Science.gov

Sample records for eukaryote entamoeba histolytica

  1. Pathogenicity of entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Kagan, I G

    1975-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica is discussed from an immunologic point of view. The evidence that there is some "trigger" mechanism which converts a commensal dwelling organism into a tissue invasive pathogen is rejected as inadequate. The number of liver abscess cases in comparison with the number of intestinal amebic infections in a population is so low that this in itself suggests that tissue invasion is a rare event in the life history of the ameba. A review is made of the experimental evidence that some type of sensitization is necessary before ameba can invade tissue. In postulating an immunologic basis for the pathogenicity of ameba, a parallel between the behavior of malignant cells in the body and an amebic infection in the gut is made. An appealing hypothesis which deserves further research effort is that an altered immune response is the basis for the pathogenic mechanism in the host. PMID:171223

  2. [Entamoeba histolytica: a standing threat].

    PubMed

    Conde-Bonfil, M C; de la Mora-Zerpa, C

    1992-01-01

    The importance and limitations of microscopic differential diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in asymptomatic carriers is reviewed. The possibility that some nonpathogenic strains of E. histolytica could be Entamoeba hartmanni is discussed. The imperative necessity to encourage research in epidemiology and diagnosis is emphasized. The need to know the prevalence in Mexico and distinguish E. histolytica from E. hartmanni is also discussed. This differential diagnosis is fundamental in the treatment of carriers and in epidemiological studies. Treatment must be directed only to acute and chronic patients and asymptomatic carries who prepare food. Appropriate drugs are still metronidazole and quinolines. PMID:1615351

  3. Entamoeba histolytica: observations on metabolism based on thegenome sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain J.; Loftus, Brendan J.

    2005-07-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Entamoeba histolytica has allowed a reconstruction of its metabolic pathways, many of which are unusual for a eukaryote. Based on the genome sequence, it appears that amino acids may play a larger role than previously thought in energy metabolism, with roles in both ATP synthesis and NAD regeneration. Arginine decarboxylase may be involved in survival of E. histolytica during its passage through the stomach. The usual pyrimidine synthesis pathway is absent, but a partial pyrimidine degradation pathway could be part of a novel pyrimidine synthesis pathway. Ribonucleotide reductase was not found in the E. histolytica genome, but it was found in the close relatives Entamoeba invadens and Entamoeba moshkovskii, suggesting a recent loss from E. histolytica. The usual eukaryotic glucose transporters are not present, but members of a prokaryotic monosaccharide transporter family are present.

  4. Susceptibility testing of Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Cedeno, J.R.; Krogstad, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    The growth of Entamoeba histolytica in microtiter plates in vitro in a variety of environments with reduced oxygen tensions is reported. With 3% O/sub 2/, 3% CO/sub 2/, and 94% N/sub 2/, the parasite growth in microtiter plates was identical to that in screw-capped culture tubes, as measured by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation and by quantitative parasite counts. There were no significant differences between the drug concentrations necessary to inhibit parasite growth by 50% based on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation vs those defined by quantitative parasite counts for the 15 antimicrobial agents tested (including seven drugs used for the treatment of amebiasis). This technique provides a reproducible method to quantitate the activity of potential antiamebic agents in vitro. The isotopic method should be of particular value in defining the metabolism of the parasite and effects of antimicrobial agents on it, whereas the morphologic method may be more valuable for workers with limited resources available to them.

  5. PCR Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in Stool Samples from Sydney, Australia▿

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in stool samples from a patient population in Sydney, Australia. Stool samples were tested by microscopy and PCR. Five patients were found with E. histolytica infections, while E. dispar and E. moshkovskii were observed in 63 (70.8%) and 55 (61.8%) patients, respectively, by PCR. This is the first study in Australia using molecular techniques to determine the presence of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii. PMID:17229864

  6. Glucose Starvation Boosts Entamoeba histolytica Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tovy, Ayala; Hertz, Rivka; Siman-Tov, Rama; Syan, Sylvie; Faust, Daniela; Guillen, Nancy; Ankri, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The unicellular parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is exposed to numerous adverse conditions, such as nutrient deprivation, during its life cycle stages in the human host. In the present study, we examined whether the parasite virulence could be influenced by glucose starvation (GS). The migratory behaviour of the parasite and its capability to kill mammalian cells and to lyse erythrocytes is strongly enhanced following GS. In order to gain insights into the mechanism underlying the GS boosting effects on virulence, we analyzed differences in protein expression levels in control and glucose-starved trophozoites, by quantitative proteomic analysis. We observed that upstream regulatory element 3-binding protein (URE3-BP), a transcription factor that modulates E.histolytica virulence, and the lysine-rich protein 1 (KRiP1) which is induced during liver abscess development, are upregulated by GS. We also analyzed E. histolytica membrane fractions and noticed that the Gal/GalNAc lectin light subunit LgL1 is up-regulated by GS. Surprisingly, amoebapore A (Ap-A) and cysteine proteinase A5 (CP-A5), two important E. histolytica virulence factors, were strongly down-regulated by GS. While the boosting effect of GS on E. histolytica virulence was conserved in strains silenced for Ap-A and CP-A5, it was lost in LgL1 and in KRiP1 down-regulated strains. These data emphasize the unexpected role of GS in the modulation of E.histolytica virulence and the involvement of KRiP1 and Lgl1 in this phenomenon. PMID:21829737

  7. [Report on a fungus parasitizing Entamoeba histolytica].

    PubMed

    Cao, C Q; Feng, Y S

    1989-01-01

    Infection of Entamoeba histolytica with chytridiaceous fungus Sphaerita was observed in some specimens obtained from a farmer and stained with iron-haematoxylin. The fungi were found in 78% of the cysts, mostly immature ones. Within the amoebae this parasite occurred singly, in groups, or in the form of a sporangium. It was located in the cytoplasm, the glycogen mass or the chromatoidal bars. In the same specimen, the parasitic fungus was also found in 18% of E. coli cysts; in 11% of E. nana cysts; while only one of 16 E. hartmanni cysts was parasitized. It is an interesting case of superimposed parasitism so far reported in China as well as a rare case of several species of amoebae being heavily involved with the same in the scientific literature. PMID:2548767

  8. Analysis of the Protein Phosphotome of Entamoeba histolytica Reveals an Intricate Phosphorylation Network

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Tamanna; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the most common mechanism for the propagation of intracellular signals. Protein phosphatases and protein kinases play a dynamic antagonistic role in protein phosphorylation. Protein phosphatases make up a significant fraction of eukaryotic proteome. In this article, we report the identification and analysis of protein phosphatases in the intracellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Based on an in silico analysis, we classified 250 non-redundant protein phosphatases in E. histolytica. The phosphotome of E. histolytica is 3.1% of its proteome and 1.3 times of the human phosphotome. In this extensive study, we identified 42 new putative phosphatases (39 hypothetical proteins and 3 pseudophosphatases). The presence of pseudophosphatases may have an important role in virulence of E. histolytica. A comprehensive phosphotome analysis of E. histolytica shows spectacular low similarity to human phosphatases, making them potent candidates for drug target. PMID:24236039

  9. Flavodiiron Oxygen Reductase from Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Vera L.; Vicente, João B.; Pinto, Liliana; Romão, Célia V.; Frazão, Carlos; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro; Teixeira, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are a family of enzymes endowed with bona fide oxygen- and/or nitric-oxide reductase activity, although their substrate specificity determinants remain elusive. After a comprehensive comparison of available three-dimensional structures, particularly of FDPs with a clear preference toward either O2 or NO, two main differences were identified near the diiron active site, which led to the construction of site-directed mutants of Tyr271 and Lys53 in the oxygen reducing Entamoeba histolytica EhFdp1. The biochemical and biophysical properties of these mutants were studied by UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies coupled to potentiometry. Their reactivity with O2 and NO was analyzed by stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy and amperometric methods. These mutations, whereas keeping the overall properties of the redox cofactors, resulted in increased NO reductase activity and faster inactivation of the enzyme in the reaction with O2, pointing to a role of the mutated residues in substrate selectivity. PMID:25151360

  10. Complement sensitivity of Entamoeba histolytica and various nonpathogenic amoeba species.

    PubMed

    Förster, B; Ebert, F; Horstmann, R D

    1994-12-01

    Culture forms of the potentially pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica were compared to those of the nonpathogenic species of E. dispar, E. hartmanni, E. coli, Endolimax nana, and E. moshkovskii regarding the sensitivity to lysis by human complement activated through the alternative pathway. E. dispar was found unique in its complement resistance; all other nonpathogenic isolates resembled E. histolytica in that they were complement sensitive. Thus, a state of complement sensitivity is not a particular property of potentially pathogenic amoebae. PMID:7716404

  11. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. RNA interference in Entamoeba histolytica: implications for parasite biology and gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanbang; Pompey, Justine M; Singh, Upinder

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a major health threat to people in developing countries, where it causes invasive diarrhea and liver abscesses. The study of this important human pathogen has been hindered by a lack of tools for genetic manipulation. Recently, a number of genetic approaches based on variations of the RNAi method have been successfully developed and cloning of endogenous small-interfering RNAs from E. histolytica revealed an abundant population of small RNAs with an unusual 5′-polyphosphate structure. However, little is known about the implications of these findings to amebic biology or the mechanisms of gene silencing in this organism. In this article we review the literature relevant to RNAi in E. histolytica, discuss its implications for advances in gene silencing in this organism and outline potential future directions towards understanding the repertoire of RNAi and its impact on the biology of this deep-branching eukaryotic parasite. PMID:21162639

  17. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Huston, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Entamoeba histolytica in context of the sequential model. PMID:21331284

  18. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of Entamoeba histolytica strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Avalos, D.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Silva, E. F.; Orozco, E.; de Menezes, L. F.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of E. histolytica are studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. It is shown that the pathogenic strain presents a spectrum similar to that of iron sulfur proteins. The non-pathogenic strain does not show any relevant absorption at the studied wavelength range. The differences observed between the optical absorption spectra of both strains opens the possibility of using photoacoustic spectroscopy as a reliable and simple technique to identify different types of E. histolytica strains.

  19. Differential Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii by a Single-Round PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Zulhainan; Petmitr, Songsak; Mungthin, Mathirut; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip

    2006-01-01

    A single-round PCR assay was developed for detection and differential diagnosis of the three Entamoeba species found in humans, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba histolytica, and Entamoeba dispar, that are morphologically identical as both cysts and trophozoites. A conserved forward primer was derived from the middle of the small-subunit rRNA gene, and reverse primers were designed from signature sequences specific to each of these three Entamoeba species. PCR generates a 166-bp product with E. histolytica DNA, a 752-bp product with E. dispar DNA, and a 580-bp product with E. moshkovskii DNA. Thirty clinical specimens were examined, and the species present were successfully detected and differentiated using this assay. It was possible to detect as little as 10 pg of E. moshkovskii and E. histolytica DNA, while for E. dispar the sensitivity was about 20 pg of DNA. Testing with DNA from different pathogens, including bacteria and other protozoa, confirmed the high specificity of the assay. We propose the use of this PCR assay as an accurate, rapid, and effective diagnostic method for the detection and discrimination of these three morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba species in both routine diagnosis of amoebiasis and epidemiological surveys. PMID:16954247

  20. Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in cyst-passers by immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Hong, S T

    1996-12-01

    Differentiation of invasive strains of Entamoeba histolytica according to their pathogenicity has been a topic of long debate, but now the pathogenic species only is regarded as E. histolytica while the non pathogenic species is E. dispar. The present study applied immunoblot to differentiate infections of the two species among microscopically-detected cyst-passers in Korea. The crude extract of E. histolytica separated in 5.20% gradient gels, revealed many fractions of 94, 81, 71, 50, 44, 38.5, 37.5, 29, 19, and 18 kDa when the cysteine proteinase inhibitor, E64, was supplemented. The scrum IgG antibody of 3 proven E, histolytica cases reacted with the antigenic fractions of 117, 110, 99, 68, 66, 60, 54, 52, 46, and 45 kDa. Sera of PCR confirmed 3 cases of E. dispar reacted only to the 117 kDa fraction of the E. histolytica crude extract which was regarded as non-specific. To the antigen of monoxenic E. dispar, sera of E. dispar and E. histolytica cases showed the same immunoblot reactions. The serum IgA antibody reacted with several antigenic fractions of both E. histolytica and E. dispar, but IgM and IgE antibodies showed no reaction to either antigen. Sera of 24 symptomless amebic cyst passers were screened with the E. histolytica antigen; two were found to be infected by E. histolytica and 22 were by E. dispar. The present findings suggest that in Korea most of asymptomatic cyst passers of E. histolytica are carriers of E. dispar. Immunoblot using E. histolytica antigen is a good technique for the differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar infections. PMID:9017910

  1. Frequency and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the context of water scarcity in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calegar, Deiviane Aparecida; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Santos, Jéssica Pereira Dos; Toma, Helena Keiko; Gomes, Tais Ferreira; Lima, Marli Maria; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%). The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission. PMID:26841049

  2. Frequency and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the context of water scarcity in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calegar, Deiviane Aparecida; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; dos Santos, Jéssica Pereira; Toma, Helena Keiko; Gomes, Tais Ferreira; Lima, Marli Maria; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%). The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission. PMID:26841049

  3. PREVALENCE OF Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar IN THE CITY OF CAMPINA GRANDE, IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Teresa Nascimento; Santana, José Valfrido; Bragagnoli, Gérson; Marinho, Alexandre Magno da Nóbrega; Malagueño, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear need to perform epidemiological studies to find the true prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica around the world. The evaluation of this prevalence has been hindered by the existence of two different species which are morphologically identical, but genetically different, namely E. histolytica, which causes amebiasis, and E. dispar, which is non-pathogenic. In Brazil, the E. dispar has been detected in communities in the Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) regions with poor sanitation. However, individuals infected with E. histolytica have been identified in other regions. There is an absence of reports on the prevalence of these parasites in the state of Paraíba, which also has areas with poor sanitary conditions where a high prevalence of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex has been detected in children from urban slums. The present study evaluated the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar in 1,195 asymptomatic children between two and 10 years of age, living in a sprawling urban slum in Campina Grande, in the state of Paraíba, in Northeastern Brazil. These children were examined and their feces samples were analyzed microscopically. A total of 553 children tested positive for the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex, and 456 of the positive samples were tested with the E. histolytica II® ELISA kit. All 456 samples were negative for the presence of the adhesin E. histolytica specific antigen. The evidence suggests that in this community E. histolytica is absent and E. dispar is the dominant species. PMID:25229229

  4. Characterization of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Tapia, Ana Lilia; Baylón-Pacheco, Lidia; Espíritu-Gordillo, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of phosphatases that has not been broadly studied in protozoan parasites. In humans, PRLs are involved in metastatic cancer, the promotion of cell migration and invasion. PTPs have been increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. We characterized the only putative protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (PTP EhPRL) in the eukaryotic human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we reported that the EhPRL protein possessed the classical HCX5R catalytic motif of PTPs and the CAAX box characteristic of the PRL family and exhibited 31-32% homology with the three human PRL isoforms. In amebae, the protein was expressed at low but detectable levels. The recombinant protein (rEhPRL) had enzymatic activity with the 3-o-methyl fluorescein phosphate (OMFP) substrate; this enzymatic activity was inhibited by the PTP inhibitor o-vanadate. Using immunofluorescence we showed that native EhPRL was localized to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. When the trophozoites interacted with collagen, EhPRL relocalized over time to vesicle-like structures. Interaction with fibronectin increased the presence of the enzyme in the cytoplasm. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that EhPRL mRNA expression was upregulated when the trophozoites interacted with collagen but not with fibronectin. Trophozoites recovered from amoebic liver abscesses showed higher EhPRL mRNA expression levels than normal trophozoites. These results strongly suggest that EhPRL may play an important role in the biology and adaptive response of the parasite to the host environment during amoebic liver abscess development, thereby participating in the pathogenic mechanism. PMID:26431820

  5. Amebiasis and comparison of microscopy to ELISA technique in detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar.

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Rose A.; Mosha, Franklin W.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Ashraf, Mohammad; Assenga, Charles; Lee, Clarence M.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of records of amoebal infection in various hospitals in Kilimanjaro indicated frequent occurrence of amebiasis. The population over the age of five years had higher rate of amoebal infection compared to less than that of a five-year-old population; however, both age groups had similar patterns of amebiasis during January 1999 to June 2001. To investigate misdiagnosis of amebiasis, 226 patients (passive cases) in three hospitals and 616 individuals (active cases) from three different localities in Kilimanjaro were examined. In passive cases, the prevalences of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar were 1% and 7.3%, respectively. Among active cases, 1% were infected with E. histolytica, and 15% were infected with E. dispar. There were no significant differences in amoebal infection between the male and female populations. A pool of 842 stool samples was used for diagnosis of E. histolytica and E. dispar by microscopic examination or ELISA kits. The microscopic examination indicated 8.7% amoebal infection; however, using ELISA as the gold standard, the prevalence of histolytica/dispar was 0.8% and 7.4%, respectively. This study indicated that E. dispar infection was 14.5 times more prevalent than E. histolytica infection. PMID:15160983

  6. The Essentials of Protein Import in the Degenerate Mitochondrion of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Pavel; Dagley, Michael J.; Kono, Maya; Wolynec, Peter; Likić, Vladimir A.; Foo, Jung Hock; Sedinová, Miroslava; Tachezy, Jan; Bachmann, Anna; Bruchhaus, Iris; Lithgow, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Several essential biochemical processes are situated in mitochondria. The metabolic transformation of mitochondria in distinct lineages of eukaryotes created proteomes ranging from thousands of proteins to what appear to be a much simpler scenario. In the case of Entamoeba histolytica, tiny mitochondria known as mitosomes have undergone extreme reduction. Only recently a single complete metabolic pathway of sulfate activation has been identified in these organelles. The E. histolytica mitosomes do not produce ATP needed for the sulfate activation pathway and for three molecular chaperones, Cpn60, Cpn10 and mtHsp70. The already characterized ADP/ATP carrier would thus be essential to provide cytosolic ATP for these processes, but how the equilibrium of inorganic phosphate could be maintained was unknown. Finally, how the mitosomal proteins are translocated to the mitosomes had remained unclear. We used a hidden Markov model (HMM) based search of the E. histolytica genome sequence to discover candidate (i) mitosomal phosphate carrier complementing the activity of the ADP/ATP carrier and (ii) membrane-located components of the protein import machinery that includes the outer membrane translocation channel Tom40 and membrane assembly protein Sam50. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that E. histolytica contains a minimalist set up of the core import components in order to accommodate a handful of mitosomal proteins. The anaerobic and parasitic lifestyle of E. histolytica has produced one of the simplest known mitochondrial compartments of all eukaryotes. Comparisons with mitochondria of another amoeba, Dictystelium discoideum, emphasize just how dramatic the reduction of the protein import apparatus was after the loss of archetypal mitochondrial functions in the mitosomes of E. histolytica. PMID:20333239

  7. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for the Detection and Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Montecchini, Sara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Gorrini, Chiara; Rossi, Sabina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and its differentiation from Entamoeba dispar is an important goal of the clinical parasitology laboratory. The aim of this study was the identification and differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar by MALDI-TOF MS, in order to evaluate the application of this technique in routine diagnostic practice. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to 3 amebic reference strains and to 14 strains isolated from feces that had been differentiated by molecular methods in our laboratory. Protein extracts from cultures of these strains (axenic cultures for the 3 reference strains and monoxenic cultures for the 14 field isolates) were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra obtained were analyzed by statistical software. Five peaks discriminating between E. histolytica and E. dispar reference strains were found by protein profile analysis: 2 peaks (8,246 and 8,303 Da) specific for E. histolytica and 3 (4,714; 5,541; 8,207 Da) for E. dispar. All clinical isolates except one showed the discriminating peaks expected for the appropriate species. For 2 fecal samples from which 2 strains (1 E. histolytica and 1 E. dispar) out of the 14 included in this study were isolated, the same discriminating peaks found in the corresponding isolated amebic strains were detected after only 12h (E. histolytica) and 24h (E. dispar) of incubation of the fecal samples in Robinson’s medium without serum. Our study shows that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to discriminate between E. histolytica and E. dispar using in vitro xenic cultures and it also could have potential for the detection of these species in clinical samples. PMID:25874612

  8. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

    PubMed

    Nair, Gayatri; Rebolledo, Mauricio; White, A Clinton; Crannell, Zachary; Richards-Kortum, R Rebecca; Pinilla, A Elizabeth; Ramírez, Juan David; López, M Consuelo; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    Amebiasis is an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and has been associated with childhood malnutrition. Traditional microscopy approaches are neither sensitive nor specific for Entamoeba histolytica. Antigen assays are more specific, but many cases are missed unless tested by molecular methods. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective, the need for sophisticated, expensive equipment, infrastructure, and trained personnel limits its usefulness, especially in the resource-limited, endemic areas. Here, we report development of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method to detect E. histolytica specifically. Using visual detection by lateral flow (LF), the test was highly sensitive and specific and could be performed without additional equipment. The availability of this inexpensive, sensitive, and field-applicable diagnostic test could facilitate rapid diagnosis and treatment of amebiasis in endemic regions. PMID:26123960

  9. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Gayatri; Rebolledo, Mauricio; White, A. Clinton; Crannell, Zachary; Richards-Kortum, R. Rebecca; Pinilla, A. Elizabeth; Ramírez, Juan David; López, M. Consuelo; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and has been associated with childhood malnutrition. Traditional microscopy approaches are neither sensitive nor specific for Entamoeba histolytica. Antigen assays are more specific, but many cases are missed unless tested by molecular methods. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective, the need for sophisticated, expensive equipment, infrastructure, and trained personnel limits its usefulness, especially in the resource-limited, endemic areas. Here, we report development of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method to detect E. histolytica specifically. Using visual detection by lateral flow (LF), the test was highly sensitive and specific and could be performed without additional equipment. The availability of this inexpensive, sensitive, and field-applicable diagnostic test could facilitate rapid diagnosis and treatment of amebiasis in endemic regions. PMID:26123960

  10. Differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rural communities in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, a total of 426 human faecal samples were examined for the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii infection via a combination of microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Entamoeba species. Methods Faecal sample were collected from 426 participants in five rural villages in Peninsular Malaysia. The faecal samples were processed by direct wet smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique followed by iodine staining and examined via microscopy for the presence of Entamoeba species and other intestinal parasites. Microscopically positive samples for Entamoeba species cysts were further characterized using a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) targeting 16S-like ribosomal RNA gene. The data entry and analysis was carried out using the SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program for Windows version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results Based on single faecal examination, overall prevalence of Entamoeba infection was 17.6% (75/426). Females (19.1%) were more commonly infected compared to males (15.9%). Comparison by age groups showed that adults (23.9%) had higher infection rates than children (15.3%). The PCR results showed that 52 out of 75 microscopy positive samples successfully generated species-specific amplicons. The infection with E. histolytica (75.0%; 39/52) was the most common, followed by E. dispar (30.8%; 18/52) and E. moshkovskii (5.8%; 3/52). Of these, 33 (63.5%) were shown to contain only E. histolytica, 10 (19.2%) contained E. dispar and 3 (5.8%) contained only E. moshkovskii. Mixed infection with E. histolytica and E. dispar was found in 6 (11.5%) samples. Conclusions The present study essentially emphasized the benefit of molecular techniques in discriminating the pathogenic Entamoeba species from the non-pathogenic for accurate diagnosis and better management of amoebiasis. The presence of E

  11. Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites and Lipopeptidophosphoglycan Trigger Human Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Eva E; Salaiza, Norma; Pulido, Julieta; Rodríguez, Mayra C; Díaz-Godínez, César; Laclette, Juan P; Becker, Ingeborg; Carrero, Julio C

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil defense mechanisms include phagocytosis, degranulation and the formation of extracellular traps (NET). These networks of DNA are triggered by several immune and microbial factors, representing a defense strategy to prevent microbial spread by trapping/killing pathogens. This may be important against Entamoeba histolytica, since its large size hinders its phagocytosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether E. histolytica and their lipopeptidophosphoglycan (EhLPPG) induce the formation of NETs and the outcome of their interaction with the parasite. Our data show that live amoebae and EhLPPG, but not fixed trophozoites, induced NET formation in a time and dose dependent manner, starting at 5 min of co-incubation. Although immunofluorescence studies showed that the NETs contain cathelicidin LL-37 in close proximity to amoebae, the trophozoite growth was only affected when ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) was present during contact with NETs, suggesting that the activity of enzymes requiring calcium, such as DNases, may be important for amoeba survival. In conclusion, E. histolytica trophozoites and EhLPPG induce in vitro formation of human NETs, which did not affect the parasite growth unless a chelating agent was present. These results suggest that NETs may be an important factor of the innate immune response during infection with E. histolytica. PMID:27415627

  12. Entamoeba histolytica induces human neutrophils to form NETs.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Juarez, J; Campos-Esparza, Mr; Pacheco-Yepez, J; López-Blanco, J A; Adabache-Ortíz, A; Silva-Briano, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica invades the intestine and other organs during the pathogenesis of amoebiasis. In the early stages, the host organism responds with an inflammatory infiltrate composed mostly of neutrophils. It has been reported that these immune cells, activated by E. histolytica, exert a protective role by releasing proteolytic enzymes and generating reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and antimicrobial peptides. It is now known that neutrophils also produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are able to damage and kill pathogens. Studies have shown that intracellular protozoan pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondi, Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania spp, induce neutrophils to release NETs and are damaged by them. However, the action of this mechanism has not been explored in relation to E. histolytica trophozoites. Through scanning electron, epifluorescence microscopy and viability assays, we show for first time that during in vitro interaction with E. histolytica trophozoites, human neutrophils released NETs that covered amoebas and reduced amoebic viability. These NETs presented histones, myeloperoxidase and decondensed chromatin. The results suggest that NETs participate in the elimination of the parasite. PMID:27138813

  13. G protein signaling in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Dustin E; Siderovski, David P

    2013-01-01

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis and systemic amebiasis. Among the known amebic factors contributing to pathogenesis are signaling pathways involving heterotrimeric and Ras superfamily G proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge of the roles of heterotrimeric G protein subunits, Ras, Rho and Rab GTPase families in E. histolytica pathogenesis, as well as of their downstream signaling effectors and nucleotide cycle regulators. Heterotrimeric G protein signaling likely modulates amebic motility and attachment to and killing of host cells, in part through activation of an RGS-RhoGEF (regulator of G protein signaling–Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor) effector. Rho family GTPases, as well as RhoGEFs and Rho effectors (formins and p21-activated kinases) regulate the dynamic actin cytoskeleton of E. histolytica and associated pathogenesis-related cellular processes, such as migration, invasion, phagocytosis and evasion of the host immune response by surface receptor capping. A remarkably large family of 91 Rab GTPases has multiple roles in a complex amebic vesicular trafficking system required for phagocytosis and pinocytosis and secretion of known virulence factors, such as amebapores and cysteine proteases. Although much remains to be discovered, recent studies of G protein signaling in E. histolytica have enhanced our understanding of parasitic pathogenesis and have also highlighted possible targets for pharmacological manipulation. PMID:23519208

  14. Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites and Lipopeptidophosphoglycan Trigger Human Neutrophil Extracellular Traps

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Eva E.; Rodríguez, Mayra C.; Díaz-Godínez, César; Laclette, Juan P.; Becker, Ingeborg; Carrero, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil defense mechanisms include phagocytosis, degranulation and the formation of extracellular traps (NET). These networks of DNA are triggered by several immune and microbial factors, representing a defense strategy to prevent microbial spread by trapping/killing pathogens. This may be important against Entamoeba histolytica, since its large size hinders its phagocytosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether E. histolytica and their lipopeptidophosphoglycan (EhLPPG) induce the formation of NETs and the outcome of their interaction with the parasite. Our data show that live amoebae and EhLPPG, but not fixed trophozoites, induced NET formation in a time and dose dependent manner, starting at 5 min of co-incubation. Although immunofluorescence studies showed that the NETs contain cathelicidin LL-37 in close proximity to amoebae, the trophozoite growth was only affected when ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) was present during contact with NETs, suggesting that the activity of enzymes requiring calcium, such as DNases, may be important for amoeba survival. In conclusion, E. histolytica trophozoites and EhLPPG induce in vitro formation of human NETs, which did not affect the parasite growth unless a chelating agent was present. These results suggest that NETs may be an important factor of the innate immune response during infection with E. histolytica. PMID:27415627

  15. Appearance of sialoglycoproteins in encysting cells of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Chayen, A; Avron, B; Nuchamowitz, Y; Mirelman, D

    1988-01-01

    Amoeba-bacterium cultures of Entamoeba histolytica transferred to a hypoosmotic medium depleted of nutrients changed morphologically and biochemically. The cells ejected grains of rice starch, rounded up, and formed a distinct cell wall that was resistant to detergent, bound the sialic acid-specific lectin from Limulus polyphemus, and became fluorescent with Calcofluor M2R. A subpopulation of these cells displayed more than one nucleus. All these signs are characteristic of encysting cells and were also observed in cysts obtained from a human patient. The morphological changes were accompanied by the appearance of two new glycoproteins with apparent molecular sizes of 100 and 150 kilodaltons which contained sialic acid. Sialic acid has been reported to be absent from trophozoites of Entamoeba species. The presence of this sugar residue on cyst-specific proteins parallels recently reported findings during the encystation of the related reptilian parasite Entamoeba invadens. This may indicate a basic role for sialic acid in the encystation of Entamoeba parasites. Images PMID:2893775

  16. Copro prevalence and estimated risk of Entamoeba histolytica in Diarrheic patients at Beni-Suef, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shimaa S; El-Matarawy, Olfat M; Ghieth, Marwa A; Abu Sarea, Enas Y; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2015-02-01

    Amoebiasis diagnosis is usually based on microscopy that cannot differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from morphologically identical non-pathogenic species. 194 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic &/or dysenteric patients and examined for Entamoeba complex microscopically, E. histolytica/E. dispar coproantigen using ICT and E. histolytica coproantigen using Tech lab E. histolytica II ELISA test. Entamoeba complex trophozoites/cysts, E. histolytica/E. dispar coproantigen and E. histolytica coproantigen were detected in 22.2, 14.4 and 3.6 % of samples, respectively. Microscopy and ICT method had limited sensitivity with poor PPV (9.3 and 7.1 %, respectively) and both slightly agree with ELISA test. The prevalence of E. histolytica was low (3.6 %) in studied individuals and was 14 times lower than non-pathogenic amoebae. E. histolytica detection studied individuals was positively associated with mucoid and bloody stool, which makes them disease predictors. E. histolytica fecal ELISA assay for E. histolytica detection surpassed microscopy and E. histolytica/E. dispar ICT assay. This has highlighted the need for practical non-microscopic detection methods that can differentiate between amoeba infections to avoid unnecessary and possibly harmful therapies and to determine the true prevalence and epidemiology of E. histolytica. PMID:25542044

  17. Nitroimidazole Action in Entamoeba histolytica: A Central Role for Thioredoxin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Leitsch, David; Kolarich, Daniel; Wilson, Iain B. H; Altmann, Friedrich; Duchêne, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole drug, has been the gold standard for several decades in the treatment of infections with microaerophilic protist parasites, including Entamoeba histolytica. For activation, the drug must be chemically reduced, but little is known about the targets of the active metabolites. Applying two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we searched for protein targets in E. histolytica. Of all proteins visualized, only five were found to form adducts with metronidazole metabolites: thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, superoxide dismutase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and a previously unknown protein. Recombinant thioredoxin reductase carrying the modification displayed reduced enzymatic activity. In treated cells, essential non-protein thiols such as free cysteine were also affected by covalent adduct formation, their levels being drastically reduced. Accordingly, addition of cysteine allowed E. histolytica to survive in the presence of otherwise lethal metronidazole concentrations and reduced protein adduct formation. Finally, we discovered that thioredoxin reductase reduces metronidazole and other nitro compounds, suggesting a new model of metronidazole activation in E. histolytica with a central role for thioredoxin reductase. By reducing metronidazole, the enzyme renders itself and associated thiol-containing proteins vulnerable to adduct formation. Because thioredoxin reductase is a ubiquitous enzyme, similar processes could occur in other eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. PMID:17676992

  18. New insights into host–pathogen interactions during Entamoeba histolytica liver infection

    PubMed Central

    Faust, D. M.; Marquay Markiewicz, J.; Santi-Rocca, J.

    2011-01-01

    Amoebiasis is the third worldwide disease due to a parasite. The causative agent of this disease, the unicellular eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, causes dysentery and liver abscesses associated with inflammation and human cell death. During liver invasion, before entering the parenchyma, E. histolytica trophozoites are in contact with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). We present data characterizing human LSEC responses to interaction with E. histolytica and identifying amoebic factors involved in the process of cell death in this cell culture model potentially relevant for early steps of hepatic amoebiasis. E. histolytica interferes with host cell adhesion signalling and leads to diminished adhesion and target cell death. Contact with parasites induces disruption of actin stress fibers and focal adhesion complexes. We conclude that interference with LSEC signalling may result from amoeba-triggered changes in the mechanical forces in the vicinity of cells in contact with parasites, sensed and transmitted by focal adhesion complexes. The study highlights for the first time the potential role in the onset of hepatic amoebiasis of the loss of liver endothelium integrity by disturbance of focal adhesion function and adhesion signalling. Among the amoebic factors required for changed LSEC adherence properties we identified the Gal/GalNAC lectin, cysteine proteases and KERP1. PMID:24466432

  19. Development of Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Zulhainan; Petmitr, Songsak; Mungthin, Mathirut; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip

    2010-01-01

    Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Specific primers were designed for all three species, and then differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar was achieved simultaneously using a hybridization probe and melting curve analysis, whereas E. moshkovskii was detected with a separate probe under the same condition. This assay detected as little as 0.2 pg of E. histolytica DNA and 2 pg each for E. dispar and E. moshkovskii DNA. Thirty-five clinical samples suspected to be E. histolytica infection by microscopy were tested. The results showed 32 positive samples; four samples were E. histolytica and 28 samples were E. dispar. Interestingly, one E. dispar positive sample showed a mixed infection with E. moshkovskii. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii infection from Thailand and this assay is currently the most rapid and sensitive method to differentiate these human amoebas. PMID:20889890

  20. Identification and functional characterization of lysine methyltransferases of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Borbolla-Vázquez, Jessica; Orozco, Esther; Medina-Gómez, Christian; Martínez-Higuera, Aarón; Javier-Reyna, Rosario; Chávez, Bibiana; Betanzos, Abigail; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2016-07-01

    Lysine methylation of histones, a posttranslational modification catalyzed by lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs), plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of transcription. Lysine methylation of non-histone proteins also impacts the biological function of proteins. Previously it has been shown that lysine methylation of histones of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite that infects 50 million people worldwide each year and causing up to 100,000 deaths annually, is implicated in the epigenetic machinery of this microorganism. However, the identification and characterization of HKMTs in this parasite had not yet been determined. In this work we identified four HKMTs in E. histolytica (EhHKMT1 to EhHKMT4) that are expressed by trophozoites. Enzymatic assays indicated that all of them are able to transfer methyl groups to commercial histones. EhHKMT1, EhHKMT2 and EhHKMT4 were detected in nucleus and cytoplasm of trophozoites. In addition EhHKMT2 and EhHKMT4 were located in vesicles containing ingested cells during phagocytosis, and they co-immunoprecipitated with EhADH, a protein involved in the phagocytosis of this parasite. Results suggest that E. histolytica uses its HKMTs to regulate transcription by epigenetic mechanisms, and at least two of them could also be implicated in methylation of proteins that participate in phagocytosis. PMID:27062489

  1. Crystal structure and putative substrate identification for the Entamoeba histolytica low molecular weight tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Linford, Alicia S; Jiang, Nona M; Edwards, Thomas E; Sherman, Nicholas E; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Stewart, Lance J; Myler, Peter J; Staker, Bart L; Petri, William A

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a eukaryotic intestinal parasite of humans, and is endemic in developing countries. We have characterized the E. histolytica putative low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP). The structure for this amebic tyrosine phosphatase was solved, showing the ligand-induced conformational changes necessary for binding of substrate. In amebae, it was expressed at low but detectable levels as detected by immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblotting. A mutant LMW-PTP protein in which the catalytic cysteine in the active site was replaced with a serine lacked phosphatase activity, and was used to identify a number of trapped putative substrate proteins via mass spectrometry analysis. Seven of these putative substrate protein genes were cloned with an epitope tag and overexpressed in amebae. Five of these seven putative substrate proteins were demonstrated to interact specifically with the mutant LMW-PTP. This is the first biochemical study of a small tyrosine phosphatase in Entamoeba, and sets the stage for understanding its role in amebic biology and pathogenesis. PMID:24548880

  2. Crystal structure and putative substrate identification for the Entamoeba histolytica low molecular weight tyrosine phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Linford, Alicia S.; Jiang, Nona M.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Stewart, Lance J.; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Petri, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a eukaryotic intestinal parasite of humans, and is endemic in developing countries. We have characterized the E. histolytica putative low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP). The structure for this amebic tyrosine phosphatase was solved, showing the ligand-induced conformational changes necessary for binding of substrate. In amebae, it was expressed at low but detectable levels as detected by immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblotting. A mutant LMW-PTP protein in which the catalytic cysteine in the active site was replaced with a serine lacked phosphatase activity, and was used to identify a number of trapped putative substrate proteins via mass spectrometry analysis. Seven of these putative substrate protein genes were cloned with an epitope tag and overexpressed in amebae. Five of these seven putative substrate proteins were demonstrated to interact specifically with the mutant LMW-PTP. This is the first biochemical study of a small tyrosine phosphatase in Entamoeba, and sets the stage for understanding its role in amebic biology and pathogenesis. PMID:24548880

  3. Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica: cDNA cloning of a histone H3 with a divergent primary structure.

