussed.

  4. Dating thermal events at Cerro Prieto using fission-track annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, S.J.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The duration of heating in the Cerro Prieto reservoir was estimated by relating the fading of spontaneous fission tracks in detrital apatite to observed temperatures. The rate of fading is a function of both time and temperature. The apparent fission track age of the detrital apatites then, is a function of both their source age and their time-temperature history. Data from laboratory experiments and geologic fading studies were compiled from published sources to produce lines of iso-annealing for apatite in time-temperature space. Fission track ages were calculated for samples from two wells at Cerro Prieto, one with an apparently simple and one with an apparently complex thermal history. Temperatures were estimated by empirical vitrinite reflectance geothermometry, fluid inclusion homogenization and oxygen isotope equilibrium. These estimates were compared with logs of measured borehole temperatures. The temperature in well T-366, where complete annealing first occurs, was estimated to be between 160 and 180{sup 0}C. Complete annealing at these temperatures requires 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 3} years, respectively. Well M-94 has an apparently complex thermal history. Geothermometers in this well indicate temperatures some 50 to 100{sup 0}C higher than those measured directly in the borehole. Fission tracks are partially preserved in M-94 where paleotemperatures were as high as 200{sup 0}C and are erased where geothermometers indicate temperatures of 250{sup 0}C. This implies a thermal event less than 10{sup 1} years and greater than 10{sup 0} years in duration.

  5. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  6. Cerro de Pasco and other massive sulfide deposits of central Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The famous Cerro de Pasco Pb-Zn-Ag deposit historically has been considered to be hydrothermally derived from an adjacent Tertiary volcanic vent. However, texturally massive pyrite-chert and pyrite-sphalerite-galena in the deposit have the same strike and cross folds as the adjacent pre-Tertiary strata. Both the deposit and the strata are cut by one of the large Longitudinal Faults. Both dikes and pyrite-enargite veins associated with the vent cut the massive sulfides; fragments of massive pyrite occur in the vent. A few examples of laminated pyrite and chert, banded pyrite and chert, banded pyrite and sphalerite, and banded pyrite, sphalerite, and galena are preserved in the massive sulfide portion of the deposit. The deposit has the composition and zoning patterns typical of shale-hosted massive sulfides. Cerro de Pasco probably in part of the pelitic Devonian Excelsior formation. The Colquijirca deposit 8 km to the south and the San Cristobal district 110 km to the south likewise have been considered to be Tertiary volcanic hydrothermal deposits. Colquijirca consists of stratigraphically controlled mantos of layered pyrite, chert and tuff in the Tertiary Calera formation. The mantos of the San Cristobal district are along the upper contact of the pyritic, Permian, Catalina felsic volcanic rocks; some ore consists of laminated pyrite and sphalerite. Tertiary plutons are conspicuously absent at San Cristobal, and the ores are brecciated by Tertiary folding.

  7. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. ); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  8. Acute effect of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata on cognition and pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2012-06-01

    The essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (clove oil; Family: Myrtaceae) is used in dental care as an antiseptic and analgesic. The study aims to evaluate the effect of clove oil on experimental models of pain and cognition in mice. To observe the acute effects of clove oil at different doses, the elevated plus maze was used for the assessment of cognition, and the tail flick and formalin tests were used for the study of pain. The formalin test showed that clove oil (0.1 ml/kg, i.p.) demonstrated significantly reduced pain response in both the phases. The lower doses (0.025 and 0.05 ml/kg, i.p.) reduced the formalin-induced pain response significantly in the second phase only. The tail-flick test showed variable response. The dose 0.1 ml/kg, clove oil, significantly decreased the tail-flick latency at 30 min and this effect was reversed by naloxone (1 mg/kg). On the contrary, the dose 0.025 ml/kg of clove oil, at 30 and 60 min increased the mean tail-flick latency compared to control group, but this effect was not statistically significant. Yet naloxone significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the effect of clove oil 0.025 ml/kg at 30 min. Clove oil (0.025 and 0.05 ml/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced retention memory deficit induced by scopolamine, but clove oil (0.1 ml/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed both acquisition as well as retention deficits in elevated plus maze induced by the scopolamine. Clove oil exhibits reduced pain response by a predominantly peripheral action as evidenced by formalin test and the tail flick test showed the involvement of opioid receptors. Clove oil also significantly improved scopolamine-induced retention memory deficit at all doses. PMID:22453493

  9. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMICS OF SALMONELLA CERRO INFECTION IN A U.S. DAIRY HERD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of Salmonella to describe an outbreak of S. Cerro infection that occurred in a Pennsylvania dairy herd. The data were collected as part of a cooperative research project between the Regional Dairy Quality Management Alliance and the Agri...

  10. Extension of the Cerro Prieto field and zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal possibilities in the future

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca L, H.L.; de la Pena L, A.; Puente C, I.; Diaz C, E.

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns the possible extension of the Cerro Prieto field and identification of other zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal development potential by assessing the structural geologic conditions in relation to the regional tectonic framework and the integration of geologic and geophysical surveys carried out at Cerro Prieto. This study is based on data obtained from the wells drilled to date and the available geological and geophysical information. With this information, a geologic model of the field is developed as a general description of the geometry of what might be the geothermal reservoir of the Cerro Prieto field. In areas with geothermal potential within the Mexicali Valley, the location of irrigation wells with anomalous temperatures was taken as a point of departure for subsequent studies. Based on this initial information, gravity and magnetic surveys were made, followed by seismic reflection and refraction surveys and the drilling of 1200-m-deep multiple-use wells. Based on the results of the final integration of these studies with the geology of the region, it is suggested that the following areas should be explored further: east of Cerro Prieto, Tulecheck, Riito, Aeropuerto-Algodones, and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora.

  11. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

  12. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. PMID:18970765

  13. The Organic Chemistry of Volcanoes: Case Studies at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua and Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, A. J.; Seward, T. M.; Gize, A. P.; Hall, T.

    2005-12-01

    Though it has long been known that volcanoes emit organic compounds within their fumarolic gases, it is only in recent years that a concerted attempt has been made to catalogue and quantify the species and fluxes. Two general lines of interest dominate this study. Firstly, volcanic gases represent some of the most likely environments in which the precursor molecules necessary for the origin of life were synthesised. The existence of an active, abiotic, organic chemistry in such settings today is fundamental to our understanding of the early Earth. Secondly, the presence of halogenated organic compounds is of interest to the atmospheric sciences, particularly with respect to their ozone depleting potential. It is clear that natural sources of halocarbons must exist, and though current natural fluxes are low with respect to the anthropogenic signature, volcanogenic halocarbons may have proved to be significant during the eruption of supervolcanoes and continental flood basalts. In this study, gases were collected from fumaroles in the craters of two, very different, active volcanoes. Cerro Negro, a young basaltic cinder cone belonging to the Central American Volcanic Belt, could be defined as a typical subduction zone volcano. Gases were collected from Cerro Negro during March 2003 and 2004 from a single fumarole discharging close to the crater floor. In contrast, Oldoinyo Lengai is the world's only active carbonatite volcano and represents the most extreme case of alkali volcanism in the East African Rift system. Fieldwork was conducted in the northern summit crater of Lengai over 8 days in October 2003. In this period, the volcano was in near continuous eruption and gases were sampled from two fumaroles situated within 20m of the eruptive centre, though measured gas temperatures were low at around 195°C. Organic compounds were collected using a variety of activated carbon, molecular sieve type adsorbents, packed into glass cartridges. The water and acid matrix of

  14. Microfaunal evidence of age and depositional environments of the Cerro Prieto section (Plio-Pleistocene), Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ingle, J.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Microfossils including benthic and planktic foraminifera, ostracodes, calcareous algae, fish skeletal material, and fragments of pelecypods were found in 14 core samples from depths of 185 to 1952 m in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, providing evidence of both the age and depositional history of sediments comprising the 3000-m-thick Pliocene and Pleistocene section in this area. Ostracodes of brackish water and marine origin constitute the most common microfossils present in this sequence occurring in 8 samples; in situ littoral and neritic species of benthic foraminifera occur in 5 samples with planktic species present in 2 samples. Distributional patterns of ostracodes and foraminifera together with previously analyzed lithofacies (Lyons and van de Kamp, 1980) indicate that the Cerro Prieto section represents an intertonguing complex of alluvial, deltaic, estuarine, and shallow marine environments deposited along the front of the Colorado River delta as it prograded across the Salton Trough during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Foraminiferal evidence indicates that a sand and shale unit commonly present at depths between 700 and 1100 m represents a significant mid-Pleistocene marine incursion in the Cerro Prieto area. Tentative correlation of the Cerro Prieto section with the well dated Palm Springs Formation of the Imperial Valley, California area suggests that the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary occurs at a depth of approximately 2000 m in the area of well M-93. Reworked specimens of Cretaceous foraminifera and fragments of the Cretaceous pelecypod Inoceramus were found in five samples further substantiating the Colorado Plateau provenance of a significant portion of the Colorado River deltaic sediments in the Cerro Prieto area.

  15. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis). PMID:20922463

  16. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Salmonella Cerro Infection in a US Dairy Herd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, Prem; van Kessel, Jo Ann; Karns, Jeffrey; Wolfgang, David; Schukken, Ynte; Grohn, Yrjo

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis has been one of the major causes of human foodborne illness in the US. The high prevalence of infections makes transmission dynamics of Salmonella in a farm environment of interest both from animal and human health perspectives. Mathematical modeling approaches are increasingly being applied to understand the dynamics of various infectious diseases in dairy herds. Here, we describe the transmission dynamics of Salmonella infection in a dairy herd with a set of non-linear differential equations. Although the infection dynamics of different serotypes of Salmonella in cattle are likely to be different, we find that a relatively simple SIR-type model can describe the observed dynamics of the Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro infection in the herd.

  18. Preliminary studies of brine reinjection at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, J.R.; Mercado, S.G.; Tsang, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    At the present time, Units 1 and 2 of the Cerro Prieto power plant generate 75 MW of power. For this purpose, about 2200 t/h of fluids are produced. At present, a number of studies are being conducted to evaluate alternative methods of injection. The methods being considered are: cold or hot injection with open, closed or mixed systems. For each of these systems, laboratory tests will be carried out using columns packed with different grain-sized sands. The sands used are from alluvial fans of the Cucapa range. The purpose of these tests is to establish the scale-forming tendencies of the water when injected under different conditions. 5 refs.

  19. A new MOS mask cutter facility at Gemini/Cerro Tololo observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Robert T.; Trancho, Gelys; Tighe, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    The installation and commissioning of a new laser cutter facility in La Serena, Chile is a cooperative effort between Gemini Observatory and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. This system enables the cutting of aluminum and carbon fiber slit masks for three multi-object spectrographs operating in Chile: GMOS-S, Flamingos-2, and Goodman spectrograph. Selection of the new laser cutter tool was based on slit mask specifications developed for two materials. Prior to the commissioning all slit mask production was performed at Gemini's Northern base facility with a similar laser cutter system. The new facility supports two observatories and enhances the capabilities for both. This paper will discuss the observatory arrangement with respect to mask data tracking and handling. The laser system and facility will be discussed along with mask cutting performance, process development and manufacturing methods.

  20. Bottom Topography, Recent Sedimentation and Water Volume of the Cerro Prieto Dam, NE Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yutsis, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    Cerro Prieto dam, relatively small water reservoir in the NE of Mexico, is characterized by a very high velocity of recent sedimentation, irregular bottom topography and sub-bottom seepage. Very high resolution seismic study using non-linear parametric echo sounder SES-2000 was carried out in this water reservoir, which is one of the main resources of potable water for the Monterrey, the city with a population of about four million inhabitants. A strong difference between water depth and hence the volume capacity calculated by National Commission of Water (Comision Nacional del Agua, CNA), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and acoustic data was discovered. Very high rate of recent sedimentation due to damming is discussed. SES data interpretation shows that the thickness of recent sediments due to siltation of the reservoir reaches 3.5-4.0 m. Differences between the CNA and SES data indicate storage losses from 8-10 up to 30 million cubic meters due to sedimentation.

  1. Did stresses from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field influence the El Mayor-Cucapah rupture sequence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, Daniel T.; Borsa, Adrian A.; Sandwell, David T.

    2014-12-01

    The Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake ruptured a complex fault system in northern Baja California that was previously considered inactive. The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), site of the world's second largest geothermal power plant, is located approximately 15 km to the northeast of the EMC hypocenter. We investigate whether anthropogenic fluid extraction at the CPGF caused a significant perturbation to the stress field in the EMC rupture zone. We use Advanced Land Observing Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar data to develop a laterally heterogeneous model of fluid extraction at the CPGF and estimate that this extraction generates positive Coulomb stressing rates of order 15 kPa/yr near the EMC hypocenter, a value which exceeds the local tectonic stressing rate. Although we cannot definitively conclude that production at the CPGF triggered the EMC earthquake, its influence on the local stress field is substantial and should not be neglected in local seismic hazard assessments.

  2. Results of the latest transient well pressure tests at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Abril G, A.; Vargas G, C.

    1981-01-01

    The equipment used in the interference and two-rate flow tests carried out at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field during 1980 are described. The results of two interference tests are presented, one between wells M-110 and M-104, and the other between wells M-7 and Q-757. The data was interpreted using type curve matching analysis. Results of two-rate flow tests carried out in wells M-102 and M-7 are also discussed. A technique for making two-rate flow tests is proposed. This approach, which attempts to avoid the uncertainty of present flow-rate measurements, makes use of devices for direct measurements of separated water and steam. Conclusions based on the above interpretations and recommendations for future tests are presented.

  3. Geological interpretation of self-potential data from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, R.F.; Fitterman, D.V.

    1980-02-01

    A source mechanism based on concepts of irreversible thermodynamics and consisting of heat or fluid flow along a north-south trending zone of faulting is proposed for the self-potential anomaly measured over the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. The source region is represented by a vertical plane of that separates regions of differing streaming potential or thermoelectric coupling coefficients. The coupling coefficient contrast could be caused by vertical offset of rock units along faults. The depth to the top of the source plane is about 1.3 km, its vertical extent is about 11 km, and its length along strike is about 10 km. Geological, geophysical, and mineralogical evidence supports the existence of an important north-south geological trend roughly corresponding in location to the proposed self-potential source plane.

  4. Comments on some of the drilling and completion problems in Cerro Prieto geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez A, B.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    From 1960 to the present, 85 wells with a total drilling length exceeding 160,000 m have been constructed at Cerro Prieto, a modest figure compared to an oil field. This activity took place in five stages, each characterized by changes and modifications required by various drilling and well-completion problems. Initially, the technical procedures followed were similar to those used in the oil industry. However, several problems emerged as a result of the relatively high temperatures found in the geothermal reservoir. The various problems that have been encountered can be considered to be related to drilling fluids, cements and cementing operations, lithology, geothermal fluid characteristics, and casings and their accessories. As the importance of high temperatures and the characteristics of the geothermal reservoir fluids were better understood, the criteria were modified to optimize well-completion operations, and satisfactory results have been achieved to date.

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of Cerro Gordo County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershey, H.G.; Wahl, K.D.; Steinhilber, W.L.

    1970-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of water supplies through out Cerro Gordo County. The majority of wells in the county are used for domestic and stock supplies, but the largest with drawals of water are for municipal and industrial supplies. Municipal pumpage in the county in 1968 was about 1.5 billion gallons; industrial pumpage was about 1.8 billion gallons and most of the water was obtained from the Jordan aquifer. If future development of water from the Jordan aquifer is to be to the best economical advantage, careful consideration should be given to the location, capacity, and pumping schedules of pro posed wells and nearby existing wells so that local overdevelop ment or excessive interference do not occur.

  6. Isotopic changes in the fluids of the Cerro Prieto {Beta} Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Mahendra; Quijano, Luis; Gutierrez, Hector; Iglesias, Eduardo; Truesdell, Alfred

    1996-01-24

    Monitoring changes with time of the isotopes of water (18O and D) in wellhead fluids is an effective way of indicating reservoir changes and processes. Because 18O concentrations in water are altered by high-temperature exchange with rock oxygen and because both 18O and D are fractionated in vapor-liquid separation processes at the surface (separators and cooling towers), these isotopes are excellent indicators of inflow and distribution of fluids from outside the reservoir, either natural or injected. Studies of the isotopic compositions of fluids from the Cerro Prieto field in Baja California, Mexico show that pressure drawdown in the major β (beta) reservoir has caused intense boiling followed by inflow of water from outside the reservoir. A method of field exploitation based on this behavior is discussed.

  7. Burning down the brewery: establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baul, Peru.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Michael E; Nash, Donna J; Williams, Patrick Ryan; DeFrance, Susan D; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario

    2005-11-29

    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning. PMID:16293691

  8. Mercury in freshwater fish and clams from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field of Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Galindo, E.A.; Munoz, G.F.; Flores, A.A.

    1988-08-01

    Several reports have expressed concern about the potential toxicity hazards and environmental contamination of mercury emissions from geothermal fields in Hawaii, New Zealand, Iceland, California and Mexico. Inorganic mercury discharged from the sources may accumulate in the sediments of rivers or lakes and, after microbiological methylation may become concentrated in the edible tissue of fish. This study involves assessment of geothermal mercury pollution arising from Cerro Prieto. For this purpose the fish Tilapia mossambica and the clam Corbicula fluminea were collected from the freshwater courses of the Mexicali Valley. Reports indicated that in 1982, 13 t of T. mossambica were destinated for human consumption. A further aim was to provide base line data and information relevant to the level of mercury contamination for the Mexicali Valley.

  9. Lithology and hydrothermal alteration determination from well logs for the Cerro Prieto Wells, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ershaghi, I.; Ghaemian, S.; Abdassah, D.

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of geophysical well logs against the sand-shale series of the sedimentary column of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. The study shows that the changes in mineralogy of the rocks because of hydrothermal alteration are not easily detectable on the existing logs. However, if the behavior of clay minerals alone is monitored, the onset of the hydrothermally altered zones may be estimated from the well logs. The effective concentration of clay-exchange cations, Q/sub v/, is computed using the data available from conventional well logs. Zones indicating the disappearance of low-temperature clays are considered hydrothermally altered formations with moderate to high-permeability and temperature, and suitable for completion purposes.

  10. Update of the hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto field based on recent well data

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Manon, A.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja California, Mexico has been updated and modified on the basis of geologic and reservoir engineering data from 21 newly completed wells. Previously, only two reservoirs had been discovered: the shallow ..cap alpha.. reservoir and the deeper ..beta.. reservoir. Recently, three deep wells drilled east of the main wellfield penetrated a third geothermal reservoir (called the ..gamma.. reservoir) below the sandstones corresponding to the ..beta.. reservoir in the main part of the field. The new well data delimit the ..beta.. reservoir, confirm the important role of Fault H in controlling the flow of geothermal fluids, and enable us to refine the hydrogeologic model of the field.