    PubMed

    Födinger, M; Ortner, S; Plaimauer, B; Wiedermann, G; Scheiner, O; Duchêne, M

    1993-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica has an unusual nuclear structure characterized by a low degree of chromatin condensation and the absence of stainable metaphase chromosomes. Although nucleosome-like particles were observed, no information about histones was available so far. In this paper we describe a cDNA clone with significant homology to H3 histones that was isolated from a library of pathogenic E. histolytica. The complete cDNA encodes a 15-kDa polypeptide, which like the histone sequence from Volvox carteri is shorter by one residue than the human homologue. The amino acid sequence has only 69% identity with human H3.3 histone and 67% identity with the human H3.1 histone. This is the highest degree of sequence divergence observed for any eukaryote H3 histone sequence. Our results indicate that this divergence may contribute to the unusual chromatin structure of E. histolytica. PMID:8341328

  4. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  5. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  6. A membrane-associated neuraminidase in Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    PubMed Central

    Udezulu, I A; Leitch, G J

    1987-01-01

    Trophozoites of the parasitic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica HM-1:IMSS possess a surface neuraminidase capable of liberating N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) from N-acetylneuramin-lactose (alpha 2----3 or alpha 2----6) or mucin in their medium. The neuraminidase was found to be membrane associated, with more than 50% of the yield being recovered in the plasma membrane fraction. The neuraminidase specific activity of the plasma membrane fraction was six times that of internal membrane fraction enzyme. The optimum pH and temperature for this enzyme were 6.7 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Neuraminidase activity was inhibited by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and the optimum Ca2+ concentration was 2 mM. The microfilament disruptor cytochalasin D (30 micrograms/ml) inhibited motility and neuraminidase activity of intact Entamoeba trophozoites. The cytochalasin D-induced loss of surface neuraminidase activity was explained in part by a redistribution of enzyme with a loss of plasma membrane enzyme and an increase in intracellular membrane enzyme. A qualitatively similar cytochalasin D effect was observed with two other membrane-associated enzymes, calcium-regulated ATPase and acid phosphatase. Membrane-associated enzyme was minimally affected by Triton X-100 and saponin. An N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase, optimum pH, 7.4, was found in trophozoite homogenate supernatant fractions. NANA and NANA-containing compounds stimulated trophozoite-directed motility. This motility stimulation by NANA-containing compounds did not apparently require prior release of free NANA by the trophozoite surface neuraminidase. Entamoeba neuraminidase is one of a series of enzymes that may modify the mucus blanket and target cell surface and thereby play a role in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. PMID:2878886

  7. Bioconjugated fluorescent silica nanoparticles for the rapid detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Hemadi, Ahmad; Ekrami, Alireza; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Akhlaghi, Lame; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Ali Reza; Razmjou, Elham

    2015-05-01

    Rapid detection of Entamoeba histolytica based on fluorescent silica nanoparticle (FSNP) indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was evaluated. Silica nanoparticles were synthesized using Stöber's method, with their surface activated to covalently bind to, and immobilize, protein A. For biolabeling, FSNP was added to conjugated E. histolytica trophozoites with monoclonal anti-E. histolytica IgG1 for microscopic observation of fluorescence. Fluorescent silica nanoparticle sensitivity was determined with axenically cultured E. histolytica serially diluted to seven concentrations. Specificity was evaluated using other intestinal protozoa. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles detected E. histolytica at the lowest tested concentration with no cross-reaction with Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Blastocystis sp., or Giardia lamblia. Visualization of E. histolytica trophozoites with anti-E. histolytica antibody labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was compared with that using anti-E. histolytica antibody bioconjugated FSNP. Although FITC and FSNP produced similar results, the amount of specific antibody required for FITC to induce fluorescence of similar intensity was fivefold that for FSNP. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles delivered a rapid, simple, cost-effective, and highly sensitive and specific method of detecting E. histolytica. Further study is needed before introducing FSNP for laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis. PMID:25697865

  8. Growth of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica in 5-azacytidine has limited effects on parasite gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M; Hackney, Jason A; Singh, Upinder

    2007-01-01

    Background In higher eukaryotes DNA methylation regulates important biological functions including silencing of gene expression and protection from adverse effects of retrotransposons. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, a DNA methyltransferase has been identified and treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), a potent inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, has been reported to attenuate parasite virulence. However, the overall extent of DNA methylation and its subsequent effects on global gene expression in this parasite are currently unknown. Results In order to identify the genome-wide effects of DNA methylation in E. histolytica, we used a short oligonucleotide microarray representing 9,435 genes (~95% of all annotated amebic genes) and compared the expression profile of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS parasites with those treated with 23 μM 5-AzaC for up to one week. Overall, 2.1% of genes tested were transcriptionally modulated under these conditions. 68 genes were upregulated and 131 genes down regulated (2-fold change; p-value < 0.05). Sodium-bisulfite treatment and sequencing of genes indicated that there were at least two subsets of genes with genomic DNA methylation in E. histolytica: (i) genes that were endogenously silenced by genomic DNA methylation and for which 5-AzaC treatment induced transcriptional de-repression, and (ii) genes that have genomic DNA methylation, but which were not endogenously silenced by the methylation. We identified among the genes down regulated by 5-AzaC treatment a cysteine proteinase (2.m00545) and lysozyme (52.m00148) both of which have known roles in amebic pathogenesis. Decreased expression of these genes in the 5-AzaC treated E. histolytica may account in part for the parasites reduced cytolytic abilities. Conclusion This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA-methylation in Entamoeba histolytica and indicates that DNA methylation has relatively limited effects on gene expression in this parasite. PMID

  9. Different Clinical Outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica in Malaysia: Does Genetic Diversity Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Orang Asli (aborigine) communities in Malaysia. Examination was performed on 500 stool samples obtained from Orang Asli communities in 3 different states using formalin-ether concentration, trichrome staining, and single-round PCR techniques. Out of 500 stool samples, single infection of E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii was identified in 3.2%, 13.4%, and 1%, respectively. In addition, 10 samples had mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar. Six samples containing E. dispar were also positive for E. moshkovskii, and only 2 samples had E. histolytica in association with E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Seventeen E. histolytica-positive samples were from symptomatic subjects, whereas the remaining 11 samples came from asymptomatic subjects. These findings suggest a predominant distribution of pathogenic potential of E. histolytica strains in this community. Therefore, further studies on genotyping of E. histolytica is required, to find out association between E. histolytica genotype and the outcome of the infection. PMID:23710093

  10. Evidence for the bacterial origin of genes encoding fermentation enzymes of the amitochondriate protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, B; Mai, Z; Caplivski, D; Ghosh, S; de la Vega, H; Graf, T; Samuelson, J

    1997-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an amitochondriate protozoan parasite with numerous bacterium-like fermentation enzymes including the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), ferredoxin (FD), and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE). The goal of this study was to determine whether the genes encoding these cytosolic E. histolytica fermentation enzymes might derive from a bacterium by horizontal transfer, as has previously been suggested for E. histolytica genes encoding heat shock protein 60, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. In this study, the E. histolytica por gene and the adhE gene of a second amitochondriate protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, were sequenced, and their phylogenetic positions were estimated in relation to POR, ADHE, and FD cloned from eukaryotic and eubacterial organisms. The E. histolytica por gene encodes a 1,620-amino-acid peptide that contained conserved iron-sulfur- and thiamine pyrophosphate-binding sites. The predicted E. histolytica POR showed fewer positional identities to the POR of G. lamblia (34%) than to the POR of the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%), the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (44%), and the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (46%), which targets its POR to anaerobic organelles called hydrogenosomes. Maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and parsimony analyses also suggested as less likely E. histolytica POR sharing more recent common ancestry with G. lamblia POR than with POR of bacteria and the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome. The G. lamblia adhE encodes an 888-amino-acid fusion peptide with an aldehyde dehydrogenase at its amino half and an iron-dependent (class 3) ADH at its carboxy half. The predicted G. lamblia ADHE showed extensive positional identities to ADHE of Escherichia coli (49%), Clostridium acetobutylicum (44%), and E. histolytica (43%) and lesser identities to the class 3 ADH of eubacteria and yeast (19 to 36%). Phylogenetic analyses inferred a closer relationship of the E

  11. Development of monoclonal antibodies specifically recognizing the cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Walderich, B; Burchard, G D; Knobloch, J; Müller, L

    1998-09-01

    Protozoan cysts were isolated according to a two-step sucrose gradient procedure. Pure cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, in fixed and native states, were injected into BALB/c mice intraperitoneally for immunization. The spleens of these animals were used for fusion with AG8 mouse myeloma cells. Hybridomas were obtained and tested for the recognition of E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Jodamoeba biitschlii, and Giardia lamblia. Three monoclonal antibodies were identified that reacted only with cysts and trophozoites of E. histolytica. These can be used for differentiation and identification of E. histolytica in feces. PMID:9749623

  12. Comparison of Various Methods in the Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in Stool and Serum Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Uslu, Hakan; Aktas, Osman; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Entamoeba histolytica is indistinguishable from Entamoeba dispar in direct microscopic examination. A definitive diagnosis of E. histolytica is important in terms of the treatment of the patient and to avoid unnecessary costs. This study’s aim is to determine the prevalence of E. histolytica and to make a comparison of the different diagnostic tests in the patients specimens defined as E. histolytica/E. dispar infection. Materials and Methods: Faecal and serum specimens of 90 patients defined as E. histolytica/E. dispar with microscopy (wet mount examination with 0.85% saline and Lugol’s iodine) were examined. Stool samples were examined by trichrome staining for trophozoites and cysts and by immunoassay methods for specific adhesin antigens (Wampole ® E. histolytica II antigen testing) and for specific serine-rich 30 kD membrane protein (Serazym® E. histolytica antigen testing). Anti-E. histolytica antibodies were investigated using a latex slide test and indirect hemagglutination methods in serum specimens. Results: Presence of E. histolytica was not confirmed in 31.1% cases with trichrome staining, 62.2% of the Wampole antigen test, 64.4%, of the Serazym antigen test, 73.3% of the indirect hemagglutination test and 75.6%. of the latex agglutination. Considering the common results from Wampole and Serazym antigen testing as a reference standard, the specificity/sensitivity is 100/53.85% for trichrome staining, 75.00/98.11% for the latex agglutination test and 78.57/96.77% for the indirect hemagglutination test. Conclusion: It has been shown that investigation of E. histolytica in stools by direct wet-smear microscopy alone can cause significant false positive results. To obtain a reliable diagnosis for E. histolytica and to avoid unnecessary treatment for this parasite, at least one more specific assay, particularly an antigen testing and microscopy, is required. PMID:27551176

  13. Antigens in electron-dense granules from Entamoeba histolytica as possible markers for pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, M L; Lamoyi, E; León, G; Tovar, R; Pérez-García, J; De La Torre, M; Murueta, E; Bernal, R M

    1990-01-01

    In vitro interaction of Entamoeba histolytica with collagen induces intracellular formation and release of electron-dense granules (EDG) and stimulation of collagenolytic activity. Purified EDG contain 1.66 U of collagenase per mg of protein. Thus, EDG may participate in tissue destruction during invasive amebiasis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) L1.1 and L7.1 reacted specifically with EDG in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. MAb L7.1 immunoprecipitated three polypeptides with molecular weights of 95,000, 68,000, and 28,000 from lysates of biosynthetically labeled E. histolytica. Both MAbs recognized the pathogenic E. histolytica axenic strains HM1:IMSS, HM38:IMSS, and HK-9 but failed to react in ELISA with Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba invadens, and E. histolytica-like Laredo. In addition, MAb L7.1 reacted with one E. histolytica isolate from a symptomatic patient but did not react with four of five isolates from asymptomatic patients. EDG antigens were detected by a MAb L7.1-based ELISA in E. histolytica-containing fecal samples from symptomatic, but not asymptomatic, individuals. These results suggest that the EDG antigen detected with MAb L7.1 may be differentially expressed in pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. histolytica. Images PMID:2174899

  14. Cloning and partial characterization of Entamoeba histolytica PTPases

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera-Rodriguez, Sara Elisa; Baylon-Pacheco, Lidia; Talamas-Rohana, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, Jose Luis . E-mail: rosales@cinvestav.mx

    2006-04-21

    Reversible protein tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential signal transduction mechanism that regulates cell growth, differentiation, mobility, metabolism, and survival. Two genes coding for protein tyrosine phophatases, designed EhPTPA and EhPTPB, were cloned from Entamoeba histolytica. EhPTPA and EhPTPB proteins showed amino acid sequence identity of 37%, both EhPTPases showed similarity with Dictyostelium discoideum and vertebrate trasmembranal PTPases. mRNA levels of EhPTPA gene are up-regulated in trophozoites recovered after 96 h of liver abscess development in the hamster model. EhPTPA protein expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (GST::EhPTPA) showed enzymatic activity with p-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate and was inhibited by PTPase inhibitors vanadate and molybdate. GST::EhPTPA protein selectively dephosphorylates a 130 kDa phosphotyrosine-containing protein in trophozoite cell lysates. EhPTPA gene codifies for a 43 kDa native protein. Up-regulation of EhPTPA expression suggests that EhPTPA may play an important role in the adaptive response of trophozoites during amoebic liver abscess development.

  15. High prevalence of infection with Entamoeba dispar, but not E. histolytica, in captive macaques.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, H; Cheng, X J; Kobayashi, S; Matsubayashi, N; Gotoh, S; Matsubayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    A total of 268 nonhuman primates (20 species) kept in the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan, were surveyed for intestinal amebas. Total positive rates as based on the presence of cysts in the stool following formalin-ether sedimentation were as follows: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, 53%; E. coli, 34%; E. hartmanni, 34%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 25%; Endolimax nana, 8%; and E. chattoni, 3%. Positive rates were higher in Old World monkeys and lower in New World monkeys. All the 141 E. histolytica/E. dispar-positive animals were Macaca monkeys. The E. histolytica/E. dispar-positive samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification of E. histolytica and E. dispar. E. dispar DNA was detected in 137 samples, whereas no E. histolytica DNA was seen. Zymodeme analysis and reactivity to monoclonal antibodies of cultured trophozoites also supported the presence of E. dispar and the absence of E. histolytica. When the sera of 93 macaques were examined by an indirect fluorescent antibody test, only 3 animals proved to be positive for E. histolytica, showing the lowest titer. These results demonstrate that infection with E. dispar, but not E. histolytica, is predominant in macaques. PMID:11199843

  16. Mutation detection analysis of a region of 16S-like ribosomal RNA gene of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Khairnar, Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Background The level of intra-species genetic variation in Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii populations in a localized geographic area, like Puducherry, India, remains unknown. Methods In the present study the existence of genetic variation in the nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NM-PCR) amplified region of the 16S-like ribosomal RNA genes of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii was investigated by riboprinting and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Results We found that 70 stool specimens were positive for E. histolytica, 171 stool specimens were positive for E. dispar, and 37 stool specimens were positive for E. moshkovskii by NM-PCR. Ninety liver abscess pus specimens, 21 urine specimens, and 8 saliva specimens were positive for E. histolytica by NM-PCR. Riboprinting analysis detected a mutation in the PCR product of only one E. histolytica isolate from a stool specimen. However, SSCP analysis detected mutations in the PCR products of five E. histolytica isolates and three E. moshkovskii isolates from stool specimens, and one E. histolytica isolate from a saliva specimen. The mutations detected by riboprinting and SSCP analysis were confirmed by sequencing. All the nucleotide sequences showing mutations in this study have already been deposited into the NCBI GenBank database under accession numbers [GenBank: EF682200 to GenBank: EF682208]. Conclusion The present study has revealed the subsistence of mutations in the ribosomal RNA genes of E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii, which points towards the existence of intra-species genetic variation in E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii isolates infecting humans. PMID:18822136

  17. Real-time PCR assay in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii infections in Orang Asli settlements in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is the third leading cause of death worldwide. This pathogenic amoeba is morphologically indistinguishable from E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, the non-pathogenic species. Polymerase chain reaction is the current method of choice approved by World Health Organization. Real-time PCR is another attractive molecular method for diagnosis of infectious diseases as post-PCR analyses are eliminated and turnaround times are shorter. The present work aimed to compare the results of Entamoeba species identification using the real-time assay against the established nested PCR method. Methods In this study, a total of 334 human faecal samples were collected from different Orang Asli settlements. Faecal samples were processed by direct wet smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration methods followed by iodine staining and was microscopically examined for Entamoeba species and other intestinal parasites. Microscopically positive samples were then subject to nested PCR and real-time PCR. Results The overall prevalence of Entamoeba infection was 19.5% (65/334). SK Posh Piah recorded highest Entamoeba prevalence (63.3%) while Kampung Kemensah had the lowest prevalence (3.7%) of Entamoeba. Microscopically positive samples were then tested by real-time PCR and nested PCR for the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii infection. Real-time PCR showed higher Entamoeba detection (86.2%) compared to nested PCR (80%), although the McNemar test value showed no significant difference between the two methods (p = 0.221). Conclusions This study is the first in Malaysia to report the use of real-time PCR in identifying and differentiating the three Entamoeba infections. It is also proven to be more effective compared to the conventional nested PCR molecular method. PMID:23985047

  18. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica antigens in faecal material.

    PubMed

    Grundy, M S; Voller, A; Warhurst, D

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica antigens in stool samples using a multi-layer ELISA. The method is sensitive and specific, showing no interference with other intestinal parasites, e.g. E. coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba buetschlii, Hymenolepis nana, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas and Ascaris. The method provides a rapid and simple screening assay for E. histolytica infections and should assist in diagnosis and epidemiological studies of the disease. PMID:2895514

  19. Real-Time PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Blessmann, Joerg; Buss, Heidrun; Nu, Phuong A. Ton; Dinh, Binh T.; Ngo, Quynh T. Viet; Van, An Le; Abd Alla, Mohamed D.; Jackson, Terry F. H. G.; Ravdin, Jonathan I.; Tannich, Egbert

    2002-01-01

    A closed-tube, real-time PCR assay was developed for sensitive and specific detection and differentiation of the two closely related intestinal protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar directly from human feces. The assay is performed with the LightCycler system using fluorescence-labeled detection probes and primers amplifying a 310-bp fragment from the high-copy-number, ribosomal DNA-containing ameba episome. The assay was able to detect as little as 0.1 parasite per g of feces. The two pairs of primers used were specific for the respective ameba species, and results were not influenced by the presence of other Entamoeba species even when present in exceeding amounts. PCR was evaluated using several hundred stool samples from areas of amebiasis endemicity in Vietnam and South Africa, and results were compared with those of microscopy and ameba culture. PCR was found to be significantly more sensitive than microscopy or culture, as all samples positive by microscopy and 22 out of 25 (88%) samples positive by culture were also positive by PCR, but PCR revealed a considerable number of additional E. histolytica- or E. dispar-positive samples. Compared to culture and subsequent ameba differentiation by isoenzyme analysis, PCR was 100% specific for each of the two Entamoeba species. Interestingly, the comparison with PCR revealed that culture, in particular, underestimates E. histolytica infections. Given the high sensitivity and specificity of the developed PCR assay, the inability of microscopy to distinguish between the two ameba species, and the time it takes to culture and subsequently differentiate entamoebae by isoenzyme analysis, this assay is more suitable than microscopy or culture to correctly diagnose intestinal E. histolytica or E. dispar infection. PMID:12454128

  20. Serosurvey of Entamoeba Histolytica Exposure among Tepehuanos Population in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Tepehuanos population in Mexico is largely unknown. This study aimed to study the seroprevalence and correlates of E. histolytica antibodies in Tepehuanos in Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the frequency of E. histolytica IgG antibodies in 156 Tepehuanos people in Durango, Mexico using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Furthermore, we studied the association of E. histolytica seroprevalence with the socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the Tepehuanos studied. Forty-four (28.2%) Tepehuanos with mean age of 31.03 ± 16.71 years old had anti- E. histolytica IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that E. histolytica exposure was positively associated with laborer occupation (Odds ratio=2.77; 95% CI: 1.15, 6.66; p=0.02), and history of lymphadenopathy (Odds ratio=4.97; 95% CI: 1.74, 14.13; p=0.002), and negatively associated with soil contact (Odds ratio=0.13; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.53; p=0.004). Other behavioral characteristics including drinking untreated water or unpasteurized milk, and consumption of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits were not associated with E. histolytica exposure. The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection in Tepehuanos in Durango is higher thanseroprevalences reported in national surveys. The factors associated with E. histolytica seropositivity reported in the present study might aid for the planning and implementation of effective measures against E. histolytica infection. PMID:26199578

  1. Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sateriale, Adam; Miller, Peter; Huston, Christopher D

    2016-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were produced. Phagocytosis of live host cells, however, was largely unchanged, and the defects were surprisingly specific for phagocytosis. Two of the five encoded proteins, which we named E. histolytica ILWEQ (EhILWEQ) and E. histolytica BAR (EhBAR), were chosen for localization via SNAP tag labeling and localized to the site of partially formed phagosomes. Therefore, both EhILWEQ and EhBAR appear to contribute to E. histolytica virulence through their function in phagocytosis, and the large proportion (5/15 [33%]) of gene-silenced strains with a reduced ability to phagocytose host cells validates the previously published microarray data set demonstrating feed-forward control of E. histolytica phagocytosis. Finally, although only limited conclusions can be drawn from studies using the virulence-deficient G3 Entamoeba strain, the relative specificity of the defects induced for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells but not healthy cells suggests that cell killing may play a rate-limiting role in the process of Entamoeba histolytica host cell engulfment. PMID:26810036

  2. Entamoeba histolytica: cloning and expression of the poly(A) polymerase EhPAP.

    PubMed

    García-Vivas, Jessica; López-Camarillo, César; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Orozco, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A

    2005-07-01

    In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability, and translation. Here we identified and cloned a gene codifying for a putative nuclear poly(A) polymerase (EhPAP) in Entamoeba histolytica. Protein sequence alignments with eukaryotic PAPs showed that EhPAP has the RNA-binding region and the PAP central domain with the catalytic nucleotidyl transferase domain described for other nuclear PAPs. Recombinant EhPAP expressed in bacteria was used to generate specific antibodies, which recognized two EhPAP isoforms of 60 and 63kDa in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts by Western blot assays. RT-PCR assays showed that EhPap mRNA expression varies in multidrug-resistant trophozoites growing in different emetine concentrations. Moreover, EhPap mRNA expression is about 10- and 7-fold increased in G1 and S phase, respectively, through cell cycle progression. These results suggest the existence of a link between EhPAP expression and MDR and cell cycle regulation, respectively. PMID:15955317

  3. Entamoeba dispar, but not E. histolytica, detected in a colony of chimpanzees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, H; Cheng, X J; Kobayashi, S; Fujita, Y; Udono, T

    2000-07-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) residing in the Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, were surveyed for the presence of intestinal parasites. Stool samples from 107 chimpanzees were examined by microscopy after formalin-ether sedimentation. Of these animals, 100 were infected with at least 1 species of ameba. The positivity rates recorded were as follows: Entamoeba coli, 88%; E. histolytica/E. dispar, 48%; E. hartmanni, 15%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 8%; Endolimax nana, 4%; and Entamoeba chattoni, 2%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to distinguish between E. histolytica and E. dispar was performed on these samples. E. dispar DNA was detected in 60 of 107 samples (56%), including 9 that had been microscopically determined to be negative for E. histolytica/ E. dispar. In contrast, no E. histolytica DNA was detected in the 107 samples. Zymodeme analysis indicated that 10 isolates were E. dispar. When 104 chimpanzees were examined serologically for E. histolytica infection, 1 sample was scored as positive by indirect hemagglutination and another was found to be positive by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. However, both specimens were borderline-positive and were clearly negative in other tests, suggesting that they might be false-positives. These results demonstrate that the pathogenic E. histolytica was absent in this colony, regardless of the high degree of prevalence of other amebas. For an accurate diagnosis, PCR analysis is recommended in addition to microscopic examination. PMID:10935902

  4. A zymodeme study of Entamoeba histolytica in a group of South African schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sargeaunt, P G; Williams, J E; Jackson, T F; Simjee, A E

    1982-01-01

    Using a biphasic culture medium, stocks of intestinal amoebae were isolated from a group of children attending school in Durban, South Africa. These were compared with stocks collected in other areas of the world already characterized using the electrophoretic patterns of four enzymes: glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphoglucomutase (PGM) L-malate: NADP+ oxido-reductase (oxalacetate-decarboxylating) (ME) and hexokinase (HK). 33% of 94 samples grew Entamoeba histolytica, only one of which gave a pattern indicative of a pathogenic stock. Entamoeba hartmanni, Dientamoeba fragilis and Entamoeba coli were also grown from some samples, increasing the total positive samples for all species isolated to 40%. PMID:6287686

  5. Species-Specific Immunodetection of an Entamoeba histolytica Cyst Wall Protein.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Lauren J; Kearney, Moira R; Siddique, Abdullah; Ali, Ibne K; Gilchrist, Carol A; Arju, Tuhinur; Hoffstrom, Benjamin; Nguyen, Felicia K; Petri, William A; Haque, Rashidul; Cangelosi, Gerard A

    2016-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes intestinal disease in endemic settings throughout the world. Diagnosis of E. histolytica infection would be improved by the identification of biomarkers that are expressed by cysts of E. histolytica, but not by cysts of closely related commensal species of Entamoeba. Herein, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies (1A4 and 1D3) produced against a spacer region of the E. histolytica Jacob2 lectin, an outer cyst wall protein. These reagents demonstrated no cross-reaction to E. dispar recombinant antigen and low picomolar molecular detection limits when paired in ELISA sandwich assays. In an immunofluorescence microscopy assay, the α-Jacob2 murine antibodies labeled cysts of three xenically cultured E. histolytica isolates but did not label cysts of three E. bangladeshi isolates. Monoclonal antibody 1A4 did not cross-react with xenic cultures of three E. dispar isolates, demonstrating specificity to E. histolytica, while monoclonal antibody 1D3 cross-reacted with two out of three E. dispar isolates. Both antibodies labeled cysts in formalin-fixed slides, a potential logistical advantage in some settings. The monoclonal antibody 1A4 was also used in an immunofluorescence microscopy assay with formalin-fixed stool specimens. Seven out of ten ELISA-positive stool specimens exhibited 1A4-labeled cyst-like objects, compared to one out of seven ELISA-negative specimens. These results demonstrate that antibodies generated against the flexible spacer of E. histolytica Jacob2 lectin recognize and bind to Jacob2 protein in whole cysts and are capable of differentiating Entamoeba species in fixed specimens. Thus, Jacob2 is a promising biomarker for use in diagnosing E. histolytica infection. PMID:27152855

  6. Species-Specific Immunodetection of an Entamoeba histolytica Cyst Wall Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Moira R.; Siddique, Abdullah; Ali, Ibne K.; Gilchrist, Carol A.; Arju, Tuhinur; Hoffstrom, Benjamin; Nguyen, Felicia K.; Petri, William A.; Haque, Rashidul; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes intestinal disease in endemic settings throughout the world. Diagnosis of E. histolytica infection would be improved by the identification of biomarkers that are expressed by cysts of E. histolytica, but not by cysts of closely related commensal species of Entamoeba. Herein, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies (1A4 and 1D3) produced against a spacer region of the E. histolytica Jacob2 lectin, an outer cyst wall protein. These reagents demonstrated no cross-reaction to E. dispar recombinant antigen and low picomolar molecular detection limits when paired in ELISA sandwich assays. In an immunofluorescence microscopy assay, the α-Jacob2 murine antibodies labeled cysts of three xenically cultured E. histolytica isolates but did not label cysts of three E. bangladeshi isolates. Monoclonal antibody 1A4 did not cross-react with xenic cultures of three E. dispar isolates, demonstrating specificity to E. histolytica, while monoclonal antibody 1D3 cross-reacted with two out of three E. dispar isolates. Both antibodies labeled cysts in formalin-fixed slides, a potential logistical advantage in some settings. The monoclonal antibody 1A4 was also used in an immunofluorescence microscopy assay with formalin-fixed stool specimens. Seven out of ten ELISA-positive stool specimens exhibited 1A4-labeled cyst-like objects, compared to one out of seven ELISA-negative specimens. These results demonstrate that antibodies generated against the flexible spacer of E. histolytica Jacob2 lectin recognize and bind to Jacob2 protein in whole cysts and are capable of differentiating Entamoeba species in fixed specimens. Thus, Jacob2 is a promising biomarker for use in diagnosing E. histolytica infection. PMID:27152855

  7. Seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica Infection among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangwei; Yang, Yu; Gao, Cong; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) were found to be one of the high-risk populations for Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) infection. Accompanied by the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among MSM, invasive amebiasis caused by E. histolytica has been paid attention to as an opportunistic parasitic infection. However, the status of E. histolytica infection among MSM has been barely studied in mainland China. Methods Seroprevalance of E. histolytica was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Factors potentially associated with E. histolytica infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 602 MSM were included in the study and the laboratory data on serostatus of E. histolytica were available for 599 of them (99.5%). 246 (41.1%) and 51 (8.5%) of the study participants were E. histolytica seropositive and HIV seropositive, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested preferred anal sex behaviors were associated with E. histolytica seropositivity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, “only has receptive anal sex” (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.22 3.37), “majority receptive anal sex” (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.95), and “sadomasochistic behavior (SM)” (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.04, 5.13) were found to be significantly associated with E. histolytica infection. Conclusions High seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection was observed among MSM from Beijing and Tianjin, China. Receptive anal sex behavior and SM were identified as potential predictors. Therefore, E. histolytica and HIV co-infection needs to be concerned among MSM due to their sharing the common risk behaviors. PMID:23717699

  8. Rapid Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasitic Protozoa, with a Focus on Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anjana; Houpt, Eric; Petri, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an invasive intestinal pathogenic parasitic protozoan that causes amebiasis. It must be distinguished from Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii, nonpathogenic commensal parasites of the human gut lumen that are morphologically identical to E. histolytica. Detection of specific E. histolytica antigens in stools is a fast, sensitive technique that should be considered as the method of choice. Stool real-time PCR is a highly sensitive and specific technique but its high cost make it unsuitable for use in endemic areas where there are economic constraints. Serology is an important component of the diagnosis of intestinal and especially extraintestinal amebiasis as it is a sensitive test that complements the detection of the parasite antigens or DNA. Circulating Gal/GalNac lectin antigens can be detected in the serum of patients with untreated amoebic liver abscess. On the horizon are multiplex real-time PCR assays which permit the identification of multiple enteropathogens with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19584941

  9. Use of a monoclonal antibody in an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in fecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Ungar, B L; Yolken, R H; Quinn, T C

    1985-05-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in human feces, using both a monoclonal antibody and rabbit antisera. It detected from less than 1 to 57 trophozoites of 6 E. histolytica strains. Stool specimens were positive by ELISA in 18 of 22 (82%) patients with E. histolytica and in 3 of 186 (2%) of patients without demonstrable E. histolytica in their stools. The latter included one from a child living near an asymptomatic cyst carrier and another from a traveler with giardiasis who had recently taken antibiotics. One hundred eight of 183 microscopy-and ELISA-negative specimens contained other parasites including Giardia (49 specimens), Endolimax nana (24), Entamoeba coli (21), Iodamoeba butschlii (2), and Entamoeba hartmanni (1). This ELISA for E. histolytica is a simple, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. PMID:2860814

  10. Role of the Gut Microbiota of Children in Diarrhea Due to the Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Carol A.; Petri, Sarah E.; Schneider, Brittany N.; Reichman, Daniel J.; Jiang, Nona; Begum, Sharmin; Watanabe, Koji; Jansen, Caroline S.; Elliott, K. Pamela; Burgess, Stacey L.; Ma, Jennie Z.; Alam, Masud; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. An estimated 1 million children die each year before their fifth birthday from diarrhea. Previous population-based surveys of pediatric diarrheal diseases have identified the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, as one of the causes of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Methods. We prospectively studied the natural history of E. histolytica colonization and diarrhea among infants in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results. Approximately 80% of children were infected with E. histolytica by the age of 2 years. Fecal anti-galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin immunoglobulin A was associated with protection from reinfection, while a high parasite burden and expansion of the Prevotella copri level was associated with diarrhea. Conclusions. E. histolytica infection was prevalent in this population, with most infections asymptomatic and diarrhea associated with both the amount of parasite and the composition of the microbiota. PMID:26712950

  11. Identification of Entamoeba histolytica by Molecular Method in Surface Water of Rasht City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    HEMMATI, Arash; HOOSHMAND, Elham; HOSSEINI, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted with the aim of determining surface water contamination with cysts of Entamoeba histolytica using PCR in Rasht City, Northern Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 49 water samples including 18 rivers and 6 wetlands were collected from different regions near the city of Rasht in autumn of 2012. After filtration using 0.22 μm nitrate cellulose membrane filters, the samples were examined using microscope and PCR method. Results: In microscopic examination, four samples of the 49 samples were positive for cysts of E. (histolytica / dispar / muschkovskii). By using PCR method and molecular analysis, one sample was positive for E. histolytica. Conclusion: In the molecular analysis, contamination by E. histolytica was proved in the waters of Rasht City. Further investigations including more samples and necessary preparations must be applied to prevent contamination. PMID:25905058

  12. A Genomewide Overexpression Screen Identifies Genes Involved in the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway in the Human Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Koushik, Amrita B.; Welter, Brenda H.; Rock, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. E. histolytica relies on motility, phagocytosis, host cell adhesion, and proteolysis of extracellular matrix for virulence. In eukaryotic cells, these processes are mediated in part by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Thus, PI3K may be critical for virulence. We utilized a functional genomics approach to identify genes whose products may operate in the PI3K pathway in E. histolytica. We treated a population of trophozoites that were overexpressing genes from a cDNA library with a near-lethal dose of the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. This screen was based on the rationale that survivors would be overexpressing gene products that directly or indirectly function in the PI3K pathway. We sequenced the overexpressed genes in survivors and identified a cDNA encoding a Rap GTPase, a protein previously shown to participate in the PI3K pathway. This supports the validity of our approach. Genes encoding a coactosin-like protein, EhCoactosin, and a serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) were also identified. Cells overexpressing EhCoactosin or SREHP were also less sensitive to a second PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. This corroborates the link between these proteins and PI3K. Finally, a mutant cell line with an increased level of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate, the product of PI3K activity, exhibited increased expression of SREHP and EhCoactosin. This further supports the functional connection between these proteins and PI3K in E. histolytica. To our knowledge, this is the first forward-genetics screen adapted to reveal genes participating in a signal transduction pathway in this pathogen. PMID:24442890

  13. An improved colorimetric PCR-based method for detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in feces.

    PubMed Central

    Britten, D; Wilson, S M; McNerney, R; Moody, A H; Chiodini, P L; Ackers, J P

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological implications of the recent separation of "Entamoeba histolytica" into two separate species, pathogenic E. histolytica sensu stricto and commensal E. dispar, will not become apparent without methods of distinguishing between them which are applicable to large numbers of specimens. We have modified a PCR-based method to produce such a technique which may be completed in 1 day while still identifying 10(-1) E. histolytica and 1 to 10 E. dispar trophozoites per g of feces when present separately and 10 E. histolytica and 100 E. dispar trophozoites per g in the presence of 10(6) trophozoites per g of the other species. Applied to fecal specimens from 18 patients from which E. histolytica or E. dispar had been grown and identified to the species level by hexokinase isoenzyme analysis, the method in every case yielded the correct result. Positive and negative results are easily distinguished by eye, and we are now applying this technique to a large-scale epidemiological study of amebiasis in the eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:9114390

  14. Reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to species-specific antigens of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, H; Kobayashi, S; Nagakura, K; Kaneda, Y; Takeuchi, T

    1991-01-01

    Twenty monoclonal antibodies were produced against trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica strains HK-9 and HM-1: IMSS. When reactivity to various enteric protozoa was examined by an indirect fluorescence antibody test, 15 of the monoclonal antibodies were strongly reactive with E. histolytica trophozoites. Species-specific antigens recognized by these monoclonal antibodies were located on the plasma membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeletal structures of the trophozoites. Two of the remaining five monoclonals reacted strongly with trophozoites of the E. histolytica-like Laredo strain. The determinant antigen was located in the cytoplasm. The three remaining monoclonal antibodies were found to recognize cross-reactive antigens between E. histolytica and E. histolytica-like Laredo, E. hartmanni, E. coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, and Trichomonas hominis. These three antibodies were also reactive with T. vaginalis and mammalian cells such as HeLa cells. Thus, the combined use of monoclonal antibodies seems capable of distinguishing E. histolytica and/or E. histolytica-like Laredo from other enteric protozoa. PMID:1724012

  15. In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

    2011-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 μg/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000 μg/mL. The IC₅₀ of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9 μg/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

  16. Novel hemagglutinating, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the intermediate subunit of Entamoeba histolytica lectin

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kentaro; Yahata, Kazuhide; Gopal Dhoubhadel, Bhim; Fujii, Yoshito; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica, a common protozoan parasite, has roles in pathogenicity and induction of protective immunity in mouse models of amoebiasis. The lectin consists of heavy (Hgl), light (Lgl), and intermediate (Igl) subunits. Hgl has lectin activity and Lgl does not, but little is known about the activity of Igl. In this study, we assessed various regions of Igl for hemagglutinating activity using recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. We identified a weak hemagglutinating activity of the protein. Furthermore, we found novel hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the lectin, which resided in the carboxy-terminal region of the protein. Antibodies against Igl inhibited the hemolytic activity of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. This is the first report showing hemagglutinating, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of an amoebic molecule, Igl. PMID:26354528

  17. Seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica Infection in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in Mexico has been scantily studied. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of E. histolytica antibodies in adults in rural areas in Durango, Mexico. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, E. histolytica IgG antibodies were determined in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, housing conditions, and behavioral characteristics of the subjects studied was investigated. Results One hundred and eighteen (41.8%) of the 282 rural subjects had anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that E. histolytica exposure was positively associated with source of drinking water (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.58; P = 0.005), and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03 - 2.27; P = 0.03). In contrast, E. histolytica exposure was negatively associated with consumption of unpasteurized cow milk (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31 - 0.96; P = 0.03), and crowding at home (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17 - 0.64; P = 0.0009). Conclusions The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection found in adults in rural Durango is high compared with those reported in other Mexican populations. The correlates of E. histolytica seropositivity found in the present study may be useful for the planning of optimal preventive measures against E. histolytica infection. PMID:25883706

  18. Double-blind test of metronidazole and tinidazole in the treatment of asymptomatic Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba hartmanni carriers.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, R; Ayala, S C; Sanchez, C E

    1976-07-01

    One hundred and fifteen persons with asymptomatic Entamoeba histolytica or E. hartmanni infection, or both, were given metronidazole (750 mg three times daily for 5 days), tinidazole (1 g twice daily on 2 consecutive days), or a starch placebo. Three post-treatment stools were examined in the 2 weeks following initiation of treatment. Cysts of E. histolytica reappeared in the stools of 37% of 30 given metronidazole, 62% of 34 given tinidazole, and 70% of 31 given placebo. Cysts of E. hartmanni reappeared in the stools of 46% of 24 given metronidazole, 69% of 16 given tinidazole, and 90% of 10 given placebo. Rapid absorption and short duration of treatment make both drugs ineffective for the treatment of ameba carriers. PMID:183554

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of RabX3, a tandem GTPase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Kumar Srivastava, Vijay; Chandra, Mintu; Datta, Sunando

    2014-07-01

    Ras superfamily GTPases regulate signalling pathways that control multiple biological processes by modulating the GTP/GDP cycle. Various Rab GTPases, which are the key regulators of vesicular trafficking pathways, play a vital role in the survival and virulence of the enteric parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The Rab GTPases act as binary molecular switches that utilize the conformational changes associated with the GTP/GDP cycle to elicit responses from target proteins and thereby regulate a broad spectrum of cellular processes including cell proliferation, cytoskeletal assembly, nuclear transport and intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica RabX3 (EhRabX3) is a unique GTPase in the amoebic genome, the only member in the eukaryotic Ras superfamily that harbours tandem G-domains and shares only 8-16% sequence identity with other GTPases. Recent studies suggested that EhRabX3 binds to a single guanine nucleotide through its N-terminal G-domain (NTD), while the C-terminal G-domain (CTD) plays a potential role in binding of the nucleotide to the NTD. Thus, understanding the intermolecular regulation between the two GTPase domains is expected to reveal valuable information on the overall action of EhRabX3. To provide structural insights into the inclusive action of this unique GTPase, EhRabX3 was crystallized by successive micro-seeding using the vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected to 3.3 Å resolution using a single native EhRabX3 crystal at 100 K on BM14 at the ESRF, Grenoble, France. The crystal belonged to monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=198.6, b=119.3, c=89.2 Å, β=103.1°. Preliminary analysis of the data using the Matthews Probability Calculator suggested the presence of four to six molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25005092

  20. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites. PMID:27156446

  1. Ultrastructural changes on Entamoeba histolytica HM1-IMSS caused by the flavan-3-ol, (-)-epicatechin.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jacqueline; Gómez, Consuelo; Calzada, Fernando; Ramírez, María Esther

    2010-04-01

    The flavan-3-ol, (-)-epicatechin has been previously identified as the most important antiamoebic compound among the extracts from two medicinal plants: Rubus coriifolius and Geranium mexicanum. Here we report the effects of epicatechin on Entamoeba histolytica morphology, analyzed by electronic microscopy. E. histolytica trophozoites were incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C in the presence of 1.9 microg/mL epicatechin and processed for electronic microscopy analysis. Epicatechin induced nuclear and cytoplasmic changes in the treated trophozoites. These morphological alterations are identical to the cellular changes experienced by E. histolytica trophozoites undergoing programmed cell death (PCD), suggesting that epicatechin could be an alternative compound to treat amoebiasis. PMID:19918717

  2. The epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in Mexico City. A pilot survey I.

    PubMed

    Sargeaunt, P G; Williams, J E; Kumate, J; Jimenez, E

    1980-01-01

    Stocks of intestinal amoebae isolated from hospital patients in Mexico City and grown in monoxenic culture were compared among themselves and with those already described (SARGEAUNT & WILLIAMS, 1979), using the electrophoretic patterns of four enzymes: glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), L-malate:NADP+ oxido-reductase (oxalacetate-decarboxylating) (ME) and hexokinase (HK). New isoenzyme groups (SARGEAUNT & WILLIAMS, 1979) of all the amoebae, including Entamoeba histolytica have been demonstrated. Amongst these have been found seven more groups of E. histolytica, two new groups of E. hartmanni, one new group of Dientamoeba fragilis and one new group of E. coli. Of the seven new groups of E. histolytica three are known to originate from patients with clinical amoebiasis whilst the remainder are from asymptomatic subjects. Only 11.2% of the 125 isolations were associated with clinical amoebiasis, and these are clearly distinguished from the isolations from asymptomatic patients by their electrophoretic isoenzyme pattern. PMID:6259779

  3. Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica is an important protozoan intestinal infection in resource-poor settings, including Vietnam. The study objective was to assess risk factors of E. histolytica infection in a community in Vietnam, where wastewater and human excreta are used in agriculture. A case-control study was conducted among residents of Hanam province, Northern Vietnam. Cases (n = 46) infected with E. histolytica and non-infected controls (n = 138) were identified in a cross-sectional survey among 794 randomly selected individuals and matched for age, sex and place of residence. Potential risk factors including exposure to human and animal excreta and household wastewater were assessed with a questionnaire. Results People from households with an average socio-economic status had a much higher risk of E. histolytica infection (odds ratio [OR]=4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-14.0) compared with those from households with a good socioeconomic status. Those individuals who never or rarely used soap for hand washing had a 3.4 times higher risk for infection (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-10.0), compared to those who used always soap. In contrast, none of the factors related to use of human or animal excreta was statistically significant associated with E. histolytica infection. People having close contact with domestic animals presented a greater risk of E. histolytica infection (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.8-19.0) than those without animal contact. E. histolytica infection was not associated with direct contact with Nhue river water, pond water and household's sanitary conditions, type of latrine or water source used. Conclusions Our study suggests that in settings where human and animal excreta and Nhue River water are intensively used in agriculture, socio-economic and personal hygiene factors determine infection with E. histolytica, rather than exposure to human and animal excreta in agricultural activities. PMID:21663665

  4. Effect of the sesquiterpene lactone incomptine A in the energy metabolism of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Domínguez, José; Marchat, Laurence A; López-Camarillo, Cesar; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Sánchez-Espíndola, Esther; Calzada, Fernando; Ortega-Hernández, Alfredo; Sánchez-Monroy, Virginia; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2013-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis, which mainly affects developing countries. Although several drugs are effective against E. histolytica trophozoites, the control of amoebiasis requires the development of new and better alternative therapies. Medicinal plants have been the source of new molecules with remarkable antiprotozoal activity. Incomptine A isolated from Decachaeta incompta leaves, is a sesquiterpene lactone of the heliangolide type which has the major in vitro activity against E. histolytica trophozoites. However the molecular mechanisms involved in its antiprotozoal activity are still unknown. Using a proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analysis, we evidenced that 21 E. histolytica proteins were differentially expressed in response to incomptine A treatment. Notably, three glycolytic enzymes, namely enolase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, were down-regulated. Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of trophozoites through electronic microscopy showed an increased number of glycogen granules. Taken together, our data suggested that incomptine A could affect E. histolytica growth through alteration of its energy metabolism. PMID:23994114

  5. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with a recombinant Entamoeba histolytica antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T; Cieslak, P R; Stanley, S L

    1994-01-01

    Amebiasis, infection by the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is a leading parasitic cause of death. As a step in the development of a recombinant antigen vaccine to prevent E. histolytica infection, we looked at the ability of a recombinant version of the serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) to elicit a protective immune response against invasive amebic disease. Gerbils, a standard model for amebic liver abscess, were immunized with either a recombinant SREHP/maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion, recombinant MBP alone, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), all combined with complete Freund's adjuvant. In the first trial (group 1), gerbils received a primary and two booster immunizations intraperitoneally; in the second trial (group 2), gerbils were immunized by a single intradermal injection. SREHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in both groups produced antibody to native SHEHP and developed delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to recombinant SREHP. All gerbils were challenged by an intrahepatic injection with 5 x 10(4) virulent E. histolytica HM1-IMSS trophozoites. Complete protection from amebic liver abscess was seen in 64% of the SHEHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in group 1 and in 100% of the SREHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in group 2. There was no protection observed in MBP- or PBS-immunized gerbils in either group. Our results indicate that the SREHP molecule has potential as a vaccine to prevent amebic infection and demonstrate that successful vaccination of animals with recombinant E. histolytica antigen vaccines is possible. Images PMID:8132322

  6. The MAK16 Gene of Entamoeba histolytica and Its Identification in Isolates from Patients

    PubMed Central

    Crisóstomo-Vázquez, María del Pilar; Marevelez-Acosta, Víctor Alberto; Flores-Luna, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    To identify sequences of Entamoeba histolytica associated with the development of amebic liver abscess (ALA) in hamsters, subtractive hybridization of cDNA from E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS under 2 growth conditions was performed: 1) cultured in axenic medium and 2) isolated from experimental ALA in hamsters. For this procedure, 6 sequences were obtained. Of these sequences, the mak16 gene was selected for amplification in 29 cultures of E. histolytica isolated from the feces of 10 patients with intestinal symptoms and 19 asymptomatic patients. Only 5 of the 10 isolates obtained from symptomatic patients developed ALA and amplified the mak16 gene, whereas the 19 isolates from asymptomatic patients did not amplify the mak16 gene nor did they develop ALA. Based on the results of Fisher's exact test (P<0.001), an association was inferred between the presence of the mak16 gene of E. histolytica and the ability to develop ALA in hamsters and with the patient's symptoms (P=0.02). The amplification of the mak16 gene suggests that it is an important gene in E. histolytica because it was present in the isolates from hamsters that developed liver damage. PMID:25246723

  7. Preparation of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibody Fab Fragments Specific for Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Watanabe, Katsuomi; Takekoshi, Masataka; Maeda, Fumiko; Aotsuka, Satoshi; Kaneda, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ihara, Seiji

    1999-01-01

    Genes coding for human antibody Fab fragments specific for Entamoeba histolytica were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Lymphocytes were separated from the peripheral blood of a patient with an amebic liver abscess. Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from the lymphocytes, and then genes coding for the light chain and Fd region of the heavy chain were amplified by a reverse transcriptase PCR. The amplified DNA fragments were ligated with a plasmid vector and were introduced into Escherichia coli. Three thousand colonies were screened for the production of antibodies to E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS by an indirect fluorescence-antibody (IFA) test. Lysates from five Escherichia coli clones were positive. Analysis of the DNA sequences of the five clones showed that three of the five heavy-chain sequences and four of the five light-chain sequences differed from each other. When the reactivities of the Escherichia coli lysates to nine reference strains of E. histolytica were examined by the IFA test, three Fab fragments with different DNA sequences were found to react with all nine strains and another Fab fragment was found to react with seven strains. None of the four human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments reacted with Entamoeba dispar reference strains or with other enteric protozoan parasites. These results indicate that the bacterial expression system reported here is effective for the production of human monoclonal antibodies specific for E. histolytica. The recombinant human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments may be applicable for distinguishing E. histolytica from E. dispar and for use in the serodiagnosis of amebiasis. PMID:10225840

  8. The oxygen reduction pathway and heat shock stress response are both required for Entamoeba histolytica pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Olivos-García, Alfonso; Saavedra, Emma; Nequiz, Mario; Santos, Fabiola; Luis-García, Erika Rubí; Gudiño, Marco; Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2016-05-01

    Several species belonging to the genus Entamoeba can colonize the mouth or the human gut; however, only Entamoeba histolytica is pathogenic to the host, causing the disease amoebiasis. This illness is responsible for one hundred thousand human deaths per year worldwide, affecting mainly underdeveloped countries. Throughout its entire life cycle and invasion of human tissues, the parasite is constantly subjected to stress conditions. Under in vitro culture, this microaerophilic parasite can tolerate up to 5 % oxygen concentrations; however, during tissue invasion the parasite has to cope with the higher oxygen content found in well-perfused tissues (4-14 %) and with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species derived from both host and parasite. In this work, the role of the amoebic oxygen reduction pathway (ORP) and heat shock response (HSP) are analyzed in relation to E. histolytica pathogenicity. The data suggest that in contrast with non-pathogenic E. dispar, the higher level of ORP and HSPs displayed by E. histolytica enables its survival in tissues by diminishing and detoxifying intracellular oxidants and repairing damaged proteins to allow metabolic fluxes, replication and immune evasion. PMID:26589893

  9. Comparison of a Stool Antigen Detection Kit and PCR for Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar Infections in Asymptomatic Cyst Passers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R.; Pourbabai, Ahmad A.; Petri, William A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antigen detection and PCR are comparable diagnostic modalities. PMID:16757634

  10. Chew on this: Amoebic trogocytosis and host cell killing by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica was named “histolytica” (histo-: tissue; lytic-: dissolving) for its ability to destroy host tissues. Direct killing of host cells by the amoebae is likely to be the driving factor that underlies tissue destruction, but the mechanism was unclear. We recently showed that after attaching to host cells, amoebae bite off and ingest distinct host cell fragments, and that this contributes to cell killing. Here we review this process, termed “amoebic trogocytosis” (trogo-: nibble), and how this process interplays with phagocytosis, or whole cell ingestion, in this organism. “Nibbling” processes have been described in other microbes and in multicellular organisms. The discovery of amoebic trogocytosis in E. histolytica may also shed light on an evolutionarily conserved process for intercellular exchange. PMID:26070402

  11. Viruses of Entamoeba histolytica. I. Identification of transmissible virus-like agents.

    PubMed

    Diamond, L S; Mattern, C F; Bartgis, I L

    1972-02-01

    This and a companion report deal with the identification and morphogenesis of viruses in axenized cultures of Entamoeba histolytica. There are probably two different types of virus each producing a different pathological picture in different amoebal strains, or, less likely, there is one type of agent having widely different morphological and morphogenetical pictures in different strains of E. histolytica. Both types of agent produce a lytic response in axenized amoebae and have been serially passaged to an extent assuring their replicating nature. One appears to replicate in the nucleus as multiple clusters of fine filaments which ultimately lyse the nucleus, causing cell death. The second type of agent appears to be a typical polyhedral virus, seen only in the cytoplasm and also resulting in lysis of the cell. A particle morphologically indistinguishable from this second agent is also found in late passages of the agent producing the nuclear pathology. PMID:4335522

  12. The Role of Lipopeptidophosphoglycan in the Immune Response to Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Baeza, Isabel; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Mancilla-Herrera, Ismael; Ramírez-Saldívar, Itzmel; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; López-Macías, Constantino; Isibasi, Armando

    2010-01-01

    The sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), is the first step in the inflammatory response to pathogens. Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, has a surface molecule with the characteristics of a PAMP. This molecule, which was termed lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG), is recognized through TLR2 and TLR4 and leads to the release of cytokines from human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; LPPG-activated dendritic cells have increased expression of costimulatory molecules. LPPG activates NKT cells in a CD1d-dependent manner, and this interaction limits amebic liver abscess development. LPPG also induces antibody production, and anti-LPPG antibodies prevent disease development in animal models of amebiasis. Because LPPG is recognized by both the innate and the adaptive immune system (it is a “Pamptigen”), it may be a good candidate to develop a vaccine against E. histolytica infection and an effective adjuvant. PMID:20145703

  13. The role of lipopeptidophosphoglycan in the immune response to Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Wong-Baeza, Isabel; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Mancilla-Herrera, Ismael; Ramírez-Saldívar, Itzmel; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; López-Macías, Constantino; Isibasi, Armando

    2010-01-01

    The sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), is the first step in the inflammatory response to pathogens. Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, has a surface molecule with the characteristics of a PAMP. This molecule, which was termed lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG), is recognized through TLR2 and TLR4 and leads to the release of cytokines from human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; LPPG-activated dendritic cells have increased expression of costimulatory molecules. LPPG activates NKT cells in a CD1d-dependent manner, and this interaction limits amebic liver abscess development. LPPG also induces antibody production, and anti-LPPG antibodies prevent disease development in animal models of amebiasis. Because LPPG is recognized by both the innate and the adaptive immune system (it is a "Pamptigen"), it may be a good candidate to develop a vaccine against E. histolytica infection and an effective adjuvant. PMID:20145703

  14. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling is critical to pathogenic processes in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Dustin E; Kimple, Adam J; Muller, Robin E; Giguère, Patrick M; Machius, Mischa; Willard, Francis S; Temple, Brenda R S; Siderovski, David P

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways are vital components of physiology, and many are amenable to pharmacologic manipulation. Here, we identify functional heterotrimeric G-protein subunits in Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis. The E. histolytica Gα subunit EhGα1 exhibits conventional nucleotide cycling properties and is seen to interact with EhGβγ dimers and a candidate effector, EhRGS-RhoGEF, in typical, nucleotide-state-selective fashions. In contrast, a crystal structure of EhGα1 highlights unique features and classification outside of conventional mammalian Gα subfamilies. E. histolytica trophozoites overexpressing wildtype EhGα1 in an inducible manner exhibit an enhanced ability to kill host cells that may be wholly or partially due to enhanced host cell attachment. EhGα1-overexpressing trophozoites also display enhanced transmigration across a Matrigel barrier, an effect that may result from altered baseline migration. Inducible expression of a dominant negative EhGα1 variant engenders the converse phenotypes. Transcriptomic studies reveal that modulation of pathogenesis-related trophozoite behaviors by perturbed heterotrimeric G-protein expression includes transcriptional regulation of virulence factors and altered trafficking of cysteine proteases. Collectively, our studies suggest that E. histolytica possesses a divergent heterotrimeric G-protein signaling axis that modulates key aspects of cellular processes related to the pathogenesis of this infectious organism. PMID:23166501

  15. Heterotrimeric G-protein Signaling Is Critical to Pathogenic Processes in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Robin E.; Giguère, Patrick M.; Machius, Mischa; Willard, Francis S.; Temple, Brenda R. S.; Siderovski, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways are vital components of physiology, and many are amenable to pharmacologic manipulation. Here, we identify functional heterotrimeric G-protein subunits in Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis. The E. histolytica Gα subunit EhGα1 exhibits conventional nucleotide cycling properties and is seen to interact with EhGβγ dimers and a candidate effector, EhRGS-RhoGEF, in typical, nucleotide-state-selective fashions. In contrast, a crystal structure of EhGα1 highlights unique features and classification outside of conventional mammalian Gα subfamilies. E. histolytica trophozoites overexpressing wildtype EhGα1 in an inducible manner exhibit an enhanced ability to kill host cells that may be wholly or partially due to enhanced host cell attachment. EhGα1-overexpressing trophozoites also display enhanced transmigration across a Matrigel barrier, an effect that may result from altered baseline migration. Inducible expression of a dominant negative EhGα1 variant engenders the converse phenotypes. Transcriptomic studies reveal that modulation of pathogenesis-related trophozoite behaviors by perturbed heterotrimeric G-protein expression includes transcriptional regulation of virulence factors and altered trafficking of cysteine proteases. Collectively, our studies suggest that E. histolytica possesses a divergent heterotrimeric G-protein signaling axis that modulates key aspects of cellular processes related to the pathogenesis of this infectious organism. PMID:23166501

  16. Overexpression of specific cysteine peptidases confers pathogenicity to a nonpathogenic Entamoeba histolytica clone.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, Jenny; Bär, Ann-Katrein; Bartels, Anne-Kathrin; Marien, Dennis; Ofori, Susann; Biller, Laura; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine peptidases (CPs) of Entamoeba histolytica are considered to be important pathogenicity factors. Previous studies have found that under standard axenic culture conditions, only four (ehcp-a1, ehcp-a2, ehcp-a5, and ehcp-a7) out of 35 papain-like ehcp genes present in the E. histolytica genome are expressed at high levels. Little is known about the expression of CPs in E. histolytica during amoebic liver abscess (ALA) formation. In the current study, a quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to determine the expression of the various ehcp genes during ALA formation in animal models. Increased expression of four ehcp genes (ehcp-a3, -a4, -a10, and -c13) was detected in the gerbil and mouse models. Increased expression of another three ehcp genes (ehcp-a5, -a6, and -a7) was detected in the mouse model only, and two other ehcp genes (ehcp-b8 and -b9) showed increased expression in the gerbil model only. Trophozoites of the nonpathogenic E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS clone A1, which was unable to induce ALAs, were transfected with vectors enabling overexpression of those CPs that are expressed at high levels under culture conditions or during ALA formation. Interestingly, overexpression of ehcp-b8, -b9, and -c13 restored the pathogenic phenotype of the nonpathogenic clone A1 whereas overexpression of various other peptidase genes had no effect on the pathogenicity of this clone. PMID:23532975

  17. ANTIPARASITIC ACTIVITY OF SILVER AND COPPER OXIDE NANOPARTICLES AGAINST ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM CYSTS.

    PubMed

    Saad, Halim A; Soliman, Mohamed I; Azzam, Ahmed M; Mostafa, B

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have received more attention as antiparasitic agents. In the present study, silver and copper nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The antiparasitic activity of Ag and CuO nanoparticles were tested against two of the most environmentally spread parasites in Egypt (Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum). The average sizes of synthesized Ag NPs and CuO NPs were 9 & 29 nm respectively and a significant reduction for cysts viability (p > 0.05) was observed for CuO NPs against E. histolytica cysts and Ag NPs against C. parvum oocysts. Moreover, LC50-3h of CuO NPs for E. histolytica and C. parvum were 0.13 and 0.72 mg/l, while Ag NPs recorded 0.34 and 0.54 mg/l respectively. Accordingly, these NPs could be suggested as a new nanoform agent for safe and effective treatment of E. histolytica and C. parvum parasites. PMID:26939237

  18. Entamoeba histolytica antigenic protein detected in pus aspirates from patients with amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Othman, Nurulhasanah; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Yahya, Maya Mazuwin; Leow, Voon Meng; Lim, Boon Huat; Noordin, Rahmah

    2013-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a causative agent of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and is endemic in many underdeveloped countries. We investigated antigenic E. histolytica proteins in liver abscess aspirates using proteomics approach. Pus samples were first tested by real-time PCR to confirm the presence of E. histolytica DNA and the corresponding serum samples tested for E. histolytica-specific IgG by a commercial ELISA. Proteins were extracted from three and one pool(s) of pus samples from ALA and PLA (pyogenic liver abscess) patients respectively, followed by analysis using isoelectric focussing, SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Unpurified pooled serum samples from infected hamsters and pooled human amoebic-specific IgG were used as primary antibodies. The antigenic protein band was excised from the gel, digested and analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-MS/MS. The results using both primary antibodies showed an antigenic protein band of ∼14kDa. Based on the mass spectrum analysis, putative tyrosine kinase is the most probable identification of the antigenic band. PMID:23680184

  19. Simple standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Chiu, C T; Zarco, R

    1981-01-01

    A simple solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure for the detection of human antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica was developed which showed a high degree of correlation with the agar gel diffusion, counterelectrophoresis, and indirect hemagglutination methods, as well as with clinical data. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is rapid (1 h 15 min, total incubation time), and the reported values are referenced to a positive control so that they correlate with levels of antibody sufficient to be detected by the gel diffusion methods. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is highly reproducible, specific, and sensitive; it can be used qualitatively or quantitatively. PMID:6262370

  20. [Immunofluorescent diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica trophocoites in preserved stool specimens of patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hess, U; Fröhlich, A

    1979-09-01

    A fixative and examination technique is described for identification of Entamoeba histolytica trophocoites in faeces with the aid of the indirect immunofluorescence technique. Magnaforms in bloody-dysenteric specimens and Minutaforms in spontaneous or saline purged specimens give equally good fluorescence. The specifity of the rabbit antiserum against axenically grown E. hist. is good: There is strong positive reaction only with trophocoites of E. hist. Weak crossreactions are encountered with trophocoites of E. coli, E. hartmanni and E. polecki. Negative reactions are encountered with trophocoites of Endolimax nana, Jodamoeba bāutschlii, and Dientamoeba fragilis. Amebic cysts, flagellates, leucocytes, epithelial cells and Blastocytis give negative reactions, too. PMID:94475

  1. An ex-vivo Human Intestinal Model to Study Entamoeba histolytica Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Devendra; Ave, Patrick; Kerneis, Sophie; Frileux, Pascal; Boché, Olivier; Baglin, Anne Catherine; Dubost, Geneviève; Leguern, Anne-Sophie; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Bracha, Rivka; Mirelman, David; Guillén, Nancy; Labruyère, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amoebiasis (a human intestinal infection affecting 50 million people every year) is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying human colon invasion by E. histolytica, we have set up an ex vivo human colon model to study the early steps in amoebiasis. Using scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses, we have established that E. histolytica caused the removal of the protective mucus coat during the first two hours of incubation, detached the enterocytes, and then penetrated into the lamina propria by following the crypts of Lieberkühn. Significant cell lysis (determined by the release of lactodehydrogenase) and inflammation (marked by the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin 1 beta, interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 8 and tumour necrosis factor) were detected after four hours of incubation. Entamoeba dispar (a closely related non-pathogenic amoeba that also colonizes the human colon) was unable to invade colonic mucosa, lyse cells or induce an inflammatory response. We also examined the behaviour of trophozoites in which genes coding for known virulent factors (such as amoebapores, the Gal/GalNAc lectin and the cysteine protease 5 (CP-A5), which have major roles in cell death, adhesion (to target cells or mucus) and mucus degradation, respectively) were silenced, together with the corresponding tissue responses. Our data revealed that the signalling via the heavy chain Hgl2 or via the light chain Lgl1 of the Gal/GalNAc lectin is not essential to penetrate the human colonic mucosa. In addition, our study demonstrates that E. histolytica silenced for CP-A5 does not penetrate the colonic lamina propria and does not induce the host's pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:19936071

  2. Evaluation of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel for Detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Patient Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Susan E.; Suarez, Clarisa A.; Duran, Yolanda; Poppiti, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    A study comparing the Triage Micro Parasite Panel (Biosite Diagnostics, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) to conventional O&P examination (O&P) was performed using patient fecal specimens. Five hundred twenty-three stool samples were compared. Nineteen specimens were found to be positive by Triage, and 29 were found to be positive by O&P. Seven specimens were positive for Giardia lamblia, four were positive for Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, and three were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum as determined by both methods. There was one false positive by Triage (C. parvum) and four false negatives by O&P (two G. lamblia, one E. histolytica/E. dispar, and one C. parvum). The Triage test accurately detected all 18 specimens that contained one of the three organisms that it was designed to detect. The Triage test is a rapid, easy-to-use enzyme immunoassay for the detection of G. lamblia, E. histolytica/E. dispar, and C. parvum in fresh or fresh-frozen fecal specimens. These data suggest that the Triage test can be used as a screen for the immediate testing of stool specimens for these three pathogenic parasites. If Triage test results are negative, O&P can be performed if parasitic infections other than G. lamblia, E. histolytica/E. dispar, or C. parvum are suspected. PMID:11136793

  3. Molecular epidemiology of amoebiasis in Malaysia: highlighting the different risk factors of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections among Orang Asli communities.

    PubMed

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Abu Bakar, Edariah; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-12-01

    Currently, species-specific information on Entamoeba infections is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to the re-description of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to provide the first known documented data on the true prevalence of these three species in western Malaysia using a molecular method. Another aim of this study was to determine the association of potential risk factors associated with each Entamoeba sp. A total of 500 stool samples from three Orang Asli tribes were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii determined by microscopy was 18.6% (93/500). Molecular analysis revealed that while most Entamoeba-positive individuals were infected with E. dispar (13.4%), followed by E. histolytica (3.2%) and E. moshkovskii (1.0%), the present findings show low prevalence rates of mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar (2%), E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (1.2%) and association infections of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (0.4%). Logistical regression analysis indicates that the dynamics of the transmission of the three Entamoeba spp. was different. Of six statistically significant variables observed in the univariate analysis, three were retained as significant risk factors for E. histolytica infection in the logistical regression model. These factors were (i) not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening (Odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence level (CI)=1.38, 16.14; P=0.013), (ii) indiscriminate defecation in the river or bush (OR=5.7; 95% CI=1.46, 21.95; P=0.012) and (iii) close contact with domestic animals (OR=5.4; 95% CI=1.36, 2.51; P=0.017). However, subjects with family members who were infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii (OR=3.8; 95 CI=2.11, 6.86; P<0.001) and those who consumed raw vegetables (OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.01, 3.23; P=0

  4. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with a recombinant protein derived from the 170-kilodalton surface adhesin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T; Stanley, S L

    1994-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide through intestinal infection and amebic liver abscess. Here we show that vaccination of gerbils, a standard model for amebic liver abscess, with recombinant proteins derived from the 170-kDa galactose-binding adhesin of E. histolytica and the serine-rich E. histolytica protein or a combination of the two recombinant antigens provides excellent protection against subsequent hepatic challenge with virulent E. histolytica trophozoites. PMID:8188384

  5. Transfection and continuous expression of heterologous genes in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, L; Nickel, R; Tannich, E

    1995-01-01

    To provide tools for functional molecular genetics of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, we investigated the use of the prokaryotic neomycin phosphotransferase (NEO) gene as a selectable marker for the transfection of the parasite. An Escherichia coli-derived plasmid vector was constructed (pA5'A3'NEO) containing the NEO coding region flanked by untranslated 5' and 3' sequences of an Ent. histolytica actin gene. Preceding experiments had revealed that amoebae are highly sensitive to the neomycin analogue G418 and do not survive in the presence of as little as 2 micrograms/ml. Transfection of circular pA5'A3'NEO via electroporation resulted in Ent. histolytica trophozoites resistant to G418 up to 100 micrograms/ml. DNA and RNA analyses of resistant cells indicated that (i) the transfected DNA was not integrated into the amoeba genome but was segregated episomally, (ii) in the amoebae, the plasmid replicated autonomously, (iii) the copy number of the plasmid and the expression of NEO-specific RNA were proportional to the amount of G418 used for selection, and (iv) under continuous selection, the plasmid was propagated over an observation period of 6 months. Moreover, the plasmid could be recloned into E. coli and was found to be unrearranged. To investigate the use of pA5'A3'NEO to coexpress other genes in Ent. histolytica, a second marker, the prokaryotic chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under control of an Ent. histolytica lectin gene promoter was introduced into the plasmid. Transfection of the amoebae with this construct also conferred G418 resistance and, in addition, allowed continuous expression of CAT activity in quantities corresponding to the amount of G418 used for selection. When selection was discontinued, transfected plasmids were lost as indicated by an exponential decline of CAT activity in trophozoite extracts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568055

  6. Entamoeba histolytica: a unicellular organism containing two active genes encoding for members of the TBP family.

    PubMed

    Castañon-Sanchez, Carlos Alberto; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; de Dios-Bravo, Ma Guadalupe; Herrera-Aguirre, Maria Esther; Olivares-Trejo, Jose J; Orozco, Esther; Hernandez, Jose Manuel

    2010-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite which causes human amoebiasis. In this parasite, few encoding genes for transcription factors have been cloned and characterized. The E. histolytica TATA-box binding protein (EhTBP) is the first basal transcription factor that has been studied. To continue with the identification of other members of the basal transcription machinery, we performed an in silico analysis of the E. histolytica genome and found three loci encoding for polypeptides with similarity to EhTBP. One locus has a 100% identity to the previously Ehtbp gene reported by our group. The second locus encodes for a 212 aa polypeptide that is 100% identical to residues 23-234 from EhTBP. The third one encodes for a 216 aa polypeptide of 24kDa that showed 42.6% identity and 73.7% similarity to EhTBP. This protein was named E. histolytica TBP-related factor 1 (EhTRF1). Ehtrf1 gene was expressed in bacteria and the purified 28kDa recombinant polypeptide showed the capacity to bind to TATTTAAA-box by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. K(D) values for rEhTBP and rEhTRF1 were (1.71+/-2.90)x10(-12)M and (1.12+/-0.160)x10(-11)M, respectively. Homology modeling of EhTRF1 and EhTBP revealed that, although they were very similar, they showed some differences on their surfaces. Thus, E. histolytica is a unicellular organism having two members of the TBP family. PMID:20026212

  7. Antisense Inhibition of Expression of Cysteine Proteinases Affects Entamoeba histolytica-Induced Formation of Liver Abscess in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Ankri, Serge; Stolarsky, Tamara; Bracha, Rivka; Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Mirelman, David

    1999-01-01

    Trophozoites of virulent Entamoeba histolytica transfected with the antisense gene encoding cysteine proteinase 5 (CP5) have only 10% of the CP activity but retain their cytopathic activity on mammalian monolayers. In the present study we found that the transfected trophozoites with low levels of CP activity were incapable of inducing the formation of liver lesions in hamsters. PMID:9864246

  8. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments of a calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Verma, Deepshikha; Bhattacharya, Alok; Chary, Kandala V R

    2016-04-01

    We report almost complete sequence specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments of a 150-residue long calmodulin-like calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP6), as a prelude to its structural and functional characterization. PMID:26377206

  9. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. in Libya: 2000–2015

    PubMed Central

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ghanghish, Khaled; BenDarif, Elloulu T.; Shembesh, Khaled; Franka, Ezzadin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations. Methods The data were obtained by an English language literature search of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms ‘intestinal parasites and Libya, G. lamblia and Libya, E. histolytica and Libya and Cryptosporidium and Libya’ for the period 2000–2015. Results The data obtained for the period 2000–2015 showed prevalence rates of 0.8–36.6% (mean 19.9%) for E. histolytica/dispar, 1.2–18.2% (mean 4.6%) for G. lamblia and 0.9–13% (mean 3.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. among individuals in Libya with gastroenteritis (GE). On the other hand, prevalence rates of 0.8–16.3% (mean 8.3%), 1.8–28.8% (mean 4.8%), and 1.0–2.5% (mean=2.4), respectively, were observed for individuals without GE. The mean prevalence rate of E. histolytica/dispar was significantly higher among individuals with GE compared with those without GE (p<0.0000001, OR=2.74). No significant difference in prevalence rate of the three organisms was found according to gender, but most of infections were observed in children aged 10 years or younger. Conclusion The reviewed data suggest that E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. may play a minor role in GE in Libya. The observed high prevalence rates of E. histolytica/dispar reported from Libya could be due mainly to the non-pathogenic E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. However, more studies are needed in the future using E. histolytica-specific enzyme immunoassays and/or molecular methods to confirm this observation. PMID:27363524

  10. A mutation in the leptin receptor is associated with Entamoeba histolytica infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Priya; Guo, Xiaoti; Haque, Rashidul; Peterson, Kristine M.; Ricklefs, Stacy; Mondal, Dinesh; Alam, Faisal; Noor, Zannatun; Verkerke, Hans P.; Marie, Chelsea; Leduc, Charles A.; Jr., Streamson C. Chua; Jr., Martin G. Myers; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Houpt, Eric; Gilchrist, Carol A.; Sher, Alan; Porcella, Stephen F.; Jr., William A. Petri

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition substantially increases susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica in children. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes that inhibits food intake, influences the immune system, and is suppressed in malnourished children. Therefore we hypothesized that diminished leptin function may increase susceptibility to E. histolytica infection. We prospectively observed a cohort of children, beginning at preschool age, for infection by the parasite E. histolytica every other day over 9 years and evaluated them for genetic variants in leptin (LEP) and the leptin receptor (LEPR). We found increased susceptibility to intestinal infection by this parasite associated with an amino acid substitution in the cytokine receptor homology domain 1 of LEPR. Children carrying the allele for arginine (223R) were nearly 4 times more likely to have an infection compared with those homozygous for the ancestral glutamine allele (223Q). An association of this allele with amebic liver abscess was also determined in an independent cohort of adult patients. In addition, mice carrying at least 1 copy of the R allele of Lepr were more susceptible to infection and exhibited greater levels of mucosal destruction and intestinal epithelial apoptosis after amebic infection. These findings suggest that leptin signaling is important in mucosal defense against amebiasis and that polymorphisms in the leptin receptor explain differences in susceptibility of children in the Bangladesh cohort to amebiasis. PMID:21393862

  11. Serum stress responsive gene EhslncRNA of Entamoeba histolytica is a novel long noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Arpita; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Non coding RNAs are known to play important roles in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in metazoans. There is very little information available about non coding RNAs in protists such as Entamoeba histolytica. Antisense and micro RNAs have been reported in E. histolytica, however no long non coding RNAs has been reported yet. Here, we report our findings on an in vitro serum stress-inducible gene EhslncRNA, a member of B1 transmembrane kinase family of E. histolytica. EhslncRNA encodes a transcript of 2.6 kb and sequence analysis revealed that there is no ORF >150 bp within this transcript. The transcript was found to be polyadenylated and mainly associated with monosomes in the cytoplasm under serum starvation. In normal proliferating cells this RNA is mainly present in the nucleus. The promoter element was mapped between 437 to 346 nucleotides upstream of transcriptional start site and has both positive and negative regulatory elements. Deletion of the negative element converted the promoter to serum inducible type. Oxygen and heat stress also increased expression levels of EhslncRNA. These observations suggest that EhslncRNA may be a long non coding RNA and likely to help cells withstand stressful conditions in the host. PMID:27273618

  12. Serum stress responsive gene EhslncRNA of Entamoeba histolytica is a novel long noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arpita; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Non coding RNAs are known to play important roles in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in metazoans. There is very little information available about non coding RNAs in protists such as Entamoeba histolytica. Antisense and micro RNAs have been reported in E. histolytica, however no long non coding RNAs has been reported yet. Here, we report our findings on an in vitro serum stress-inducible gene EhslncRNA, a member of B1 transmembrane kinase family of E. histolytica. EhslncRNA encodes a transcript of 2.6 kb and sequence analysis revealed that there is no ORF >150 bp within this transcript. The transcript was found to be polyadenylated and mainly associated with monosomes in the cytoplasm under serum starvation. In normal proliferating cells this RNA is mainly present in the nucleus. The promoter element was mapped between 437 to 346 nucleotides upstream of transcriptional start site and has both positive and negative regulatory elements. Deletion of the negative element converted the promoter to serum inducible type. Oxygen and heat stress also increased expression levels of EhslncRNA. These observations suggest that EhslncRNA may be a long non coding RNA and likely to help cells withstand stressful conditions in the host. PMID:27273618

  13. Nanoimaging and ultra structure of Entamoeba histolytica and its pseudopods by using atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Medina, Honorio; Urdaneta, H.; Barboza, J.

    2000-04-01

    Nan-imaging of Entamoeba histolytica was carried out by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The structure of the nucleus, endoplasm and ectoplasm were studied separately. The diameter of the nucleus in living E. histolytica was found to be of the order of 10 micrometers which is slightly higher than the earlier reported value. The presence of karysome was detected in the nucleus. Well-organized patterns of chromatoid bodies located within the endoplasm, were detected and their repetitive patterns were examined. The organized structure was also extended within the ectoplasm. The dimensions and form of the organization suggest that chromatic bodies are constituted with ribosomes ordered in the form of folded sheet. Such structures were found to be absent in non-living E. histolytica. AFM images were also captured just in the act when ameba was extending its pseudopods. Alteration in the ultrastructure caused during the process of extension was viewed. Well marked canals of width 694.05 nm. And height 211.05 nm are clearly perceptible towards the direction of the pseudopods. 3D images are presented to appreciate the height variation, which can not be achieved by conventional well-established techniques such as electron microscopy.

  14. Entamoeba histolytica TATA-box binding protein binds to different TATA variants in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Dios-Bravo, Guadalupe; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; Riverón, Ana María; Olivares-Trejo, José J; López-Camarillo, César; Orozco, Esther

    2005-03-01

    The ability of Entamoeba histolytica TATA binding protein (EhTBP) to interact with different TATA boxes in gene promoters may be one of the key factors to perform an efficient transcription in this human parasite. In this paper we used several TATA variants to study the in vitro EhTBP DNA-binding activity and to determine the TATA-EhTBP dissociation constants. The presence of EhTBP in complexes formed by nuclear extracts (NE) and the TATTTAAA oligonucleotide, which corresponds to the canonical TATA box for E. histolytica, was demonstrated by gel-shift assays. In these experiments a single NE-TATTTAAA oligonucleotide complex was detected. Complex was retarded by anti-EhTBP Igs in supershift experiments and antibodies also recognized the cross-linked complex in Western blot assays. Recombinant EhTBP formed specific complexes with TATA variants found in E. histolytica gene promoters and other TATA variants generated by mutation of TATTTAAA sequence. The dissociation constants of recombinant EhTBP for TATA variants ranged between 1.04 (+/-0.39) x 10(-11) and 1.60 (+/-0.37) x 10(-10) m. TATTTAAA and TAT_ _AAA motifs presented the lowest KD values. Intriguingly, the recombinant EhTBP affinity for TATA variants is stronger than other TBPs reported. In addition, EhTBP is more promiscuous than human and yeast TBPs, probably due to modifications in amino acids involved in TBP-DNA binding. PMID:15752353

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris Extracts on in Vitro Growth of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Behnia, Maryam; Komeylizadeh, Hossein; Tabaei, Seyyed-Javad Seyyed; Abadi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    One of the most common drugs used against a wide variety of anaerobic protozoan parasites is metronidazole. However, this drug is mutagenic for bacteria and is a potent carcinogen for rodents. Thymus vulgaris is used for cough suppression and relief of dyspepsia. Also it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate antiamebic effect of Thymus vulgaris against Entamoeba histolytica in comparison with metronidazole. One hundred gram air-dried T. vulgaris plant was obtained and macerated at 25℃ for 14 days using n-hexane and a mixture of ethanol and water. For essential oil isolation T. vulgaris was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hr. E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain was used in all experiments. It was found that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic, hexanic extracts, and the essential oil after 24 hr was 4 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, and 0.7 mg/mL, respectively. After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica. PMID:18830054

  16. Entamoeba histolytica and other parasitic infections in south Kanara district, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Subbannayya, K; Babu, M H; Kumar, A; Rao, T S; Shivananda, P G

    1989-09-01

    Single stool specimens collected from 1,020 apparently healthy people of the South Kanara District, were processed for intestinal parasites using three parasitological methods viz. (a) Direct smear in physiological saline and D'Antoni's iodine, (b) Zinc sulfate concentration method and (c) by culture in modified Boek and Drbolhav medium. Of these 781 (76.51 per cent) were found to be infected with parasites. The prevalence of various intestinal parasites was: Ascaris lumbricoides (48.33 per cent), Necator americanus (46.86 per cent), Trichuris trichiura (42.75 per cent), Entamoeba coli (23.24 per cent), Entamoeba histolytica (7.94 per cent), Enterobius vermicularis (2.84 per cent), Giardia intestinalis (2.45 per cent), Iodamoeba buitschlii (1.57 per cent), Entamoeba hartmanni (1.37 per cent), Trichomonas hominis (0.88 per cent), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.68 per cent), Hymenolepis nana (0.49 per cent), Chilomastis mesnili (0.10 per cent) and Endolimax nana (0.10 per cent). High incidence of parasitic infections was recorded in females and age group of 6-14 years. PMID:2559118

  17. An Entamoeba histolytica ADP-ribosyl transferase from the diphtheria toxin family modifies the bacterial elongation factor Tu.

    PubMed

    Avila, Eva E; Rodriguez, Orlando I; Marquez, Jaqueline A; Berghuis, Albert M

    2016-06-01

    ADP-ribosyl transferases are enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of proteins; they participate in multiple physiological processes, pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Several reports have characterized the functions of these enzymes in viruses, prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes, but few studies have reported ADP-ribosyl transferases in lower eukaryotes, such as parasites. The locus EHI_155600 from Entamoeba histolytica encodes a hypothetical protein that possesses a domain from the ADP-ribosylation superfamily; this protein belongs to the diphtheria toxin family according to a homology model using poly-ADP-ribosyl polymerase 12 (PARP12 or ARTD12) as a template. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited in vitro ADP-ribosylation activity that was dependent on the time and temperature. Unlabeled βNAD(+), but not ADP-ribose, competed in the enzymatic reaction using biotin-βNAD(+) as the ADP-ribose donor. The recombinant enzyme, denominated EhToxin-like, auto-ADP-ribosylated and modified an acceptor from E. coli that was identified by MS/MS as the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to identify an ADP-ribosyl transferase from the diphtheria toxin family in a protozoan parasite. The known toxins from this family (i.e., the diphtheria toxin, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Exo-A, and Cholix from Vibrio cholerae) modify eukaryotic elongation factor two (eEF-2), whereas the amoeba EhToxin-like modified EF-Tu, which is another elongation factor involved in protein synthesis in bacteria and mitochondria. PMID:27234208

  18. Cell-matrix interactions of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. A comparative study by electron-, atomic force- and confocal microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Fragoso-Soriano, Rogelio Jaime; Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2015-10-01

    Invasion of tissues by Entamoeba histolytica is a multistep process that initiates with the adhesion of the parasite to target tissues. The recognition of the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar as a distinct, but closely related protozoan species raised the question as to whether the lack of its pathogenic potential could be related to a weaker adhesion due to limited cytoskeleton restructuring capacity. We here compared the adhesion process of both amebas to fibronectin through scanning, transmission, atomic force, and confocal microscopy. In addition, electrophoretic and western blot assays of actin were also compared. Adhesion of E. histolytica to fibronectin involves a dramatic reorganization of the actin network that results in a tighter contact to and the subsequent focal degradation of the fibronectin matrix. In contrast, E. dispar showed no regions of focal adhesion, the cytoskeleton was poorly reorganized and there was little fibronectin degradation. In addition, atomic force microscopy using topographic, error signal and phase modes revealed clear-cut differences at the site of contact of both amebas with the substrate. In spite of the morphological and genetic similarities between E. histolytica and E. dispar the present results demonstrate striking differences in their respective cell-to-matrix adhesion processes, which may be of relevance for understanding the invasive character of E. histolytica. - Highlights: • Striking differences in adhesion to FN between E. histolytica and E. dispar. • A greater degree of cell stiffness in E. histolytica with respect to E. dispar. • E. histolytica but not E. dispar forms regions of close contact with FN. • The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.