  11. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mazor, E.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  12. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    PubMed

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Edwards, Danielle L; Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises. PMID:26488886

  13. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C.; Russello, Michael A.; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J.; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P.; Cayot, Linda J.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises. PMID:26488886

  14. The Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera, NW Argentina: an example of a tectonically controlled, polygenetic, collapse caldera, and its regional significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrinovic, Ivan A.; Martí, Joan; Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo J.; Guzmán, Silvina R.; Geyer, Adelina; Grosse, Pablo; Salado Paz, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    Polygenetic, silicic collapse calderas such as Cerro Galán, Pastos Grandes, La Pacana, Vilama, Negra Muerta, Farallón Negro, Cerro Guacha, among others are common in the central Andes. Here we describe in detail the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in NW Argentina, which comprises two caldera-forming episodes occurred at 17.15 Ma and 10.3 Ma, respectively. We analyse the significance of its structural setting, composition, size and the subsidence style of both caldera episodes. Our results reveal that the caldera eruptions had a tectonic trigger. In both cases, an homogeneous dacitic crystal-rich (>60 vol. % of crystals) reservoir of batholitic size became unstable due to the effect of increasing regional transpression, favouring local dilation throughout minor strike slip faults from which ring faults nucleated and permitted caldera collapse. Both episodes are similar in shape, location and products of the resulting calderas. The 17.15 Ma caldera has an elliptical shape (17 × 14 km) and is elongated in a N30° trend; both intracaldera and extracaldera ignimbrites covered an area of around 620 km2 with a minimum volume estimate of 138 km3 (DRE). The 10.3 Ma episode generated another elliptical caldera (19 ×14 km), with the same orientation as the previous one, from which intracaldera and outflow ignimbrites covered a total area of about 1,700 km2, representing a minimum eruption volume of 341 km3 (DRE). In this work we discuss the significance of the Cerro Aguas Calientes caldera in comparison with other well known examples from the central Andes in terms of tectonic setting, eruption mechanisms, and volumes of related ignimbrites. We suggest that our kinematic model is a common volcano-tectonic scenario during the Cenozoic in the Puna and Altiplano, which may be applied to explain the origin of other large calderas in the same region.

  15. Oxygen isotope exchange in rocks and minerals from the Cerro Prieto geothermal system: Indicators of temperature distribution and fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.E.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions have been measured in drill cuttings and core samples from more than 40 wells ranging in depth to more than 3.5 km in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Profiles of isotopic ratios versus sampling depths provide information on the three-dimensional distribution of temperature and fluid flow. These parameters also indicate variations in the history of hydrothermal processes in different areas of the geothermal field.

  16. ANALYSIS OF RECHARGE COOLDOWN AT THE WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CERRO PRIETO I GEOTHERMAL FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Lam, S.; Hunsbedt, A.; Esquer, C.; Marquez, R.; Hernandez, L. Cobo, J.

    1985-01-22

    Extensive study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field has provided much geologic and thermodynamic data of its structurally-complex, liquid-dominated reservoir. Several of the studies investigated the resource characteristics of fluid and energy flow. An early report by Mercado (1975) showed that the heat source for the part of the reservoir under development, now called Cerro Prieto I (CPI), originated in the eastern part of the field. Subsequent studies confirmed the flow of hot water from the east. A summary of several experimental and numerical studies of fluid and energy transport in the field was given by Lippmann and Bodvarsson (1983). The hydrogeologic model of Halfman et al. (1982) shows hot-water flow from the east divided into a shallow (alpha) aquifer at about 120Om and a deeper (beta) aquifer at about 170Om depth. A cross section along an east-west direction shows a central upflow to the two aquifers and uncertain geology beyond the western border of the field near well M-9. It also shows a fault dividing the line of border wells at M-29 from the inner wells at M-25 to the east. The hydrogeology of the field was described by Sanchez and de la Pena (1981) as an alluvial unit from the surface to about 700 m over the production zone and a shale-sandstone unit comprising an upper, shallow (alpha) aquifer bounded below by a basement horst overlying a deeper (beta) aquifer. To date, much of the cumulative production at Cerro Prieto I has been from the alpha aquifer. Piezometric level measurements over the first 5 years of operation showed a decline in the western zone beyond the production wells. Over the 10-year period of continuous production, a significant temperature decline has been observed along the westernmost line of wells. Several investigations of the recharge characteristics of the field have been reported. Mercado (1975) and Elders et al. (1984) indicated a flow of cold groundwater from the east. Mercado also noted that cold water was entering

  17. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja, California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer-Patino, I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir are restricted to a 100 km/sup 2/ area on the western side of the field, near the volcano Cerro Prieto and the lake Laguna Vulcano. Some 57 surface emissions, explored in 1979, were classified into hot springs, mud pots, pools, fumaroles and geysers (Valette and Esquer-Patino, 1979). A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180/sup 0/C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristics of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  18. The age and thermal history of Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G.; Zartman, R.E.; McKee, E.H.; Rye, R.O.; Naeser, C.W.; Sanjines, V.O.; Ericksen, G.E.; Tavera, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia, is the world's largest silver deposit and has been mined since the sixteenth century for silver, and for tin and zinc during the twentieth century, together with by-product copper and lead. The deposit consists primarily of veins that cut an altered igneous body that we interpret to be a dacitic volcanic dome and its underlying tuff ring and explosion breccia. The deposit is compositionally and thermally zoned, having a core of cassiterite, wolframite, bismuthinite, and arsenopyrite surrounded by a peripheral, lower-temperature mineral assemblage consisting principally of sphalerite, galena, lead sulfosalt, and silver minerals. The low-temperature assemblage also was superim-posed on the high-temperature assemblage in response to cooling of the main hydrothermal system. Both the dacite dome and the ore fluids were derived from a larger magmatic hydrothermal source at depth. The dome was repeatedly fractured by recurrent movement on the fault system that guided its initial emplacement. The dome was extruded at 13.8 ?? 0.2 Ma (2??), based on U-Th-Pb dating of zircon. Mineralization and alteration occurred within about 0.3 my of dome emplacement, as indicated by a 40Ar/39Ar date of 13.76 ?? 0.10 Ma (1??) for sericite from the pervasive quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration associated with the main-stage, high-temperature, mineralization. The last thermal event able to reset zircon fission tracks occurred no later than 12.5 ?? 1.1 Ma (1??). as indicated by fission-tract dating. Minor sericite. and magmatic-steam alunite veins, were episodically formed around 11 Ma and between 8.3 and 5.7 Ma; the younger episodes occurring at the time of extensional fracturing at Cerro Rico and widespread volcanism in the adjacent Los Frailes volcanic field. None of these younger events appear to be signific-ant thermal/mineralizing events: the exceptionally flat thermal release pattern of 39Ar from sericite and the results of the fission-tract dating of

  19. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  20. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from <0 to 5. Adjacent to some fumaroles, silica is being precipitated from condensing steam on the crater walls and endolithic photosynthetic mats are found at 1-2 cm depth within these silica deposits. We have analyzed one of these mats, Monkey Cheek (T=65°C, pH ~4.5), for both Archaeal and Bacterial diversity. Cloning of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes reveals a diverse community of Bacteria, with eight phyla represented. The most common bacterial sequences belonged to the Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted

  1. The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Summer Student Programs in La Serena, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Smith, C.; Van Der Bliek, N. S.; James, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) offers positions for U.S. and Chilean student interns during the Chilean summer months of January-March (northern winter semester) at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. CTIO is part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) of the United States, focused on the development of astronomy in the southern hemisphere. Six undergraduate research assistantships are offered for U.S. physics and astronomy undergraduate students through the NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The CTIO-funded Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía (PIA) program is run concurrently with the REU program, and offers two research assistantships for Chilean undergraduate or 1st or 2nd year masters students, also at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. The CTIO REU and PIA programs provide exceptional opportunities for students considering a career in astronomy to engage in substantive research activities with scientists working at the forefront of contemporary astrophysics. Student participants work on specific research projects in close collaboration with members of the CTIO scientific and technical staff, such as galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing, supernovae, planetary nebulae, stellar populations, star clusters, star formation, variable stars and interstellar medium. The CTIO REU and PIA programs emphasize observational techniques and provide opportunities for direct observational experience using CTIO's state-of-the-art telescopes and instrumentation. The programs run for 10 weeks, from mid-January to the end of March. A two-night observing run on Cerro Tololo and a field trip to another observatory in Chile are included for students of both programs. These positions are full time, and those selected will receive a modest stipend and subsidized housing on the grounds of the offices of CTIO in La Serena, as well as travel costs to and from La Serena. In addition, the students have the

  2. Gravimetric 3D Subsurface Modelling of the Cerro Do Jarau Structure, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Although common in other bodies of the solar system, impact craters formed in basaltic terrains are rare on Earth and only a few examples are known. Two of these craters are located south of Brazil, the Vargeão and Vista Alegre impact craters. The Cerro do Jarau structure is not confirmed, but is a possible third Brazilian basaltic crater, formed above the Serra Geral basalt floods of the Paraná Basin like the other two. Cerro do Jarau is a 13 km circular landform that rises over 200 meters above the plains of the "pampas" in southern Brazil. The name, meaning "Jarau hills", is given after the crests of silicified and deformed Botucatu sandstones, which form a semiring of elevated hills in the northern part of the structure. This work focused on the construction of a 3D subsurface geological model that could explain a new set of ground gravimetric data. Bouguer anomalies were calculated from gravity acceleration measured at 313 stations irregularly distributed on the area of the impact structure. A regional component represented by a polynomial trend surface was extracted from the total Bouguer anomalies. The residual Bouguer map (fig. 1) shows a strong positive anomaly with a NE-SW trend, located in the northeastern part of the structure. This gravity feature is not common in other impact structures, being possibly related to a dike intrusion. However, the negative anomaly present in the center of the structure and the circular positive anomaly surrounding the central part of the structure could be related to an impact structure. The positive circular anomaly is not spatially coincident with the edges of the structure, a feature that is also observed at the Vargeão and Vista Alegre impact structures. Density values of basalts, sandstones and breccias were measured from rock samples and each average value were used as constraints for the 3D model developed with the Geosoft® VOXI Earth modelling.This model provided a better understanding of the subsurface design