  19. Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis: trophozoite growth inhibition by metronidazole electro-transferred water.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Rojas, J Antonio; Torres-Flores, Antonio Cayetano; Rodríguez-De la Fuente, Abraham O; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Barrón-González, María Porfiria; Torres-Pantoja, Antonio Cayetano; Alcocer-González, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The influence of low-frequency electromagnetic (LF-EM) waves on microorganisms has been a subject of experimental investigations for more than two decades and the results are promising. In parallel, an interesting procedure known as biophysical-information-therapy or bioresonance therapy (BRT) which in principle is based on LF-EM stimulation, has emerged. BRT was discovered in the late 1980's but it is still poorly studied. This paper demonstrates that by transferring metronidazole information to water samples by an electronic amplifier (BRT device), the growth of axenically cultured trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonasvaginalis is significantly inhibited, compared with those cultures treated with non and sham electro-transferred water samples. A positive control of metronidazole, a well-known cytotoxic drug against parasites, was used as a reference. PMID:20603119

  20. Characterization of a cytochalasin D-resistant mutant of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    de la Garza, M; Gallegos, B; Meza, I

    1989-01-01

    Characterization of a cytochalasin D-resistant mutant of the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica capable of growing at 10 microM cytochalasin is described. The mutant cells also show resistance to 5 mM colchicine and 100 microM cytochalasin B, drugs proved deleterious for wild type trophozoites. The mutants show increased osmotic fragility and electric mobility but reduced phagocytic activity, and agglutination by Concanavalin A. On the other hand pinocytic activity remains unaltered when compared with the wild type cells. Polymerized actin, seen by staining with phalloidin, often appears polarized to one end of the trophozoites and forms few of the endocytic invaginations found in wild type amebas. An altered distribution of part of the actin could explain the differences in surface properties and motility observed in the mutant amebas. PMID:2557444

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and

  2. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica DNA in the Saliva of Amoebic Liver Abscess Patients Who Received Prior Treatment with Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Krishna; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Saliva is an easily-accessible and a non-invasive clinical specimen alternate to blood and liver pus. An attempt was made to detect Entamoeba histolytica DNA released in the saliva of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) patients by applying 16S-like rRNA gene-based nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NM-PCR). The NM-PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of eight (28.6%) of 28 ALA patients. The NM-PCR result was negative for E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of all the eight ALA patients who were tested prior to treatment with metronidazole but was positive in the saliva of eight (40%) of 20 ALA patient who were tested after therapy with metronidazole. The NM-PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in liver abscess pus of all 28 (100%) patients with ALA. The TechLab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive for E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin antigen in the liver abscess pus of 13 (46.4%) of the 28 ALA patients. The indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test was positive for anti-amoebic antibodies in the serum of 22 (78.6%) of the 28 ALA patients and 2 (5.7%) of 35 healthy controls. The present study, for the first time, demonstrates the release of E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of ALA patients by applying NM-PCR. PMID:19069620

  3. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica DNA in the saliva of amoebic liver abscess patients who received prior treatment with metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Krishna; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2008-12-01

    Saliva is an easily-accessible and a non-invasive clinical specimen alternate to blood and liver pus. An attempt was made to detect Entamoeba histolytica DNA released in the saliva of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) patients by applying 16S-like rRNA gene-based nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NM-PCR). The NM-PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of eight (28.6%) of 28 ALA patients. The NM-PCR result was negative for E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of all the eight ALA patients who were tested prior to treatment with metronidazole but was positive in the saliva of eight (40%) of 20 ALA patient who were tested after therapy with metronidazole. The NM-PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in liver abscess pus of all 28 (100%) patients with ALA. The TechLab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive for E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin antigen in the liver abscess pus of 13 (46.4%) of the 28 ALA patients. The indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test was positive for anti-amoebic antibodies in the serum of 22 (78.6%) of the 28 ALA patients and 2 (5.7%) of 35 healthy controls. The present study, for the first time, demonstrates the release of E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of ALA patients by applying NM-PCR. PMID:19069620

  4. Real-time analysis of gut flora in Entamoeba histolytica infected patients of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amebic dysentery is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the ingestion of quadrinucleate cyst of E. histolytica from fecally contaminated food or water initiates infection. Excystation occurs in the lumen of small intestine, where motile and potentially invasive trophozoites germinate from cysts. The ability of trophozoites to interact and digest gut bacteria is apparently important for multiplication of the parasite and its pathogenicity; however the contribution of resident bacterial flora is not well understood. We quantified the population of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Clostridium coccoides subgroup, Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Sulphur reducing bacteria using genus specific primers in healthy (N = 22) vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive, N = 17) stool samples by Real-time PCR. Results Absolute quantification of Bacteroides (p = .001), Closrtridium coccoides subgroup (p = 0.002), Clostridium leptum subgroup (p = 0.0001), Lactobacillus (p = 0.037), Campylobacter (p = 0.0014) and Eubacterium (p = 0.038) show significant drop in their population however, significant increase in Bifdobacterium (p = 0.009) was observed where as the population of Ruminococcus (p = 0.33) remained unaltered in healthy vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive). We also report high prevalence of nimE gene in stool samples of both healthy volunteers and amebic patients. No significant decrease in nimE gene copy number was observed before and after the treatment with antiamebic drug. Conclusions Our results show significant alteration in predominant gut bacteria in E. histolytica infected individuals. The frequent episodes of intestinal amoebic dysentery thus result in depletion of few predominant genera in gut that may lead to poor digestion and absorption of food in intestine. It further disturbs the homeostasis

  5. Viruses of Entamoeba histolytica. 3. Properties of the polyhedral virus of the HB-301 strain.

    PubMed

    Hruska, J F; Mattern, C F; Diamond, L S; Keister, D B

    1973-01-01

    Some biological characteristics and bioassay of a polyhedral virus isolated from normal-appearing strain HB-301 of Entamoeba histolytica are described. The virus produced lysis of susceptible strains of E. histolytica, yet it caused no cytopathological effect in the host strain, HB-301. The virus and host amoeba existed in an equilibrium; approximately 10(4) mean infective dose units of virus were produced per million HB-301 amoebae. Superinfection and antiviral antiserum treatment failed to disturb this equilibrium permanently. The mechanism of viral persistence in strain HB-301 amoebae remains to be determined. Purification of the virus was attempted. Ninety-nine percent of the viral infectivity was associated with a low-speed pellet which consisted of complexes of virus and cellular membranes. Various treatments of this low-speed pellet failed to release virus. Biologically active, membrane-free virus of low titer was prepared by differential centrifugation of supernatant solutions and employed in electron microscopy and other studies. PMID:4346278

  6. Structural determinants of RGS-RhoGEF signaling critical to Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Dustin E; Kimple, Adam J; Manning, Alyssa J; Muller, Robin E; Willard, Francis S; Machius, Mischa; Rogers, Stephen L; Siderovski, David P

    2013-01-01

    G protein signaling pathways, as key components of physiologic responsiveness and timing, are frequent targets for pharmacologic intervention. Here, we identify an effector for heterotrimeric G protein α subunit (EhGα1) signaling from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis. EhGα1 interacts with this effector and guanosine triphosphatase-accelerating protein, EhRGS-RhoGEF, in a nucleotide state-selective fashion. Coexpression of EhRGS-RhoGEF with constitutively active EhGα1 and EhRacC leads to Rac-dependent spreading in Drosophila S2 cells. EhRGS-RhoGEF overexpression in E. histolytica trophozoites leads to reduced migration toward serum and lower cysteine protease activity, as well as reduced attachment to, and killing of, host cells. A 2.3 Å crystal structure of the full-length EhRGS-RhoGEF reveals a putative inhibitory helix engaging the Dbl homology domain Rho-binding surface and the pleckstrin homology domain. Mutational analysis of the EhGα1/EhRGS-RhoGEF interface confirms a canonical "regulator of G protein signaling" domain rather than a RhoGEF-RGS ("rgRGS") domain, suggesting a convergent evolution toward heterotrimeric and small G protein cross-talk. PMID:23260656

  7. Structural Determinants of RGS-RhoGEF Signaling Critical to Entamoeba histolytica Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Dustin E.; Kimple, Adam J.; Manning, Alyssa J.; Muller, Robin E.; Willard, Francis S.; Machius, Mischa; Rogers, Stephen L.; Siderovski, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary G-protein signaling pathways, as key components of physiologic responsiveness and timing, are frequent targets for pharmacologic intervention. Here, we identify an effector for heterotrimeric G-protein α subunit (EhGα1) signaling from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis. EhGα1 interacts with this effector and GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP), EhRGS-RhoGEF, in a nucleotide state-selective fashion. Co-expression of EhRGS-RhoGEF with constitutively active EhGα1 and EhRacC leads to Rac-dependent spreading in Drosophila S2 cells. EhRGS-RhoGEF overexpression in E. histolytica trophozoites leads to reduced migration toward serum and lower cysteine protease activity, as well as reduced attachment to, and killing of, host cells. A 2.3 Å crystal structure of the full-length EhRGS-RhoGEF reveals a putative inhibitory helix engaging the DH domain Rho-binding surface and the PH domain. Mutational analysis of the EhGα1/EhRGS-RhoGEF interface confirms a canonical RGS domain rather than a RhoGEF-RGS (“rgRGS”) domain, suggesting a convergent evolution toward heterotrimeric and small G-protein cross-talk. PMID:23260656

  8. Archaeological occurrences and historical review of the human amoeba, Entamoeba histolytica, over the past 6000years.

    PubMed

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Maicher, Céline; Dufour, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Understanding parasite history and the evolution of host/parasite relationships is one of the most important aspects of paleoparasitology. Within the framework of this research topic, this paper focuses on the human pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba histolytica. The compilation of all the available archaeological data concerning this parasite leads to a first glimpse of the history of this parasite of current medical importance. Paleoparasitological investigation into this parasite uses immunological techniques and shows that the modern strain of E. histolytica has been present in Western Europe since at least the Neolithic period (3700yearsBCE), and could have originated in the Old World. The appearance of the modern amoeba strain in the pre-Columbian Americas and the Middle East around the 12th century CE gives rise to hypotheses as to how human migrations (Atlantic or Pacific routes) contributed to the diffusion of this pathogen, resulting in its current distribution. This compilation proves that parasites are valuable proxies for studying past human and animal migrations, and should be given more consideration in the future. PMID:27130884

  9. Trogocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica contributes to cell killing and tissue invasion.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Katherine S; Solga, Michael D; Mackey-Lawrence, Nicole M; Somlata; Bhattacharya, Alok; Petri, William A

    2014-04-24

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a potentially fatal diarrhoeal disease in the developing world. The parasite was named "histolytica" for its ability to destroy host tissues, which is probably driven by direct killing of human cells. The mechanism of human cell killing has been unclear, although the accepted model was that the parasites use secreted toxic effectors to kill cells before ingestion. Here we report the discovery that amoebae kill by ingesting distinct pieces of living human cells, resulting in intracellular calcium elevation and eventual cell death. After cell killing, amoebae detach and cease ingestion. Ingestion of human cell fragments is required for cell killing, and also contributes to invasion of intestinal tissue. The internalization of fragments of living human cells is reminiscent of trogocytosis (from Greek trogo, nibble) observed between immune cells, but amoebic trogocytosis differs because it results in death. The ingestion of live cell material and the rejection of corpses illuminate a stark contrast to the established model of dead cell clearance in multicellular organisms. These findings change the model for tissue destruction in amoebiasis and suggest an ancient origin of trogocytosis as a form of intercellular exchange. PMID:24717428

  10. In vitro induction of Entamoeba histolytica cyst-like structures from trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Díaz, Hugo; Díaz-Gallardo, Martha; Laclette, Juan P; Carrero, Julio C

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of encystment can be conceived as a potentially useful mechanism to block the transmission of Entamoeba histolytica under natural conditions. Unfortunately, amoeba encystment has not been achieved in vitro and drugs inhibiting the formation of cysts are not available. Luminal conditions inducing encystment in vivo are also unknown, but cellular stress such as exposure to reactive oxygen species from immune cells or intestinal microbiota could be involved. A role for certain divalent cations as cofactors of enzymes involved in excystment has also been described. In this study, we show that trophozoite cultures, treated with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of trace amounts of several cations, transform into small-sized spherical and refringent structures that exhibit resistance to different detergents. Ultrastructural analysis under scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed multinucleated structures (some with four nuclei) with smooth, thick membranes and multiple vacuoles. Staining with calcofluor white, as well as an ELISA binding assay using wheat germ agglutinin, demonstrated the presence of polymers of N-acetylglucosamine (chitin), which is the primary component of the natural cyst walls. Over-expression of glucosamine 6-phosphate isomerase, likely to be the rate-limiting enzyme in the chitin synthesis pathway, was also confirmed by RT-PCR. These results suggest that E. histolytica trophozoites activated encystment pathways when exposed to our treatment. PMID:20169067

  11. Rat and human colonic mucins bind to and inhibit adherence lectin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K; Petri, W A; Innes, D J; Ravdin, J I

    1987-01-01

    Establishment of adherence by Entamoeba histolytica is mediated by a 170-kD Gal/GalNAc inhibitable lectin and is required for cytolysis and phagocytosis of mammalian target cells. We studied the biochemical mechanisms of the in vitro interaction between rat and human colonic mucins and axenic E. histolytica trophozoites. Crude mucus prevented amebic adherence to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by up to 70%. Purification of the colonic mucins by Sepharose 4B chromatography, nuclease digestion, and cesium chloride gradient centrifugation resulted in a 1,000-fold enrichment of the inhibitory mucins. Purified rat mucin inhibited amebic adherence to and cytolysis of homologous rat colonic epithelial cells. Oxidation and enzymatic cleavage of rat mucin Gal and GalNAc residues completely abrogated mucin inhibition of amebic adherence. The binding of rat 125I-mucin to amebae was galactose specific, saturable, reversible, and pH dependent. A monoclonal antibody specific for the 170-kD amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin completely inhibited the binding of rat 125I-mucin. Rat mucin bound to Affigel affinity purified the amebic lectin from conditioned medium. Colonic mucin glycoproteins act as an important host defense by binding to the parasite's adherence lectin, thus preventing amebic attachment to and cytolysis of host epithelial cells. Images PMID:2890655

  12. Kinetics and strain variation of phagosome proteins of Entamoeba histolytica by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mami; Huston, Christopher D; Oue, Miho; Mann, Barbara J; Petri, William A; Kita, Kiyoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2006-02-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica ingests and feeds on microorganisms and mammalian cells. Phagocytosis is essential for cell growth and implicated in pathogenesis of E. histolytica. We report here the dynamic changes of phagosome proteins during phagosome maturation by proteomic analysis using reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Phagosomes were isolated at various intervals after internalization of latex beads. Immunoblot analysis and electron microscopy verified successful isolation of phagosomes. A total of 159 proteins were identified from the reference strain HM1 at different stages of phagosome maturation. Approximately 70% of them were detected in a time-dependent fashion, suggesting dynamism of phagosome biogenesis. The kinetics of representative proteins were verified by immunoblots and also by video microscopy of live transgenic amebae expressing green fluorescent protein-fused EhRab7A. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in phagosome profiles between HM1 and two recent clinical isolates. Approximately 60% of 229 proteins detected in at least one of these three strains were identified only in one strain, while approximately 20% of these proteins were detected in all three strains. These data should provide significant insights into molecular characterization of phagosome biogenesis, and help to elucidate the pathogenesis of this important infection. PMID:16290089

  13. A Proteomic and Cellular Analysis of Uropods in the Pathogen Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Marquay Markiewicz, Jacques; Syan, Sylvie; Hon, Chung-Chau; Weber, Christian; Faust, Daniela; Guillen, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of Entamoeba histolytica to specific ligands induces cell polarization via the activation of signalling pathways and cytoskeletal elements. The process leads to formation of a protruding pseudopod at the front of the cell and a retracting uropod at the rear. In the present study, we show that the uropod forms during the exposure of trophozoites to serum isolated from humans suffering of amoebiasis. To investigate uropod assembly, we used LC-MS/MS technology to identify protein components in isolated uropod fractions. The galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin, the immunodominant antigen M17 (which is specifically recognized by serum from amoeba-infected persons) and a few other cells adhesion-related molecules were primarily involved. Actin-rich cytoskeleton components, GTPases from the Rac and Rab families, filamin, α-actinin and a newly identified ezrin-moesin-radixin protein were the main factors found to potentially interact with capped receptors. A set of specific cysteine proteases and a serine protease were enriched in isolated uropod fractions. However, biological assays indicated that cysteine proteases are not involved in uropod formation in E. histolytica, a fact in contrast to the situation in human motile immune cells. The surface proteins identified here are testable biomarkers which may be either recognized by the immune system and/or released into the circulation during amoebiasis. PMID:21483708

  14. Repurposing the Open Access Malaria Box To Discover Potent Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Fokou, Patrick V. T.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Spangenberg, Thomas; Mfopa, Alvine N.; Kouipou, Ruffin M. T.; Mbouna, Cedric J.; Donfack, Valerie F. Donkeng; Zollo, Paul H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis and amebiasis are important public health concerns worldwide. The drugs currently available to control these diseases have proven limitations. Therefore, innovative approaches should be adopted to identify and develop new leads from novel scaffolds exhibiting novel modes of action. In this paper, we describe results from the screening of compounds in the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) open access Malaria Box in a search for new anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Entamoeba agents. Standard in vitro phenotypic screening procedures were adopted to assess their biological activities. Seven anti-Toxoplasma compounds with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of <5 μM and selectivity indexes (SI) of >6 were identified. The most interesting compound was MMV007791, a piperazine acetamide, which has an IC50 of 0.19 μM and a selectivity index of >157. Also, we identified two compounds, MMV666600 and MMV006861, with modest activities against Entamoeba histolytica, with IC50s of 10.66 μM and 15.58 μM, respectively. The anti-Toxoplasma compounds identified in this study belong to scaffold types different from those of currently used drugs, underscoring their novelty and potential as starting points for the development of new antitoxoplasmosis drugs with novel modes of action. PMID:25049259

  15. Nitroimidazole carboxamides as antiparasitic agents targeting Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Jarrad, A M; Debnath, A; Miyamoto, Y; Hansford, K A; Pelingon, R; Butler, M S; Bains, T; Karoli, T; Blaskovich, M A T; Eckmann, L; Cooper, M A

    2016-09-14

    Diarrhoeal diseases caused by the intestinal parasites Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica constitute a major global health burden. Nitroimidazoles are first-line drugs for the treatment of giardiasis and amebiasis, with metronidazole 1 being the most commonly used drug worldwide. However, treatment failures in giardiasis occur in up to 20% of cases and development of resistance to metronidazole is of concern. We have re-examined 'old' nitroimidazoles as a foundation for the systematic development of next-generation derivatives. Using this approach, derivatisation of the nitroimidazole carboxamide scaffold provided improved antiparasitic agents. Thirty-three novel nitroimidazole carboxamides were synthesised and evaluated for activity against G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Several of the new compounds exhibited potent activity against G. lamblia strains, including metronidazole-resistant strains of G. lamblia (EC50 = 0.1-2.5 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 6.1-18 μM). Other compounds showed improved activity against E. histolytica (EC50 = 1.7-5.1 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 5.0 μM), potent activity against Trichomonas vaginalis (EC50 = 0.6-1.4 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 0.8 μM) and moderate activity against the intestinal bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile (0.5-2 μg/mL, cf. metronidazole = 0.5 μg/mL). The new compounds had low toxicity against mammalian kidney and liver cells (CC50 > 100 μM), and selected antiparasitic hits were assessed for human plasma protein binding and metabolic stability in liver microsomes to demonstrate their therapeutic potential. PMID:27236016

  16. Production of mouse monoclonal antibodies which inhibit in vitro adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    PubMed Central

    Ravdin, J I; Petri, W A; Murphy, C F; Smith, R D

    1986-01-01

    Adherence by axenic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to mammalian cells is mediated by an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-inhibitable adhesin on the surface of the parasite. We isolated 35 hybridoma cell lines producing antibodies to E. histolytica as indicated by ELISA with sonicated amebic protein or by immunofluorescence assay with fixed whole trophozoites. Tissue culture supernatants were further screened for subcloning by the ability to bind to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells which were first exposed to a partially purified soluble preparation of the amebic GalNAc-inhibitable lectin. Eight tissue culture supernatants were positive in this assay. Antibodies from four subcloned cell lines (D3-14, H8-5, I12-2, and I1-21) inhibited amebic adherence to CHO cells (P less than 0.01). Of the original 35 tissue culture supernatants, 3 also inhibited amebic adherence (P less than 0.01; F1, F14, and J10); monoclonal antibodies in these supernatants did not bind to lectin-exposed CHO cells. Three purified monoclonal antibodies (H8-5, I12-2, and I1-21) inhibited amebic adherence at greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/10(4) amebae (P less than 0.05). None of these inhibitory monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated with a soluble amebic protein preparation following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. Monoclonal antibodies which inhibit in vitro adherence by E. histolytica will be useful in purification of the GalNAc-inhibitable lectin. PMID:2873102

  17. Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to rat and human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Ravdin, J I; John, J E; Johnston, L I; Innes, D J; Guerrant, R L

    1985-01-01

    We studied the adherence of [3H]thymidine-labeled axenic Entamoeba histolytica (strain HM1-IMSS) to in vitro preparations of rat and human colonic mucosa. Studies were performed with fixed or unfixed rat colonic mucosa, unfixed rat mucosa exposed to trypsin, unfixed rat submucosa, and fixed human colonic mucosa. Twenty percent of the amebae adhered to fixed rat colonic mucosa; adherence was specifically inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), galactose, and asialofetuin. The adherence of amebae to fixed human colonic mucosa was also GalNAc inhibitable. Greater adherence was found with unfixed rat colonic mucosa (40.9%) and was not GalNAc inhibitable unless the tissue was first exposed to trypsin. However, GalNAc did inhibit the adherence of amebae to unfixed rat submucosa. Glutaraldehyde fixation of amebae inactivates known amebic adhesion proteins; there was a markedly decreased adherence of fixed amebae to trypsin-exposed mucosa or fixed rat colonic mucosa. However, fixed or viable amebae had equal levels of adherence to unfixed rat colonic mucosa, suggesting the presence of a host adhesion protein that binds to receptors on amebae. Human (10%) and rabbit (5%) immune sera reduced the adherence of viable amebae to fixed rat colonic mucosa. We concluded that the GalNAc-inhibitable adhesion protein on the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites mediated adherence to fixed rat mucosa, fixed human colonic mucosa, trypsin-exposed unfixed rat mucosa, and unfixed rat submucosa. The surface of unfixed rat colonic mucosa contained a glutaraldehyde- and trypsin-sensitive host adhesion protein, perhaps in the overlying mucus blanket, which bound viable or fixed E. histolytica trophozoites. Images PMID:2580787

  18. Data on docking and dynamics simulation of Entamoeba histolytica EhADH (an ALIX protein) and lysobisphosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Castro, Silvia; Montaño, Sarita; Orozco, Esther

    2016-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan agent responsible for human amoebiasis. Trophozoites are highly phagocytic cells and the lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) is involved in endocytosis. LBPA interacts with EhADH protein (an ALIX family member) also participating in phagocytosis, as it is referred in the research article Identification of the phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid in the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica: an active molecule in endocytosis (Castellanos-Castro et al., 2016) [1]. To unveil the interaction site between EhADH and LBPA, here we performed molecular modeling, dynamics simulation and docking. Molecular modeling and docking predictions revealed that EhADH interacts with LBPA through the Bro1 domain, located at the N-terminus of the protein and through the adherence domain at the C-terminus. In silico mutation abolished these interactions, supporting the data obtained in molecular dynamic and docking in silico assays. PMID:27014730

  19. Data on docking and dynamics simulation of Entamoeba histolytica EhADH (an ALIX protein) and lysobisphosphatidic acid

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Castro, Silvia; Montaño, Sarita; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan agent responsible for human amoebiasis. Trophozoites are highly phagocytic cells and the lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) is involved in endocytosis. LBPA interacts with EhADH protein (an ALIX family member) also participating in phagocytosis, as it is referred in the research article Identification of the phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid in the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica: an active molecule in endocytosis (Castellanos-Castro et al., 2016) [1]. To unveil the interaction site between EhADH and LBPA, here we performed molecular modeling, dynamics simulation and docking. Molecular modeling and docking predictions revealed that EhADH interacts with LBPA through the Bro1 domain, located at the N-terminus of the protein and through the adherence domain at the C-terminus. In silico mutation abolished these interactions, supporting the data obtained in molecular dynamic and docking in silico assays. PMID:27014730

  20. Identification of natural inhibitors of Entamoeba histolytica cysteine synthase from microbial secondary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Mihoko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Masuda, Yui; Sakai, Kazunari; Tsukui, Kumiko; Waluyo, Danang; Tarwadi; Watanabe, Yoshio; Nonaka, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuro

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is a common worldwide diarrheal disease, caused by the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole has been a drug of choice against amebiasis for decades despite its known side effects and low efficacy against asymptomatic cyst carriers. E. histolytica is also capable of surviving sub-therapeutic levels of metronidazole in vitro. Novel drugs with different mode of action are therefore urgently needed. The sulfur assimilatory de novo L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for various cellular activities, including the proliferation and anti-oxidative defense of E. histolytica. Since the pathway, consisting of two reactions catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase), does not exist in humans, it is a rational drug target against amebiasis. To discover inhibitors against the CS of E. histolytica (EhCS), the compounds of Kitasato Natural Products Library were screened against two recombinant CS isozymes: EhCS1 and EhCS3. Nine compounds inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3 with IC50 values of 0.31–490 μM. Of those, seven compounds share a naphthoquinone moiety, indicating the structural importance of the moiety for binding to the active site of EhCS1 and EhCS3. We further screened >9,000 microbial broths for CS inhibition and purified two compounds, xanthofulvin and exophillic acid from fungal broths. Xanthofulvin inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3. Exophillic acid showed high selectivity against EhCS1, but exhibited no inhibition against EhCS3. In vitro anti-amebic activity of the 11 EhCS inhibitors was also examined. Deacetylkinamycin C and nanaomycin A showed more potent amebicidal activity with IC50 values of 18 and 0.8 μM, respectively, in the cysteine deprived conditions. The differential sensitivity of trophozoites against deacetylkinamycin C in the presence or absence of L-cysteine in the medium and the IC50 values against EhCS suggest the amebicidal effect of deacetylkinamycin C is due to

  1. Technical advances in trigger-induced RNA interference gene silencing in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Foda, Bardees M; Suresh, Susmitha; Singh, Upinder

    2016-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica has a robust endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. There are abundant 27 nucleotide (nt) anti-sense small RNAs (AS sRNAs) that target genes for silencing and the genome encodes many genes involved in the RNAi pathway such as Argonaute proteins. Importantly, an E. histolytica gene with numerous AS sRNAs can function as a "trigger" to induce silencing of a gene that is fused to the trigger. Thus, the amebic RNAi pathway regulates gene expression relevant to amebic biology and has additionally been harnessed as a tool for genetic manipulation. In this study we have further improved the trigger-induced gene silencing method. We demonstrate that rather than using the full-length gene, a short portion of the coding region fused to a trigger is sufficient to induce silencing; the first 537 bp of the E. histolytica rhomboid gene (EhROM1) fused in-frame to the trigger was sufficient to silence EhROM1. We also demonstrated that the trigger method could silence two amebic genes concomitantly; fusion of the coding regions of EhROM1 and transcription factor, EhMyb, in-frame to a trigger gene resulted in both genes being silenced. Alternatively, two genes can be silenced sequentially: EhROM1-silenced parasites with no drug selection plasmid were transfected with trigger-EhMyb, resulting in parasites with both EhROM1 and EhMyb silenced. With all approaches tested, the trigger-mediated silencing was substantive and silencing was maintained despite loss of the G418 selectable marker. All gene silencing was associated with generation of AS sRNAs to the silenced gene. We tested the reversibility of the trigger system using inhibitors of histone modifications but found that the silencing was highly stable. This work represents a technical advance in the trigger gene silencing method in E. histolytica. Approaches that readily silence multiple genes add significantly to the genetic toolkit available to the ameba research community. PMID:26747561

  2. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica antigen in stool samples of humans.

    PubMed

    Baumann, D; Gottstein, B

    1987-06-01

    A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was developed to detect detergent-solubilized antigens of Entamoeba histolytica in stool samples of humans. The test system was evaluated for its methodical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In recovery experiments the lower limit of detection was 400 ng E. histolytica (HK9) protein/ml stool, corresponding to approximately 2000 amoebic trophozoites/ml stool. Samples of 97 patients with suspected intestinal amoebiasis were examined. Specific antigens were detected by ELISA (= positive reaction) in 14 (93%) out of 15 stool samples containing trophozoites of E. histolytica. In contrast, 68 (93%) of 73 samples with other protozoa, including Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba buetschlii and Giardia lamblia, did not react in the test system (= negative reaction). The test was shown to detect only trophozoites of E. histolytica and not the cyst stage. This fact could facilitate the differentiation between cyst carriers and persons excreting trophozoites. The results of this preliminary study justify a further large scale evaluation of the test system. PMID:2888183

  3. The epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in a rural and an urban area of Mexico. A pilot survey II.

    PubMed

    Sargeaunt, P G; Williams, J E; Bhojnani, R; Campos, J E; Gomez, A

    1982-01-01

    Stocks of intestinal amoebae grown in monoxenic culture, were compared against each other and against those previously reported from Mexico City. These were isolated from subjects in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas (rural area) and hospital patients in Merida, Yucatan (urban area). Electrophoretic patterns of the four enzymes: glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), L-malate: NADP+ oxido-reductase (oxalacetate-decarboxylating) (ME) and hexokinase (HK) demonstrated the presence of five groups (zymodemes) of Entamoeba histolytica already described from Mexico City, together with two new zymodemes, one of which gave a recognizable pathogenic pattern, whilst the other gave a contradictory pattern. Zymodemes of Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba buetschlii and Dientamoeba fragilis, previously described were also isolated. One new zymodeme of D. fragilis was demonstrated. PMID:6285556

  4. Computational prediction and validation of C/D, H/ACA and Eh_U3 snoRNAs of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Small nucleolar RNAs are a highly conserved group of small RNAs found in eukaryotic cells. Genes encoding these RNAs are diversely located throughout the genome. They are functionally conserved, performing post transcriptional modification (methylation and pseudouridylation) of rRNA and other nuclear RNAs. They belong to two major categories: the C/D box and H/ACA box containing snoRNAs. U3 snoRNA is an exceptional member of C/D box snoRNAs and is involved in early processing of pre-rRNA. An antisense sequence is present in each snoRNA which guides the modification or processing of target RNA. However, some snoRNAs lack this sequence and often they are called orphan snoRNAs. Results We have searched snoRNAs of Entamoeba histolytica from the genome sequence using computational programmes (snoscan and snoSeeker) and we obtained 99 snoRNAs (C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs) along with 5 copies of Eh_U3 snoRNAs. These are located diversely in the genome, mostly in intergenic regions, while some are found in ORFs of protein coding genes, intron and UTRs. The computationally predicted snoRNAs were validated by RT-PCR and northern blotting. The expected sizes were in agreement with the observed sizes for all C/D box snoRNAs tested, while for some of the H/ACA box there was indication of processing to generate shorter products. Conclusion Our results showed the presence of snoRNAs in E. histolytica, an early branching eukaryote, and the structural features of E. histolytica snoRNAs were well conserved when compared with yeast and human snoRNAs. This study will help in understanding the evolution of these conserved RNAs in diverse phylogenetic groups. PMID:22892049

  5. Unique Structural and Nucleotide Exchange Features of the Rho1 GTPase of Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, Dustin E.; Wittchen, Erika S.; Qiu, Connie; Burridge, Keith; Siderovski, David P.

    2012-08-10

    The single-celled human parasite Entamoeba histolytica possesses a dynamic actin cytoskeleton vital for its intestinal and systemic pathogenicity. The E. histolytica genome encodes several Rho family GTPases known to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. EhRho1, the first family member identified, was reported to be insensitive to the Rho GTPase-specific Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme, raising the possibility that it may be a misclassified Ras family member. Here, we report the crystal structures of EhRho1 in both active and inactive states. EhRho1 is activated by a conserved switch mechanism, but diverges from mammalian Rho GTPases in lacking a signature Rho insert helix. EhRho1 engages a homolog of mDia, EhFormin1, suggesting a role in mediating serum-stimulated actin reorganization and microtubule formation during mitosis. EhRho1, but not a constitutively active mutant, interacts with a newly identified EhRhoGDI in a prenylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, constitutively active EhRho1 induces actin stress fiber formation in mammalian fibroblasts, thereby identifying it as a functional Rho family GTPase. EhRho1 exhibits a fast rate of nucleotide exchange relative to mammalian Rho GTPases due to a distinctive switch one isoleucine residue reminiscent of the constitutively active F28L mutation in human Cdc42, which for the latter protein, is sufficient for cellular transformation. Nonconserved, nucleotide-interacting residues within EhRho1, revealed by the crystal structure models, were observed to contribute a moderating influence on fast spontaneous nucleotide exchange. Collectively, these observations indicate that EhRho1 is a bona fide member of the Rho GTPase family, albeit with unique structural and functional aspects compared with mammalian Rho GTPases.

  6. [A Case of Peristomal Cutaneous Ulcer Following Amebic Colitis Caused by Entamoeba histolytica].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Jun; Kobayashi, Seiki; Sato, Tomotaka

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese male with a history of a rectal ulcer and rectovesical fistula following brachytherapy and radiotherapy for prostate cancer, who had undergone colostomy and vesicotomy presented with a painful peristomal ulcer of approximately 5 x 2.5cm adjacent to the direction of 6 o'clock of the stoma in his left lower abdomen. Although he was admitted to be treated with intravenous antibiotics and topical debridement, the ulcer was rapidly increasing. In the laboratory findings, WBC was 12,400/μL, CRP was 16.9 mg/dL, ESR was 105mm in the first hour. Contrast enhanced CT images showed a wide high density area of skin and subcutaneous tissue around the stoma and dillitation of the transverse and descending colon. Colonoscopy showed furred profound ulcers in the rectum. A biopsy from the ulcer floor submitted to histopathology showed necrotic tissue with a mixed inflammatory infiltrates mainly composed of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the dermis. We suspected pyoderma gangrenosum with an inflammatory bowel disease in the beginning. Although he was started on oral prednisolone 60 mg daily, the ulcer did not respond to treatment. Additional methylprednisolone pulse therapy, intravenous cyclosporine and granulocytapheresis were also ineffective. A biopsy specimen from the skin ulcer margin showed erythrophagocytosis by trophozoites of amebae which were identified on PAS stained slides. The PCR method and stool examination showed positive for Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), but serum antibodies were negative. Within two weeks of treatment with oral metronidazole 2,250 mg/day and topical metronidazole ointment, resolution of the ulcer was observed, then the prednisolone dosage was tapered. A split-thickness skin graft was used to cover the ulcer with a successful result. Even though we originally misdiagnosed this case, we finally reached a diagnosis of amebiasis. It is important to take account of amebiasis in the differential diagnosis of intractable

  7. Relationship of free intracellular calcium to the cytolytic activity of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ravdin, J I; Moreau, F; Sullivan, J A; Petri, W A; Mandell, G L

    1988-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica adherence and destruction of host cells is required for in vivo pathogenicity; amebic in vitro adherence is mediated by a galactose- or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable surface lectin (Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin). Free intracellular Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) was measured in living amebae and target cells during amebic cytolysis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by utilizing the Ca2+ probe Fura-2 and computer-enhanced digitized microscopy. Motile E. histolytica trophozoites had oscillatory increases in [Ca2+]i in head or tail regions; however, there was no increase in regional or total amebic [Ca2+]i upon contact with a target CHO cell. Target CHO cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophils demonstrated marked irreversible increases in [Ca2+]i within 30 to 300 s following contact by an ameba (P less than 0.01); increased [Ca2+]i preceded the occurrence of nonspecific surface membrane permeability and death of the target cell. Target CHO cells contiguous on a monolayer to a cell contacted by an ameba experienced a rapid but reversible rise in [Ca2+]i (P less than 0.01) and were not killed. Galactose (40 mg/ml) totally abrogated the rise in target CHO cell [Ca2+]i that followed contact by amebae (P less than 0.01); immunoaffinity-purified amebic Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin (0.25 micrograms/ml) induced a rapid and reversible rise in CHO cell [Ca2+]i (P less than 0.01) which was inhibited by galactose. Amebic [Ca2+]i was not elevated following parasite adherence to target cells; a rapid and substantial rise in target cell [Ca2+]i occurred which was mediated, at least in part, by the Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin of the parasite and led to the death of target cells. PMID:2897335

  8. Relationship of free intracellular calcium to the cytolytic activity of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Ravdin, J I; Moreau, F; Sullivan, J A; Petri, W A; Mandell, G L

    1988-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica adherence and destruction of host cells is required for in vivo pathogenicity; amebic in vitro adherence is mediated by a galactose- or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable surface lectin (Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin). Free intracellular Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) was measured in living amebae and target cells during amebic cytolysis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by utilizing the Ca2+ probe Fura-2 and computer-enhanced digitized microscopy. Motile E. histolytica trophozoites had oscillatory increases in [Ca2+]i in head or tail regions; however, there was no increase in regional or total amebic [Ca2+]i upon contact with a target CHO cell. Target CHO cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophils demonstrated marked irreversible increases in [Ca2+]i within 30 to 300 s following contact by an ameba (P less than 0.01); increased [Ca2+]i preceded the occurrence of nonspecific surface membrane permeability and death of the target cell. Target CHO cells contiguous on a monolayer to a cell contacted by an ameba experienced a rapid but reversible rise in [Ca2+]i (P less than 0.01) and were not killed. Galactose (40 mg/ml) totally abrogated the rise in target CHO cell [Ca2+]i that followed contact by amebae (P less than 0.01); immunoaffinity-purified amebic Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin (0.25 micrograms/ml) induced a rapid and reversible rise in CHO cell [Ca2+]i (P less than 0.01) which was inhibited by galactose. Amebic [Ca2+]i was not elevated following parasite adherence to target cells; a rapid and substantial rise in target cell [Ca2+]i occurred which was mediated, at least in part, by the Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin of the parasite and led to the death of target cells. Images PMID:2897335

  9. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens Using the Triage Parasite Panel Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Shimizu, Robyn Y.; Bernard, Caroline N.

    2000-01-01

    The Triage parasite panel (BIOSITE Diagnostics, San Diego, Calif.) is a new qualitative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) panel for the detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum in fresh or fresh, frozen, unfixed human fecal specimens. By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are captured and immobilized on a membrane. Panel performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (a total of 444 specimens) that were tested by the standard ova and parasite (O&P) examination as the “gold standard,” including staining with both trichrome and modified acid-fast stains. Specimens with discrepant results between the reference and Triage methods were retested by a different method, either EIA or immunofluorescence. A number of samples with discrepant results with the Triage device were confirmed to be true positives. After resolution of discrepant results, the number of positive specimens and the sensitivity and specificity results were as follows: for G. lamblia, 170, 95.9%, and 97.4%, respectively; for E. histolytica/E. dispar, 99, 96.0%, and 99.1%, respectively; and for C. parvum, 60, 98.3%, and 99.7%, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with other parasites found in stool specimens, including eight different protozoa (128 challenges) and three different helminths (83 challenges). The ability to perform the complete O&P examination should remain an option for those patients with negative parasite panel results but who are still symptomatic. PMID:10970380

  10. Proteomic Study of Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites, Cysts, and Cyst-Like Structures.

    PubMed

    Luna-Nácar, Milka; Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Carrero, Julio C

    2016-01-01

    The cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica is a promising therapeutic target against human amoebiasis. Our research team previously reported the production in vitro of Cyst-Like Structures (CLS) sharing structural features with cysts, including rounded shape, size reduction, multinucleation, and the formation of a chitin wall coupled to the overexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate isomerase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the chitin synthesis pathway. A proteomic study of E. histolytica trophozoites, cysts, and in vitro-produced CLS is reported herein to determine the nature of CLS, widen our knowledge on the cyst stage, and identify possible proteins and pathways involved in the encystment process. Total protein extracts were obtained from E. histolytica trophozoites, CLS, and partially purified cysts recovered from the feces of amoebic human patients; extracts were trypsin-digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, 1029 proteins were identified in trophozoites, 550 in CLS, and 411 in cysts, with 539, 299, and 84 proteins unique to each sample, respectively, and only 74 proteins shared by all three stages. About 70% of CLS proteins were shared with trophozoites, even though differences were observed in the relative protein abundance. While trophozoites showed a greater abundance of proteins associated to a metabolically active cell, CLS showed higher expression of proteins related to proteolysis, redox homeostasis, and stress response. In addition, the expression of genes encoding for the cyst wall proteins Jessie and Jacob was detected by RT-PCR and the Jacob protein identified by Western blotting and immunofluorescence in CLS. However, the proteomic profile of cysts as determined by LC-MS/MS was very dissimilar to that of trophozoites and CLS, with almost 40% of hypothetical proteins. Our global results suggest that CLS are more alike to trophozoites than to cysts, and they could be generated as a rapid survival response of trophozoites to a stressful condition

  11. Proteomic Study of Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites, Cysts, and Cyst-Like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Nácar, Milka; Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Carrero, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    The cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica is a promising therapeutic target against human amoebiasis. Our research team previously reported the production in vitro of Cyst-Like Structures (CLS) sharing structural features with cysts, including rounded shape, size reduction, multinucleation, and the formation of a chitin wall coupled to the overexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate isomerase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the chitin synthesis pathway. A proteomic study of E. histolytica trophozoites, cysts, and in vitro-produced CLS is reported herein to determine the nature of CLS, widen our knowledge on the cyst stage, and identify possible proteins and pathways involved in the encystment process. Total protein extracts were obtained from E. histolytica trophozoites, CLS, and partially purified cysts recovered from the feces of amoebic human patients; extracts were trypsin-digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, 1029 proteins were identified in trophozoites, 550 in CLS, and 411 in cysts, with 539, 299, and 84 proteins unique to each sample, respectively, and only 74 proteins shared by all three stages. About 70% of CLS proteins were shared with trophozoites, even though differences were observed in the relative protein abundance. While trophozoites showed a greater abundance of proteins associated to a metabolically active cell, CLS showed higher expression of proteins related to proteolysis, redox homeostasis, and stress response. In addition, the expression of genes encoding for the cyst wall proteins Jessie and Jacob was detected by RT-PCR and the Jacob protein identified by Western blotting and immunofluorescence in CLS. However, the proteomic profile of cysts as determined by LC-MS/MS was very dissimilar to that of trophozoites and CLS, with almost 40% of hypothetical proteins. Our global results suggest that CLS are more alike to trophozoites than to cysts, and they could be generated as a rapid survival response of trophozoites to a stressful condition

  12. Detection of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport in Entamoeba histolytica and Characterization of the EhVps4 Protein

    PubMed Central

    López-Reyes, Israel; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Bañuelos, Cecilia; Herranz, Silvia; Vincent, Olivier; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A.; Orozco, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic endocytosis involves multivesicular bodies formation, which is driven by endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT). Here, we showed the presence and expression of homologous ESCRT genes in Entamoeba histolytica. We cloned and expressed the Ehvps4 gene, an ESCRT member, to obtain the recombinant EhVps4 and generate specific antibodies, which immunodetected EhVps4 in cytoplasm of trophozoites. Bioinformatics and biochemical studies evidenced that rEhVps4 is an ATPase, whose activity depends on the conserved E211 residue. Next, we generated trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4 and mutant EhVps4-E211Q FLAG-tagged proteins. The EhVps4-FLAG was located in cytosol and at plasma membrane, whereas the EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG was detected as abundant cytoplasmic dots in trophozoites. Erythrophagocytosis, cytopathic activity, and hepatic damage in hamsters were not improved in trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4-FLAG. In contrast, EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG protein overexpression impaired these properties. The localization of EhVps4-FLAG around ingested erythrocytes, together with our previous results, strengthens the role for EhVps4 in E. histolytica phagocytosis and virulence. PMID:20508821

  13. cDNA sequence analysis of a 29-kDa cysteine-rich surface antigen of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Torian, B.E.; Stroeher, V.L.; Stamm, W.E. ); Flores, B.M. ); Hagen, F.S. )

    1990-08-01

    A {lambda}gt11 cDNA library was constructed from poly(U)-Spharose-selected Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite RNA in order to clone and identify surface antigens. The library was screened with rabbit polyclonal anti-E. histolytica serum. A 700-base-pair cDNA insert was isolated and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA revealed a cysteine-rich protein. DNA hybridizations showed that the gene was specific to E. histolytica since the cDNA probe reacted with DNA from four axenic strains of E. histolytica but did not react with DNA from Entamoeba invadens, Acanthamoeba castellanii, or Trichomonas vaginalis. The insert was subcloned into the expression vector pGEX-1 and the protein was expressed as a fusion with the C terminus of glutathione S-transferase. Purified fusion protein was used to generate 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a mouse polyclonal antiserum specific for the E. histolytica portion of the fusion protein. A 29-kDa protein was identified as a surface antigen when mAbs were used to immunoprecipitate the antigen from metabolically {sup 35}S-labeled live trophozoites. The surface location of the antigen was corroborated by mAb immunoprecipitation of a 29-kDa protein from surface-{sup 125}I-labeled whole trophozoites as well as by the reaction of mAbs with live trophozoites in an indirect immunofluorescence assay performed at 4{degree}C. Immunoblotting with mAbs demonstrated that the antigen was present on four axenic isolates tested. mAbs recognized epitopes on the 29-kDa native antigen on some but not all clinical isolates tested.

  14. In vivo identification of the steps that control energy metabolism and survival of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Erika; Encalada, Rusely; Vázquez, Citlali; Néquiz, Mario; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The steps that control the Entamoeba histolytica glycolytic flux were here identified by elasticity analysis, an experimental approach of metabolic control analysis. The concentrations of glycolytic metabolites were gradually varied in live trophozoites by (a) feeding with different glucose concentrations and (b) inhibiting the final pathway steps; in parallel, the changes in the pathway flux were determined. From the metabolite concentration-flux relationship, the elasticity coefficients of individual or groups of pathway reactions were determined and used to calculate their respective degrees of control on the glycolytic flux (flux control coefficients). The results indicated that the pathway flux was mainly controlled (72-86%) by the glucose transport/hexokinase/glycogen degradation group of reactions and by bifunctional aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE; 18%). Further, inhibition of the first pathway reactions with 2-deoxyglucose (2DOG) decreased the glycolytic flux and ATP content by 75% and 50%, respectively. Cell viability was also decreased by 2DOG (25%) and more potently (50%) by 2DOG plus the ADHE inhibitor tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram). Biosate as an alternative carbon (amino acid) source was unable to replace glucose for ATP supply, which indicated that glucose was the main nutrient for amoebal ATP synthesis and survival. These results indicated that glycolysis in the parasite is mainly controlled by the initial pathway reactions and that their inhibition can decrease the parasite energy load and survival. PMID:25350227

  15. Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of an NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Bruchhaus, I; Richter, S; Tannich, E

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding a putative NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (Eh34) was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein (recEh34) has a molecular mass of about 35 kDa upon SDS/PAGE analysis, exhibits a flavoprotein-like absorption spectrum and contains 1 mol of non-covalently bound FMN per mol of protein. RecEh34 reveals two different enzymic activities. It catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well as of disulphides such as 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and cystine. The disulphide reductase but not the H2O2-forming NADPH oxidase activity is inhibitable by sulphydryl-active compounds, indicating that a thiol component is part of the active site for the disulphide reductase activity, whereas for the H2O2-forming NADPH oxidase activity only the flavin is required. Compared with the recombinant protein, similar activities are present in amoebic extracts. Native Eh34 is active in a monomeric as well as in a dimeric state. In contrast to recEh34, no flavin was associated with the native protein. However, both NADPH oxidase as well as DTNB reductase activity were found to be dependent on the addition of FAD or FMN. PMID:9494088

  16. Calpain-like: A Ca(2+) dependent cystein protease in Entamoeba histolytica cell death.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Virginia Sánchez; Flores, Olivia Medel; García, Consuelo Gómez; Maya, Yesenia Chávez; Fernández, Tania Domínguez; Pérez Ishiwara, D Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    Entamoeba histolytica programmed cell death (PCD) induced by G418 is characterized by the release of important amounts of intracellular calcium from reservoirs. Nevertheless, no typical caspases have been detected in the parasite, the PCD phenotype is inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64. These results strongly suggest that Ca(2+)-dependent proteases could be involved in PCD. In this study, we evaluate the expression and activity of a specific dependent Ca(2+) protease, the calpain-like protease, by real-time quantitative PCR (RTq-PCR), Western blot assays and a enzymatic method during the induction of PCD by G418. Alternatively, using cell viability and TUNEL assays, we also demonstrated that the Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al calpain inhibitor reduced the rate of cell death. The results demonstrated 4.9-fold overexpression of calpain-like gene 1.5 h after G418 PCD induction, while calpain-like protein increased almost two-fold with respect to basal calpain-like expression after 3 h of induction, and calpain activity was found to be approximately three-fold higher 6 h after treatment compared with untreated trophozoites. Taken together, these results suggest that this Ca(2+)-dependent protease could be involved in the executory phase of PCD. PMID:26496790

  17. Identification of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar cysts in stool by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, J; Asai, T; Okuzawa, E; Kobayashi, S; Takeuchi, T

    1997-01-01

    An attempt to identify cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar in human stool was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers (p11 plus p12 and p13 plus p14) specific for either species of ameba. The cysts in stool specimens obtained from 12 infected individuals were concentrated, freeze-thawed, and treated with Triton X-100 before their examination by PCR. The results of PCR on the cysts were generally consistent with data obtained by PCR on ameba trophozoites hatched from the cysts, by zymodeme analysis, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and with clinical findings. This PCR was negative for the stool containing large numbers of cysts of either E. coli, E. hartmanni, or Giardia lamblia as well as for the stool specimens obtained from uninfected individuals. The ameba cyst in stool processed using the present method was effective for the PCR analysis even after 1 month of storage at 4 degrees C. The present PCR was sensitive enough to detect ten cysts of either of the amebae. PMID:9000244

  18. Activity, stability and folding analysis of the chitinase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricia L A; Minchaca, Alexis Z; Mares, Rosa E; Ramos, Marco A

    2016-02-01

    Human amebiasis, caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, remains as a significant public health issue in developing countries. The life cycle of the parasite compromises two main stages, trophozoite and cyst, linked by two major events: encystation and excystation. Interestingly, the cyst stage has a chitin wall that helps the parasite to withstand harsh environmental conditions. Since the amebic chitinase, EhCHT1, has been recognized as a key player in both encystation and excystation, it is plausible to consider that specific inhibition could arrest the life cycle of the parasite and, thus, stop the infection. However, to selectively target EhCHT1 it is important to recognize its unique biochemical features to have the ability to control its cellular function. Hence, to gain further insights into the structure-function relationship, we conducted an experimental approach to examine the effects of pH, temperature, and denaturant concentration on the enzymatic activity and protein stability. Additionally, dependence on in vivo oxidative folding was further studied using a bacterial model. Our results attest the potential of EhCHT1 as a target for the design and development of new or improved anti-amebic therapeutics. Likewise, the potential of the oxidoreductase EhPDI, involved in oxidative folding of amebic proteins, was also confirmed. PMID:26526675

  19. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz-Estrada, Guillermo; Calderón-Salinas, Víctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; León-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar Kd. However, averages of 9.45 × 105 and 6.65 × 106 binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae. PMID:26090404

  20. Flavodiiron oxygen reductase from Entamoeba histolytica: modulation of substrate preference by tyrosine 271 and lysine 53.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Vera L; Vicente, João B; Pinto, Liliana; Romão, Célia V; Frazão, Carlos; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro; Teixeira, Miguel

    2014-10-10

    Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are a family of enzymes endowed with bona fide oxygen- and/or nitric-oxide reductase activity, although their substrate specificity determinants remain elusive. After a comprehensive comparison of available three-dimensional structures, particularly of FDPs with a clear preference toward either O2 or NO, two main differences were identified near the diiron active site, which led to the construction of site-directed mutants of Tyr(271) and Lys(53) in the oxygen reducing Entamoeba histolytica EhFdp1. The biochemical and biophysical properties of these mutants were studied by UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies coupled to potentiometry. Their reactivity with O2 and NO was analyzed by stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy and amperometric methods. These mutations, whereas keeping the overall properties of the redox cofactors, resulted in increased NO reductase activity and faster inactivation of the enzyme in the reaction with O2, pointing to a role of the mutated residues in substrate selectivity. PMID:25151360

  1. Identification of a pathogenic isolate-specific 30,000-Mr antigen of Entamoeba histolytica by using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, H; Kobayashi, S; Kato, Y; Nagakura, K; Kaneda, Y; Takeuchi, T

    1990-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) produced against trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica strain HM-1:IMSS, reacted with all of 42 isolates and 4 clones showing pathogenic zymodeme (Z) patterns, i.e., Z-II, Z-II alpha-, Z-II (glucose phosphate isomerase: gamma +), Z-VII, Z-VII (glucose phosphate isomerase: alpha lack, gamma +), Z-XI, Z-XIV, and Z-XIX, regardless of culture conditions, geographical origins, or host symptoms in an indirect fluorescence antibody test. In contrast, the MAb failed to react with 14 isolates possessing nonpathogenic zymodemes Z-I and Z-VIII and did not react with other enteric protozoan parasites, such as E. histolytica-like Laredo, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Dientamoeba fragilis, Trichomonas hominis, and Giardia lamblia. Western immunoblotting analysis showed that the molecular weight of the antigenic component recognized by the MAb was exclusively 30,000 in pathogenic isolates of different zymodemes. These results suggest that the 30,000-molecular-weight antigen is a marker of pathogenic isolates and that the indirect fluorescent-antibody test with the MAb is useful for the accurate discrimination of pathogenic amebae. PMID:2180826

  2. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway.

    PubMed

    Foda, Bardees M; Singh, Upinder

    2015-08-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5'-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica. PMID:26149683

  3. TNFα-Mediated Liver Destruction by Kupffer Cells and Ly6Chi Monocytes during Entamoeba histolytica Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Thomas; Ittrich, Harald; Jacobs, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg; Tacke, Frank; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore

    2013-01-01

    Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is a focal destruction of liver tissue due to infection by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Host tissue damage is attributed mainly to parasite pathogenicity factors, but massive early accumulation of mononuclear cells, including neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes and macrophages, at the site of infection raises the question of whether these cells also contribute to tissue damage. Using highly selective depletion strategies and cell-specific knockout mice, the relative contribution of innate immune cell populations to liver destruction during amebic infection was investigated. Neutrophils were not required for amebic infection nor did they appear to be substantially involved in tissue damage. In contrast, Kupffer cells and inflammatory monocytes contributed substantially to liver destruction during ALA, and tissue damage was mediated primarily by TNFα. These data indicate that besides direct antiparasitic drugs, modulating innate immune responses may potentially be beneficial in limiting ALA pathogenesis. PMID:23300453

  4. The 25 kDa Subunit of Cleavage Factor Im Is a RNA-Binding Protein That Interacts with the Poly(A) Polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Ramírez-Moreno, María Esther; Orozco, Esther; Charcas-López, Socorro; Soto-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; López-Casamicha, Mavil; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3´ end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25) from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X) domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25) was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A) polymerase (EhPAP) that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A) tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3´ end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite. PMID:23840799

  5. The 25 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im Is a RNA-binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; Ospina-Villa, Juan David; Ramírez-Moreno, María Esther; Orozco, Esther; Charcas-López, Socorro; Soto-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; López-Casamicha, Mavil; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25) from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X) domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25) was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A) polymerase (EhPAP) that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A) tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A) polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite. PMID:23840799

  6. Small GTPase Rab21 Mediates Fibronectin Induced Actin Reorganization in Entamoeba histolytica: Implications in Pathogen Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Merlyn; Nakano, Yumiko Saito; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Datta, Sunando

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes a wide spectrum of intestinal infections. In severe cases, the trophozoites can breach the mucosal barrier, invade the intestinal epithelium and travel via the portal circulation to the liver, where they cause hepatic abscesses, which can prove fatal if left untreated. The host Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in amoebic invasion by triggering an array of cellular responses in the parasite, including induction of actin rich adhesion structures. Similar actin rich protrusive structures, known as ‘invadosomes’, promote chemotactic migration of the metastatic cancer cells and non-transformed cells by remodeling the ECM. Recent studies showed a central role for Rab GTPases, the master regulators of vesicular trafficking, in biogenesis of invadosomes. Here, we showed that fibronectin, a major host ECM component induced actin remodeling in the parasite in a Rab21 dependent manner. The focalized actin structures formed were reminiscent of the mammalian invadosomes. By using various approaches, such as immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, along with in vitro invasion assay and matrix degradation assay, we show that the fibronectin induced formation of amoebic actin dots depend on the nucleotide status of the GTPase. The ECM components, fibronectin and collagen type I, displayed differential control over the formation of actin dots, with fibronectin positively and collagen type I negatively modulating it. The cell surface adhesion molecule Gal/GalNAc complex was also found to impose additional regulation on this process, which might have implication in collagen type I mediated suppression of actin dots. PMID:25730114

  7. Functional manipulation of a calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica guided by paramagnetic NMR.

    PubMed

    Rout, Ashok K; Patel, Sunita; Somlata; Shukla, Manish; Saraswathi, Deepa; Bhattacharya, Alok; Chary, Kandala V R

    2013-08-01

    EhCaBP1, one of the calcium-binding proteins from Entamoeba histolytica, is a two-domain EF-hand protein. The two domains of EhCaBP1 are structurally and functionally different from each other. However, both domains are required for structural stability and a full range of functional diversity. Analysis of sequence and structure of EhCaBP1 and other CaBPs indicates that the C-terminal domain of EhCaBP1 possesses a unique structure compared with other family members. This had been attributed to the absence of a Phe-Phe interaction between highly conserved Phe residues at the -4 position in EF-hand III (F[-4]; Tyr(81)) and at the 13th position in EF-hand IV (F[+13]; Phe(129)) of the C-terminal domain. Against this backdrop, we mutated the Tyr residue at the -4th position of EF III to the Phe residue (Y81F), to bring in the Phe-Phe interaction and understand the nature of structural and functional changes in the protein by NMR spectroscopy, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and biological assays, such as imaging and actin binding. The Y81F mutation in EhCaBP1 resulted in a more compact structure for the C-terminal domain of the mutant as in the case of calmodulin and troponin C. The compact structure is favored by the presence of a π-π interaction between Phe(81) and Phe(129) along with several hydrophobic interactions of Phe(81), which are not seen in the wild-type protein. Furthermore, the biological assays reveal preferential membrane localization of the mutant, loss of its colocalization with actin in the phagocytic cups, whereas retaining its ability to bind G- and F-actin. PMID:23782698

  8. A novel nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Krishna; Parija, Subhash C

    2007-01-01

    Background E. histolytica, a pathogenic amoeba, is indistinguishable in its cyst and trophozoite stages from those of non-pathogenic E. moshkovskii and E. dispar by light microscopy. We have developed a nested multiplex PCR targeting a 16S-like rRNA gene for differential detection of all the three morphologically similar forms of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar simultaneously in stool samples. Results The species specific product size for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar was 439, 553 and 174 bp respectively, which was clearly different for all the three Entamoeba species. The nested multiplex PCR showed a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the demonstration of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples. The PCR was positive for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar in a total of 190 out of 202 stool specimens (94% sensitive) that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture. All the 35 negative control stool samples that were negative for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by microscopy and culture were also found negative by the nested multiplex PCR (100% specific). The result from the study shows that only 34.6% of the patient stool samples that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture, were actually positive for pathogenic E. histolytica and the remaining majority of the stool samples were positive for non-pathogenic E. dispar or E. moshkovskii as demonstrated by the use of nested multiplex PCR. Conclusion The present study reports a new nested multiplex PCR strategy for species specific detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii DNA in stool specimens. The test is highly specific, sensitive and also rapid, providing the results within 12 hours of receiving stool specimens. PMID:17524135

  9. mRNA Decay Proteins Are Targeted to poly(A)+ RNA and dsRNA-Containing Cytoplasmic Foci That Resemble P-Bodies in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    López-Rosas, Itzel; Orozco, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A.; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Guillen, Nancy; Weber, Christian; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Hernández de la Cruz, Olga; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; López-Camarillo, César

    2012-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing occur in cytoplasmic foci referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies). In protozoan parasites, the presence of P-bodies and their putative role in mRNA decay have yet to be comprehensively addressed. Identification of P-bodies might provide information on how mRNA degradation machineries evolved in lower eukaryotes. Here, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy assays to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA degradation proteins in the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica and found evidence of the existence of P-bodies. Two mRNA decay factors, namely the EhXRN2 exoribonuclease and the EhDCP2 decapping enzyme, were localized in cytoplasmic foci in a pattern resembling P-body organization. Given that amoebic foci appear to be smaller and less rounded than those described in higher eukaryotes, we have named them “P-body-like structures”. These foci contain additional mRNA degradation factors, including the EhCAF1 deadenylase and the EhAGO2-2 protein involved in RNA interference. Biochemical analysis revealed that EhCAF1 co-immunoprecipitated with EhXRN2 but not with EhDCP2 or EhAGO2-2, thus linking deadenylation to 5′-to-3′ mRNA decay. The number of EhCAF1-containing foci significantly decreased after inhibition of transcription and translation with actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively. Furthermore, results of RNA-FISH assays showed that (i) EhCAF1 colocalized with poly(A)+ RNA and (ii) during silencing of the Ehpc4 gene by RNA interference, EhAGO2-2 colocalized with small interfering RNAs in cytoplasmic foci. Our observation of decapping, deadenylation and RNA interference proteins within P-body-like foci suggests that these structures have been conserved after originating in the early evolution of eukaryotic lineages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the localization of mRNA decay proteins within P-body-like structures

  10. Antiamoebic Activity of Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother and Its Effect on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Mayra; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica I; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Calderón-Oropeza, Mónica A; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, the Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother plant is consumed as an infusion to treat intestinal diseases such as amoebiasis, which is an endemic health problem in Mexico and other countries. However, the effect of A. aurantium on Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is unknown. An aerial part methanolic extract (AaMeA), a root methanolic extract (AaMeR) and a root ethyl acetate extract (AaEaR) were tested on E. histolytica trophozoites. AaMeA and AaMeR did not show antiproliferative activity; however, AaEaR exhibited an in vitro GI50 of 230 μg/ml, and it was able to inhibit the differentiation of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites into cysts. The intraperitoneal administration of AaEaR (2.5 or 5 mg) to hamsters that were infected with E. histolytica inhibited the development of amoebic liver abscesses in 48.5 or 89.0% of the animals, respectively. Adhesion to fibronectin and erythrophagocytosis were 28.7 and 37.5% inhibited by AaEaR, respectively. An ultrastructure analysis of AaEaR-treated trophozoites shows a decrease in the number of vacuoles but no apparent cell damage. Moreover, this extract affected the actin cytoskeleton structuration, and it prevented the formation of contractile rings by mechanism(s) that were independent of reactive oxygen species and RhoA activation pathways. (13)C NMR data showed that the major compounds in the AaEaR extract are thiophenes. Our results suggest that AaEaR may be effective in treatments against amoebiasis, nevertheless, detailed toxicity studies on thiophenes, contained in AaEaR, are required to avoid misuse of this vegetal species. PMID:27445810

  11. Antiamoebic Activity of Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother and Its Effect on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Martínez, Mayra; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica I.; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Calderón-Oropeza, Mónica A.; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, the Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother plant is consumed as an infusion to treat intestinal diseases such as amoebiasis, which is an endemic health problem in Mexico and other countries. However, the effect of A. aurantium on Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is unknown. An aerial part methanolic extract (AaMeA), a root methanolic extract (AaMeR) and a root ethyl acetate extract (AaEaR) were tested on E. histolytica trophozoites. AaMeA and AaMeR did not show antiproliferative activity; however, AaEaR exhibited an in vitro GI50 of 230 μg/ml, and it was able to inhibit the differentiation of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites into cysts. The intraperitoneal administration of AaEaR (2.5 or 5 mg) to hamsters that were infected with E. histolytica inhibited the development of amoebic liver abscesses in 48.5 or 89.0% of the animals, respectively. Adhesion to fibronectin and erythrophagocytosis were 28.7 and 37.5% inhibited by AaEaR, respectively. An ultrastructure analysis of AaEaR-treated trophozoites shows a decrease in the number of vacuoles but no apparent cell damage. Moreover, this extract affected the actin cytoskeleton structuration, and it prevented the formation of contractile rings by mechanism(s) that were independent of reactive oxygen species and RhoA activation pathways. 13C NMR data showed that the major compounds in the AaEaR extract are thiophenes. Our results suggest that AaEaR may be effective in treatments against amoebiasis, nevertheless, detailed toxicity studies on thiophenes, contained in AaEaR, are required to avoid misuse of this vegetal species. PMID:27445810

  12. Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewski, Brett; Odundo, Elizabeth; Ndonye, Janet; Kirera, Ronald; Odhiambo, Cliff; Oaks, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination) via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California) is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination. PMID:22848229

  13. Interaction between Nbp35 and Cfd1 Proteins of Cytosolic Fe-S Cluster Assembly Reveals a Stable Complex Formation in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Shadab; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Kar, Rajiv Kumar; Zaidi, Amir; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Roy, Awadh Kishore; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Das, Pradeep; Ali, Vahab

    2014-01-01

    Iron-Sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are involved in many biological functions such as electron transport, photosynthesis, regulation of gene expression and enzymatic activities. Biosynthesis and transfer of Fe-S clusters depend on Fe-S clusters assembly processes such as ISC, SUF, NIF, and CIA systems. Unlike other eukaryotes which possess ISC and CIA systems, amitochondriate Entamoeba histolytica has retained NIF & CIA systems for Fe-S cluster assembly in the cytosol. In the present study, we have elucidated interaction between two proteins of E. histolytica CIA system, Cytosolic Fe-S cluster deficient 1 (Cfd1) protein and Nucleotide binding protein 35 (Nbp35). In-silico analysis showed that structural regions ranging from amino acid residues (P33-K35, G131-V135 and I147-E151) of Nbp35 and (G5-V6, M34-D39 and G46-A52) of Cfd1 are involved in the formation of protein-protein complex. Furthermore, Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations study suggested that hydrophobic forces surpass over hydrophilic forces between Nbp35 and Cfd1 and Van-der-Waal interaction plays crucial role in the formation of stable complex. Both proteins were separately cloned, expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by affinity column chromatography. Physical interaction between Nbp35 and Cfd1 proteins was confirmed in vitro by co-purification of recombinant Nbp35 with thrombin digested Cfd1 and in vivo by pull down assay and immunoprecipitation. The insilico, in vitro as well as in vivo results prove a stable interaction between these two proteins, supporting the possibility of its involvement in Fe-S cluster transfer to target apo-proteins through CIA machinery in E. histolytica. Our study indicates that initial synthesis of a Fe-S precursor in mitochondria is not necessary for the formation of Cfd1-Nbp35 complex. Thus, Cfd1 and Nbp35 with the help of cytosolic NifS and NifU proteins can participate in the maturation of non-mitosomal Fe-S proteins without any

  14. New Assembly, Reannotation and Analysis of the Entamoeba histolytica Genome Reveal New Genomic Features and Protein Content Information

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Hernan A.; Puiu, Daniela; Miller, Jason R.; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Amedeo, Paolo; Hall, Neil; Caler, Elisabet V.

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to maintain genome information accurately and relevantly, original genome annotations need to be updated and evaluated regularly. Manual reannotation of genomes is important as it can significantly reduce the propagation of errors and consequently diminishes the time spent on mistaken research. For this reason, after five years from the initial submission of the Entamoeba histolytica draft genome publication, we have re-examined the original 23 Mb assembly and the annotation of the predicted genes. Principal Findings The evaluation of the genomic sequence led to the identification of more than one hundred artifactual tandem duplications that were eliminated by re-assembling the genome. The reannotation was done using a combination of manual and automated genome analysis. The new 20 Mb assembly contains 1,496 scaffolds and 8,201 predicted genes, of which 60% are identical to the initial annotation and the remaining 40% underwent structural changes. Functional classification of 60% of the genes was modified based on recent sequence comparisons and new experimental data. We have assigned putative function to 3,788 proteins (46% of the predicted proteome) based on the annotation of predicted gene families, and have identified 58 protein families of five or more members that share no homology with known proteins and thus could be entamoeba specific. Genome analysis also revealed new features such as the presence of segmental duplications of up to 16 kb flanked by inverted repeats, and the tight association of some gene families with transposable elements. Significance This new genome annotation and analysis represents a more refined and accurate blueprint of the pathogen genome, and provides an upgraded tool as reference for the study of many important aspects of E. histolytica biology, such as genome evolution and pathogenesis. PMID:20559563

  15. EhADH112 Is a Bro1 Domain-Containing Protein Involved in the Entamoeba histolytica Multivesicular Bodies Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Cecilia; García-Rivera, Guillermina; López-Reyes, Israel; Mendoza, Leobardo; González-Robles, Arturo; Herranz, Silvia; Vincent, Olivier; Orozco, Esther

    2012-01-01

    EhADH112 is an Entamoeba histolytica Bro1 domain-containing protein, structurally related to mammalian ALIX and yeast BRO1, both involved in the Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT)-mediated multivesicular bodies (MVB) biogenesis. Here, we investigated an alternative role for EhADH112 in the MVB protein trafficking pathway by overexpressing 166 amino acids of its N-terminal Bro1 domain in trophozoites. Trophozoites displayed diminished phagocytosis rates and accumulated exogenous Bro1 at cytoplasmic vesicles which aggregated into aberrant complexes at late stages of phagocytosis, probably preventing EhADH112 function. Additionally, the existence of a putative E. histolytica ESCRT-III subunit (EhVps32) presumably interacting with EhADH112, led us to perform pull-down experiments with GST-EhVps32 and [35S]-labeled EhADH112 or EhADH112 derivatives, confirming EhVps32 binding to EhADH112 through its Bro1 domain. Our overall results define EhADH112 as a novel member of ESCRT-accessory proteins transiently present at cellular surface and endosomal compartments, probably contributing to MVB formation during phagocytosis. PMID:22500103

  16. Virtual screening, identification and in vitro testing of novel inhibitors of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Isha; Raj, Isha; Subbarao, Naidu; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2012-01-01

    The explosive epidemicity of amoebiasis caused by the facultative gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a major public health problem in developing countries. Multidrug resistance and side effects of various available antiamoebic drugs necessitate the design of novel antiamobeic agents. The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is the critical target for drug design due to its significance in the growth, survival and other cellular activities of E. histolytica. Here, we have screened 0.15 million natural compounds from the ZINC database against the active site of the EhOASS enzyme (PDB ID. 3BM5, 2PQM), whose structure we previously determined to 2.4 Å and 1.86 Å resolution. For this purpose, the incremental construction algorithm of GLIDE and the genetic algorithm of GOLD were used. We analyzed docking results for top ranking compounds using a consensus scoring function of X-Score to calculate the binding affinity and using ligplot to measure protein-ligand interactions. Fifteen compounds that possess good inhibitory activity against EhOASS active site were identified that may act as potential high affinity inhibitors. In vitro screening of a few commercially available compounds established their biological activity. The first ranked compound ZINC08931589 had a binding affinity of ∼8.05 µM and inhibited about 73% activity at 0.1 mM concentration, indicating good correlation between in silico prediction and in vitro inhibition studies. This compound is thus a good starting point for further development of strong inhibitors. PMID:22355310

  17. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; Betanzos, Abigail; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Shibayama, Mineko; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound) on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis. PMID:26731663

  18. Multinucleation and Polykaryon Formation is Promoted by the EhPC4 Transcription Factor in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Olga Hernández de la; Marchat, Laurence A.; Guillén, Nancy; Weber, Christian; Rosas, Itzel López; Díaz-Chávez, José; Herrera, Luis; Rojo-Domínguez, Arturo; Orozco, Esther; López-Camarillo, César

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the intestinal parasite responsible for human amoebiasis that is a leading cause of death in developing countries. In this protozoan, heterogeneity in DNA content, polyploidy and genome plasticity have been associated to alterations in mechanisms controlling DNA replication and cell division. Studying the function of the transcription factor EhPC4, we unexpectedly found that it is functionally related to DNA replication, and multinucleation. Site-directed mutagenesis on the FRFPKG motif revealed that the K127 residue is required for efficient EhPC4 DNA-binding activity. Remarkably, overexpression of EhPC4 significantly increased cell proliferation, DNA replication and DNA content of trophozoites. A dramatically increase in cell size resulting in the formation of giant multinucleated trophozoites (polykaryon) was also found. Multinucleation event was associated to cytokinesis failure leading to abortion of ongoing cell division. Consistently, genome-wide profiling of EhPC4 overexpressing trophozoites revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrates and nucleic acids metabolism, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Forced overexpression of one of these genes, EhNUDC (nuclear movement protein), led to alterations in cytokinesis and partially recapitulated the multinucleation phenotype. These data indicate for the first time that EhPC4 is associated with events related to polyploidy and genome stability in E. histolytica. PMID:26792358

  19. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; Betanzos, Abigail; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Shibayama, Mineko; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound) on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis. PMID:26731663

  20. Intracellular traffic of the lysine and glutamic acid rich protein KERP1 reveals features of endomembrane organization in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, Doranda; Manich, Maria; Syan, Sylvie; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Dufour, Alexandre C; Guillén, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    The development of amoebiasis is influenced by the expression of the lysine and glutamic acid rich protein 1 (KERP1), a virulence factor involved in Entamoeba histolytica adherence to human cells. Up to date, it is unknown how the protein transits the parasite cytoplasm towards the plasma membrane, specially because this organism lacks a well-defined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. In this work we demonstrate that KERP1 is present at the cell surface and in intracellular vesicles which traffic in a pathway that is independent of the ER-Golgi anterograde transport. The intracellular displacement of vesicles enriched in KERP1 relies on the actin-rich cytoskeleton activities. KERP1 is also present in externalized vesicles deposited on the surface of human cells. We further report the interactome of KERP1 with its association to endomembrane components and lipids. The model for KERP1 traffic here proposed hints for the first time elements of the endocytic and exocytic paths of E. histolytica. PMID:26857352

  1. Multinucleation and Polykaryon Formation is Promoted by the EhPC4 Transcription Factor in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Hernández de la Cruz, Olga; Marchat, Laurence A; Guillén, Nancy; Weber, Christian; López Rosas, Itzel; Díaz-Chávez, José; Herrera, Luis; Rojo-Domínguez, Arturo; Orozco, Esther; López-Camarillo, César

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the intestinal parasite responsible for human amoebiasis that is a leading cause of death in developing countries. In this protozoan, heterogeneity in DNA content, polyploidy and genome plasticity have been associated to alterations in mechanisms controlling DNA replication and cell division. Studying the function of the transcription factor EhPC4, we unexpectedly found that it is functionally related to DNA replication, and multinucleation. Site-directed mutagenesis on the FRFPKG motif revealed that the K127 residue is required for efficient EhPC4 DNA-binding activity. Remarkably, overexpression of EhPC4 significantly increased cell proliferation, DNA replication and DNA content of trophozoites. A dramatically increase in cell size resulting in the formation of giant multinucleated trophozoites (polykaryon) was also found. Multinucleation event was associated to cytokinesis failure leading to abortion of ongoing cell division. Consistently, genome-wide profiling of EhPC4 overexpressing trophozoites revealed the up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrates and nucleic acids metabolism, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Forced overexpression of one of these genes, EhNUDC (nuclear movement protein), led to alterations in cytokinesis and partially recapitulated the multinucleation phenotype. These data indicate for the first time that EhPC4 is associated with events related to polyploidy and genome stability in E. histolytica. PMID:26792358

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of l-methionine γ-lyase 1 from Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Dan; Karaki, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Akira; Kamei, Kaeko; Harada, Shigeharu; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2008-08-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 1, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation, from the protozoan parasite E. histolytica was crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that is involved in the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids. MGL is an attractive drug target against amoebiasis because the mammalian host of its causative agent Entamoeba histolytica lacks MGL. For the development of anti-amoebic agents based on the structure of MGL, one of two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL1) was crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.12, b = 85.38, c = 115.37 Å, β = 101.82°. The crystals diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 42.4 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.8 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 56%. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.

  3. The EhADH112 recombinant polypeptide inhibits cell destruction and liver abscess formation by Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Carolina; Orozco, Esther; Sánchez, Tomás; García-Pérez, Rosa María; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2004-04-01

    The Entamoeba histolytica EhCPADH complex, formed by a cysteine proteinase (EhCP112) and an adhesin (EhADH112), is involved in adherence, phagocytosis and cytolysis. This makes this complex an attractive candidate as a vaccine against amoebiasis. Here, we produced the recombinant polypeptide EhADH243, which includes the adherence epitope detected by a monoclonal antibody against the EhCPADH complex. EhADH243 was purified, and the effect of the polypeptide on in vitro and in vivo virulence was studied. Antibodies against EhADH243 reacted with the EhCPADH complex and with the recombinant polypeptide. EhADH243 and antibodies against this polypeptide inhibited adherence, phagocytosis and destruction of cell monolayers by live trophozoites, but had little effect on cell monolayer destruction by trophozoite extracts. EhADH243 recognized a 97 kDa protein in the MDCK membrane fraction that could be a putative receptor for E. histolytica trophozoites. Hamsters immunized with EhADH243 developed humoral response against EhCPADH, and animals were partially protected from amoebic liver abscess. PMID:15009028

  4. Expression in fibroblasts and in live animals of Entamoeba histolytica polypeptides EhCP112 and EhADH112.

    PubMed

    Madriz, Xochil; Martínez, Máximo B; Rodríguez, Mario A; Sierra, Gustavo; Martínez-López, Carolina; Riverón, Ana M; Flores, Leopoldo; Orozco, Esther

    2004-05-01

    EhCPADH is an immunogenic, heterodimeric protein that is formed by EhCP112 (cysteine protease) and EhADH112 (adhesin), polypeptides involved in Entamoeba histolytica's cytopathic effect, target-cell adherence and phagocytosis. The EhCPADH complex is located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic vacuoles. Here, the independent expression of EhCP112 and EhADH112 in fibroblasts and hamsters was analysed. Also investigated was the immunological response in animals independently inoculated with plasmid pcDNA-Ehcp112, which carries the complete cysteine protease-encoding gene, or with plasmid pcDNA-Ehadh112, which carries the C terminus of the adhesin-encoding gene, or with a mixture of both. Both proteins were expressed in the plasma membranes of the transfected fibroblasts. EhCP112 was toxic for the mammalian cells. Proteins were also independently expressed in hamsters after inoculation with the plasmids. Their expression was indirectly evaluated by the presence of antibodies in the inoculated animals. Remarkably, co-immunization of the animals with the two DNA plasmids resulted in an earlier and higher anti-E. histolytica IgG induction than immunization with separate plasmids. In contrast, the cellular immune response was not noticeably improved by the plasmid mixture. Interestingly, protection against liver abscesses was detected only in animals that received the plasmid mixture and no protection was observed in hamsters independently inoculated with plasmid pcDNA-Ehcp112 or pcDNA-Ehadh112. PMID:15133088

  5. Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of myosin II essential light chains of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites regulates their motility.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Moreno, Raúl; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy-Andrés; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Morales, Fernando O; Meza, Isaura

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites dwell in the human intestine as comensals although under still unclear circumstances become invasive and destroy the host tissues. For these activities, trophozoites relay on remarkable motility provided by the cytoskeleton organization. Amebic actin and some of its actin-associated proteins are well known, while components of the myosin II molecule, although predicted from the E. histolytica genome, need biochemical and functional characterization. Recently, an amebic essential light myosin II chain, named EhMLCI, was identified and reported to be phosphorylated in tyrosines. The phosphorylated form of the protein was associated with the soluble assembly incompetent conformation of the heavy myosin chains, while the non-phosphorylated protein was identified with filamentous heavy chains, organized in an assembly competent conformation. It was postulated that EhMLCI tyrosine phosphorylation could act as a negative regulator of myosin II activity by its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an expression vector containing an EhMLCI DNA sequence where two tyrosine residues, with strong probability of phosphorylation and fall within the single EF-hand domain that interacts with the N-terminus of myosin II heavy chains, were replaced by phenylalanines. Transfected trophozoites, expressing the mutant MutEhMLCI protein cannot process it, thereby not incorporated into the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles required for myosin II activity, results in motility defective trophozoites. PMID:27318258

  6. Free fatty acids released from phospholipids are the major heat-stable hemolytic factor of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    PubMed Central

    Said-Fernández, S; López-Revilla, R

    1988-01-01

    The major hemolytic activity of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites is located in a vesicular fraction called P30 and known to be due to heat-labile and heat-stable hemolytic components whose effect increases up to 100 times during preincubation at 36 degrees C. The heat-stable hemolytic activity (HSHA) was found in the chloroform-methanol extract of preincubated P30, whose partition with 2 M KCl yielded a lipid fraction, an interphase, and an aqueous phase. HSHA was detected only in the lipid fraction, where it amounted to 59% of the chloroform-methanol extract activity and increased 50% when supplemented with the interphase material; it was accounted for by the free fatty acids, whose potency increased 33% with the interphase material, and was blocked by delipidated bovine serum albumin. A parallel increase in free fatty acids and lysophospholipids and a corresponding decrease in phospholipids were observed during P30 preincubation. Most of the phospholipase activity of trophozoite homogenates was also found in P30. Therefore, most of the HSHA generated during preincubation was due to free fatty acids released from phospholipids by a P30 phospholipase that may contribute significantly to E. histolytica cytopathogenicity and virulence. Images PMID:2894362

  7. Natural Killer T Cells Activated by a Lipopeptidophosphoglycan from Entamoeba histolytica Are Critically Important To Control Amebic Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Buko; Winau, Florian; Isibasi, Armando; Moreno-Lafont, Martha; Ulmer, Artur J.; Holst, Otto; Tannich, Egbert; Jacobs, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune response is supposed to play an essential role in the control of amebic liver abscess (ALA), a severe form of invasive amoebiasis due to infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In a mouse model for the disease, we previously demonstrated that Jα18-/- mice, lacking invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, suffer from more severe abscess development. Here we show that the specific activation of iNKT cells using α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) induces a significant reduction in the sizes of ALA lesions, whereas CD1d−/− mice develop more severe abscesses. We identified a lipopeptidophosphoglycan from E. histolytica membranes (EhLPPG) as a possible natural NKT cell ligand and show that the purified phosphoinositol (PI) moiety of this molecule induces protective IFN-γ but not IL-4 production in NKT cells. The main component of EhLPPG responsible for NKT cell activation is a diacylated PI, (1-O-[(28∶0)-lyso-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-]2-O-(C16:0)-Ins). IFN-γ production by NKT cells requires the presence of CD1d and simultaneously TLR receptor signalling through MyD88 and secretion of IL-12. Similar to α-GalCer application, EhLPPG treatment significantly reduces the severity of ALA in ameba-infected mice. Our results suggest that EhLPPG is an amebic molecule that is important for the limitation of ALA development and may explain why the majority of E. histolytica-infected individuals do not develop amebic liver abscess. PMID:19436711

  8. Natural killer T cells activated by a lipopeptidophosphoglycan from Entamoeba histolytica are critically important to control amebic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Hannelore; González-Roldán, Nestor; Lindner, Buko; Winau, Florian; Isibasi, Armando; Moreno-Lafont, Martha; Ulmer, Artur J; Holst, Otto; Tannich, Egbert; Jacobs, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    The innate immune response is supposed to play an essential role in the control of amebic liver abscess (ALA), a severe form of invasive amoebiasis due to infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In a mouse model for the disease, we previously demonstrated that Jalpha18(-/-) mice, lacking invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, suffer from more severe abscess development. Here we show that the specific activation of iNKT cells using alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) induces a significant reduction in the sizes of ALA lesions, whereas CD1d(-/-) mice develop more severe abscesses. We identified a lipopeptidophosphoglycan from E. histolytica membranes (EhLPPG) as a possible natural NKT cell ligand and show that the purified phosphoinositol (PI) moiety of this molecule induces protective IFN-gamma but not IL-4 production in NKT cells. The main component of EhLPPG responsible for NKT cell activation is a diacylated PI, (1-O-[(28:0)-lyso-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-]2-O-(C16:0)-Ins). IFN-gamma production by NKT cells requires the presence of CD1d and simultaneously TLR receptor signalling through MyD88 and secretion of IL-12. Similar to alpha-GalCer application, EhLPPG treatment significantly reduces the severity of ALA in ameba-infected mice. Our results suggest that EhLPPG is an amebic molecule that is important for the limitation of ALA development and may explain why the majority of E. histolytica-infected individuals do not develop amebic liver abscess. PMID:19436711

  9. Crystal structure of the cysteine protease inhibitor 2 from Entamoeba histolytica: Functional convergence of a common protein fold

    SciTech Connect

    Casados-Vázquez, Luz E.; Lara-González, Samuel; Brieb, Luis G.

    2012-04-18

    Cysteine proteases (CP) are key pathogenesis and virulence determinants of protozoan parasites. Entamoeba histolytica contains at least 50 cysteine proteases; however, only three (EhCP1, EhCP2 and EhCP5) are responsible for approximately 90% of the cysteine protease activity in this parasite. CPs are expressed as inactive zymogens. Because the processed proteases are potentially cytotoxic, protozoan parasites have developed mechanisms to regulate their activity. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases (ICP) of the chagasin-like inhibitor family (MEROPS family I42) were recently identified in bacteria and protozoan parasites. E. histolytica contains two ICP-encoding genes of the chagasin-like inhibitor family. EhICP1 localizes to the cytosol, whereas EhICP2 is targeted to phagosomes. Herein, we report two crystal structures of EhICP2. The overall structure of EhICP2 consists of eight {beta}-strands and closely resembles the immunoglobulin fold. A comparison between the two crystal forms of EhICP2 indicates that the conserved BC, DE and FG loops form a flexible wedge that may block the active site of CPs. The positively charged surface of the wedge-forming loops in EhICP2 contrasts with the neutral surface of the wedge-forming loops in chagasin. We postulate that the flexibility and positive charge observed in the DE and FG loops of EhICP2 may be important to facilitate the initial binding of this inhibitor to the battery of CPs present in E. histolytica.

  10. Cloning and expression of a putative alcohol dehydrogenase gene of Entamoeba histolytica and its application to immunological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, A; Hara, Y; Kimoto, T; Okuno, Y; Minekawa, Y; Nakabayashi, T

    1996-01-01

    To clone and express the genes encoding major antigens of Entamoeba histolytica, we constructed a lambda gt11 cDNA library for E. histolytica HM1:IMSS and screened it with pooled sera from patients with amoebiasis. A 1,223-bp cDNA was cloned (clone 1223), and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The amino acid sequence predicted to be encoded by the open reading frame of clone 1223 consisted of 396 residues and showed 32.5 and 32.3% homology to the NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenases I and II (bdhA and bdhB) of Clostridium acetobutylicum, respectively. In addition, 29 of the 34 consensus positions of bdhA and bdhB were also well conserved in clone 1223. The recombinant protein expressed from clone 1223 had an estimated molecular mass of 43.5 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The antigenicity and specificity of the recombinant protein were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sera obtained from two clinical groups of patients with amoebiasis and a group of healthy controls. The recombinant protein had potent and specific antigenicity. In all, 53 serum samples (88.3%) from 60 patients with amoebiasis were positive for immunoglobulin G antibody against the recombinant protein, with a mean optical density value of 0.42. In contrast, 53 of 54 healthy control serum samples were negative, with only 1 positive serum sample showing the lower optical density value. These results suggested that clone 1223 is promising in terms of providing a useful antigen for the accurate serodiagnosis of amoebiasis and that the gene encodes a putative alcohol dehydrogenase of E. histolytica. PMID:8705667

  11. Entamoeba histolytica: differential gene expression during programmed cell death and identification of early pro- and anti-apoptotic signals.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Virginia Sánchez; Flores, Ma Olivia Medel; Villalba-Magdaleno, José D'Artagnan; Garcia, Consuelo Gómez; Ishiwara, David Guillermo Pérez

    2010-12-01

    We have demonstrated that programmed cell death (PCD) in Entamoeba histolytica is induced in vitro by G418 aminoglycoside antibiotic. To ascertain if biochemical and morphological changes previously observed are paired to molecular changes that reflect a genetic program, we looked here for early differential gene expression during the induction of PCD. Using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and in silico derived analysis we showed in E. histolytica a differential gene expression during PCD induced by G418. The genes identified encoded for proteins homologous to Glutaminyl-tRNA synthase, Ribosomal Subunit Proteins 40S and 18S, Saposin-like, Silent Information Regulator-2 (Sir-2), and Grainins 1 and 2. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT Q-PCR), we found that glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2, grainins and saposin-like genes were strongly overexpressed after 30min of PCD induction, while its expression dramatically decreased up to 60min. On the other hand, overexpression of ribosomal genes increased only 7-fold of basal expression, showing a progressive down-regulation up to 90min. glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2 and grainins could act as negative regulators of PCD, trying to control the biochemical changes related to PCD activation. Overexpression of saposin-like gene could act as up-regulator of some cell death pathways. Our results give evidence of the first genes identified during the early stage of PCD in E. histolytica that could be implicated in regulation of apoptotic pathways. PMID:20515683

  12. A transposon-derived DNA polymerase from Entamoeba histolytica displays intrinsic strand displacement, processivity and lesion bypass.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Palacios, Guillermo; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S; Brieba, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica encodes four family B2 DNA polymerases that vary in amino acid length from 813 to 1279. These DNA polymerases contain a N-terminal domain with no homology to other proteins and a C-terminal domain with high amino acid identity to archetypical family B2 DNA polymerases. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that these family B2 DNA polymerases are grouped with DNA polymerases from transposable elements dubbed Polintons or Mavericks. In this work, we report the cloning and biochemical characterization of the smallest family B2 DNA polymerase from E. histolytica. To facilitate its characterization we subcloned its 660 amino acids C-terminal region that comprises the complete exonuclease and DNA polymerization domains, dubbed throughout this work as EhDNApolB2. We found that EhDNApolB2 displays remarkable strand displacement, processivity and efficiently bypasses the DNA lesions: 8-oxo guanosine and abasic site.Family B2 DNA polymerases from T. vaginalis, G. lambia and E. histolytica contain a Terminal Region Protein 2 (TPR2) motif twice the length of the TPR2 from φ29 DNA polymerase. Deletion studies demonstrate that as in φ29 DNA polymerase, the TPR2 motif of EhDNApolB2 is solely responsible of strand displacement and processivity. Interestingly the TPR2 of EhDNApolB2 is also responsible for efficient abasic site bypass. These data suggests that the 21 extra amino acids of the TPR2 motif may shape the active site of EhDNApolB2 to efficiently incorporate and extended opposite an abasic site. Herein we demonstrate that an open reading frame derived from Politons-Mavericks in parasitic protozoa encode a functional enzyme and our findings support the notion that the introduction of novel motifs in DNA polymerases can confer specialized properties to a conserved scaffold. PMID:23226232

  13. Prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in Da Nang, Vietnam, detected by a multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ögren, Jessica; Van Nguyen, Song; Nguyen, Minh Khac; Dimberg, Jan; Matussek, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed the prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in individuals with and without gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms residing in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. Fecal samples were collected from children (n = 100) and adults (n = 80) with GI symptoms and from healthy individuals (n = 88) reporting no GI symptoms. Parasite detection was performed by multiplex real-time PCR. Overall, except for G. duodenalis, we found a low prevalence (<5%) of D. fragilis and E. dispar and no detection of E. histolytica and C. spp in all participants with GI symptoms. Specifically for D. fragilis this contrasts with findings in European populations of children with GI symptoms showing prevalence up to 73%. Moreover, our results indicate that the prevalence of G. duodenalis is higher in patients with GI symptoms compared to asymptomatic individuals and this difference is most obvious in young patients. PMID:27102222

  14. First report of Entamoeba histolytica infection from Timor-Leste--acute amoebic colitis and concurrent late development of amoebic liver abscess in returned travellers to Australia.