  3. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua: A key Mars Analog Environment for Acid-Sulfate Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfate-rich bedrock has been discovered in many locations on Mars and has been studied by both orbiting spacecraft and landers. It appears that in most cases these minerals are produced by acid-sulfate weathering of igneous rocks, which may have been a widespread process for the first billion years of Mars' history. The origin of life on Earth may have occurred in iron-sulfur hydrothermal settings and it is conceivable that early Mars had similar environmental conditions. An excellent terrestrial analog for acid- sulfate weathering of Mars-like basalts exists at Cerro Negro (CN), Nicaragua, where sulfur-bearing gases interact with recently erupted basaltic ash in numerous fumaroles. To date, we have made two expeditions to CN to assess the chemical, mineralogical, and biological conditions. At the fumaroles pH ranges from <1 to 5 and temperatures range from 40 to 400° C. Basalts with a chemical composition very similar to those on Mars are being chemically altered in the solfatara setting. In a few years, freshly erupted basalt can be converted into predominately Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-sulfates, Fe-hydroxides (including jarosite), clays, and free silica. Altered rocks have up to 30 wt% SO3 equivalent, which is similar to the Meridiani Planum bedrocks and inferred in other sulfate-bearing bedrock on Mars. Moreover, heavily weathered rocks have silica contents up to 80 wt%, similar to silica-rich soils at Gusev Crater that possibly formed in hydrothermal environments. Samples were collected for biological analysis including enrichment and isolation of novel thermophiles as well as molecular characterization of thermophile diversity. The low water and nutrient levels found in solfatara environments lead to less biomass when compared to hot springs with similar geochemical conditions. Nonetheless, microbes are thriving in these hot, acidic vent environments. At Cerro Negro solfatara, we are characterizing the metabolic and phylogenetic diversity of resident microbial

  4. Arterial oxygen saturation in healthy newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Salirrosas, Amelia

    2005-01-01

    Background High altitude is associated with both low pulse oxygen saturation at birth and more pre-term deliveries. The present study was performed to determine pulse oxygen saturation in newborns at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m) to test the hypothesis that low pulse oxygen saturation at birth at high altitudes was not observed at term deliveries. Methods The present study was designed to determine pulse oxygen saturation values through 1 minute to 24 hours and values of Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes in newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m). Pulse oxygen saturation was recorded in 39 newborns from Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and 131 from Lima (150 m) at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 30 minutes and 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours after delivery. Apgar score was assessed at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Neurological score was assessed at 24 h of birth by Dubowitz exam. Results Pulse oxygen saturation increased significantly from 1 to 15 min after birth at sea level and from 1 to 30 minutes at Cerro de Pasco. Thereafter, it increased slightly such that at 30 min at sea level and at 60 minutes in Cerro de Pasco it reached a plateau up to 24 hours after birth. At all times, pulse oxygen saturation was significantly higher at sea level than at high altitude (P < 0.01). At 1 minute of life, pulse oxygen saturation was 15% lower at high altitude than at sea level. Apgar score at 1 minute was significantly lower at high altitude (P < 0.05). Neurological score at 24 hours was also lower at high altitude than at sea level. Head circumference, and Apgar score at 5 minutes were similar at sea level and at high altitude (P:NS). Incidence of low birth-weight (<2500 g) at high altitude (5.4%) was similar to that observed at sea level (2.29%) (P:NS). Incidences of low pulse oxygen saturation (<30%), low Apgar score at first minute (<7) and low neurological score at 24 h (<19) were significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level (P < 0.0001; P

  5. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  6. Repetitive precision gravity studies at the Cerro Prieto and Heber geothermal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grannell, R.B.

    1982-09-01

    To study subsidence and mass removal, a precise gravity network was established on 60 permanent monuments in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in early 1978, and repeated annually through early 1981; the survey was tied to two bedrock sites outside the limits of the current production zone. The looping technique of station occupation was utilized, in which occupation of the base was followed by occupation of several stations, followed by a return to the base. Use of two LaCoste and Romberg gravity meters, and replication of values within loops as well as entire loops, enhanced precision such that the median standard deviations of the base-to-station differences, reduced to observed gravity values, ranged from 7 to 15 microgals for individual surveys. The smaller values were obtained as field and data reduction techniques were improved and experience was gained. A similar survey was initiated in the Heber area just north of the Mexican border in early 1980. It too was established on permanent monuments, was tied to bedrock stations outside the geothermal area, and used multiple repetitions of values with two meters to achieve high precision.

  7. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru.

    PubMed

    Tantaleán, Henry; Stanish, Charles; Rodríguez, Alexis; Pérez, Kelita

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400-200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an "abandonment ceremony" or "termination ritual" during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society. PMID:27144824

  8. Statistics of atmospheric turbulence at Cerro Pachon using the GeMS profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Neichel, Benoit; Béchet, Clémentine; Guzmán, Dani; Guesalaga, Andrés.

    2014-08-01

    The knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence profile directly above the telescope using the telemetry from wide-field Adaptive Optics (AO) measurements can be extremely useful for the optimization of the correction in the new generation of AO systems. For this purpose, two techniques have been recently implemented at the Gemini South MCAO System (GeMS); both based on the SLODAR method. The first technique uses a matrix inversion approach of the slopes covariance matrices and the second deconvolves the cross-correlation functions between all combinations of slopes using the auto-correlation responses. The deconvolution approach has proved to be more reliable that the one based on matrices inversion, so we use it for estimating the profiles from on-sky telemetry gathered over three years (2012 - 2014), obtaining statistical parameters of the turbulence at Cerro Pachón. These results are summarized in this article. Particular attention is paid to the occurrence of turbulence in the dome of the Gemini South telescope.

  9. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area. PMID:27418073

  10. Model for the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto led to the development of a qualitative model for fluid flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. This one-dimensional model assumes that the heat source was a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compilation of various information of the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1 cm thick sections across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion were considered as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculations of heat transfer. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4 km wide emplaced at a depth of 5 km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system.

  11. Model of the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1982-08-10

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto by UCR have led to the development of a qualitative model for field flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. A two-dimensional model assumes that the heat sources were a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compiling various information on the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1cm thick section across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Next various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculation of heat transfer were considered. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4km wide emplaced at a depth of 5km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system. Numerical modelling is still in progress. Although none of the models so far computed may be a perfect match for the thermal history of the reservoir, they all indicate that the intrusive heat source is young, close and large.

  12. Hydrothermal flow regime and magmatic heat source of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Williams, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    This detailed three-dimensional model of the natural flow regime of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, before steam production began, is based on patterns of hydrothermal mineral zones and light stable isotopic ratios observed in rock samples from more than 50 deep wells, together with temperature gradients, wireline logs and other data. At the level so far penetrated by drilling, this hydrothermal system was heated by a thermal plume of water close to boiling, inclined at 45/sup 0/, rising from the northeast and discharging to the west. To the east a zone of cold water recharge overlies the inclined thermal plume. Fission track annealing studies show the reservoir reached 170/sup 0/C only 10/sup 4/ years ago. Oxygen isotope exchange data indicate that a 12 km/sup 3/ volume of rock subsequently reacted with three times its volume of water hotter than 200/sup 0/C. Averaged over the duration of the heating event this would require a flow velocity through a typical cross-section of the reservoir of about 6 m/year. The heat in storage in that part of the reservoir hotter than 200/sup 0/C and shallower than 3 km depth is equivalent to that which would be released by the cooling of about 1 or 2 km/sup 3/ of basalt or gabbro magma.

  13. Preliminary isotopic studies of fluids from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Rye, R.O.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.; Olson, E.R.; Nehring, N.L.; Whelan, J.F.; Huebner, M.A.; Coplen, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary isotopic studies of Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids and earlier studies of Mexicali Valley ground waters suggest local recharge of the geothermal system from the area immediately to the west. Oxygen isotope exchange of water with reservoir rock minerals at temperatures increasing with depth has produced fluids with oxygen-18 contents increasing with depth, and pressure drawdown in the southeastern part of the field has allowed lower oxygen-18 fluids to invade the production aquifer from above. The contents of tritium and carbon-14 in the fluid suggest only that the age of the fluid is between 50 and 10,000 years. The isotopic compositions of carbon and sulfur are consistent with a magmatic origin of these elements but a mixed sedimentary-organic origin appears more likely for carbon and is also possible for sulfur. Investigations of the isotopic compositions of geothermal and cold ground waters continue and are being expanded as fluids become available and as separation and analysis methods are improved. ?? 1979.

  14. Curve Number and Peakflow Responses Following the Cerro Grande Fire on a Small Watershed.

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, E. P.; Hawkins, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    The Curve Number (CN) method is routinely used to estimate runoff and peakflows following forest fires, but there has been essentially no literature on the estimated value and temporal variation of CNs following wildland fires. In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned the headwaters of the major watersheds that cross Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a stream gauging network presented an opportunity to assess CNs following the fire. Analysis of rainfall-runoff events indicated that the pre-fire watershed response was complacent or limited watershed area contributed to runoff. The post-fire response indicated that the complacent behavior continued so the watershed response was not dramatically changed. Peakflows did increase by 2 orders of magnitude following the fire, and this was hypothesized to be a function of increase in runoff volume and changes in watershed network allowing more efficient delivery of runoff. More observations and analyses following fires are needed to support definition of CNs for post-fire response and mitigation efforts.

  15. Intersecting faults and sandstone stratigraphy at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Vonder Haar, S.; Howard, J.H.

    1980-02-01

    The northwest-southeast trending Cerro Prieto fault is part of a major regional lineament that extends into Sonaro and has characteristics of both a wrench fault and an oceanic transform fault. The distribution of lithologies and temperature within the field was studied by comparing data from well cuttings, cores, well logs, and geochemical analyses. Across the earliest developed portion of the field, in particular along a 1.25-km northeast-southwest section from well M-9 to M-10, interesting correlations emerge that indicate a relationship among lithology, microfracturing, and temperature distribution. In the upper portion of Reservoir A of this stratigraphic section, between 1200 and 1400 m, the percentage of sandstones ranges from 20 to 55. Temperatures are 225/sup 0/ to 275/sup 0/C based on well logs, calcite isotope maxima, and Na-K-Ca indices. The study shows that an isothermal high in this vicinity corresponds to the lowest total percentage of sandstones. Scanning electron microphotographs of well cores and cuttings from sandstone and shale units reveal clogging, mineral dissolution, and mineral precipitation along microfractures. The working hypothesis is that these sandy shale and siltstone facies are most amenable to increased microfracturing and, in turn, such microfracturing allows for higher temperature fluid to rise to shallower depths in the reservoir.

  16. Cerro Prieto Contents of the Technical Information Files Generated at the Field

    SciTech Connect

    Olmos, Miguel Angel Ayuso

    1987-01-20

    The creation of a computer data bank for the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, resulted from the need for fast and flexible management of the increasing and voluminous information generated from the large number of wells drilled in recent years. The data are needed for updating the thermodynamic evolution of the field in order to define field history and validate mathematical analyses applications. This data bank compiles 20 files with all technical information issued from the time of initial field exploration to the end of 1986. To use the data bank, a series of programs and subroutines were created simultaneously for data base management to allow access and add new data as well as data analysis and data graphics. Tables of global statistics of the informations contained in the 20 files are shown in the paper, as an example of one application of the general use of the data base. For particular and specific applications, depending on users’ needs for the data. 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  17. Far-IR Measurements at Cerro Toco, Chile: FIRST, REFIR, and AERI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, Richard P.; Alford, J. Ashley; Johnson, David G.; Kratz, David P.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    In mid-2009, the Radiative Heating in the Underexplored Bands Campaign II (RHUBC-II) was conducted from Cerro Toco, Chile, a high, dry, remote mountain plateau, 23degS , 67.8degW at 5.4km, in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. From this site, dominant IR water vapor absorption bands and continuum, saturated when viewed from the surface at lower altitudes, or in less dry locales, were investigated in detail, elucidating IR absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Three FTIR instruments were at the site, the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST), the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR), and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). In a side-by-side comparison, these measured atmospheric downwelling radiation, with overlapping spectral coverage from 5 to100um (2000 to 100/cm), and instrument spectral resolutions from 0.5 to 0.64/cm, unapodized. In addition to the FTIR and other ground-based IR and microwave instrumentation, pressure/temperature/relative humidity measuring sondes, for atmospheric profiles to 18km, were launched from the site several times a day. The derived water vapor profiles, determined at times matching the FTIR measurement times, were used to model atmospheric radiative transfer. Comparison of instrument data, all at the same spectral resolution, and model calculations, are presented along with a technique for determining adjustments to line-by-line calculation continuum models. This was a major objective of the campaign.

  18. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400–200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an “abandonment ceremony” or “termination ritual” during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society. PMID:27144824

  19. Durability of various cements in a well of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Ralph F., Jr.; Kukacka, Larry E.

    1982-10-08

    The durability of each of 16 different cements was evaluated by both room temperature compressive strength and water permeability measurements, following various periods of treatment of the cements in flowing geothermal fluid of the Cerro Prieto field of Mexico. Some of these cements were selected through a Department of Energy program to develop improved cements for geothermal well completion while the others were contributed by several other institutions interested in the tests. Two types of specimens of the cements were used in the tests: (a) 50 mm cubes which were precured 1 da in molds under water in an autoclave at 200 C and 20 MPa and (b) cement slurries which were prepared and cast in sandstone cups at the field. Federal de Electricidad a set of both types of specimens was installed in baskets which were placed 700 m downhole a well at 214 C, and an identical set of specimens was installed in special aboveground vessels near the wellhead. Following periods of 1 da. 3 mo, 6 mo. and 12 mo, specimens were withdrawn from the geothermal treatment and divided evenly between the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the National Bureau of Standards for property measurements. This paper gives the downhole results by the latter laboratory. Final values will be published when the results of both laboratories are collated and reviewed.

  20. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nehring, N.L.; D'Amore, F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas compositions of Cerro Prieto wells in 1977 reflected strong boiling in the reservoir around wells M-20 and M-25. This boiling zone appeared to be collapsing in 1982 when a number of wells in this area of the field were shut-in. In 1977 and 1982, gas compositions also showed boiling zones corresponding to faults H and L postulated by Halfman et al. (1982). Four gas geothermometers were applied, based on reservoir equilibria and calculated fugacities. The Fisher - Tropsch reaction predicted high temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate slowly, whereas the H2S reaction predicted low temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate rapidly. Hydrogen and NH3 reactions were intermediate. Like gas compositions, the geothermometers reflected reservoir processes, such as boiling. Surface gas compositions are related to well compositions, but contain large concentrations of N2 originating from air dissolved in groundwater. The groundwater appears to originate in the east and flow over the production field before mixing with reservoir gases near the surface. ?? 1984.

  1. Forecast of surface layer meteorological parameters at Cerro Paranal with a mesoscale atmospherical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascaux, F.; Masciadri, E.; Fini, L.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we aim to prove the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed, wind direction, temperature) above the European Southern Observatory ground-based site of Cerro Paranal using a mesoscale atmospherical model called MESO-NH. In an earlier paper, we preliminarily treated the model performances obtained in reconstructing some key atmospherical parameters in the surface layer 0-30 m, studying the bias and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) on a statistical sample of 20 nights. The results were very encouraging and therefore it appeared mandatory to confirm such good results on a much richer statistical sample. In this paper, the study has been extended to a total sample of 129 nights between 2007 and 2011, distributed in different parts of the solar year. This large sample made our analysis more robust and definitive in terms of the model performances and permitted us to confirm the excellent performances of the model. Besides, we present an independent analysis of the model performances using the method of the contingency tables. Such a method permitted us to provide complementary key information with respect to the bias and the RMSE, which is particularly useful for an operational implementation of a forecast system.

  2. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  3. Research Experiences for Undergraduates at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, D. W.; Smith, R. C.

    1999-12-01

    Each year, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) hosts a Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program funded by the National Science Foundation. In general, REU programs bring a group of undergraduate students to the host institute for 10 weeks, where they are teamed-up with staff members to perform research projects. Unlike REU programs at other U.S. institutions, the CTIO program takes place outside the United States and during the southern summer/northern winter months. This offers students not only a chance to perform research and participate in the day-to-day life at a major astronomical observatory, but also provides a unique exposure to a foreign culture and an option for students who can take advantage of a non-traditional work experience during the academic year. CTIO REU students also benefit from interaction with their Chilean counterparts participating in the Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía, an REU-like program operated by CTIO for Chilean undergraduates. Since 1995, CTIO has hosted 16 REU students (with 4 more coming in 2000). Thirteen (and counting) publications have resulted from CTIO REU projects; all 4 REU students in the 1999 program attended the 194th AAS meeting to present posters based on their projects. We present here an overview of the REU program at CTIO.

  4. Research Experiences for Undergraduates at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, D. W.; Smith, R. C.

    2000-12-01

    Each year, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), located in La Serena, Chile, hosts a Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program funded by the National Science Foundation. In general, REU programs bring a group of undergraduate students to the host institute for 10 weeks, where they are teamed-up with staff members to perform research projects. Unlike REU programs at other U.S. institutions, the CTIO program takes place outside the United States and during the southern summer/northern winter months of January--March. This offers students not only a chance to perform research and participate in the day-to-day life at a major astronomical observatory, but also provides a unique exposure to a foreign culture and an option for students who can take advantage of a non-traditional work experience during the academic year. CTIO REU students also benefit from interaction with their Chilean counterparts participating in the Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía, an REU-like program operated by CTIO for Chilean undergraduates. Since 1995, CTIO has hosted 20 REU students (with 4 more coming in 2001). Twenty (and counting) publications have resulted from CTIO REU projects. In addition, since 1999, 100% of the CTIO REU students have presented the results of their research projects at meetings of the American Astronomical Society. We present here an overview of the REU program at CTIO.