    PubMed

    Nourse, Clare B; Robson, Jennifer M; Whitby, Michael R; Francis, Josh R

    2016-02-01

    This communication reports invasive amoebic colitis and late onset amoebic liver abscess in three members of a group of 12 Australian travellers to Timor-Leste (TL). This is the first report of Entamoeba histolytica infection from TL. Clinicians in Australia need to consider amoebiasis in the differential diagnosis in travellers returning with colitis, abdominal pain and fever. Presentation with amoebic liver abscess months after exposure is rare but should be suspected in symptomatic individuals with a relevant history of travel. PMID:26858275

  15. A new in vitro model of Entamoeba histolytica adhesion, using the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2: scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Rigothier, M C; Coconnier, M H; Servin, A L; Gayral, P

    1991-01-01

    The human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, which is widely used to study the adhesion and cytotoxicity of enterobacteria, was used to investigate the adhesion of the trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. We observed a high percentage of adhesion of amoebae to Caco-2 cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that amoebial membrane structures were involved in adhesion and the cytolytic action. These differentiated cells should prove to be a useful model system for investigation of the pathogenic action of amoebae. Images PMID:1937772

  16. Proteomic Identification of Oxidized Proteins in Entamoeba histolytica by Resin-Assisted Capture: Insights into the Role of Arginase in Resistance to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Preeti; Trebicz-Geffen, Meirav; Nagaraja, Shruti; Alterzon-Baumel, Sharon; Hertz, Rivka; Methling, Karen; Lalk, Michael; Ankri, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an obligate protozoan parasite of humans, and amebiasis, an infectious disease which targets the intestine and/or liver, is the second most common cause of human death due to a protozoan after malaria. Although amebiasis is usually asymptomatic, E. histolytica has potent pathogenic potential. During host infection, the parasite is exposed to reactive oxygen species that are produced and released by cells of the innate immune system at the site of infection. The ability of the parasite to survive oxidative stress (OS) is essential for a successful invasion of the host. Although the effects of OS on the regulation of gene expression in E. histolytica and the characterization of some proteins whose function in the parasite's defense against OS have been previously studied, our knowledge of oxidized proteins in E. histolytica is lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we performed a large-scale identification and quantification of the oxidized proteins in oxidatively stressed E. histolytica trophozoites using resin-assisted capture coupled to mass spectrometry. We detected 154 oxidized proteins (OXs) and the functions of some of these proteins were associated with antioxidant activity, maintaining the parasite's cytoskeleton, translation, catalysis, and transport. We also found that oxidation of the Gal/GalNAc impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E. histolytica adherence to host cells. We also provide evidence that arginase, an enzyme which converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, is involved in the protection of the parasite against OS. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of OS as a critical regulator of E. histolytica's functions and indicate a new role for arginase in E. histolytica's resistance to OS. PMID:26735309

  17. Proteomic Identification of Oxidized Proteins in Entamoeba histolytica by Resin-Assisted Capture: Insights into the Role of Arginase in Resistance to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Preeti; Trebicz-Geffen, Meirav; Nagaraja, Shruti; Alterzon-Baumel, Sharon; Hertz, Rivka; Methling, Karen; Lalk, Michael; Ankri, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an obligate protozoan parasite of humans, and amebiasis, an infectious disease which targets the intestine and/or liver, is the second most common cause of human death due to a protozoan after malaria. Although amebiasis is usually asymptomatic, E. histolytica has potent pathogenic potential. During host infection, the parasite is exposed to reactive oxygen species that are produced and released by cells of the innate immune system at the site of infection. The ability of the parasite to survive oxidative stress (OS) is essential for a successful invasion of the host. Although the effects of OS on the regulation of gene expression in E. histolytica and the characterization of some proteins whose function in the parasite's defense against OS have been previously studied, our knowledge of oxidized proteins in E. histolytica is lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we performed a large-scale identification and quantification of the oxidized proteins in oxidatively stressed E. histolytica trophozoites using resin-assisted capture coupled to mass spectrometry. We detected 154 oxidized proteins (OXs) and the functions of some of these proteins were associated with antioxidant activity, maintaining the parasite's cytoskeleton, translation, catalysis, and transport. We also found that oxidation of the Gal/GalNAc impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E. histolytica adherence to host cells. We also provide evidence that arginase, an enzyme which converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, is involved in the protection of the parasite against OS. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of OS as a critical regulator of E. histolytica's functions and indicate a new role for arginase in E. histolytica's resistance to OS. PMID:26735309

  18. [Electron-microscopic studies on fine structure and enzyme activity in the axenic and conventional strains of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai Soon; Chung, Pyung Rim; Lee, Keun Tae

    1985-12-01

    The metabolism of Entamoeba histolytica would be affected by various environmental factors, and alteration of the environment was known to affect the fine structure of E. histolytica. The present study was designed electronmicroscopically to investigate the ultrastructure and enzyme activities in the axenic and conventional strains of E. histolytica. The trophozoites of axenically cultivated HK-9 strain and conventional YS-27 and YS-49 strains of E. histolytica were collected and fixed with 4 percent paraformaldehyde/0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4). After washing them by centrifugation, 1 percent warm agar was added in the sediment. Solidified agar with the trophozoites was cut into 1 mm(3) cubes, and incubated in the various substrates to observe enzyme activities. Then, the specimen was post-fixed with 3 percent glutaraldehyde/0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) and 1 percent osmium tetroxide/0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), dehydrated in ascending ethanol series and embedded in epoxy resin. These were sectioned on an ultramicrotome and observed with a transmission electron microscope. The procedures for the observation of the fine structure were same as the above, except for the incubation in the substrate. The sections were stained with uranyl scetate and lead citrate. For the observation of the surface of the amoebae, scanning electron microscopy was carried out. The results obtained in the present study are summarized as follows: 1. The fuzzy coat around double-layered plasma membrane of E. histolytica was more irregularly and densely distributed in the conventional strains (YS-27, YS-49 strains) than in the axenic strain (HK-9 strain). 2. The endosomes, button bodies and chromatin material were surrounded by a double-layered nuclear membrane having scattered nuclear pores. The paranuclear body, mono- or double-layered vacuoles, vacuolar membrane whorls, rosette-like cylindrical bodies, aggregation of cylindrical bodies and helical bodies were found in the

  19. EhPgp5 mRNA stability is a regulatory event in the Entamoeba histolytica multidrug resistance phenotype.

    PubMed

    López-Camarillo, César; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; Marchat, Laurence A; Orozco, Esther

    2003-03-28

    The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in Entamoeba histolytica is characterized by the overexpression of the EhPgp5 gene in trophozoites grown in high drug concentrations. Here we evaluated the role of EhPgp5 mRNA stability on MDR using actinomycin D. EhPgp5 mRNA from trophozoites growing without emetine had a half-life of 2.1 h, which augmented to 3.1 h in cells cultured with 90 microM and to 7.8 h with 225 microM emetine. Polyadenylation sites were detected at 118-, 156-, and 189-nucleotide (nt) positions of the EhPgp5 mRNA 3'-untranslated region. Interestingly, trophozoites grown with 225 microM emetine exhibited an extra polyadenylation site at 19 nt. The 3'-untranslated region sequence is AU-rich and has putative consensus sequences for RNA-binding proteins. We detected a RNA-protein complex in a region that contains a polypyrimidine tract (142-159 nt) and a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (146-154 nt). A longer poly(A) tail in the EhPgp5 mRNA was seen in trophozoites grown with 225 microM emetine. Emetine stress may affect factors involved in mRNA turnover, including polyadenylation/deadenylation proteins, which could induce changes in the EhPgp5 mRNA half-life and poly(A) tail length. Novel evidence on mechanisms participating in E. histolytica MDR phenotype is provided. PMID:12556531

  20. Crystal Structure Analysis of Wild Type and Fast Hydrolyzing Mutant of EhRabX3, a Tandem Ras Superfamily GTPase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Chandra, Mintu; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Datta, Sunando

    2016-01-16

    The enteric protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, liver abscess and colitis in human. Vesicular trafficking plays a key role in the survival and virulence of the protozoan and is regulated by various Rab GTPases. EhRabX3 is a catalytically inefficient amoebic Rab protein, which is unique among the eukaryotic Ras superfamily by virtue of its tandem domain organization. Here, we report the crystal structures of GDP-bound fast hydrolyzing mutant (V71A/K73Q) and GTP-bound wild type EhRabX3 at 3.1 and 2.8Å resolutions, respectively. Though both G-domains possess "phosphate binding loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases fold", only the N-terminal domain binds to guanine nucleotide. The relative orientation of the N-terminal domain and C-terminal domain is stabilized by numerous inter-domain interactions. Compared to other Ras superfamily members, both the GTPase domains displayed large deviation in switch II perhaps due to non-conservative substitutions in this region. As a result, entire switch II is restructured and moved away from the nucleotide binding pocket, providing a rationale for the diminished GTPase activity of EhRabX3. The N-terminal GTPase domain possesses unusually large number of cysteine residues. X-ray crystal structure of the fast hydrolyzing mutant of EhRabX3 revealed that C39 and C163 formed an intra-molecular disulfide bond. Subsequent mutational and biochemical studies suggest that C39 and C163 are critical for maintaining the structural integrity and function of EhRabX3. Structure-guided functional investigation of cysteine mutants could provide the physiological implications of the disulfide bond and could allow us to design potential inhibitors for the better treatment of intestinal amebiasis. PMID:26555751

  1. Susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection is related to reduction in natural killer T-lymphocytes in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fabrício M S; Horta, Bernardo C; Prata, Luana O; Santiago, Andrezza F; Alves, Andréa C; Faria, Ana M C; Gomes, Maria A; Caliari, Marcelo V

    2012-04-27

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan that causes amoebiasis. Recent studies demonstrated that natural killer T lymphocytes (NKT) are critical for preventing the development of amoebic liver abscess. In spite of that, there are only a handful of studies in the area. Herein, we explored the role of NKT cells in E. histolytica infection using C57BL/6 wild-type and CD1(-/-) mice. Animals were inoculated with E. histolytica and sacrificed 48 hours later to collect caecum samples that were used for quantitative analyses of lesions, trophozoites, NK1.1(+) T lymphocytes and expression of the mucus protein MUC-2 by immunohistochemistry technique. Quantitative analyses confirmed that the frequency of NK1.1(+) T cells was significantly lower in samples from C57BL/6 CD1(-/-) mice as compared to their wild type (WT) counterparts. The extension of necrotic mucosa was larger and the number of trophozoites higher in Entamoeba (Eh)-infected CD1(-/-) mice when compared with Eh-infected WT mice. In mice from both groups, non-infected (CTRL) and Eh-infected CD1(-/-), there was a reduction in the thickness of the caecal mucosa and in the MUC-2-stained area in comparison with CTRL- and Eh-WT mice. Our results showed that NKT lymphocytes contribute to resistance against Entamoeba histolytica infection and to the control of inflammation in the colitis induced by infection. The presence of a normal epithelial layer containing appropriate levels of mucus had also a protective role against infection. PMID:24470941

  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against a highly immunogenic fraction of Entamoeba histolytica (NIH:200) and their application in the detection of current amoebic infection.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, K; Das, P; Johnson, T M; Chaudhuri, P P; Das, D; Nair, G B

    1993-01-01

    Six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against a highly immunogenic fraction derived by the chromatographic separation of the soluble preparation of axenic Entamoeba histolytica (strain NIH:200) trophozoites. Isotype characterization of the six MAbs revealed that four belonged to the IgM class and one each to the IgG1 and the IgG2a subclasses. The immunoreactivity patterns and the specificity of the MAbs with homologous and heterologous antigens were analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunotransfer blot technique and by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs reacted intensely with isolates of E. histolytica (strain NIH:200 as well as a local isolate MX1) but showed no reactivity with Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba hartmanni, free-living amoeba (Acanthamoeba harticolus) and other enteric parasites. Using the IgG1 MAb as a detecting antibody, a polyclonal-monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of E. histolytica antigens in stool samples of infected patients. The detection limit of the assay was 8 ng of amoebic antigen. This test was found to be specific and sensitive and yielded 100% positive results in cases with amoebiasis but did not react with controls included in the evaluation. The MAb-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in this study will be an important test for the diagnosis of E. histolytica in the feces of infected humans; however, the limitation of the test is the inability to discriminate the pathogenic status of the amoeba detected in the stool. PMID:8292992

  3. Susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection is related to reduction in natural killer T-lymphocytes in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Fabrício M.S.; Horta, Bernardo C.; Prata, Luana O.; Santiago, Andrezza F.; Alves, Andréa C.; Faria, Ana M.C.; Gomes, Maria A.; Caliari, Marcelo V.

    2012-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan that causes amoebiasis. Recent studies demonstrated that natural killer T lymphocytes (NKT) are critical for preventing the development of amoebic liver abscess. In spite of that, there are only a handful of studies in the area. Herein, we explored the role of NKT cells in E. histolytica infection using C57BL/6 wild-type and CD1−/− mice. Animals were inoculated with E. histolytica and sacrificed 48 hours later to collect caecum samples that were used for quantitative analyses of lesions, trophozoites, NK1.1+ T lymphocytes and expression of the mucus protein MUC-2 by immunohistochemistry technique. Quantitative analyses confirmed that the frequency of NK1.1+ T cells was significantly lower in samples from C57BL/6 CD1−/− mice as compared to their wild type (WT) counterparts. The extension of necrotic mucosa was larger and the number of trophozoites higher in Entamoeba (Eh)-infected CD1−/− mice when compared with Eh-infected WT mice. In mice from both groups, non-infected (CTRL) and Eh-infected CD1−/−, there was a reduction in the thickness of the caecal mucosa and in the MUC-2-stained area in comparison with CTRL- and Eh-WT mice. Our results showed that NKT lymphocytes contribute to resistance against Entamoeba histolytica infection and to the control of inflammation in the colitis induced by infection. The presence of a normal epithelial layer containing appropriate levels of mucus had also a protective role against infection. PMID:24470941

  4. The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sohni, Y R; Kaimal, P; Bhatt, R M

    1995-01-01

    The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol together and individually. In vitro amoebicidal activity was studied to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of all the constituent extracts as well as the whole formulation. The formulation had a MIC of 1000 micrograms/ml as compared with 10 micrograms/ml for metronidazole. In experimental caecal amoebiasis in rats the formulation had a curative rate of 89% with the average degree of infection (ADI) reduced to 0.4 in a group dosed with 500 mg/kg per day as compared with ADI of 3.8 for the sham-treated control group of rats. Metronidazole had a cure rate of 89% (ADI = 0.4) at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day and cured the infection completely (ADI = 0) when the dosage was doubled to 200 mg/kg per day. There were varying degrees of inhibition of the following enzyme activities of crude extracts of axenically cultured amoebae: DNase, RNase, aldolase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alpha-amylase and protease. PMID:7739226

  5. An energy-conserving pyruvate-to-acetate pathway in Entamoeba histolytica. Pyruvate synthase and a new acetate thiokinase.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R E; Warren, L G; Susskind, B; Lo, H S

    1977-01-25

    Under anaerobic conditions, cells of Entamoeba histolytica grown with bacteria produce H2 and acetate while cells grown axenically produce neither. Aerobically, acetate is produced and O2 is consumed by amebae from either type of cells. Centrifuged extracts, 2.4 x 106 x g x min, from both types of cells contain pyruvate synthase (EC 1.2.7.1) and an acetate thiokinase which, together, form a system capable of converting pyruvate to acetate. Pyruvate synthase catalyzes the reaction: pyruvate + CoA leads to CO2 + acetyl-CoA + 2E. Electron acceptors which function with this enzyme are FAD, FMN, riboflavin, ferredoxin, and methyl viologen, but not NAD or NADP. The amebal acetate thiokinase catalyzes the reaction acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi leads to acetate + ATP + CoA. For this apparently new enzyme we suggest the trivial name acetyl-CoA-synthetase (ADP-forming). Extracts from axenic amebae do not contain hydrogenase, but extracts from cells grown with bacteria do. It is postulated that in bacteria-grown amebae electrons generated at the pyruvate synthase step are utilized anaerobically to produce H2 via the hydrogenase and that the acetyl-CoA is converted to acetate in an energy-conserving step catalyzed by amebal acetyl-CoA synthetase. Aerobically, cells grown under either regimen may utilize the energy-conserving pyruvate-to-acetate pathway since O2 then serves as the ultimate electron acceptor. PMID:13076

  6. Phenotypic and transcriptional profiling in Entamoeba histolytica reveal costs to fitness and adaptive responses associated with metronidazole resistance

    PubMed Central

    Penuliar, Gil M.; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemotherapy is critical in the fight against infectious diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Among the drugs available for the treatment of amebiasis, metronidazole (MTZ) is considered the drug of choice. Recently, in vitro studies have described MTZ resistance and the potential mechanisms involved. Costs to fitness and adaptive responses associated with resistance, however, have not been investigated. In this study we generated an HM-1 derived strain resistant to 12 μM MTZ (MTZR). We examined its phenotypic and transcriptional profile to determine the consequences and mRNA level changes associated with MTZ resistance. Our results indicated increased cell size and granularity, and decreased rates in cell division, adhesion, phagocytosis, cytopathogenicity, and glucose consumption. Transcriptome analysis revealed 142 differentially expressed genes in MTZR. In contrast to other MTZ resistant parasites, MTZR did not down-regulate pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, but showed increased expression of genes for a hypothetical protein (HP1) and several iron-sulfur flavoproteins, and downregulation of genes for leucine-rich proteins. Fisher's exact test showed 24 significantly enriched GO terms in MTZR, and a 3-way comparison of modulated genes in MTZR against those of MTZR cultured without MTZ and HM-1 cultured with MTZ, showed that 88 genes were specific to MTZR. Overall, our findings suggested that MTZ resistance is associated with specific transcriptional changes and decreased parasite virulence. PMID:25999919

  7. Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 5 Evokes Mucin Exocytosis from Colonic Goblet Cells via αvβ3 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Cornick, Steve; Moreau, France; Chadee, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Critical to the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) induces mucus hypersecretion and degrades the colonic mucus layer at the site of invasion. The parasite component(s) responsible for hypersecretion are poorly defined, as are regulators of mucin secretion within the host. In this study, we have identified the key virulence factor in live Eh that elicits the fast release of mucin by goblets cells as cysteine protease 5 (EhCP5) whereas, modest mucus secretion occurred with secreted soluble EhCP5 and recombinant CP5. Coupling of EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin on goblet cells facilitated outside-in signaling by activating SRC family kinases (SFK) and focal adhesion kinase that resulted in the activation/phosphorlyation of PI3K at the site of Eh contact and production of PIP3. PKCδ was activated at the EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin contact site that specifically regulated mucin secretion though the trafficking vesicle marker myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS). This study has identified that EhCP5 coupling with goblet cell αvβ3 receptors can initiate a signal cascade involving PI3K, PKCδ and MARCKS to drive mucin secretion from goblet cells critical in disease pathogenesis. PMID:27073869

  8. Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 5 Evokes Mucin Exocytosis from Colonic Goblet Cells via αvβ3 Integrin.

    PubMed

    Cornick, Steve; Moreau, France; Chadee, Kris

    2016-04-01

    Critical to the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) induces mucus hypersecretion and degrades the colonic mucus layer at the site of invasion. The parasite component(s) responsible for hypersecretion are poorly defined, as are regulators of mucin secretion within the host. In this study, we have identified the key virulence factor in live Eh that elicits the fast release of mucin by goblets cells as cysteine protease 5 (EhCP5) whereas, modest mucus secretion occurred with secreted soluble EhCP5 and recombinant CP5. Coupling of EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin on goblet cells facilitated outside-in signaling by activating SRC family kinases (SFK) and focal adhesion kinase that resulted in the activation/phosphorlyation of PI3K at the site of Eh contact and production of PIP3. PKCδ was activated at the EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin contact site that specifically regulated mucin secretion though the trafficking vesicle marker myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS). This study has identified that EhCP5 coupling with goblet cell αvβ3 receptors can initiate a signal cascade involving PI3K, PKCδ and MARCKS to drive mucin secretion from goblet cells critical in disease pathogenesis. PMID:27073869

  9. EhCP112 is an Entamoeba histolytica secreted cysteine protease that may be involved in the parasite-virulence.

    PubMed

    Ocádiz, Ramón; Orozco, Esther; Carrillo, Eduardo; Quintas, Laura Itzel; Ortega-López, Jaime; García-Pérez, Rosa María; Sánchez, Tomas; Castillo-Juárez, Beatriz A; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2005-02-01

    EhCP112 is an Entamoeba histolytica protease that together with the EhADH112 protein forms the EhCPADH complex involved in trophozoite virulence. Here, we produced the recombinant EhCP112 and studied its relationships with extracellular matrix components and with target cells. A DNA fragment containing the pro-peptide and the mature enzyme was expressed in bacteria as an active enzyme (rEhCP112), whereas the full gene containing the signal peptide, the pro-peptide and the mature enzyme expressed a non-active protein. The fragment only with the mature enzyme was not expressed. rEhCP112 purified by affinity columns digested azocasein and had a strong autoproteolytic activity. Four hours after purification the protein appeared degraded. Anti-tag antibodies, monoclonal antibodies against the EhCP112 and sera from human patients with amoebiasis recognized rEhCP112. rEhCP112 digested gelatin, collagen type I, fibronectin and haemoglobin; it destroyed MDCK cell monolayers and bound to red blood cells. The native EhCP112 was poorly expressed in a virulence-deficient mutant, and in the wild-type clone it was located in secreted vesicles, forming the EhCPADH complex. Altogether these results show that EhCP112 is a molecule able to disrupt cell monolayers and digest proteins of the extracellular matrix and haemoglobin, and it is secreted by the trophozoites. PMID:15659066

  10. Molecular Detection of the Carriage Rate of Four Intestinal Protozoa with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Possible Overdiagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Sahar, Sumrin; König, Brigitte; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub-Saharan countries. To overcome sensitivity issues related to microscopic detection and identification of cysts in stool concentrates, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze genomic DNAs extracted from stool samples from 199 healthy school children for Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium. Questionnaires were administered for epidemiological data collection. E. histolytica was not detected in any of the samples, whereas Giardia (37.2%), E. dispar (18.6%), and Cryptosporidium (1%) were found. Most of the children sourced their drinking water from community wells (91%), while the majority disposed of feces in the bush (81.9%). Our study is the first to use real-time PCR to evaluate the epidemiology of E. histolytica, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium in Nigeria where previous studies using traditional diagnostic techniques have suggested higher and lower carriage rates of E. histolytica and Giardia, respectively. It is also the first study to accurately identify the prevalence of common potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26101274

  11. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica -like cysts compared to E. histolytica antigens detected by ELISA in the stools of 600 patients from three socioeconomic communities in the Metropolitan City of Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Maqbool, Azhar; Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Lateef, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Ahmed, Atif Nisar; Ziaullah, M; Lindsay, David S

    2015-04-01

    Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica , has a worldwide distribution and is of public health significance in many developing countries. It has a fecal-oral transmission cycle and is most prevalent in developing countries in regions where substandard sanitary conditions exist due to poverty. Little is known about the epidemiology of E. histolytica infection and its presence in different socioeconomic communities in developing countries. We undertook the present study in the city of Lahore, Pakistan, and our prediction was that the prevalence of E. histolytica -like cysts and E. histolytica stool antigen would be lower in patients from upper socioeconomic levels than in individuals from middle or lower socioeconomic levels. We investigated the prevalence of E. histolytica in humans from 3 socioeconomic communities in territories of Lahore, Pakistan. Six hundred fecal samples were collected and examined using both microscopy (triple fecal test) to detect cysts of E. histolytica -like amoeba and ELISA (stool antigen ELISA) to demonstrate diagnostic stool antigens of E. histolytica . Samples were from individuals living under conditions deemed to be upper socioeconomic class (n = 287), middle socioeconomic class (n = 172), and lower socioeconomic class (n = 141). The total prevalence of positive samples was 22.5% (135/600) by triple test and 16.8% (101/600) by stool antigen ELISA in the 600 fecal samples. Statistically, significant (P < 0.05) differences in prevalence were seen between the 3 socioeconomic class groups. Forty-four (15.3%) and 32 (11.1%) of 287 in the fecal samples from the upper socioeconomic class were positive by triple test and by antigen ELISA, respectively. Thirty-nine (22.6%) and 29 (16.8%) of 172 in the fecal samples from the middle socioeconomic class were positive by the triple test and by antigen ELISA, respectively. Fifty-two (36.8%) and 40 (28.3%) of 141 in the fecal samples from the lower socioeconomic class were positive by the triple

  12. Rab5-associated vacuoles play a unique role in phagocytosis of the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Yasuda, Tomoyoshi; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Leippe, Matthias; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2004-11-19

    In mammals, Rab5 and Rab7 play a specific and coordinated role in a sequential process during phagosome maturation. Here, we report that Rab5 and Rab7 in the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, EhRab5 and EhRab7A, are involved in steps that are distinct from those known for mammals. EhRab5 and EhRab7A were localized to independent small vesicular structures at steady state. Priming with red blood cells induced the formation of large vacuoles associated with both EhRab5 and EhRab7A ("prephagosomal vacuoles (PPV)") in the amoeba within an incubation period of 5-10 min. PPV emerged de novo physically and distinct from phagosomes. PPV were gradually acidified and matured by fusion with lysosomes containing a digestive hydrolase, cysteine proteinase, and a membrane-permeabilizing peptide amoebapore. After EhRab5 dissociated from PPV, 5-10 min later, the EhRab7A-PPV fused with phagosomes, and EhRab7A finally dissociated from the phagosomes. Immunoelectron and light micrographs showed that PPV contained small vesicle-like structures containing fluid-phase markers and amoebapores, which were not evenly distributed within PPV, suggesting that the mechanism was similar to multivesicular body formation in PPV generation. In contrast to Rab5 from other organisms, EhRab5 was involved exclusively in phagocytosis, but not in endocytosis. Overexpression of wild-type EhRab5 enhanced phagocytosis and the transport of amoebapore to phagosomes. Conversely, expression of an EhRab5Q67L GTP form mutant impaired the formation of PPV and phagocytosis. Altogether, we propose that the amoebic Rab5 plays an important role in the formation of unique vacuoles, which is essential for engulfment of erythrocytes and important for packaging of lysosomal hydrolases, prior to the targeting to phagosomes. PMID:15347665

  13. Expression, purification and crystallization of l-methionine γ-lyase 2 from Entamoeba histolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Dan; Yamagata, Wataru; Kamei, Kaeko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

    2006-10-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 2 from E. histolytica, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation in this protozoan parasite, has been crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is considered to be an attractive target for rational drug development because the enzyme is absent in mammalian hosts. To enable structure-based design of drugs targeting MGL, one of the two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL2) was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.89, b = 102.68, c = 169.87 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 43.1 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.

  14. Variation of proteins and proteinases in Entamoeba histolytica lysates containing a protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    López-Revilla, R; Jiménez-Delgadillo, B; Canto-Ortiz, L; Chávez-Dueñas, L

    1992-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-lysates of E. histolytica trophozoites were analyzed by electrophoresis in simple and gelatin-containing ("substrate") SDS-polyacrylamide gels. In simple gels, boiled lysates with para hydroxymercuribenzoate (pHMB) had a complex pattern of apparently undegraded proteins; boiled lysates without pHMB showed a major 30 kDa and four minor (43, 46, 63 and 117 kDa) proteins, whereas unheated lysates displayed only the 117 kDa protein. Using substrate gels no gelatinases were detected in heated lysates; unheated lysates without pHMB showed a major 30 kDa and three minor (33, 46 and 68 kDa) gelatinases, whereas those with pHMB presented a major 56 kDa and two minor (70 and 105 kDa) gelatinases. Three caseinase peaks were separated by Sephadex G-75 chromatography from unheated lysates: peak I contained 46, 56 and 117 kDa pHMB-sensitive gelatinases and peaks II and III contained smaller pHMB-resistant caseinases. We conclude that proteins remaining in lysates after SDS-induced proteolysis appear to be mainly proteases relatively resistant to self-digestion whose type and amount changes with the conditions of lysis and the presence of inhibitors; this is exemplified by the finding of the major gelatinase of lysates with pHMB being larger (56 kDa) than in lysates lacking the inhibitor (30 kDa). PMID:1340329

  15. A New Human 3D-Liver Model Unravels the Role of Galectins in Liver Infection by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Petropolis, Debora B.; Faust, Daniela M.; Deep Jhingan, Gagan; Guillen, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of human parasitic diseases depend on the availability of appropriate in vivo animal models and ex vivo experimental systems, and are particularly difficult for pathogens whose exclusive natural hosts are humans, such as Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis. This common infectious human disease affects the intestine and liver. In the liver sinusoids E. histolytica crosses the endothelium and penetrates into the parenchyma, with the concomitant initiation of inflammatory foci and subsequent abscess formation. Studying factors responsible for human liver infection is hampered by the complexity of the hepatic environment and by the restrictions inherent to the use of human samples. Therefore, we built a human 3D-liver in vitro model composed of cultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes in a 3D collagen-I matrix sandwich. We determined the presence of important hepatic markers and demonstrated that the cell layers function as a biological barrier. E. histolytica invasion was assessed using wild-type strains and amoebae with altered virulence or different adhesive properties. We showed for the first time the dependence of endothelium crossing upon amoebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. The 3D-liver model enabled the molecular analysis of human cell responses, suggesting for the first time a crucial role of human galectins in parasite adhesion to the endothelial cells, which was confirmed by siRNA knockdown of galectin-1. Levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including galectin-1 and -3, were highly increased upon contact of E. histolytica with the 3D-liver model. The presence of galectin-1 and -3 in the extracellular medium stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release, suggesting a further role for human galectins in the onset of the hepatic inflammatory response. These new findings are relevant for a better understanding of human liver infection by E. histolytica. PMID:25211477

  16. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar Calreticulin: Inhibition of Classical Complement Pathway and Differences in the Level of Expression in Amoebic Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Ximénez, Cecilia; González, Enrique; Nieves, Miriam E.; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Escobar-Herrera, Jaime; García de León, Ma del Carmen; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Rojas, Liliana; Hernández, Eric G.; Partida, Oswaldo; Cerritos, René

    2014-01-01

    The role of calreticulin (CRT) in host-parasite interactions has recently become an important area of research. Information about the functions of calreticulin and its relevance to the physiology of Entamoeba parasites is limited. The present work demonstrates that CRT of both pathogenic E. histolytica and nonpathogenic E. dispar species specifically interacted with human C1q inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway. Using recombinant EhCRT protein, we demonstrate that CRT interaction site and human C1q is located at the N-terminal region of EhCRT. The immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy experiments show that CRT and human C1q colocalize in the cytoplasmic vesicles and near to the surface membrane of previously permeabilized trophozoites or are incubated with normal human serum which is known to destroy trophozoites. In the presence of peripheral mononuclear blood cells, the distribution of EhCRT and C1q is clearly over the surface membrane of trophozoites. Nevertheless, the level of expression of CRT in situ in lesions of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in the hamster model is different in both Entamoeba species; this molecule is expressed in higher levels in E. histolytica than in E. dispar. This result suggests that EhCRT may modulate some functions during the early moments of the host-parasite relationship. PMID:24860808

  17. Protection against Invasive Amebiasis by a Single Monoclonal Antibody Directed against a Lipophosphoglycan Antigen Localized on the Surface of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Marinets, Alexandra; Zhang, Tonghai; Guillén, Nancy; Gounon, Pierre; Bohle, Barbara; Vollmann, Ute; Scheiner, Otto; Wiedermann, Gerhard; Stanley, Samuel L.; Duchêne, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised from mice immunized with a membrane preparation from Entamoeba histolytica, the pathogenic species causing invasive amebiasis in humans. Antibody EH5 gave a polydisperse band in immunoblots from membrane preparations from different E. histolytica strains, and a much weaker signal from two strains of the nonpathogenic species Entamoeba dispar. Although the exact chemical structure of the EH5 antigen is not yet known, the ability of the antigen to be metabolically radiolabeled with [32P]phosphate or [3H]glucose, its sensitivity to digestion by mild acid and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, and its specific extraction from E. histolytica trophozoites by a method used to prepare lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania showed that it could be classified as an amebal lipophosphoglycan. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling of trophozoites localized the antigen on the outer face of the plasma membrane and on the inner face of internal vesicle membranes. Antibody EH5 strongly agglutinated amebas in a similar way to concanavalin A (Con A), and Con A bound to immunoaffinity-purified EH5 antigen. Therefore, surface lipophosphoglycans may play an important role in the preferential agglutination of pathogenic amebas by Con A. The protective ability of antibody EH5 was tested in a passive immunization experiment in a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. Intrahepatic challenge of animals after administration of an isotype-matched control antibody or without treatment led to the development of a liver abscess in all cases, whereas 11 out of 12 animals immunized with the EH5 antibody developed no liver abscess. Our results demonstrate the importance and, for the first time, the protective capacity of glycan antigens on the surface of the amebas. PMID:9348313

  18. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Extracts from Codiaeum variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica Discovers Compounds That Modify Expression of Ceramide Biosynthesis Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Mfotie Njoya, Emmanuel; Weber, Christian; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Hon, Chung-Chau; Janin, Yves; Kamini, Melanie F. G.; Moundipa, Paul F.; Guillén, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Codiaeum variegatum (“garden croton”) are used against bloody diarrhoea by local populations in Cameroon. This study aims to search for the active components from C. variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica, and thereby initiate the study of their mechanism of action. A bioassay-guided screening of the aqueous extracts from C. variegatum leaves and various fractions was carried out against trophozoites of E. histolytica axenic culture. We found that the anti-amoebic activity of extracts changed with respect to the collection criteria of leaves. Thereby, optimal conditions were defined for leaves' collection to maximise the anti-amoebic activity of the extracts. A fractionation process was performed, and we identified several sub-fractions (or isolated compounds) with significantly higher anti-amoebic activity compared to the unfractionated aqueous extract. Anti-amoebic activity of the most potent fraction was confirmed with the morphological characteristics of induced death in trophozoites, including cell rounding and lysis. Differential gene expression analysis using high-throughput RNA sequencing implies the potential mechanism of its anti-amoebic activity by targeting ceramide, a bioactive lipid involved in disturbance of biochemical processes within the cell membrane including differentiation, proliferation, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Regulation of ceramide biosynthesis pathway as a target for anti-amoebic compounds is a novel finding which could be an alternative for drug development against E. histolytica. PMID:24416462

  19. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Codiaeum variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica discovers compounds that modify expression of ceramide biosynthesis related genes.

    PubMed

    Mfotie Njoya, Emmanuel; Weber, Christian; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Hon, Chung-Chau; Janin, Yves; Kamini, Melanie F G; Moundipa, Paul F; Guillén, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Codiaeum variegatum ("garden croton") are used against bloody diarrhoea by local populations in Cameroon. This study aims to search for the active components from C. variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica, and thereby initiate the study of their mechanism of action. A bioassay-guided screening of the aqueous extracts from C. variegatum leaves and various fractions was carried out against trophozoites of E. histolytica axenic culture. We found that the anti-amoebic activity of extracts changed with respect to the collection criteria of leaves. Thereby, optimal conditions were defined for leaves' collection to maximise the anti-amoebic activity of the extracts. A fractionation process was performed, and we identified several sub-fractions (or isolated compounds) with significantly higher anti-amoebic activity compared to the unfractionated aqueous extract. Anti-amoebic activity of the most potent fraction was confirmed with the morphological characteristics of induced death in trophozoites, including cell rounding and lysis. Differential gene expression analysis using high-throughput RNA sequencing implies the potential mechanism of its anti-amoebic activity by targeting ceramide, a bioactive lipid involved in disturbance of biochemical processes within the cell membrane including differentiation, proliferation, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Regulation of ceramide biosynthesis pathway as a target for anti-amoebic compounds is a novel finding which could be an alternative for drug development against E. histolytica. PMID:24416462

  20. A whole-genome RNAi screen uncovers a novel role for human potassium channels in cell killing by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Chelsea; Verkerke, Hans P.; Theodorescu, Dan; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills human cells resulting in ulceration, inflammation and invasion of the colonic epithelium. We used the cytotoxic properties of ameba to select a genome-wide RNAi library to reveal novel host factors that control susceptibility to amebic killing. We identified 281 candidate susceptibility genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ion transporters were significantly enriched among susceptibility genes. Potassium (K+) channels were the most common transporter identified. Their importance was further supported by colon biopsy of humans with amebiasis that demonstrated suppressed K+ channel expression. Inhibition of human K+ channels by genetic silencing, pharmacologic inhibitors and with excess K+ protected diverse cell types from E. histolytica-induced death. Contact with E. histolytica parasites triggered K+ channel activation and K+ efflux by intestinal epithelial cells, which preceded cell killing. Specific inhibition of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels was highly effective in preventing amebic cytotoxicity in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Blockade of K+ efflux also inhibited caspase-1 activation, IL-1β secretion and pyroptotic death in THP-1 macrophages. We concluded that K+ channels are host mediators of amebic cytotoxicity in multiple cells types and of inflammasome activation in macrophages. PMID:26346926

  1. Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidia by immunochromatographic assay in stool samples from patients living in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Banisch, Dagmar M; El-Badry, Ayman; Klinnert, Jorge V; Ignatius, Ralf; El-Dib, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Gastrointestinal infection due to intestinal parasites is an enormous health problem in developing countries and its reliable diagnosis is demanding. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating a commercially available immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of cryptosporidia, Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar for its usefulness in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. Stool samples of 104 patients who presented between October 2012 and March 2013 with gastrointestinal symptoms or for the exclusion of parasites at Kasr-Al-Ainy University Medical School were examined by light microscopy of wet mounts and the triple ICA. Microscopy revealed in 20% of the patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 13.5-29.0%] parasites with Hymenolepis nana, E. histolytica/dispar and Blastocystis hominis being the most frequent ones, but was not able to detect G. duodenalis and cryptosporidia, whereas ICA was positive in 21% (95% CI, 14.3-30.0%) and detected E. histolytica/dispar in 12.5% (95% CI, 7.3-20.4%), cryptosporidia in 6.7% (95% CI, 3.1-13.5%) and G. duodenalis in 15.4% (95% CI, 9.6-23.6%) of the patients. Detection of one or more pathogens was associated with access to water retrieved from a well or pump (p = 0.01). Patients between 20 and 29 years of age (p = 0.08) and patients with symptoms of 5 days or longer (p = 0.07) tended to have a higher risk to be infected than patients of other age groups or with shorter-lasting symptoms. In conclusion, the ICA was easy to perform and timesaving. Importantly, it enabled the detection of cryptosporidia, which cannot be found microscopically in unstained smears, demonstrated a higher sensitivity for the detection of G. duodenalis than microscopy, and was more specific for distinguishing E. histolytica/dispar from apathogenic amoeba. PMID:26018117

  2. Evaluation of the C-Terminal Fragment of Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc Lectin Intermediate Subunit as a Vaccine Candidate against Amebic Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yue; Man, Suqin; Fu, Yongfeng; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis, including amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. E. histolytica invades host tissues by adhering onto cells and phagocytosing them depending on the adaptation and expression of pathogenic factors, including Gal/GalNAc lectin. We have previously reported that E. histolytica possesses multiple CXXC sequence motifs, with the intermediate subunit of Gal/GalNAc lectin (i.e., Igl) as a key factor affecting the amoeba's pathogenicity. The present work showed the effect of immunization with recombinant Igl on amebic liver abscess formation and the corresponding immunological properties. Methodology/Principal Findings A prokaryotic expression system was used to prepare the full-length Igl and the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal fragments (C-Igl) of Igl. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenging hamsters with an intrahepatic injection of E. histolytica trophozoites. Hamsters intramuscularly immunized with full-length Igl and C-Igl were found to be 92% and 96% immune to liver abscess formation, respectively. Immune-response evaluation revealed that C-Igl can generate significant humoral immune responses, with high levels of antibodies in sera from immunized hamsters inhibiting 80% of trophozoites adherence to mammalian cells and inducing 80% more complement-mediated lysis of trophozoites compared with the control. C-Igl was further assessed for its cellular response by cytokine-gene qPCR analysis. The productions of IL-4 (8.4-fold) and IL-10 (2-fold) in the spleen cells of immunized hamsters were enhanced after in vitro stimulation. IL-4 expression was also supported by increased programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 gene. Conclusions/Significance Immunobiochemical characterization strongly suggests the potential of recombinant Igl, especially the C-terminal fragment, as a vaccine candidate against amoebiasis. Moreover, protection through Th2-cell participation enabled effective

  3. Identification of Four Entamoeba histolytica Organellar DNA Polymerases of the Family B and Cellular Localization of the Ehodp1 Gene and EhODP1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Aguirre, María Esther; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; Labra-Barrios, María Luisa; Orozco, Esther

    2010-01-01

    We report the identification of a family of four active genes (Ehodp1, Ehodp2, Ehodp3, and Ehodp4) encoding putative DNA polymerases in Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible of human amoebiasis. The four Ehodp genes show similarity to DNA polymerases encoded in fungi and plant mitochondrial plasmids. EhODP polypeptides conserve the 3′-5′ exonuclease II and 5′-3′ polymerization domains, and they have the I, II, and III conserved boxes that characterize them as DNA polymerases of family B. Furthermore, we found in EhODP polymerases two novel A and B boxes, present also in DNA polymerases encoded in fungi mitochondrial plasmids. By in situ PCR, Ehodp1 gene was located in nuclei and in DNA-containing cytoplasmic structures. Additionally, using polyclonal antibodies against a recombinant rEhODP1-168 polypeptide, and confocal microscopy, EhODP1 was located in cytoplasmic DNA-containing structures. PMID:20300437

  4. Expression of EhRAD54, EhRAD51, and EhBLM proteins during DNA repair by homologous recombination in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Charcas-Lopez, Ma del Socorro; Garcia-Morales, Lorena; Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Marchat, Laurence A

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, exhibits a great genome plasticity that is probably related to homologous recombination events. It contains the RAD52 epistasis group genes, including Ehrad51 and Ehrad54, and the Ehblm gene, which are key homologous recombination factors in other organisms. Ehrad51 and Ehrad54 genes are differentially transcribed in trophozoites when DNA double-strand breaks are induced by ultraviolet-C irradiation. Moreover, the EhRAD51 recombinase is overexpressed at 30 min in the nucleus. Here, we extend our analysis of the homologous recombination mechanism in E. histolytica by studying EhRAD51, EhRAD54, and EhBLM expression in response to DNA damage. Bioinformatic analyses show that EhRAD54 has the molecular features of homologous proteins, indicating that it may have similar functions. Western blot assays evidence the differential expression of EhRAD51, EhRAD54, and EhBLM at different times after DNA damage, suggesting their potential roles in the different steps of homologous recombination in this protozoan. PMID:24534563

  5. Expression of EhRAD54, EhRAD51, and EhBLM proteins during DNA repair by homologous recombination in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Charcas-Lopez, Ma.; Garcia-Morales, Lorena; Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Marchat, Laurence A.