  5. Two-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.; Sasaki, Y.; Wilt, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    Two-dimensional iterative, least-squares inversions were performed on dc resistivity data obtained over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field at five successive times during the 1979-1983 period. The data were taken on a 20-km-long control line centered over the production region. Inversions were performed on the apparent resistivities after they were converted to percent changes in apparent resistivity relative to the base year data of 1979. The resulting solutions gave the percent change in resistivity within each of 47 rectangular blocks representing the reservoir and recharge regions. These changes are compared to and found consistent with hydrogeologic and recharge models proposed by other workers on the basis of geophysical well logs, well cuttings, well production, geochemical and reservoir engineering data. The solutions support the model of a reservoir that is being recharged mainly by cooler, less saline water, causing changes in both pore fluid resistivity and the extent of boiling near the wells. There may be a component of high-temperature recharge from below and to the east, but flow may be impeded by a two-phase zone. Notwithstanding the various sources of error and uncertainty in the data acquisition and 2-D inversions, repetitive, high precision dc resistivity monitoring seems to be a useful method for assessing reservoir conditions when used in conjunction with production and reservoir engineering data and analyses. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Subsurface Connections and Magma Mixing as revealed by Olivine- and Pyroxene-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Cerro Negro Volcano and the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Moune, S.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2015-12-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano in the Central American Volcanic Belt, is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent explosive basaltic eruptions. Las Pilas, on the other hand, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Based on historical data, these two closely spaced volcanoes have shown concurrent eruptive behavior, suggesting a subsurface connection. To further investigate this link, melt inclusions, which are blebs of melt trapped in growing crystals, were the obvious choice for optimal comparison of sources and determination of pre-eruptive volatile contents and magmatic conditions. Olivine-hosted inclusions were chosen for both volcanoes and pyroxene-hosted inclusions were also sampled from Las Pilas to represent the evolved melt. Major, volatile and trace elements reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive end member and Las Pilas representing the evolved end member. Volatile contents are high for Cerro Negro (up to 1260 ppm CO2, 4.27 wt% H2O and 1700 ppm S) suggesting that volatile exsolution is likely the trigger for Cerro Negro's explosive eruptions. Las Pilas volatile contents are lower but consistent with degassing and evolutionary trends shown by major oxides. Trace element contents are rather unique and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallize while Las Pilas magmas are the products of mixing. Magmatic conditions were estimated with major and volatile contents: at least 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for Las Pilas melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. In combination with available literature data, this study suggests an interconnected subsurface plumbing system and thus Cerro Negro should be considered as the newest vent within the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex.

  7. Liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.): characterization of aqueous dispersions and lyophilized formulations.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, P A; Yokota, D; Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A F; Pinho, S C

    2010-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves were produced by dry film hydration. Gas chromatography demonstrated the compounds found in the essential oil were effectively incorporated in the aqueous dispersions of liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed the incorporation of the essential oil did not cause phase separation in the membrane structure; the gel-liquid crystalline transition temperature (main transition) remained the same despite the higher heterogeneity indicated by the transition peak broadening. Different cryoprotectors (sucrose and trehalose) were added to the liposomal formulations to be tested in their ability to protect the liposomal structure during the lyophilization. The morphological aspect of the lyophilized powders analysed by scanning electron microscopy showed significant differences among the samples with and without cryoprotectors. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the cryoprotectors interacted effectively with the polar heads of phospholipids in the bilayer. In terms of water absorption, trehalose was identified as a much more effective protector agent against it than sucrose. The cryoprotectors showed different degrees of effectiveness of preservation of the liposomal structure when the rehydration assays of lyophilized liposomes were carried out, as particle size measurements indicated a moderate process of fusion when the formulations with sucrose were rehydrated. PMID:20690790

  8. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol.

    PubMed

    Tragoolpua, Y; Jatisatienr, A

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an extract from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and the essential oil, eugenol, were evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus properties on standard HSV-1(F), standard HSV-2(G) and ten HSV isolates. The plaque reduction assay showed that HSV-1(F), HSV-2(G), two HSV-1 isolates (2, 30) and four HSV-2 isolates (1, 2, 3, 21) were inhibited by E. caryophyllus. Only HSV-1 isolates 1 and 30 were inhibited by eugenol. Thus, strains or isolates of viruses may affect the range of inhibition. Moreover, particles of HSV standard strains were directly inactivated by E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The total virus yield of HSV standard strains and isolates at 30 h also declined after treatment with E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The E. caryophyllus extract exerted higher antiviral replication on HSV-2(G) than on HSV-1(F). The inhibition of the viral yield of HSV-1 isolates was higher than standard HSV-1(F) and standard HSV-2(G) was also inhibited more than most of the HSV-2 isolates. The anti-HSV activity of eugenol against HSV-1(F) and HSV isolates was stronger than with the E. caryophyllus crude extract. However, the percentage inhibition was more pronounced on HSV-1(F) than on HSV-2(G). Moreover, HSV-1(1) and HSV-2(1, 32) could not replicate when eugenol was included in the assay. PMID:17628885

  9. Stability of anthocyanins- and anthocyanidins-enriched extracts, and formulations of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana ('jamun').

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ram Jee; Gupta, Ramesh C; Singh, Saranjit; Bansal, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2016-01-01

    The fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (jamun) is a rich source of anthocyanins (ACs). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of various physical and chemical factors on the stability of ACs and anthocyanidins (ACdn) in the crude, anthocyanins-enriched extract (ACs-EEX), anthocyanins-enriched sephadex extract (ACs-EES) and anthocyanidins-enriched extract (ACdn-EEX). ACs and ACdn contents were analyzed using a stability indicating HPLC analytical method. The ACs content reduced to 86.4% (crude extract), 60.9% (ACs-EEX), 36.0% (ACs-EES), 64.8% (ACs-EEX tablet), and 71.7% (ACs-EEX capsules) after 1 year at 5 °C. The ACdn content reduced to 83.1% (ACdn-EEX), 90.1% (ACdn-EEX tablet) and 93.8% (ACdn-EEX capsules) after 1 year at 5 °C. ACs and ACdn showed lesser degradation at low pH and higher degradation at high H2O2 concentration. The thermal degradation products of ACs were identified and quantified. PMID:26213042

  10. Eugenia jambolana pretreatment prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: evidence from biochemical, molecular, and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Suman Bala; Singh, Usha Rani; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maheshwari, Ankur; Misro, Manmohan; Dwivedi, Shridhar

    2014-02-01

    Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (HEEJ) on isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial damage in rats were evaluated. Rats were pre-treated with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg bw) was administered on the 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 h. Ischemic control group exhibited significant increases in oxidative stress parameters, markers of inflammation, cardiac damage markers, and apoptotic markers. Oral pre-treatment with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw) provided cardioprotective activity by decreasing levels of malondialdehyde, cardiac markers (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, cardiac troponin I), and markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha); and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. HEEJ (400 mg/kg bw) was found to exert significantly greater effects in comparison to HEEJ (100 and 200 mg/kg bw). Apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was increased, while Bax was decreased in pre-treated rats, which was further confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment with HEEJ attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis and improves cardiac architecture in ISP-induced rats and, hence, is cardioprotective. PMID:24325453

  11. Antihyperlipidemic effect of active principle isolated from seed of Eugenia jambolana on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suman B; Tanwar, Reenu S; Nasir, Afreena; Prabhu, Krishna M

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes is accompanied by lipid abnormalities, which contribute significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. We previously demonstrated the potent antihyperglycemic activity of the active principle (fraction II from Sephadex LH 20 chromatography [LH II]) isolated from ethanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana in diabetic rabbits. In the present study, the efficacy of LH II was evaluated for its hypolipidemic activity in alloxan-induced mildly diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) rabbits. Phytochemical investigation of LH II by various structural spectra showed the presence of saturated fatty acid, Δ(5) lipid, and sterol. Oral administration of LH II (10 mg/kg of body weight) for 21 days resulted in improved glycemic control in both MD and SD rabbits. After treatment with LH II, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were significantly improved. LH II also resulted in significant (P < .001) improvement in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity and levels of total lipids and glycogen in both MD and SD rabbits. Thus, the present study demonstrates that LH II possesses potent hypolipidemic activity and efficacy in both MD and SD rabbits. PMID:21370965

  12. De novo assembly of Eugenia uniflora L. transcriptome and identification of genes from the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Frank; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis, Rogerio

    2014-12-01

    Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is of particular interest due to its medicinal properties that are attributed to specialized metabolites with known biological activities. Among these molecules, terpenoids are the most abundant in essential oils that are found in the leaves and represent compounds with potential pharmacological benefits. The terpene diversity observed in Myrtaceae is determined by the activity of different members of the terpene synthase and oxidosqualene cyclase families. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transcripts from E. uniflora leaves and to annotation to identify the genes potentially involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway and terpene diversity. In total, 72,742 unigenes with a mean length of 1048bp were identified. Of these, 43,631 and 36,289 were annotated with the NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. The gene ontology categorized the sequences into 53 functional groups. A metabolic pathway analysis with KEGG revealed 8,625 unigenes assigned to 141 metabolic pathways and 40 unigenes predicted to be associated with the biosynthesis of terpenoids. Furthermore, we identified four putative full-length terpene synthase genes involved in sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes biosynthesis, and three putative full-length oxidosqualene cyclase genes involved in the triterpenes biosynthesis. The expression of these genes was validated in different E. uniflora tissues. PMID:25443850

  13. Protective effects of Eugenia jambolana extract versus N-acetyl cysteine against cisplatin-induced damage in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Anand, H; Misro, M M; Sharma, S B; Prakash, S

    2015-03-01

    To assess the protective effects of Eugenia jambolana extract (EJE) or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on testis, cisplatin (CIS, 5 mg kg(-1) bw, single dose) was administered either alone or along with EJE (25 mg kg(-1) bw, alternate day) or NAC (150 mg kg(-1) bw, Day 1 and 4) for 7 days. Significant alterations in serum LH, FSH and testosterone were observed in CIS group which were effectively modulated by EJE or NAC supplementation. Upregulation of 3β-HSD gene indicated the rise in functional Leydig cells. This was further confirmed from the identical improvement in hCG-stimulated testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells. Reduction in oxidative stress was associated with restoration of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels, and activation of antioxidant enzymes, SOD, catalase, glutathione s-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR). CIS-induced apoptosis of germ and Leydig cells was contained by both NAC and EJE intervention by effective modulation of apoptotic markers in the extrinsic, intrinsic and other pathways of metazoan apoptosis. Taken together, the study findings establish the potential of EJE as a therapeutically better antioxidant than NAC for use in curtailing the adverse effects of anticancer drugs on testicular function. PMID:24576220