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, exhibits a great genome plasticity that is probably related to homologous recombination events. It contains the RAD52 epistasis group genes, including Ehrad51 and Ehrad54, and the Ehblm gene, which are key homologous recombination factors in other organisms. Ehrad51 and Ehrad54 genes are differentially transcribed in trophozoites when DNA double-strand breaks are induced by ultraviolet-C irradiation. Moreover, the EhRAD51 recombinase is overexpressed at 30 min in the nucleus. Here, we extend our analysis of the homologous recombination mechanism in E. histolytica by studying EhRAD51, EhRAD54, and EhBLM expression in response to DNA damage. Bioinformatic analyses show that EhRAD54 has the molecular features of homologous proteins, indicating that it may have similar functions. Western blot assays evidence the differential expression of EhRAD51, EhRAD54, and EhBLM at different times after DNA damage, suggesting their potential roles in the different steps of homologous recombination in this protozoan. PMID:24534563

  6. The Entamoeba histolytica, Arp2/3 Complex Is Recruited to Phagocytic Cups through an Atypical Kinase EhAK1

    PubMed Central

    Babuta, Mrigya; Mansuri, M Shahid; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis and phagocytosis plays a key role in virulence of this organism. Signaling pathways involved in activation of cytoskeletal dynamics required for phagocytosis remain to be elucidated. Phagocytosis is initiated with sequential recruitment of EhC2PK, EhCaBP1, EhCaBP3 and an atypical kinase EhAK1 after particle attachment. Here we show that EhARPC1, an essential subunit of the actin branching complex Arp 2/3 is recruited to the phagocytic initiation sites by EhAK1. Imaging, expression knockdown of different molecules and pull down experiments suggest that EhARPC1 interacts with EhAK1 and that it is required during initiation of phagocytosis and phagosome formation. Moreover, recruitment of EhARPC2 at the phagocytosis initiation by EhAK1 is also observed, indicating that the Arp 2/3 complex is recruited. In conclusion, these results suggests a novel mechanism of recruitment of Arp 2/3 complex during phagocytosis in E. histolytica. PMID:26646565

  7. A Single RNaseIII Domain Protein from Entamoeba histolytica Has dsRNA Cleavage Activity and Can Help Mediate RNAi Gene Silencing in a Heterologous System.

    PubMed

    Pompey, Justine M; Foda, Bardees; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    Dicer enzymes process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small RNAs that target gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Dicer enzymes are complex, multi-domain RNaseIII proteins, however structural minimalism of this protein has recently emerged in parasitic and fungal systems. The most minimal Dicer, Saccharomyces castellii Dicer1, has a single RNaseIII domain and two double stranded RNA binding domains. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica 27nt small RNAs are abundant and mediate silencing, yet no canonical Dicer enzyme has been identified. Although EhRNaseIII does not exhibit robust dsRNA cleavage in vitro, it can process dsRNA in the RNAi-negative background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in conjunction with S. castellii Argonaute1 can partially reconstitute the RNAi pathway. Thus, although EhRNaseIII lacks the domain architecture of canonical or minimal Dicer enzymes, it has dsRNA processing activity that contributes to gene silencing via RNAi. Our data advance the understanding of small RNA biogenesis in Entamoeba as well as broaden the spectrum of non-canonical Dicer enzymes that contribute to the RNAi pathway. PMID:26230096

  8. A Single RNaseIII Domain Protein from Entamoeba histolytica Has dsRNA Cleavage Activity and Can Help Mediate RNAi Gene Silencing in a Heterologous System

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    Dicer enzymes process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small RNAs that target gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Dicer enzymes are complex, multi-domain RNaseIII proteins, however structural minimalism of this protein has recently emerged in parasitic and fungal systems. The most minimal Dicer, Saccharomyces castellii Dicer1, has a single RNaseIII domain and two double stranded RNA binding domains. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica 27nt small RNAs are abundant and mediate silencing, yet no canonical Dicer enzyme has been identified. Although EhRNaseIII does not exhibit robust dsRNA cleavage in vitro, it can process dsRNA in the RNAi-negative background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in conjunction with S. castellii Argonaute1 can partially reconstitute the RNAi pathway. Thus, although EhRNaseIII lacks the domain architecture of canonical or minimal Dicer enzymes, it has dsRNA processing activity that contributes to gene silencing via RNAi. Our data advance the understanding of small RNA biogenesis in Entamoeba as well as broaden the spectrum of non-canonical Dicer enzymes that contribute to the RNAi pathway. PMID:26230096

  9. Evaluation of Multiplex Tandem Real-Time PCR for Detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis in Clinical Stool Samples ▿

    PubMed Central

    Stark, D.; Al-Qassab, S. E.; Barratt, J. L. N.; Stanley, K.; Roberts, T.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.; Ellis, J. T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the first development and evaluation of a multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay for the detection and identification of 4 common pathogenic protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis, from human clinical samples. A total of 472 fecal samples submitted to the Department of Microbiology at St. Vincent's Hospital were included in the study. The MT-PCR assay was compared to four real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays and microscopy by a traditional modified iron hematoxylin stain. The MT-PCR detected 28 G. intestinalis, 26 D. fragilis, 11 E. histolytica, and 9 Cryptosporidium sp. isolates. Detection and identification of the fecal protozoa by MT-PCR demonstrated 100% correlation with the RT-PCR results, and compared to RT-PCR, MT-PCR exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity, while traditional microscopy of stained fixed fecal smears exhibited sensitivities and specificities of 56% and 100% for Cryptosporidium spp., 38% and 99% for D. fragilis, 47% and 97% for E. histolytica, and 50% and 100% for G. intestinalis. No cross-reactivity was detected in 100 stool samples containing various other bacterial, viral, and protozoan species. The MT-PCR assay was able to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneous detection and identification of the four most important diarrhea-causing protozoan parasites that infect humans. This study also highlights the lack of sensitivity demonstrated by microscopy, and thus, molecular methods such as MT-PCR must be considered the diagnostic methods of choice for enteric protozoan parasites. PMID:21048004

  10. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia among Schoolchildren in Agboville Area (Côte d'Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Guéssan, Nicaise A.; Yapi, Ahoua; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2010-01-01

    Background New efforts are being made to improve understanding of the epidemiology of the helminths and intensifying the control efforts against these parasites. In contrast, relatively few studies are being carried out in this direction for the intestinal protozoa. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of the intestinal protozoa, prevalence, and spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia, and their association with drinking water supplies, were determined in the Agboville department in southeast Côte d'Ivoire. Methods/Findings Stool samples were taken from more than 1,300 schoolchildren in the third year of primary education (CE1) from 30 primary schools and preserved in SAF (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). The samples were analyzed by formalin-ether concentration. Then, a survey questionnaire addressed to schoolchildren and school directors was used to collect data on water supplies. Prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and G. lamblia were, respectively, 18.8% and 13.9%. No particular focus zone was observed in the spatial distribution of the two species. Significant negative association was observed between use of tap water and high prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar infection (OR = 0.83, p = 0.01). High prevalence of G. lamblia infection was positively associated with use of ponds as the source of drinking water (OR = 1.28, p = 0.009). Conclusion These two species of pathogenic protozoa are present with substantial prevalence in this area of Côte d'Ivoire. Although their spatial distribution is not focused in any one place, determination of the population segments with the highest levels of infection will help to target the chemotherapeutic fight. To reinforce treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, tap water should be made available in all the localities of this area. PMID:20087416

  11. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples using multiplex PCR and qPCR-MCA.

    PubMed

    Zebardast, Nozhat; Yeganeh, Farshid; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Abadi, Alireza; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad; Haghighi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common causes of diarrheal and intestinal diseases all over the world. Microscopic methods are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites (IPs), but their sensitivity was assessed approximately 60 percent. Recently, molecular techniques have been used increasingly for the identification and characterization of the parasites. Among those, in this study we have used multiplex PCR and Real-time PCR with melting curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) for simultaneous detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples. Twenty DNA samples from 12 E. histolytica and 8 E. dispar samples and twenty stool samples confirmed positive for G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. were analyzed. After DNA extraction from the samples, multiplex PCR was done for detection and differentiation of above mentioned parasites. QPCR-MCA was also performed for the detection and differentiation of 11 isolates of above mentioned parasite in a cycle with a time and temperature. Multiplex PCR was able to simultaneous detect and differentiate of above mentioned parasite in a single reaction. QPCR-MCA was able to differentiate genus and species those five protozoa using melting temperature simultaneously at the same time and temperature programs. In total, qPCR-MCA diagnosed 7/11 isolation of E. histolytica, 6/8 isolation of E. dispar, 1/1 E. moshkovskii Laredo, 10/11 G. Lamblia and 6/11 Cryptosporidium spp. Application of multiplex PCR for detection of more than one species in a test in developing countries, at least in reference laboratories has accurate diagnosis and plays a critical role in differentiation of protozoan species. Multiplex PCR assay with a template and multi template had different results and it seems that using a set of primers with one template has higher diagnostic capability in compare with multi template. The results of this study

  12. Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Stephan; Schuldt, Kathrin; Bernin, Hannah; Zaruba, Mareen; Lender, Corinna; Ittrich, Harald; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2016-01-01

    We here compared pathogenic (p) and non-pathogenic (np) isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA)-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1–A12) derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1–B12) derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. “Non-pathogenicity” included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while “pathogenicity” comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP) activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica. PMID:27575775

  13. Identification of the galactose-adherence lectin epitopes of Entamoeba histolytica that stimulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, R; Mann, B J; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1995-01-01

    The 170-kDa subunit of the galactose-adherence lectin (Gal-lectin) of Entamoeba histolytica mediates adherence to human colonic mucins and intestinal epithelium as a prerequisite to amebic invasion. The Gal-lectin is an immunodominant molecule and a protective antigen in the gerbil model of amebiasis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by activated macrophages enhances nitric oxide-dependent cytotoxicity in host defense against E. histolytica. The purpose of this study was to identify the Gal-lectin epitopes which stimulate TNF-alpha production by macrophages. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) exposed to Gal-lectin (100-500 ng/ml) stimulated stable expression of TNF-alpha mRNA (8-fold increase) and TNF-alpha production similar to that of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells (100 ng/ml). Polyclonal anti-lectin serum specifically inhibited TNF-alpha mRNA induction in response to the Gal-lectin but not to lipopolysaccharide. Anti-lectin monoclonal antibodies 8C12, H85 and 1G7, which recognize nonoverlapping epitopes of the cysteine-rich region of the 170-kDa heavy subunit, inhibited both amebic adherence to mammalian cells and Gal-lectin-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression by BMMs,but monoclonal antibody 7F4 did neither. As these inhibitory antibodies map to amino acids 596-1082 of the 170-kDa Gal-lectin, our results have identified the functional region that mediates amebic adherence and TNF-alpha mRNA induction in BMMMs; thus, this region of the Gal-lectin is a subunit vaccine candidate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8618866

  14. Identification of an Epitope on the Entamoeba histolytica 170-kD Lectin Conferring Antibody-mediated Protection against Invasive Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lotter, Hannelore; Zhang, Tonghai; Seydel, Karl B.; Stanley, Samuel L.; Tannich, Egbert

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms and the failure to eradicate infection by a number of important pathogens has led to increased efforts to develop vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. However, the nature of the immune response to vaccination with a given antigen can be complex and unpredictable. An example is the galactose– and N-acetylgalactosamine–inhibitable lectin, a surface antigen of Entamoeba histolytica that has been identified as a major candidate in a vaccine to prevent amebiasis. Vaccination with the lectin can induce protective immunity to amebic liver abscess in some animals, but others of the same species exhibit exacerbations of disease after vaccination. To better understand this phenomenon, we used recombinant proteins corresponding to four distinct domains of the molecule, and synthetic peptides to localize both protective and exacerbative epitopes of the heavy chain subunit of the lectin. We show that protective immunity after vaccination can be correlated with the development of an antibody response to a region of 25 amino acid residues of the lectin, and have confirmed the importance of the antibody response to this region by passive immunization studies. In addition, we show that exacerbation of disease can be linked to the development of antibodies that bind to an NH2-terminal domain of the lectin. These findings are clinically relevant, as individuals who are colonized with E. histolytica but are resistant to invasive disease have a high prevalence of antibodies to the protective epitope(s), compared to individuals with a history of invasive amebiasis. These studies should enable us to develop an improved vaccine for amebiasis, and provide a model for the identification of protective and exacerbative epitopes of complex antigens. PMID:9151705

  15. X-ray structures of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase from Entamoeba histolytica and prevailing hypothesis of the mechanism of Auranofin action.

    PubMed

    Parsonage, Derek; Sheng, Fang; Hirata, Ken; Debnath, Anjan; McKerrow, James H; Reed, Sharon L; Abagyan, Ruben; Poole, Leslie B; Podust, Larissa M

    2016-05-01

    The anti-arthritic gold-containing drug Auranofin is lethal to the protozoan intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, in both culture and animal models of the disease. A putative mechanism of Auranofin action proposes that monovalent gold, Au(I), released from the drug, can bind to the redox-active dithiol group of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Au(I) binding in the active site is expected to prevent electron transfer to the downstream substrate thioredoxin (Trx), thus interfering with redox homeostasis in the parasite. To clarify the molecular mechanism of Auranofin action in more detail, we determined a series of atomic resolution X-ray structures for E. histolytica thioredoxin (EhTrx) and thioredoxin reductase (EhTrxR), the latter with and without Auranofin. Only the disulfide-bonded form of the active site dithiol (Cys(140)-Cys(143)) was invariably observed in crystals of EhTrxR in spite of the addition of reductants in various crystallization trials, and no gold was found associated with these cysteines. Non-catalytic Cys(286) was identified as the only site of modification, but further mutagenesis studies using the C286Q mutant demonstrated that this site was not responsible for inhibition of EhTrxR by Auranofin. Interestingly, we obtained both of the catalytically-relevant conformations of this bacterial-like, low molecular weight TrxR in crystals without requiring an engineered disulfide linkage between Cys mutants of TrxR and Trx (as was originally done with Escherichia coli TrxR and Trx). We note that the -CXXC- catalytic motif, even if reduced, would likely not provide space sufficient to bind Au(I) by both cysteines of the dithiol group. PMID:26876147

  16. Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Martin; Fehling, Helena; Matthiesen, Jenny; Lorenzen, Stephan; Schuldt, Kathrin; Bernin, Hannah; Zaruba, Mareen; Lender, Corinna; Ernst, Thomas; Ittrich, Harald; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2016-08-01

    We here compared pathogenic (p) and non-pathogenic (np) isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA)-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1-A12) derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1-B12) derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. "Non-pathogenicity" included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while "pathogenicity" comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP) activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica. PMID:27575775

  17. Toll-like Receptor Signaling Activation by Entamoeba histolytica Induces Beta Defensin 2 in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells: Its Possible Role as an Element of the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Sumuano, Jorge-Tonatiuh; Téllez-López, Victor M.; Domínguez-Robles, M. del Carmen; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; Meza, Isaura

    2013-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite of humans, produces dysenteric diarrhea, intestinal mucosa damage and extraintestinal infection. It has been proposed that the intestinal microbiota composition could be an important regulatory factor of amebic virulence and tissue invasion, particularly if pathogenic bacteria are present. Recent in vitro studies have shown that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induced human colonic CaCo2 cells to synthesize TLR-2 and TLR-4 and proinflammatory cytokines after binding to the amebic Gal/GalNac lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The magnitude of the inflammatory response induced by trophozoites and the subsequent cell damage were synergized when cells had previously been exposed to pathogenic bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here that E. histolytica activation of the classic TLR pathway in CaCo2 cells is required to induce β defensin-2 (HBD2) mRNA expression and production of a 5-kDa cationic peptide with similar properties to the antimicrobial HBD2 expressed by CaCo2 cells exposed to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The induced peptide showed capacity to permeabilize membranes of bacteria and live trophozoites. This activity was abrogated by inhibition of TLR2/4-NFκB pathway or by neutralization with an anti-HBD2 antibody. Conclusions/Significance Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites bind to human intestinal cells and induce expression of HBD2; an antimicrobial molecule with capacity to destroy pathogenic bacteria and trophozoites. HDB2's possible role as a modulator of the course of intestinal infections, particularly in mixed ameba/bacteria infections, is discussed. PMID:23469306

  18. STUDIES ON THE CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM OF A GRAM-NEGATIVE ANAEROBE (BACTEROIDES SYMBIOSUS) USED IN THE CULTURE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA1

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, P. D.; Reeves, Richard E.

    1962-01-01

    Bragg, P. D. (Louisiana State University, New Orleans) and R. E. Reeves. Studies on the carbohydrate metabolism of a gram-negative anaerobe (Bacteroides symbiosus) used in the culture of Entamoeba histolytica. J. Bacteriol. 83:76–84. 1962—Resting cells of Bacteroides symbiosus have been shown to utilize glucose and several other monosaccharides. The fermentation of the sugars is mediated by demonstrable kinases except in the case of mannitol. The main end products of metabolism of glucose are CO2, H2, ethanol, and acetic, butyric, succinic, and lactic acids. Changes in the thiol used in the growth media produce different enzyme complements in the cells. Thus, cells grown with cysteine as the thiol are unable to metabolize glucosamine, whereas those grown with thiomalate rapidly degrade the amino sugar. The results of the enzyme assay and the results from experiments with C14-labelled glucose suggest that glucose is metabolized by resting cells mainly by the Embden-Myerhof pathway. PMID:13872395

  19. Autophosphorylation at Thr279 of Entamoeba histolytica atypical kinase EhAK1 is required for activity and regulation of erythrophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, M Shahid; Babuta, Mrigya; Ali, Mohammad Sabir; Bharadwaj, Ravi; Deep jhingan, Gagan; Gourinath, Samudrala; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis plays a key role in survival and pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica. We have recently demonstrated that an atypical kinase EhAK1 is involved in phagocytosis in this parasite. It is recruited to the phagocytic cups through interaction with EhCaBP1. EhAK1 manipulates actin dynamics by multiple mechanisms including phosphorylation of G-actin. Biochemical analysis showed that EhAK1 is a serine/threonine kinase with broad ion specificity and undergoes multiple trans-autophosphorylation. Three autophosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometry. Out of these Thr279 appears to be involved in both autophosphorylation as well as substrate phosphorylation. Over expression of the mutant Thr279A inhibited erythrophagocytosis showing dominant negative phenotype. Multiple alignments of different kinases including alpha kinases displayed conserved binding sites that are thought to be important for function of the protein. Mutation studies demonstrated the importance of some of these binding sites in kinase activity. Binding studies with fluorescent-ATP analogs supported our prediction regarding ATP binding site based on sequence alignment. In conclusion, EhAK1 has multiple regulatory features and enrichment of EhAK1 at the site of phagocytosis stimulates trans-autophosphorylation reaction that increases kinase activity resulting in enhanced actin dynamics and phagocytosis. Some of the properties of EhAK1 are similar to that seen in alpha kinases. PMID:26739245

  20. Biophysical studies on calcium and carbohydrate binding to carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal/GalNAc lectin from Entamoeba histolytica: insights into host cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rupali; Verma, Kuldeep; Chandra, Mintu; Mukherjee, Madhumita; Datta, Sunando

    2016-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric parasite expresses a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin that contributes to its virulence by establishing adhesion to host cell. In this study, carbohydrate recognition domain of Hgl (EhCRD) was purified and biophysical studies were conducted to understand the thermodynamic basis of its binding to carbohydrate and Ca(++) Here, we show that carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the lectin binds to calcium through DPN motif. To decipher the role of calcium in carbohydrate binding and host cell adhesion, biophysical and cell-based studies were carried out. We demonstrated that the presence of the cation neither change the affinity of the lectin for carbohydrates nor alters its conformation. Mutation of the calcium-binding motif in EhCRD resulted in complete loss of ability to bind calcium but retained its affinity for carbohydrates. Purified EhCRD significantly diminished adhesion of the amebic trophozoites to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells as well as triggered red blood cell agglutination. The calcium-binding defective mutant abrogated amebic adhesion to CHO cells similar to the wild-type protein, but it failed to agglutinate RBCs suggesting a differential role of the cation in these two processes. This study provides the first molecular description of the role of calcium in Gal/GalNAc mediated host cell adhesion. PMID:27008865

  1. Autophosphorylation at Thr279 of Entamoeba histolytica atypical kinase EhAK1 is required for activity and regulation of erythrophagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, M Shahid; Babuta, Mrigya; Ali, Mohammad Sabir; Bharadwaj, Ravi; jhingan, Gagan Deep; Gourinath, Samudrala; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis plays a key role in survival and pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica. We have recently demonstrated that an atypical kinase EhAK1 is involved in phagocytosis in this parasite. It is recruited to the phagocytic cups through interaction with EhCaBP1. EhAK1 manipulates actin dynamics by multiple mechanisms including phosphorylation of G-actin. Biochemical analysis showed that EhAK1 is a serine/threonine kinase with broad ion specificity and undergoes multiple trans-autophosphorylation. Three autophosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometry. Out of these Thr279 appears to be involved in both autophosphorylation as well as substrate phosphorylation. Over expression of the mutant Thr279A inhibited erythrophagocytosis showing dominant negative phenotype. Multiple alignments of different kinases including alpha kinases displayed conserved binding sites that are thought to be important for function of the protein. Mutation studies demonstrated the importance of some of these binding sites in kinase activity. Binding studies with fluorescent-ATP analogs supported our prediction regarding ATP binding site based on sequence alignment. In conclusion, EhAK1 has multiple regulatory features and enrichment of EhAK1 at the site of phagocytosis stimulates trans-autophosphorylation reaction that increases kinase activity resulting in enhanced actin dynamics and phagocytosis. Some of the properties of EhAK1 are similar to that seen in alpha kinases. PMID:26739245

  2. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Tellevik, Marit G.; Moyo, Sabrina J.; Blomberg, Bjørn; Hjøllo, Torunn; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an unmatched case-control study among children < 2 years of age in Dar es Salaam, recruited from August 2010 to July 2011. Detection and identification of protozoans were done by PCR techniques on DNA from stool specimens from 701 cases of children admitted due to diarrhea at the three study hospitals, and 558 controls of children with no history of diarrhea during the last month prior to enrollment. The prevalence of C. parvum/hominis was 10.4% (84.7% C. hominis), and that of G. lamblia 4.6%. E. histolytica was not detected. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was significantly higher in cases (16.3%) than in controls (3.1%; P < 0.001; OR = 6.2; 95% CI: 3.7–10.4). G. lamblia was significantly more prevalent in controls (6.1%) than in cases (3.4%; P = 0.027; OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1–3.1). Cryptosporidium infection was found more often in HIV-positive (24.2%) than in HIV-negative children (3.9%; P < 0.001; OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 3.1–20.5), and was also associated with rainfall (P < 0.001; OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.5–3.8). Among cases, stunted children had significantly higher risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium (P = 0.011; OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.2–3.8). G. lamblia infection was more prevalent in the cool season (P = 0.004; OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.8), and more frequent among cases aged > 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5–7.8). Among children aged 7–12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012). Conclusions Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea

  3. Prevalent and Incident HIV Diagnoses among Entamoeba histolytica-Infected Adult Males: A Changing Epidemiology Associated with Sexual Transmission — Taiwan, 2006–2013

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Chun; Ji, Dar-Der; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors. Methodology The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006–2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors. Principal findings Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006–2009 to 2010–2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P = 0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P = 0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral–anal sex before illness onset. Conclusions/significance Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI. PMID:25299178

  4. The NLRP3 Inflammasome Is a Pathogen Sensor for Invasive Entamoeba histolytica via Activation of α5β1 Integrin at the Macrophage-Amebae Intercellular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Leanne; Moreau, France; Cornick, Steve; Chadee, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is an extracellular protozoan parasite of humans that invades the colon to cause life-threatening intestinal and extra-intestinal amebiasis. Colonized Eh is asymptomatic, however, when trophozoites adhere to host cells there is a considerable inflammatory response that is critical in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. The host and/or parasite factors that trigger the inflammatory response to invading Eh are not well understood. We recently identified that Eh adherence to macrophages induces inflammasome activation and in the present study we sought to determine the molecular events upon contact that coordinates this response. Here we report that Eh contact-dependent activation of α5β1 integrin is critical for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Eh-macrophage contact triggered recruitment of α5β1 integrin and NLRP3 into the intercellular junction, where α5β1 integrin underwent activation by an integrin-binding cysteine protease on the parasite surface, termed EhCP5. As a result of its activation, α5β1 integrin induced ATP release into the extracellular space through opening of pannexin-1 channels that signalled through P2X7 receptors to deliver a critical co-stimulatory signal that activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. Both the cysteine protease activity and integrin-binding domain of EhCP5 were required to trigger α5β1 integrin that led to ATP release and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These findings reveal engagement of α5β1 integrin across the parasite-host junction is a key regulatory step that initiates robust inflammatory responses to Eh. We propose that α5β1 integrin distinguishes Eh direct contact and functions with NLRP3 as pathogenicity sensor for invasive Eh infection. PMID:25955828

  5. The knockdown of each component of the cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of Entamoeba histolytica (EhCPADH) affects the expression of the other complex element as well as the in vitro and in vivo virulence.

    PubMed

    Ocádiz-Ruiz, Ramón; Fonseca, Wendy; Linford, Alicia S; Yoshino, Timothy P; Orozco, Esther; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite causative of human amoebiasis, disease responsible for 40 000-100 000 deaths annually. The cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of this parasite (EhCPADH) is a heterodimeric protein formed by a cysteine protease (EhCP112) and an adhesin (EhADH) that plays an important role in the cytopathic mechanism of this parasite. The coding genes for EhCP112 and EhADH are adjacent in the E. histolytica genome, suggesting that their expression may be co-regulated, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed the knockdown of EhCP112 and EhADH using gene-specific short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), and the effect of these knockdowns on the expression of both complex components as well as on the in vitro and in vivo virulence was analysed. Results showed that the knockdown of one of the EhCPADH components produced a simultaneous downregulation of the other protein. Accordingly, a concomitant reduction in the overall expression of the complex was observed. The downregulation of each component also produced a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo virulence of trophozoites. These results demonstrated that the expression of EhCP112 and EhADH is co-regulated and confirmed that the EhCPADH complex plays an important role in E. histolytica virulence. PMID:26521708

  6. Laboratory diagnostic techniques for Entamoeba species.

    PubMed

    Fotedar, R; Stark, D; Beebe, N; Marriott, D; Ellis, J; Harkness, J

    2007-07-01

    The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

  7. Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

  8. Detection of excretory Entamoeba histolytica DNA in the urine, and detection of E. histolytica DNA and lectin antigen in the liver abscess pus for the diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash C; Khairnar, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Background Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) appear identical by ultrasound and other imaging techniques. Collection of blood or liver abscess pus for diagnosis of liver abscesses is an invasive procedure, and the procedure requires technical expertise and disposable syringes. Collection of urine is a noninvasive procedure. Therefore, there has been much interest shown towards the use of urine as an alternative clinical specimen for the diagnosis of some parasitic infections. Here, we report for the first time the detection of E. histolytica DNA excreted in the urine for diagnosis of the cases of ALA. Results E. histolytica DNA was detected in liver abscess pus specimen of 80.4% of ALA patients by a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 16S-like r RNA gene. The nested PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in all 37 (100%) liver abscess pus specimens collected prior to metronidazole treatment, but were detected in only 53 of 75 (70.6%) pus specimens collected after therapy with metronidazole. Similarly, the PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in 21 of 53 (39.6%) urine specimens of ALA patients. The test detected E. histolytica DNA in only 4 of 23 (17.4%) urine specimens collected prior to metronidazole treatment, but were detected in 17 of 30 (56.7%) urine specimens collected after treatment with metronidazole. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of lectin E. histolytica antigen in the liver abscess pus showed a sensitivity of 50% and the indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test for detection of amoebic antibodies in the serum showed a sensitivity of 76.8% for the diagnosis of the ALA. Conclusion The present study for the first time shows that the kidney barrier in ALA patients is permeable to E. histolytica DNA molecule resulting in excretion of E. histolytica DNA in urine which can be detected by PCR. The study also shows that the PCR for detection of E. histolytica DNA in urine of patients with ALA

  9. Heterogeneity of the serine synthetic pathway in Entamoeba species.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoko; Makiuchi, Takashi; Jeelani, Ghulam; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) catalyzes the third step of the phosphorylated serine biosynthetic pathway, and occurred multiple times in evolution, while enzymes catalyzing the first and second steps in the pathway have single respective origins. In the present study, we examined the existence of PSP among genus Entamoeba including a human enteric parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. E. histolytica as well as majority of Entamoeba species have the first and second enzymes, but lacks PSP. In contrast, a reptilian enteric parasite, Entamoeba invadens possesses canonical PSP. Thus, there are variations in the existence of the serine biosynthetic ability among Entamoeba species. PMID:27268730

  10. Two Atypical l-Cysteine-regulated NADPH-dependent Oxidoreductases Involved in Redox Maintenance, l-Cystine and Iron Reduction, and Metronidazole Activation in the Enteric Protozoan Entamoeba histolytica*

    PubMed Central

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Husain, Afzal; Sato, Dan; Ali, Vahab; Suematsu, Makoto; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We discovered novel catalytic activities of two atypical NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases (EhNO1/2) from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. EhNO1/2 were previously annotated as the small subunit of glutamate synthase (glutamine:2-oxoglutarate amidotransferase) based on similarity to authentic bacterial homologs. As E. histolytica lacks the large subunit of glutamate synthase, EhNO1/2 were presumed to play an unknown role other than glutamine/glutamate conversion. Transcriptomic and quantitative reverse PCR analyses revealed that supplementation or deprivation of extracellular l-cysteine caused dramatic up- or down-regulation, respectively, of EhNO2, but not EhNO1 expression. Biochemical analysis showed that these FAD- and 2[4Fe-4S]-containing enzymes do not act as glutamate synthases, a conclusion which was supported by phylogenetic analyses. Rather, they catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide and l-cystine to l-cysteine and also function as ferric and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases. EhNO1/2 showed notable differences in substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency; EhNO1 had lower Km and higher kcat/Km values for ferric ion and ferredoxin than EhNO2, whereas EhNO2 preferred l-cystine as a substrate. In accordance with these properties, only EhNO1 was observed to physically interact with intrinsic ferredoxin. Interestingly, EhNO1/2 also reduced metronidazole, and E. histolytica transformants overexpressing either of these proteins were more sensitive to metronidazole, suggesting that EhNO1/2 are targets of this anti-amebic drug. To date, this is the first report to demonstrate that small subunit-like proteins of glutamate synthase could play an important role in redox maintenance, l-cysteine/l-cystine homeostasis, iron reduction, and the activation of metronidazole. PMID:20592025

  11. Increases in Entamoeba histolytica Antibody-Positive Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Patients in Japan: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Study of 3,514 Patients.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Oka, Shinichi

    2016-09-01

    Serological evidence of the epidemiological trends in Entamoeba histolytica infection is scarce, especially in nonendemic countries. We aimed to determine the antibody-positive rates over a 10-year period, and compare the trends between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -noninfected patients. We reviewed 3,514 patients who underwent antibody testing during the study periods, which were divided into five annual categories: 2004-2005, 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2010-2011, and 2012-2013. Anti-E. histolytica antibody was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The antibody-positive rate increased yearly from 2004-2005 to 2012-2013 (P < 0.001), although there was no increase in the annual number of antibody tests. This trend was seen among males (18.6-28.3%; P < 0.01), females (5.4-28.2%; P < 0.01), HIV-infected patients (18.4-26.9%; P < 0.001), and non-HIV-infected patients (14.6-36.8%; P < 0.001), and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (19.4-29.1%; P < 0.001). Among antibody-positive patients, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients with high (≥ 1,600) titers (0.7-12.9%; P < 0.001), whereas this trend was not seen in patients with low (100) or intermediate (200-800) titers (P = 0.282 and 0.409, respectively). This large hospital-based study demonstrated that positive anti-E. histolytica antibody rates increased over 10 years, even though the annual number of antibody tests remained constant. Moreover, this trend was identified in non-high-risk patients (females and non-HIV-infected patients) as well as in high-risk patients. The proportion of patients with high antibody titers significantly increased among the antibody-positive patients. PMID:27296390

  12. Mitosomes in Trophozoites and Cysts of the Reptilian Parasite Entamoeba invadens ▿

    PubMed Central

    Siegesmund, Maria A.; Hehl, Adrian B.; van der Giezen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein genes led to the discovery of mitosomes in Entamoeba histolytica, but mitosomes have not been described for any other Entamoeba species, nor have they been identified in the cyst stage. Here, we show that the distantly related reptilian pathogen Entamoeba invadens contains mitosomes, in both trophozoites and cysts, suggesting all Entamoeba species contain these organelles. PMID:21965513

  13. Mitosomes in trophozoites and cysts of the reptilian parasite Entamoeba invadens.

    PubMed

    Siegesmund, Maria A; Hehl, Adrian B; van der Giezen, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Heat shock protein genes led to the discovery of mitosomes in Entamoeba histolytica, but mitosomes have not been described for any other Entamoeba species, nor have they been identified in the cyst stage. Here, we show that the distantly related reptilian pathogen Entamoeba invadens contains mitosomes, in both trophozoites and cysts, suggesting all Entamoeba species contain these organelles. PMID:21965513

  14. Diagnostic performances of antigen detection compared to conventional and nucleic acid detection of Entamoeba histolytica in a non-endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piergianni, Maddalena; Piccolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Sabina; Montecchini, Sara; Buttrini, Mirko; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the immunochromatographic (IC) assay "TECHLAB(®) E. HISTOLYTICA QUIK CHEK™" analysing 36 faecal samples and 7 cultured strains. This assay was compared to the methods performed in our laboratory for the diagnosis of amoebiasis. The IC assay revealed a detection limit of 103 trophozoites/g faeces and no cross-reactivity with other parasites and failed to detect E. histolytica antigen in frozen faeces. In our laboratory located in a non-endemic setting this assay could not replace the methods currently used for the diagnosis of amoebiasis. PMID:27196557

  15. Horizontal Gene Transfers from Bacteria to Entamoeba Complex: A Strategy for Dating Events along Species Divergence.

    PubMed

    Romero, Miguel; Cerritos, R; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has proved to be relevant in eukaryotic evolution, as it has been found more often than expected and related to adaptation to certain niches. A relatively large list of laterally transferred genes has been proposed and evaluated for the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The goals of this work were to elucidate the importance of lateral gene transfer along the evolutionary history of some members of the genus Entamoeba, through identifying donor groups and estimating the divergence time of some of these events. In order to estimate the divergence time of some of the horizontal gene transfer events, the dating of some Entamoeba species was necessary, following an indirect dating strategy based on the fossil record of plausible hosts. The divergence between E. histolytica and E. nuttallii probably occurred 5.93 million years ago (Mya); this lineage diverged from E. dispar 9.97 Mya, while the ancestor of the latter separated from E. invadens 68.18 Mya. We estimated times for 22 transferences; the most recent occurred 31.45 Mya and the oldest 253.59 Mya. Indeed, the acquisition of genes through lateral transfer may have triggered a period of adaptive radiation, thus playing a major role in the evolution of the Entamoeba genus. PMID:27239333

  16. Horizontal Gene Transfers from Bacteria to Entamoeba Complex: A Strategy for Dating Events along Species Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Miguel; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has proved to be relevant in eukaryotic evolution, as it has been found more often than expected and related to adaptation to certain niches. A relatively large list of laterally transferred genes has been proposed and evaluated for the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The goals of this work were to elucidate the importance of lateral gene transfer along the evolutionary history of some members of the genus Entamoeba, through identifying donor groups and estimating the divergence time of some of these events. In order to estimate the divergence time of some of the horizontal gene transfer events, the dating of some Entamoeba species was necessary, following an indirect dating strategy based on the fossil record of plausible hosts. The divergence between E. histolytica and E. nuttallii probably occurred 5.93 million years ago (Mya); this lineage diverged from E. dispar 9.97 Mya, while the ancestor of the latter separated from E. invadens 68.18 Mya. We estimated times for 22 transferences; the most recent occurred 31.45 Mya and the oldest 253.59 Mya. Indeed, the acquisition of genes through lateral transfer may have triggered a period of adaptive radiation, thus playing a major role in the evolution of the Entamoeba genus. PMID:27239333

  17. Increases in Entamoeba histolytica Antibody–Positive Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected and Noninfected Patients in Japan: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Study of 3,514 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Oka, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Serological evidence of the epidemiological trends in Entamoeba histolytica infection is scarce, especially in nonendemic countries. We aimed to determine the antibody-positive rates over a 10-year period, and compare the trends between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and –noninfected patients. We reviewed 3,514 patients who underwent antibody testing during the study periods, which were divided into five annual categories: 2004–2005, 2006–2007, 2008–2009, 2010–2011, and 2012–2013. Anti-E. histolytica antibody was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The antibody-positive rate increased yearly from 2004–2005 to 2012–2013 (P < 0.001), although there was no increase in the annual number of antibody tests. This trend was seen among males (18.6–28.3%; P < 0.01), females (5.4–28.2%; P < 0.01), HIV-infected patients (18.4–26.9%; P < 0.001), and non-HIV-infected patients (14.6–36.8%; P < 0.001), and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (19.4–29.1%; P < 0.001). Among antibody-positive patients, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients with high (≥ 1,600) titers (0.7–12.9%; P < 0.001), whereas this trend was not seen in patients with low (100) or intermediate (200–800) titers (P = 0.282 and 0.409, respectively). This large hospital-based study demonstrated that positive anti-E. histolytica antibody rates increased over 10 years, even though the annual number of antibody tests remained constant. Moreover, this trend was identified in non-high-risk patients (females and non-HIV-infected patients) as well as in high-risk patients. The proportion of patients with high antibody titers significantly increased among the antibody-positive patients. PMID:27296390

  18. Detection and Identification of Entamoeba Species in Stool Samples by a Reverse Line Hybridization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Jaco J.; Laeijendecker, Daphne; Brienen, Eric A. T.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polderman, Anton M.