  14. Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. as an adjuvant treatment for type-2 diabetes mellitus: a non-controlled, pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sales, Débora Simone; Carmona, Fabio; de Azevedo, Bruna Cestari; Taleb-Contini, Silvia Helena; Bartolomeu, Ana Carolina Duó; Honorato, Fernando B; Martinez, Edson Z; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares

    2014-12-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent disease with significant morbidity and mortality around the world. However, there is no universally effective treatment, because response to different treatment regimens can vary widely among patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the use of the powdered dried leaves of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. (Myrtaceae) is effective as an adjuvant to the treatment of patients with type-2 DM. Fifteen patients were enrolled in a pilot, non-controlled study, and received E. punicifolia for 3 months. After treatment, we observed a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There were no changes in fasting and postprandial glycemia. The compounds myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-xyloside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, phytol, gallic acid, and trans-caryophyllene present in the powdered dried leaves of E. punicifolia may be responsible for the therapeutic effect. In conclusion, the powdered leaves of E. punicifolia are promising as an adjuvant in the treatment of type-2 DM and deserve further investigation. PMID:25132112

  15. Eugenia jambolana Pretreatment Prevents Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Damage in Rats: Evidence from Biochemical, Molecular, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Usha Rani; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maheshwari, Ankur; Misro, Manmohan; Dwivedi, Shridhar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (HEEJ) on isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial damage in rats were evaluated. Rats were pre-treated with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg bw) was administered on the 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 h. Ischemic control group exhibited significant increases in oxidative stress parameters, markers of inflammation, cardiac damage markers, and apoptotic markers. Oral pre-treatment with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw) provided cardioprotective activity by decreasing levels of malondialdehyde, cardiac markers (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, cardiac troponin I), and markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha); and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. HEEJ (400 mg/kg bw) was found to exert significantly greater effects in comparison to HEEJ (100 and 200 mg/kg bw). Apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was increased, while Bax was decreased in pre-treated rats, which was further confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment with HEEJ attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis and improves cardiac architecture in ISP-induced rats and, hence, is cardioprotective. PMID:24325453

  16. Scavenger Activity Evaluation of the Clove Bud Essential Oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and Eugenol Derivatives Employing ABTS+• Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Merchán Arenas, Diego R.; Acevedo, Amner Muñoz; Vargas Méndez, Leonor Y.; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil (EO) of clove bud dried fruits from Eugenia caryophyllus was obtained by a conventional hydrodistillation process in an excellent yield (11.7 %). Its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS, identifying eugenol as a main constituent (60.5%). Four eugenol-like molecules, γ-diisoeugenol, hydroxymethyleugenol, dihydroeugenol and 1,3-dioxanylphenol, were synthesized using eugenol or isoeugenol as initial precursors under green chemistry protocols. To evaluate the possible antioxidant capacity of eugenol compounds including the clove bud EO, the Trolox® Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity value, obtained by the ABTS+• radical-cation discoloration method, was employed. The methodology was performed in a UV-Vis reader of 96-well microplates (dilution methodology), using well-known antioxidant agents (BHA, BHT and vitamin E) as reference compounds. It was found that the prepared eugenol derivatives had a more potent free radical scavenger activity than the reference compounds. In particular, the most active molecules, γ-diisoeugenol and 1,3-dioxanylphenol, were ca. 3-fold more potent than vitamin E. PMID:22145105

  17. Antinociceptive and hypothermic evaluation of the leaf essential oil and isolated terpenoids from Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga).

    PubMed

    Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Lima, Cleverton Kleiton F; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Rezende, Claudia M

    2009-10-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), known as Brazilian cherry tree, is a fruity tree spread all over Brazil used in popular medicine to treat inflammations, rheumatic pain and fever, as hypoglycemic, diuretic and has been widely used in the cosmetics industry. The present study discusses the chemical composition, the antinociceptive and hypothermic profile of the essential oil of pitangueira leaves. The chemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS and the main constituent of the oil was characterized, after isolation, as a mixture of atractylone (1) and 3-furanoeudesmene (2). The essential oil, its pentane fraction and the isolated mixture of sesquiterpenes (1 and 2), given orally, significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions, increased the latency time in hot plate test and showed a hypothermic effect. The results suggest that the responsible for the antinociceptive and hypothermic effect were the isolated furanosesquiterpenes. These findings provided additional pharmacological information and may contribute for the use of Brazilian cherry tree as a phytomedicine. PMID:19423309

  18. Antiapoptotic efficacy of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular germ cell in experimental diabetic rat: a genomic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Pakhira, B P; Ghosh, D

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to focus the genetic regulation of diabetes-induced testicular hypofunction and its amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of seed of Eugenia jambolana. In this regard, we have assessed relevant biosensors such as biochemical, spermiological, histological and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, germ cell apoptosis and androgenic key enzymes along with in situ end labelling and DNA fragmentation study. After 60 days administration of said fraction, significant recovery in the glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, sperm viability, hypo-osmotic swelling and nuclear chromatin decondensation were noted in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. Besides this, a significant recovery in the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, catalase, peroxidase, ∆(5) , 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase genes was noted towards the control in ethyl acetate fraction-treated group. Testicular histology focused a significant recovery in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated group. In situ end labelling and DNA fragmentation study of testicular tissues also showed a significant recovery in fraction-treated group towards the control. These findings indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction showed outstanding antiapoptotic activity by neutralising oxidative stress as well as by the improvement in glycaemic sensors. PMID:26040298

  19. Evaluation of seasonal chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Tenfen, Adrielli; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the seasonal composition and the antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis leaves. Analysis by using GC allowed the identification of 40 compounds. It was observed that the monoterpenes varied more (42%) than the sesquiterpenes (14%), and that the monoterpene hydrocarbons suffered the greatest variation throughout the year (64%). Major compounds were spathulenol in the spring (16.02 ± 0.44%) and summer (18.17 ± 0.41%), τ-cadinol in the autumn (12.83 ± 0.03%) and α-pinene (15.94 ± 0.58%) in the winter. Essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the best result was obtained from the autumn oil, with MIC = 500 μg mL(- 1) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, lipid peroxidation and iron-reducing power assays, as well as the anticholinesterase activity. Both tests showed a weak performance of the essential oils. PMID:25219800

  20. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil. PMID:20878009

  1. Subduction and exhumation structures preserved in Cerro del Almirez HP metaserpentinites (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2014-05-01

    The Cerro del Almirez massif (Nevado-Filábride Complex, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) is composed of antigorite serpentinite and chlorite harzburgite separated by a thin reaction front in a paleo-subduction setting. Structural analysis of ultramafic lithologies and metasedimentary host rocks provides information on the tectonic evolution of this massif during prograde metamorphism in a subduction zone and during subsequent exhumation. Here we report for the first time HP structures related to a subduction event underwent by ultramafic rocks of the Nevado-Filábride Complex. The oldest subduction-related structures are preserved in Atg-serpentinites: a penetrative S1 foliation and associated L1 stretching lineation were formed in a non-coaxial regime with a top-to-the-W sense of shearing. This planar linear fabric is crosscut by olivine ± Ti-clinohumite veins formed during the prograde breakdown of brucite and pre-metamorphic clinopyroxene at temperatures ranging from 465 to 500 ºC [1]. Veins occur as a system of decimetric long joints, some of them hybrid open and sheared veins with associated drag folds. They recorded embrittlement processes due to the release of 6% vol. H2O of the rock. S1 foliation can, however, be simultaneous with or be overgrown by olivine and/or tremolite porphyroblasts, product of the prograde reaction Di + Atg → Fo + Tr + H2O, which occurred at T > 600 ºC and P = 1.7-1.9 GPa [1]. Generation of S1/L1 fabric was followed by static annealing at ca. 680 ºC and 1.6-1.9 GPa [2]. The S1/L1 fabric in Atg-serpentinite is crosscut by the Atg-out isograd and overgrown by the Atg-serpentinite dehydration products that gave place to Chl-harzburgite. Peak metamorphic conditions of the Chl-harzburgite assemblage reached 680-710 ºC and 1.6-1.9 GPa [3]. Prograde Chl-harzburgite is crosscut by sets of conjugate zones associated to grain-size reduction of olivine grains [3]. These grain size reduction zones are interpreted as brittle structures

  2. Planning and Analysis of Fractured Rock Injection Tests in the Cerro Brillador Underground Laboratory, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Oyarzún L, R.; Villegas, G.

    2015-12-01

    Early theories of fluid migration in unsaturated fractured rock hypothesized that matrix suction would dominate flow up to the point of matrix saturation. However, experiments in underground laboratories such as the ESF (Yucca Mountain, NV) have demonstrated that liquid water can migrate significant distances through fractures in an unsaturated porous medium, suggesting limited interaction between fractures and unsaturated matrix blocks and potentially rapid transmission of recharge to the sat- urated zone. Determining the conditions under which this rapid recharge may take place is an important factor in understanding deep percolation processes in arid areas with thick unsaturated zones. As part of an on-going, Fondecyt-funded project (award 11150587) to study mountain block hydrological processes in arid regions, we are plan- ning a series of in-situ fracture flow injection tests in the Cerro Brillador/Mina Escuela, an underground laboratory and teaching facility belonging to the Universidad la Serena, Chile. Planning for the tests is based on an analytical model and curve-matching method, originally developed to evaluate data from injection tests at Yucca Mountain (Fairley, J.P., 2010, WRR 46:W08542), that uses a known rate of liquid injection to a fracture (for example, from a packed-off section of borehole) and the observed rate of seepage discharging from the fracture to estimate effective fracture aperture, matrix sorptivity, fracture/matrix flow partitioning, and the wetted fracture/matrix interac- tion area between the injection and recovery points. We briefly review the analytical approach and its application to test planning and analysis, and describe the proposed tests and their goals.

  3. Shallow earthquake inhibits unrest near Chiles-Cerro Negro volcanoes, Ecuador-Colombian border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, Susanna K.; Elliott, John R.; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Biggs, Juliet; Mothes, Patricia; Jarrín, Paúl; Yépez, Marco; Aguaiza, Santiago; Lundgren, Paul; Samsonov, Sergey V.

    2016-09-01

    Magma movement or reservoir pressurisation can drive swarms of low-magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquakes, as well as occasional larger earthquakes (>M5) on local tectonic faults. Earthquakes >M5 near volcanoes are challenging to interpret in terms of evolving volcanic hazard, but are often associated with eruptions, and in some cases enhance the ascent of magma. We present geodetic observations from the first episode of unrest known to have occurred near Chiles and Cerro Negro de Mayasquer volcanoes on the Ecuador-Colombian border. A swarm of volcano-tectonic seismicity in October 2014 culminated in a Mw 5.6 earthquake south of the volcanoes. Satellite radar data spanning this earthquake detect displacements that are consistent with dextral oblique slip on a reverse fault at depths of 1.4-3.4 km within a SSW-NNE trending fault zone that last ruptured in 1886. GPS station measurements capture ∼20 days of uplift before the earthquake, probably originating from a pressure source ∼10-15 km south of Volcán Chiles, at depths exceeding 13 km. After the Mw 5.6 earthquake, uplift ceased and the rate of seismicity began to decrease. Potential mechanisms for this decline in activity include a decrease in the rate of movement of magma into the shallow crust, possibly caused by the restriction of fluid pathways. Our observations demonstrate that an earthquake triggered during volcanic unrest can inhibit magmatic processes, and have implications for the hazard interpretation of the interactions between earthquakes and volcanoes.

  4. Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiance Spectra Measured by FIRST at Cerro Toco, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed by NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the Space Dynamics Laboratory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. FIRST was initially developed for measuring the far-infrared portion of Earth's longwave spectrum as a balloon borne instrument and later was reconfigured to operate as a ground-based instrument. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed at 17500 ft on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October, 2009. There the integrated precipitable water (IPW) was as low as 0.02 cm. FIRST measurements from days with IPW between 0.024 and 0.035 cm during the campaign are presented here between 200 cm-1 and 800 cm-1. Significant spectral development in the far-IR is observed over the entire 200 cm-1 to 800 cm-1 band. Water vapor and temperature profiles from radiosonde and GVRP measurements are used as inputs to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) utilizing the AER v3.2 line parameter database. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in this study. The residual LBLRTM - FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Measured and model radiances generally agree to within the combined uncertainties for wavenumbers greater than 360 cm-1. At wavenumbers less than 360 cm-1 persistent troughs in the residual are present outside of the combined uncertainties. These features are present on different days and at different water vapor amounts. Possible solutions for these features are discussed.

  5. Temporal Evolution of a Seismic Swarm at Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The increasing seismic activity in the area of the Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located on the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto (OVSP), a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area, and more than 400.000 events have been recorded since November 2013. The largest and most recent swarm has a daily average of 3894 events between March and the 12th of December 2014. Currently a seismic network of 13 short- and broad-band stations (5 Colombian, 8 Ecuadorian) was deployed in this area. High quality epicenters of seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0, RMS<0.75 s, Gap < 180° and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Fifteen events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 including an event that occurred on October 20, 2014. This event had a local magnitude of 5.7 and an oblique (strike-slip with some thrusting) focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. However, events with moderate to large magnitudes (above 3.0) contain pronounced very-long-period components. Position time series recorded by a dual-frequency GPS receiver at the SE flank of Chiles show a slight departure from the normal tectonic trend beginning with the appearance of the last seismic swarm on or around September 30, 2014. This trend is subsequently punctuated by a sharp deformation transient related to the coseismic displacement of the October 20 event. After more than a year of very anomalous seismic activity and concurrent minor deformation, no evidence of surficial volcanic activity has been documented.

  6. Volcano-ice-sea interaction in the Cerro Santa Marta area, northwest James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabozo, Fernando M.; Strelin, Jorge A.; Orihashi, Yuji; Sumino, Hirochika; Keller, Randall A.

    2015-05-01

    We present here the results of detailed mapping, lithofacies analysis and stratigraphy of the Neogene James Ross Island Volcanic Group (Antarctic Peninsula) in the Cerro Santa Marta area (northwest of James Ross Island), in order to give constraints on the evolution of a glaciated volcanic island. Our field results included recognition and interpretation of seventeen volcanic and glacial lithofacies, together with their vertical and lateral arrangements, supported by four new unspiked K-Ar ages. This allowed us to conclude that the construction of the volcanic pile in this area took place during two main eruptive stages (Eruptive Stages 1 and 2), separated from the Cretaceous bedrock and from each other by two major glacial unconformities (U1 and U2). The U1 unconformity is related to Antarctic Peninsula Ice sheet expansion during the late Miocene (before 6.2 Ma) and deposition of glacial lithofacies in a glaciomarine setting. Following this glacial advance, Eruptive Stage 1 (6.2-4.6 Ma) volcanism started with subaerial extrusion of lava flows from an unrecognized vent north of the study area, with eruptions later fed from vent/s centered at Cerro Santa Marta volcano, where cinder cone deposits and a volcanic conduit/lava lake are preserved. These lava flows fed an extensive (> 7 km long) hyaloclastite delta system that was probably emplaced in a shallow marine environment. A second unconformity (U2) was related to expansion of a local ice cap, centered on James Ross Island, which truncated all the eruptive units of Eruptive Stage 1. Concomitant with glacier advance, renewed volcanic activity (Eruptive Stage 2) started after 4.6 Ma and volcanic products were fed again by Cerro Santa Marta vents. We infer that glaciovolcanic eruptions occurred under a moderately thin (~ 300 m) glacier, in good agreement with previous estimates of paleo-ice thickness for the James Ross Island area during the Pliocene.

  7. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido; Pinton, Annamaria; Cianfarra, Paola; Baez, Walter; Chiodi, Agostina; Viramonte, José; Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous springs. This study presents new stratigraphic and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field, together with the analysis from remote sensed image analysis of morphostructural evidences associated with the structural framework and active tectonics. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field. Away from the main tectonic features, such as at the Cerro Tuzgle field, the less developed network of faults and fractures allows only a moderate upwelling of geothermal fluids and a mixing between hot and shallow cold waters. The integration of field-based and remote-sensing analyses at the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar area proved to be effective in approaching the prospection of remote geothermal fields, and in defining the conceptual model for geothermal circulation.

  8. TITAN2D simulations of pyroclastic flows at Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia: Hazard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia, H. F.; Sheridan, M. F.; Macías, J. L.; Cortés, G. P.

    2010-03-01

    Cerro Machín is a dacitic tuff ring located in the central part of the Colombian Andes. It lies at the southern end of the Cerro Bravo-Cerro Machín volcanic belt. This volcano has experienced at least six major explosive eruptions during the last 5000 years. These eruptions have generated pyroclastic flows associated with Plinian activity that have traveled up to 8 km from the crater, and pyroclastic flows associated with Vulcanian activity with shorter runouts of 5 km from the source. Today, some 21,000 people live within a 8 km radius of Cerro Machín. The volcano is active with fumaroles and has shown increasing seismic activity since 2004, and therefore represents a potentially increasing threat to the local population. To evaluate the possible effects of future eruptions that may generate pyroclastic density currents controlled by granular flow dynamics we performed flow simulations with the TITAN2D code. These simulations were run in all directions around the volcano, using the input parameters of the largest eruption reported. The results show that an eruption of 0.3 km 3 of pyroclastic flows from a collapsing Plinian column would travel up to 9 km from the vent, emplacing a deposit thicker than 60 m within the Toche River valley. Deposits >45 m thick can be expected in the valleys of San Juan, Santa Marta, and Azufral creeks, while 30 m thick deposits could accumulate within the drainages of the Tochecito, Bermellón, and Coello Rivers. A minimum area of 56 km 2 could be affected directly by this kind of eruption. In comparison, Vulcanian column-collapse pyroclastic flows of 0.1 km 3 would travel up to 6 km from the vent depositing >45 m thick debris inside the Toche River valley and more than 30 m inside the valleys of San Juan, Santa Marta, and Azufral creeks. The minimum area that could be affected directly by this kind of eruption is 33 km 2. The distribution and thickness of the deposits obtained by these simulations are consistent with the hazard

  9. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, M.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  10. Movement of geothermal fluid in the Cerro Prieto field as determined from well log and reservoir engineering data

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in its undisturbed state, developed on the basis of well log and reservoir engineering data, is discussed. According to this model, geothermal fluid enters the field from the east through a deep (>10,000 ft) sandstone aquifer which is overlain by a thick shale unit which locally prevents the upward migration of the fluid. As it flows westward, the fluid gradually rises through faults and sandy gaps in the shale unit. Eventually, some of the fluid leaks to the surface in the western part of the field, while the rest mixes with surrounding colder waters.