    2003-01-01

    Classically, detection of Entamoeba histolytica is performed by microscopic examination for characteristic cysts and/or trophozoites in fecal preparations. Differentiation of E. histolytica cysts and those of nonpathogenic amoebic species is made on the basis of the appearance and the size of the cysts. However, by classical means objective tools for confirmation and quality control do not exist. Therefore, a reverse line blot hybridization assay was developed to detect a variety of Entamoeba species and genetic variants known to infect humans. The assay was performed after amplification with general Entamoeba-specific primers. The assay could identify four genetic variants of Entamoeba polecki-like cysts as well as E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba moshkovskii and Entamoeba coli and even mixed infections in a range of controls and fecal samples. This technique can be used as an additional standard for diagnosis, epidemiology, and quality control for amoebic infections. PMID:14605136

  19. Detection and identification of entamoeba species in stool samples by a reverse line hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Jaco J; Laeijendecker, Daphne; Brienen, Eric A T; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polderman, Anton M

    2003-11-01

    Classically, detection of Entamoeba histolytica is performed by microscopic examination for characteristic cysts and/or trophozoites in fecal preparations. Differentiation of E. histolytica cysts and those of nonpathogenic amoebic species is made on the basis of the appearance and the size of the cysts. However, by classical means objective tools for confirmation and quality control do not exist. Therefore, a reverse line blot hybridization assay was developed to detect a variety of Entamoeba species and genetic variants known to infect humans. The assay was performed after amplification with general Entamoeba-specific primers. The assay could identify four genetic variants of Entamoeba polecki-like cysts as well as E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba moshkovskii and Entamoeba coli and even mixed infections in a range of controls and fecal samples. This technique can be used as an additional standard for diagnosis, epidemiology, and quality control for amoebic infections. PMID:14605136

  20. Insights into endosomal maturation of human holo-transferrin in the enteric parasite Entamoeba histolytica: essential roles of Rab7A and Rab5 in biogenesis of giant early endocytic vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kuldeep; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Datta, Sunando

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica is one of the causative agents of health hazards in tropical countries. It causes amoebic dysentery, colitis and liver abscesses in human. Iron is one of the essential nutritional resources for survival and chronic infection caused by the amoeba. The parasite has developed multiple ways to import, sequester and utilize iron from various iron-binding proteins from its host. In spite of its central role in pathogenesis, the mechanism of iron uptake by the parasite is largely unknown. Here, we carried out a systematic study to understand the role of some of the amoebic homologues of mammalian endocytic Rab GTPases (Rab5 and Rab21, Rab7A and Rab7B) in intracellular transport of human holo-transferrin by the parasite. Flow cytometry and quantitative microscopic image analysis revealed that Rab5 and Rab7A are required for the biogenesis of amoebic giant endocytic vacuoles (GEVs) and regulate the early phase of intracellular trafficking of transferrin. Rab7B is involved in the late phase, leading to the degradation of transferrin in the amoebic lysosome-like compartments. Using time-lapse fluorescence imaging in fixed trophozoites, we determined the kinetics of the vesicular transport of transferrin through Rab5-, Rab7A- and Rab7B-positive compartments. The involvement of Rab7A in the early phase of endocytosis by the parasite marks a significant divergence from its host in terms of spatiotemporal regulation by the Rab GTPases. PMID:26096601

  1. A Novel Mitosomal β-Barrel Outer Membrane Protein in Entamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Herbert J.; Imai, Kenichiro; Makiuchi, Takashi; Tomii, Kentaro; Horton, Paul; Nozawa, Akira; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba possesses a highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelle known as the mitosome. Here, we report the discovery of a novel protein in Entamoeba, which we name Mitosomal β-barrel Outer Membrane Protein of 30 kDa (MBOMP30). Initially identified through in silico analysis, we experimentally confirmed that MBOMP30 is indeed a β-barrel protein. Circular dichroism analysis showed MBOMP30 has a predominant β-sheet structure. Localization to Entamoeba histolytica mitosomes was observed through Percoll-gradient fractionation and immunofluorescence assay. Mitosomal membrane integration was demonstrated by carbonate fractionation, proteinase K digestion, and immunoelectron microscopy. Interestingly, the deletion of the putative β-signal, a sequence believed to guide β-barrel outer membrane protein (BOMP) assembly, did not affect membrane integration, but abolished the formation of a ~240 kDa complex. MBOMP30 represents only the seventh subclass of eukaryotic BOMPs discovered to date and lacks detectable homologs outside Entamoeba, suggesting that it may be unique to Entamoeba mitosomes. PMID:25711150

  2. The genome and transcriptome of the enteric parasite Entamoeba invadens, a model for encystation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several eukaryotic parasites form cysts that transmit infection. The process is found in diverse organisms such as Toxoplasma, Giardia, and nematodes. In Entamoeba histolytica this process cannot be induced in vitro, making it difficult to study. In Entamoeba invadens, stage conversion can be induced, but its utility as a model system to study developmental biology has been limited by a lack of genomic resources. We carried out genome and transcriptome sequencing of E. invadens to identify molecular processes involved in stage conversion. Results We report the sequencing and assembly of the E. invadens genome and use whole transcriptome sequencing to characterize changes in gene expression during encystation and excystation. The E. invadens genome is larger than that of E. histolytica, apparently largely due to expansion of intergenic regions; overall gene number and the machinery for gene regulation are conserved between the species. Over half the genes are regulated during the switch between morphological forms and a key signaling molecule, phospholipase D, appears to regulate encystation. We provide evidence for the occurrence of meiosis during encystation, suggesting that stage conversion may play a key role in recombination between strains. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that a number of core processes are common to encystation between distantly related parasites, including meiosis, lipid signaling and RNA modification. These data provide a foundation for understanding the developmental cascade in the important human pathogen E. histolytica and highlight conserved processes more widely relevant in enteric pathogens. PMID:23889909

  3. Molecular identification of Entamoeba species in savanna woodland chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Čepička, Ivan; Kalousová, Barbora; Jirků, Milan; Stewart, Fiona; Levecke, Bruno; Modrý, David; Piel, Alex K; Petrželková, Klára J

    2016-05-01

    To address the molecular diversity and occurrence of pathogenic species of the genus Entamoeba spp. in wild non-human primates (NHP) we conducted molecular-phylogenetic analyses on Entamoeba from wild chimpanzees living in the Issa Valley, Tanzania. We compared the sensitivity of molecular [using a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and coproscopic detection (merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration) of Entamoeba spp. We identified Entamoeba spp. in 72 chimpanzee fecal samples (79%) subjected to species-specific PCRs for six Entamoeba species/groups (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba nuttalli, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba polecki ST2). We recorded three Entamoeba species: E. coli (47%), E. dispar (16%), Entamoeba hartmanni (51%). Coproscopically, we could only distinguish the cysts of complex E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii/nuttalli and E. coli. Molecular prevalence of entamoebas was higher than the prevalence based on the coproscopic examination. Our molecular phylogenies showed that sequences of E. dispar and E. coli from Issa chimpanzees are closely related to sequences from humans and other NHP from GenBank. The results showed that wild chimpanzees harbour Entamoeba species similar to those occurring in humans; however, no pathogenic species were detected. Molecular-phylogenetic methods are critical to improve diagnostics of entamoebas in wild NHP and for determining an accurate prevalence of Entamoeba species. PMID:26935395

  4. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  5. Is real-time PCR-based diagnosis similar in performance to routine parasitological examination for the identification of Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica from stool samples? Evaluation of a new commercial multiplex PCR assay and literature review.

    PubMed

    Laude, A; Valot, S; Desoubeaux, G; Argy, N; Nourrisson, C; Pomares, C; Machouart, M; Le Govic, Y; Dalle, F; Botterel, F; Bourgeois, N; Cateau, E; Leterrier, M; Le Pape, P; Morio, F

    2016-02-01

    Microscopy is the reference standard for routine laboratory diagnosis in faecal parasitology but there is growing interest in alternative methods to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and highly dependent on an operator's skills and expertise. Compared with microscopy, DNA detection by PCR is simple and can offer a better turnaround time. However, PCR performances remain difficult to assess as most studies have been conducted on a limited number of positive clinical samples and used in-house PCR methods. Our aim was to evaluate a new multiplex PCR assay (G-DiaParaTrio; Diagenode Diagnostics), targeting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica. To minimize the turnaround time, PCR was coupled with automated DNA extraction (QiaSymphony; Qiagen). The PCR assay was evaluated using a reference panel of 185 samples established by routine microscopic examination using a standardized protocol including Ziehl-Neelsen staining and adhesin detection by ELISA (E. histolytica II; TechLab). This panel, collected from 12 French parasitology laboratories, included 135 positive samples for G. intestinalis (n = 38), C. parvum/C. hominis (n = 26), E. histolytica (n = 5), 21 other gastrointestinal parasites, together with 50 negative samples. In all, the G-DiaParaTrio multiplex PCR assay identified 38 G. intestinalis, 25 C. parvum/C. hominis and five E. histolytica leading to sensitivity/specificity of 92%/100%, 96%/100% and 100%/100% for G. intestinalis, C. parvum/C. hominis and E. histolytica, respectively. This new multiplex PCR assay offers fast and reliable results, similar to microscopy-driven diagnosis for the detection of these gastrointestinal protozoa, allowing its implementation in routine clinical practice. PMID:26548509

  6. Entamoeba moshkovskii and Entamoeba dispar-associated infections in pondicherry, India.

    PubMed

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Khairnar, Krishna

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of Laredo strain--Entamoeba moshkovskii--and non-pathogenic E. dispar in patients attending the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research hospital, Pondicherry, India, is reported here. E. moshkovskii is reported for the first time in India. The species are morphologically indistinguishable from pathogenic E. histolytica. Of 746 stool samples screened, 68 showing cyst or trophozoite stage of E. histolytica, E. dispar, or E. moshkovskii were subjected to small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction, which revealed a higher prevalence of E. dispar (8.8%) and E. moshkovskii (2.2%) compared to E. histolytica (1.7%) in patients. Only 19% of the 68 stool samples, resembling E. histolytica by microscopy, were actually E. histolytica, implying that 81% of suspected infections were misdiagnosed and would have been treated unnecessarily with anti-amoebic drugs. PMID:16262027

  7. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  8. Heat Shock Protein 90 regulates encystation in Entamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meetali; Sharma, Shalini; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tatu, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of debilitating diarrheal infection worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Even though the clinical burden of this parasite is very high, this infection is categorized as a neglected disease. Parasite is transmitted through feco-oral route and exhibit two distinct stages namely – trophozoites and cysts. Mechanism and regulation of encystation is not clearly understood. Previous studies have established the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in regulating stage transition in various protozoan parasites like Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania, and Toxoplasma. Our study for the first time reports that Hsp90 plays a crucial role in life cycle of Entamoeba as well. We identify Hsp90 to be a negative regulator of encystation in Entamoeba. We also show that Hsp90 inhibition interferes with the process of phagocytosis in Entamoeba. Overall, we show that Hsp90 plays an important role in virulence and transmission of Entamoeba. PMID:26528271

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba spp.: Evidence of a Bottleneck (Demographic Sweep) and Transcontinental Spread of Diploid Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudip; Frisardi, Marta; Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Descoteaux, Steven; Sturm-Ramirez, Katherine; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar Alberto; Santos-Preciado, Jose Ignacio; Ganguly, Chaiti; Lohia, Anuradha; Reed, Sharon; Samuelson, John

    2000-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis and liver abscess in developing countries such as Mexico and India. Entamoeba dispar is morphologically identical but is not associated with disease. Here we determined the ploidy of E. histolytica and developed PCR-based methods for distinguishing field isolates of E. histolytica or E. dispar. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that E. histolytica trophozoites are diploid for five “single-copy” probes tested. Intergenic sequences between superoxide dismutase and actin 3 genes of clinical isolates of E. histolytica from the New and Old Worlds were identical, as were those of E. dispar. These results suggest a bottleneck or demographic sweep in entamoebae which infect humans. In contrast, E. histolytica and E. dispar genes encoding repeat antigens on the surface of trophozoites (Ser-rich protein) or encysting parasites (chitinase) were highly polymorphic. chitinase alleles suggested that the early axenized strains of E. histolytica, HM-1 from Mexico City, Mexico, and NIH-200 from Calcutta, India, are still present and that similar E. dispar parasites can be identified in both the New and Old Worlds. Ser-rich protein alleles, which suggested the presence of the HM-1 strain in Mexico City, included some E. histolytica genes that predicted Ser-rich proteins with very few repeats. These results, which suggest diversifying selection at chitinase and Ser-rich protein loci, demonstrate the usefulness of these alleles for distinguishing clinical isolates of E. histolytica and E. dispar. PMID:11015408

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba: First Description of Entamoeba moshkovskii in a Rural Area from Central Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M.; Fonseca, Jairo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia; Olivera, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are the most frequent species described in human infection where E. histolytica is the only true pathogen. The epidemiology of this infection is complex due to the absence of a routine exam that allows a correct discrimination of the Entamoeba species complex. Therefore, molecular methods appear as the unique epidemiological tool to accomplish the species discrimination. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of Entamoeba species infections in a group of asymptomatic individuals from a rural area in central Colombia. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 181 fecal samples from asymptomatic children under 16 years old from the hamlet La Vírgen, Cundinamarca (Colombia) that voluntarily accepted to participate in the study were collected. The fecal samples were examined by light microscopy and DNA-extracted, subsequently submitted to molecular discrimination of E. dispar/E. histolytica/E. moshkovskii infection based on a multiplex PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA fragment. To confirm the species description, twenty samples were randomly submitted to DNA sequencing of the aforementioned fragment. By direct microscopic examination, frequency of the complex E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii was 18.8% (34/181). PCR showed a frequency of 49.1% (89/181), discriminated as 23.2% (42/181) that were positive for E. dispar, 25.4% (46/181) for E. moshkovskii and 0.55% (1/ 181) for E. histolytica. Also, mixed infections were detected between E. dispar and E. moshkovskii at 4.42% (8/181) of the samples. Molecular barcoding confirmed the diagnosis depicted by the multiplex PCR assay. Conclusions/Significance This is the first description of E. moshkovskii in Colombia and the second report in South-America to our knowledge. Our results suggest the need to unravel the true epidemiology of Entamoeba infections around the world, including the real pathogenic role that E

  11. LUMINEX®: a new technology for the simultaneous identification of five Entamoeba spp. commonly found in human stools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Six species of the genus Entamoeba, i.e., E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be found in human stools. Among these, only E. histolytica is considered to be pathogenic, causing intestinal and extra-intestinal disease, but it is morphologically identical to E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. In general, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be differentiated morphologically from E. histolytica, but some of their diagnostic morphologic features may overlap creating issues for the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the previous inability to differentiate among Entamoeba species has limited epidemiologic information on E histolytica. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, high-throughput screening method using Luminex technique for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba species. Methods PCR amplification was performed with biotinylated Entamoeba sp 18S rRNA gene primers, designed to amplify a fragment ranging from 382 to 429 bp of the Entamoeba spp studied. Regions of this fragment that could differentiate among E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii, E. dispar, E. hartmanii and E. coli were selected to design hybridization probes to link to Luminex beads. The assay was standardized with cloned DNA samples of each species and evaluated with 24 DNA extracts from samples obtained from individuals diagnosed with these amebas in their stools. Results Using this approach we were able to correctly identify E. histoltyica, E. dispar, E hartmanni, E. coli and E. moshkovskii in all specimens studied. From twenty four samples tested by microscopy, PCR/DNA Sequencing and real-time PCR, 100% agreed with PCR-Luminex assay for identification of E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. histolytica, and E. coli. Conclusion These results show that this method could be used in the diagnostic detection of Entamoeba spp in fecal samples. This diagnostic test was useful to clearly distinguish E

  12. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar

    PubMed Central

    Costa, C.A.X.; Brito, K.N.O.; Gomes, M.A.; Caliari, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar were described in details, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Variation in the virulence is therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to better understand the disease. PMID:20819776

  13. A PCR-RFLP method for the simultaneous differentiation of three Entamoeba species.

    PubMed

    Fontecha, Gustavo A; García, Kimberly; Rueda, María Mercedes; Sosa-Ochoa, Wilfredo; Sánchez, Ana Lourdes; Leiva, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica continues to be one of the most common parasitic diseases in the developing world. Despite its relevance, due to the lack of accurate diagnostic methods, the true clinical and public health importance of this parasite remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to develop a new diagnostic tool to differentiate E.histolytica from the morphologically undistinguishable E.dispar and E.moshkovskii. We developed a specific, fast and simple PCR-RFLP method that was able to accurately differentiate experimentally-obtained restriction patterns from the three Entamoeba species. This new method could prove useful for clinical and epidemiological purposes. PMID:25680279

  14. Entamoeba moshkovskii Infections in Children in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karin M.; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Roy, Shantanu; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.; Petri, William A.; Haque, Rashidul

    2003-01-01

    Entamoeba moshkovskii cysts are morphologically indistinguishable from those of the disease-causing species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic E. dispar. Although sporadic cases of human infection with E. moshkovskii have been reported, the organism is considered primarily a free-living ameba. No simple molecular detection tool is available for diagnosing E. moshkovskii infections. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect E. moshkovskii directly in stool. We tested 109 stool specimens from preschool children in Bangladesh by PCR; 17 were positive for E. histolytica (15.6%) and 39 were positive for E. dispar (35.8%). In addition, we found that 23 (21.1%) were positive for E. moshkovskii infection, and 17 (73.9%) of these also carried E. histolytica or E. dispar. The high association of E. moshkovskii with E. histolytica and E. dispar may have obscured its identification in previous studies. The high prevalence found in this study suggests that humans may be a true host for this ameba. PMID:12737742

  15. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Virulent and Nonvirulent Entamoeba Species: Potential Implications for Amebic Pathogenesis †

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ryan C.; Singh, Upinder

    2006-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes colitis and liver abscesses. Several Entamoeba species and strains with differing levels of virulence have been identified. E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS is a virulent strain, E. histolytica Rahman is a nonvirulent strain, and Entamoeba dispar is a nonvirulent species. We used an E. histolytica DNA microarray consisting of 2,110 genes to assess the transcriptional differences between these species/strains with the goal of identifying genes whose expression correlated with a virulence phenotype. We found 415 genes expressed at lower levels in E. dispar and 32 genes with lower expression in E. histolytica Rahman than in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Overall, 29 genes had decreased expression in both the nonvirulent species/strains than the virulent E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Interestingly, a number of genes with potential roles in stress response and virulence had decreased expression in either one or both nonvirulent Entamoeba species/strains. These included genes encoding Fe hydrogenase (9.m00419), peroxiredoxin (176.m00112), type A flavoprotein (6.m00467), lysozyme (6.m00454), sphingomyelinase C (29.m00231), and a hypothetical protein with homology to both a Plasmodium sporozoite threonine-asparagine-rich protein (STARP) and a streptococcal hemagglutinin (238.m00054). The function of these genes in Entamoeba and their specific roles in parasite virulence need to be determined. We also found that a number of the non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons (EhLINEs and EhSINEs), which have been shown to modulate gene expression and genomic evolution, had lower expression in the nonvirulent species/strains than in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS. Our results, identifying expression profiles and patterns indicative of a virulence phenotype, may be useful in characterizing the transcriptional framework of virulence. PMID:16368989

  16. Prevalence of Entamoeba species in captive primates in zoological gardens in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Carl S.; Yon, Lisa; Hossain, Maqsud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of amoebic infection in non-human primates (NHPs) from six Zoological gardens in the United Kingdom. Initially, 126 faecal samples were collected from 37 individually identified NHPs at Twycross Zoo, UK, and were subjected to microscopic examination. A subsequent, nationwide experiment included 350 faecal samples from 89 individually identified NHPs and 73 unidentified NHPs from a number of UK captive wildlife facilities: Twycross Zoo (n = 60), Colchester Zoo (n = 3), Edinburgh Zoo (n = 6), Port Lympne Wild Animal Park (n = 58), Howletts Wild Animal Park (n = 31), and Cotswold Wildlife Park (n = 4). Samples were examined by PCR and sequencing using four specific primer sets designed to differentiate between the pathogenic E. histolytica, the non-pathogenic E. dispar, and non-pathogenic uninucleate cyst-producing Entamoeba species. In the first experiment, Entamoeba was detected in 30 primates (81.1%). Six (16.2%) primates were infected with E. histolytica species complex. The highest carriage of Entamoeba species was found in Old World Colobinae primates. In the nationwide experiment, molecular analysis of faecal samples revealed notable rates of Entamoeba infection (101 samples, 28.9%), including one sample infected with E. histolytica, 14 samples with E. dispar, and 86 samples with uninucleated-cyst producing Entamoeba species. Sequences of positive uninucleated-cyst producing Entamoeba samples from Twycross Zoo clustered with the E. polecki reference sequences ST4 reported in Homo sapiens, and are widely separated from other Entamoeba species. These findings suggest a low prevalence of the pathogenic Entamoeba infection, but notable prevalence of non-pathogenic E. polecki infection in NHPs in the UK. PMID:25097822

  17. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba spp from river waters in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    In this study, DNA from 55 surface and river water samples, which were collected from some water sources of Tehran and the Guilan Province, Iran, were extracted and examined for Entamoeba spp. and Giardia lamblia by PCR and genotyping. Twenty-seven samples, which were concentrated using the immunomagnetic separation technology (IMS) method, were examined for Giardia alone. Twenty-eight samples, which were concentrated using the sucrose flotation (SF) method, were examined for both Giardia and Entamoeba species. The results showed that 27/55 (17/27 and 10/28) (49 %), 4 /28 (14.28 %) and 3/28 (10.7 %) of the samples were positive for Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba spp and mixed infections (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.), respectively. Sixteen out of 55 samples were negative. Entamoeba genus-specific PCR primers in single-round PCR were used to differentiate between the Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii). With respect to the 7 samples that were positive for Entamoeba, (14.28 %) 4 out of 28 were positive for E. moshkovskii, (7.14 %), 2 out of 28 were positive for E. histolytica and (3.57 %) 1 out of 28 was positive for E. dispar. Genus-specific PCR primers in a semi-nested PCR assay was performed to genotype Giardia species. Of the 27 samples that were positive for Giardia, 10 samples were sequences. All 10 successfully sequenced samples contained assemblage B of Giardia lamblia.This is first study to investigate the G. lamblia genotypes in the water supply of the Tehran and Guilan provinces, and it is the first study to investigate Entamoeba species in the water supplies of Iran. The investigated river water supplies, which are used for agriculture, camping and animal farming, were heavily contaminated by the human pathogenic Entamoeba and Giardia parasites. There is a potential risk of waterborne outbreaks in humans and animals. PMID:26350378

  18. Entamoeba moshkovskii Is Associated With Diarrhea in Infants and Causes Diarrhea and Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Chikako; Kabir, Mamun; Taniuchi, Mami; Mondal, Dinesh; Kobayashi, Seiki; Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Sobuz, Shihab U.; Senba, Masachika; Houpt, Eric; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2012-01-01

    Background.Entamoeba moshkovskii is prevalent in developing countries and morphologically indistinguishable from pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and nonpathogenic Entamoeba dispar. It is not known if E. moshkovskii is pathogenic. Methods.Mice were intracecally challenged with the trophozoites of each Entamoeba spp. to test the ability to cause diarrhea, and infants in Bangladesh were prospectively observed to see if newly acquired E. moshkovskii infection was associated with diarrhea. Results.E. moshkovskii and E. histolytica caused diarrhea and weight loss in susceptible mice. E. dispar infected none of the mouse strains tested. In Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E. moshkovskii, E. histolytica, and E. dispar were identified in 42 (2.95%), 66 (4.63%), and 5 (0.35%), respectively, of 1426 diarrheal episodes in 385 children followed prospectively from birth to one year of age. Diarrhea occurred temporally with acquisition of a new E. moshkovskii infection: in the 2 months preceding E. moshkvskii-associated diarrhea, 86% (36 of 42) of monthly surveillance stool samples were negative for E. moshkovskii. Conclusions.E. moshkovskii was found to be pathogenic in mice. In children, the acquisition of E. moshkovskii infection was associated with diarrhea. These data are consistent with E. moshkovskii causing disease, indicating that it is important to reexamine its pathogenicity. PMID:22723640

  19. Differential diagnosis of Entamoeba spp. in clinical stool samples using SYBR green real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thiago Dos Santos; Garcia, Mariana Coimbra; de Souza Cunha, Flavia; Werneck de Macedo, Heloisa; Peralta, José Mauro; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago

    2014-01-01

    Amoebiasis, a disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, is usually diagnosed by microscopic examination, which does not differentiate the morphologically identical species of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Furthermore, morphologically similar species such as Entamoeba hartmanni contribute to misidentification. Therefore, there is a need for more sensitive and specific methods. This study standardized a multiplex real-time PCR system for E. histolytica and E. dispar and a single real-time PCR for E. hartmanni. The multiplex protocol detected up to 0.0143 pg of E. histolytica DNA and 0.5156 pg of E. dispar DNA, and the average melting temperature (T(m)) was 73 °C and 70 °C, respectively. For E. hartmanni, the T(m) was 73 °C and the amplification was successful down to 0.03 fg of plasmid DNA. Negative controls and other intestinal parasites presented no amplification. Among the 48 samples tested, E. dispar DNA was detected in 37; none exhibited E. histolytica DNA and 11 were negative in the multiplex protocol. In 4 of these 11 samples, however, E. hartmanni DNA was amplified. SYBR Green is demonstrated to be an interesting option and these combined PCR reactions can improve laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis in developing countries. PMID:24693242

  20. Differential Diagnosis of Entamoeba spp. in Clinical Stool Samples Using SYBR Green Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thiago dos Santos; Garcia, Mariana Coimbra; de Souza Cunha, Flavia; Peralta, José Mauro; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago

    2014-01-01

    Amoebiasis, a disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, is usually diagnosed by microscopic examination, which does not differentiate the morphologically identical species of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Furthermore, morphologically similar species such as Entamoeba hartmanni contribute to misidentification. Therefore, there is a need for more sensitive and specific methods. This study standardized a multiplex real-time PCR system for E. histolytica and E. dispar and a single real-time PCR for E. hartmanni. The multiplex protocol detected up to 0.0143 pg of E. histolytica DNA and 0.5156 pg of E. dispar DNA, and the average melting temperature (Tm) was 73°C and 70°C, respectively. For E. hartmanni, the Tm was 73°C and the amplification was successful down to 0.03 fg of plasmid DNA. Negative controls and other intestinal parasites presented no amplification. Among the 48 samples tested, E. dispar DNA was detected in 37; none exhibited E. histolytica DNA and 11 were negative in the multiplex protocol. In 4 of these 11 samples, however, E. hartmanni DNA was amplified. SYBR Green is demonstrated to be an interesting option and these combined PCR reactions can improve laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis in developing countries. PMID:24693242

  1. Discovery of PPi-type Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Genes in Eukaryotes and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoko; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2015-09-25

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is one of the pivotal enzymes that regulates the carbon flow of the central metabolism by fixing CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to produce oxaloacetate or vice versa. Whereas ATP- and GTP-type PEPCKs have been well studied, and their protein identities are established, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi)-type PEPCK (PPi-PEPCK) is poorly characterized. Despite extensive enzymological studies, its protein identity and encoding gene remain unknown. In this study, PPi-PEPCK has been identified for the first time from a eukaryotic human parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, by conventional purification and mass spectrometric identification of the native enzyme, followed by demonstration of its enzymatic activity. A homolog of the amebic PPi-PEPCK from an anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii also exhibited PPi-PEPCK activity. The primary structure of PPi-PEPCK has no similarity to the functional homologs ATP/GTP-PEPCKs and PEP carboxylase, strongly suggesting that PPi-PEPCK arose independently from the other functional homologues and very likely has unique catalytic sites. PPi-PEPCK homologs were found in a variety of bacteria and some eukaryotes but not in archaea. The molecular identification of this long forgotten enzyme shows us the diversity and functional redundancy of enzymes involved in the central metabolism and can help us to understand the central metabolism more deeply. PMID:26269598

  2. Genetic identification of Entamoeba polecki subtype 3 from pigs in Japan and characterisation of its pathogenic role in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Murakoshi, Naoko; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Tokoro, Masaharu; Haritani, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-01

    To date, three Entamoeba spp. (E. suis, zoonotic E. polecki and E. histolytica) have been identified in pigs, but their pathogenicity and molecular classification have not been fully determined. Examination and pathological analysis of pigs (n=3) with diarrhoea was conducted and revealed the presence of Entamoeba organisms. We performed a genetic analysis of the isolate using the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene region to identify the species. A severe ulcerative colitis was observed histopathologically with inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, infiltrating the mucous membranes of the cecum and colon. Many Entamoeba trophozoites were found at the erosion site or at ulcerative lesions. Pathogenic viruses or bacteria were not detected. The SSU rRNA sequence of the Entamoeba isolate was found to be completely homologous to that of E. polecki subtype 3. PMID:26318541

  3. Entamoeba thiol-based redox metabolism: A potential target for drug development.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is an intestinal infection widespread throughout the world caused by the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole has been a drug of choice against amebiasis for decades despite its low efficacy against asymptomatic cyst carriers and emergence of resistance in other protozoa with similar anaerobic metabolism. Therefore, identification and characterization of specific targets is urgently needed to design new therapeutics for improved treatment against amebiasis. Toward this goal, thiol-dependent redox metabolism is of particular interest. The thiol-dependent redox metabolism in E. histolytica consists of proteins including peroxiredoxin, rubrerythrin, Fe-superoxide dismutase, flavodiiron proteins, NADPH: flavin oxidoreductase, and amino acids including l-cysteine, S-methyl-l-cysteine, and thioprolines (thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids). E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione and its metabolism, and l-cysteine is the major intracellular low molecular mass thiol. Moreover, this parasite possesses a functional thioredoxin system consisting of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, which is a ubiquitous oxidoreductase system with antioxidant and redox regulatory roles. In this review, we summarize and highlight the thiol-based redox metabolism and its control mechanisms in E. histolytica, in particular, the features of the system unique to E. histolytica, and its potential use for drug development against amebiasis. PMID:26775086

  4. An Annotated Checklist of the Human and Animal Entamoeba (Amoebida: Endamoebidae) Species- A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    HOOSHYAR, Hossein; ROSTAMKHANI, Parvin; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of valid of pathogen and non-pathogen species of Entamoeba has continuously increased in human and animals. This review is performed to provide an update list and some summarized information on Entamoeba species, which were identified up to the 2014. Methods: We evaluated the Entamoeba genus with a broad systematic review of the literature, books and electronic databases until February 2014. The synonyms, hosts, pathogenicity and geographical distribution of valid species were considered and recorded. Repeated and unrelated cases were excluded. Results: Totally 51 defined species of Entamoeba were found and arranged by the number of nuclei in mature cyst according to Levin’s grouping. Seven of these species within the 4 nucleate mature cysts group and 1 species with one nucleate mature cyst are pathogen. E. histolytica, E. invadence, E. rananrum and E. anatis causes lethal infection in human, reptiles, amphibians and brides respectively, four species causes non-lethal mild dysentery. The other species were non-pathogen and are important to differential diagnosis of amoebiasis. Conclusion: There are some unknown true species of Entamoeba that available information on the morphology, hosts, pathogenicity and distribution of them are still very limited and more considerable investigation will be needed in order to clarify the status of them. PMID:26246811

  5. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  6. Ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers sharply reduce excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and eliminate oral infectivity of Giardia cysts in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin; Samuelson, John

    2015-11-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. PMID:26282413

  7. Ethanol and Isopropanol in Concentrations Present in Hand Sanitizers Sharply Reduce Excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and Eliminate Oral Infectivity of Giardia Cysts in Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. PMID:26282413

  8. The ribosomal RNA transcription unit of Entamoeba invadens: accumulation of unprocessed pre-rRNA and a long non coding RNA during encystation.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Sandeep; Singh, Nishant; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    The ribosomal RNA genes in Entamoeba spp. are located on extrachromosomal circular molecules. Unlike model organisms where rRNA transcription stops during growth stress, Entamoeba histolytica continues transcription; but unprocessed pre-rRNA accumulates during stress, along with a novel class of circular transcripts from the 5'-external transcribed spacer (ETS). To determine the fate of rRNA transcription during stage conversion between trophozoite to cyst we analyzed Entamoeba invadens, a model system for differentiation studies in Entamoeba. We characterized the complete rDNA transcription unit by mapping the ends of pre-rRNA and mature rRNAs. The 3' end of mature 28S rRNA was located 321 nt downstream of the end predicted by sequence homology with E. histolytica. The major processing sites were mapped in external and internal transcribed spacers. The promoter located within 146 nt upstream of 5' ETS was used to transcribe the pre-rRNA. On the other hand, a second promoter located at the 3' end of 28S rDNA was used to transcribe almost the entire intergenic spacer into a long non coding (nc) RNA (>10 kb). Interestingly we found that the levels of pre-rRNA and long ncRNA, measured by northern hybridization, decreased initially in cells shifted to encystation medium, after which they began to increase and reached high levels by 72 h when mature cysts were formed. Unlike E. histolytica, no circular transcripts were found in E. invadens. E. histolytica and E. invadens express fundamentally different ncRNAs from the rDNA locus, which may reflect their adaptation to different hosts (human and reptiles, respectively). This is the first description of rDNA organization and transcription in E. invadens, and provides the framework for further studies on regulation of rRNA synthesis during cyst formation. PMID:24200639

  9. First molecular identification of Entamoeba polecki in a piglet in Japan and implications for aggravation of ileitis by coinfection with Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Kanamori, Kenta; Sadahiro, Masayuki; Tokoro, Masaharu; Abe, Niichiro; Haritani, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    Parasitic Entamoeba spp. are found in many vertebrate species including humans, as well as many livestock including pigs. In pigs, three Entamoeba spp., E. suis, and E. polecki and E. histolytica as zoonotic species, have been identified, but their pathogenicity has not been fully characterized. Here, we report the bacteriological, virological, and histopathological examination of three piglets with chronic diarrhea. Two animals appeared to be additionally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis, which caused a characteristic proliferative ileitis. In the piglet infected with Entamoeba spp., the trophozoites (approximately 10-15 μm with one nucleus in their cytoplasm) invaded into the lamina propria and the disease was worsened by the formation of ulcers and pseudomembranes. Genetic analysis identified the parasite as E. polecki (99.5% identity). Although E. polecki in humans or animals might be less pathogenic in the case of a single infection, coinfections with other pathogens including L. intracellularis may increase the severity of the disease. PMID:25963884

  10. Development of RNA Interference Trigger-Mediated Gene Silencing in Entamoeba invadens.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Susmitha; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen; Zhang, Hanbang; Singh, Upinder

    2016-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, is an important human pathogen and a leading parasitic cause of death. The organism has two life cycle stages, trophozoites, which are responsible for tissue invasion, and cysts, which are involved in pathogen transmission. Entamoeba invadens is the model system to study Entamoeba developmental biology, as high-grade regulated encystation and excystation are readily achievable. However, the lack of gene-silencing tools in E. invadens has limited the molecular studies that can be performed. Using the endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in Entamoeba, we developed an RNAi-based trigger gene-silencing approach inE. invadens We demonstrate that a gene's coding region that has abundant antisense small RNAs (sRNAs) can trigger silencing of a gene that is fused to it. The trigger fusion leads to the generation of abundant antisense sRNAs that map to the target gene, with silencing occurring independently of trigger location at the 5' or 3' end of a gene. Gene silencing is stably maintained during development, including encystation and excystation. We have used this approach to successfully silence two E. invadens genes: a putative rhomboid protease gene and a SHAQKY family Myb gene. The Myb gene is upregulated during oxidative stress and development, and its downregulation led, as predicted, to decreased viability under oxidative stress and decreased cyst formation. Thus, the RNAi trigger silencing method can be used to successfully investigate the molecular functions of genes inE. invadens Dissection of the molecular basis of Entamoeba stage conversion is now possible, representing an important technical advance for the system. PMID:26787723

  11. Magnetic removal of Entamoeba cysts from water using chitosan oligosaccharide-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sudeep; Arora, Vikas; Jadaun, Alka; Kumar, Jitender; Singh, Nishant; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis, a major health problem in developing countries, is the second most common cause of death due to parasitic infection. Amebiasis is usually transmitted by the ingestion of Entamoeba histolytica cysts through oral–fecal route. Herein, we report on the use of chitosan oligosaccharide-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient capture and removal of pathogenic protozoan cysts under the influence of an external magnetic field. These nanoparticles were synthesized through a chemical synthesis process. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential analysis. The particles were found to be well dispersed and uniform in size. The capture and removal of pathogenic cysts were demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three-dimensional modeling of various biochemical components of cyst walls, and thereafter, flexible docking studies demonstrate the probable interaction mechanism of nanoparticles with various components of E. histolytica cyst walls. Results of the present study suggest that E. histolytica cysts can be efficiently captured and removed from contaminated aqueous systems through the application of synthesized nanoparticles. PMID:26261417

  12. Eukaryotic origins

    PubMed Central

    Lake, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the eukaryotes is a fundamental scientific question that for over 30 years has generated a spirited debate between the competing Archaea (or three domains) tree and the eocyte tree. As eukaryotes ourselves, humans have a personal interest in our origins. Eukaryotes contain their defining organelle, the nucleus, after which they are named. They have a complex evolutionary history, over time acquiring multiple organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula, and other organelles all of which may hint at their origins. It is the evolutionary history of the nucleus and their other organelles that have intrigued molecular evolutionists, myself included, for the past 30 years and which continues to hold our interest as increasingly compelling evidence favours the eocyte tree. As with any orthodoxy, it takes time to embrace new concepts and techniques. PMID:26323753

  13. Comparative analysis of genotypic diversity in Entamoeba nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yue; Feng, Meng; Cai, Junlong; Min, Xiangyang; Zhou, Xingyu; Xu, Qing; Tan, Ning; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated the potentially virulent species Entamoeba nuttalli as one of the highly prevalent parasites in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Mount Long-hu and Gui-yang in China. Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a unique species living in China. To evaluate the prevalence of Entamoeba species in wild Tibetan macaques, we obtained 89 stool samples in Mount E-mei of Si-chuan Province in China. PCR analysis detected E. nuttalli, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba polecki ST2 in 17%, 42%, and 66% of the samples, respectively, whereas Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar were undetected. This study is the first to report on the detection of E. nuttalli from Tibetan macaques. Six E. nuttalli isolates were obtained, 18S rRNA gene and six tRNA-linked short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the isolates were sequenced. The Mantel test results gave an r value of 0.97 of relationships between geographical distance and genetic diversity of Chinese E. nuttalli populations, indicating a significant isolation-by-distance effect in Chinese E. nuttalli according to the tRNA-STR loci sequences. Structural analysis of E. nuttalli isolates based on tRNA-linked STR loci demonstrated three Chinese E. nuttalli populations with their respective features, but the Gui-yang population was located in the middle. In the distance-based NJ tree, E. nuttalli isolates were divided into five different branches, and E-mei isolates were attributed to an independent branch to distinguish them from Gui-yang and Long-hu isolates. Genetic analysis in this study provided clues of the genetic differences between E. nuttalli isolates from Tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in China. PMID:26723919

  14. Entamoeba lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Contains a Cytokine-Like Domain with Chemokine Activity towards Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jung Min; Kim, Sunghoon; Celada, Antonio; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    Immunological pressure encountered by protozoan parasites drives the selection of strategies to modulate or avoid the immune responses of their hosts. Here we show that the parasite Entamoeba histolytica has evolved a chemokine that mimics the sequence, structure, and function of the human cytokine HsEMAPII (Homo sapiens endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II). This Entamoeba EMAPII-like polypeptide (EELP) is translated as a domain attached to two different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) that are overexpressed when parasites are exposed to inflammatory signals. EELP is dispensable for the tRNA aminoacylation activity of the enzymes that harbor it, and it is cleaved from them by Entamoeba proteases to generate a standalone cytokine. Isolated EELP acts as a chemoattractant for human cells, but its cell specificity is different from that of HsEMAPII. We show that cell specificity differences between HsEMAPII and EELP can be swapped by site directed mutagenesis of only two residues in the cytokines' signal sequence. Thus, Entamoeba has evolved a functional mimic of an aaRS-associated human cytokine with modified cell specificity. PMID:22140588

  15. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Entamoeba nuttalli Strains Showing Novel Isoenzyme Patterns from Wild Toque Macaques in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Feng, Meng; Bandara, K B Anura T; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Hirayama, Kenji; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe

    2016-03-01

    We have proposed the revival of the name Entamoeba nuttalli for a virulent ameba strain, P19-061405, from a rhesus macaque and located it phylogenetically between E. histolytica and E. dispar. As E. nuttalli was originally described for an ameba found in a toque macaque in Sri Lanka, the prevalence and characteristics of Entamoeba species in wild toque macaques were examined. PCR analysis of 227 stool samples from six locations showed positive rates for E. nuttalli, E. dispar, and E. histolytica of 18.5%, 0.4%, and 0%, respectively. Fifteen E. nuttalli strains were cultured successfully from five locations. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene showed only three nucleotide differences in comparison with P19-061405 strain. In isoenzyme analysis, the pattern of hexokinase in Sri Lankan strains was different from that of P19-061405 strains and the difference was confirmed by analysis of the genes. Hepatic inoculation of one of the Sri Lankan E. nuttalli strains in hamsters resulted in amebic abscess formation and body weight loss. These results demonstrate that E. nuttalli is prevalent in wild toque macaques and that several characteristics of the strains are unique. We conclude that use of the name E. nuttalli is appropriate for the new Entamoeba species found in nonhuman primates. PMID:26333681

  16. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the human ribosomal RNA transcription initiation factor-IA.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Jhingan, Gagan Deep

    2016-03-01

    Initiation of rDNA transcription requires the assembly of a specific multi-protein complex at the rDNA promoter containing the RNA Pol I with auxiliary factors. One of these factors is known as Rrn3P in yeast and Transcription Initiation Factor IA (TIF-IA) in mammals. Rrn3p/TIF-IA serves as a bridge between RNA Pol I and the pre-initiation complex at the promoter. It is phosphorylated at multiple sites and is involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in a growth-dependent manner. In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, the rRNA genes are present exclusively on circular extra chromosomal plasmids. The protein factors involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in E. histolytica are not known. We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within the database and was further cloned and expressed. Immuno-localization studies showed that EhTIF-IA co-localized partially with fibrillarin in the peripherally localized nucleolus. EhTIF-IA was shown to interact with the RNA Pol I-specific subunit RPA12 both in vivo and in vitro. Mass spectroscopy data identified RNA Pol I-specific subunits and other nucleolar proteins to be the interacting partners of EhTIF-IA. Our study demonstrates for the first time a conserved putative RNA Pol I transcription factor TIF-IA in E. histolytica. PMID:26949087

  17. Viruses of Entamoeba histolytica. IV. Studies on the nucleic acids of the filamentous and polyhedral viruses.

    PubMed

    Hruska, J F; Mattern, C F; Diamond, L S

    1974-01-01

    The nucleic acids of two amoebal viruses were studied by several independent methods. The filamentous virus, V(ABRM), was shown to be inhibited by bromodeoxyuridine, iododeoxyuridine, and cytosine arabinoside. With acridine orange staining, V(ABRM) inclusions appeared greenish-yellow, indicating that these contained double-stranded nucleic acid. The polyhedral virus, V(301), was also inhibited by bromodeoxyuridine, iododeoxyuridine, and cytosine arabinoside. In addition, nucleic acid hybridization showed that a new DNA species was synthesized in infected amoebal cultures. The intracellular localization of this new DNA was consistent with previous electron microscope studies of the cytoplasmic maturation of V(301). PMID:4129841

  18. Proteases from Entamoeba spp. and Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae as Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Piña-Vázquez, Carolina; Reyes-López, Magda; Ortiz-Estrada, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    The standard reference for pathogenic and nonpathogenic amoebae is the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica; a direct correlation between virulence and protease expression has been demonstrated for this amoeba. Traditionally, proteases are considered virulence factors, including those that produce cytopathic effects in the host or that have been implicated in manipulating the immune response. Here, we expand the scope to other amoebae, including less-pathogenic Entamoeba species and highly pathogenic free-living amoebae. In this paper, proteases that affect mucin, extracellular matrix, immune system components, and diverse tissues and cells are included, based on studies in amoebic cultures and animal models. We also include proteases used by amoebae to degrade iron-containing proteins because iron scavenger capacity is currently considered a virulence factor for pathogens. In addition, proteases that have a role in adhesion and encystation, which are essential for establishing and transmitting infection, are discussed. The study of proteases and their specific inhibitors is relevant to the search for new therapeutic targets and to increase the power of drugs used to treat the diseases caused by these complex microorganisms. PMID:23476670

  19. Identification of Entamoeba moshkovskii in Treated Waste Water Used for Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Heredia, Rubén Darío; Ortiz, Carolina; Mazo, Martín; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos Arturo; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo

    2016-03-01

    We conducted an observational study to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba spp., in samples collected in a waste water treatment plant that provides water for agricultural irrigation. Samples were collected weekly over a period of 10 weeks at representative contamination stages from within the treatment plant. Protozoan identification was performed via light microscopy and culture. PCR amplification of small subunit rRNA gene sequences of E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was performed in culture positive samples. Light microscopy revealed the presence of Entamoeba spp., in 70% (14/20) of the raw waste water samples and in 80% (8/10) of the treated water samples. PCR amplification after culture at both 24 and 37°C revealed that 100% (29/29) of the raw waste water samples and 78.6% (11/14) of the treated waste water were positive for E. moshkovskii. We report the first isolation of E. moshkovskii in Colombia, confirmed by PCR. Recent reports of E. moshkovskii pathogenic potential suggest this finding could constitute a public health risk for people exposed to this water. PMID:26732073

  20. Entamoeba Clone-Recognition Experiments: Morphometrics, Aggregative Behavior, and Cell-Signaling Characterization.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Avelina; Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Hackey, Meagan; Rutherford, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Studies on clone- and kin-discrimination in protists have proliferated during the past decade. We report clone-recognition experiments in seven Entamoeba lineages (E. invadens IP-1, E. invadens VK-1:NS, E. terrapinae, E. moshkovskii Laredo, E. moshkovskii Snake, E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. dispar). First, we characterized morphometrically each clone (length, width, and cell-surface area) and documented how they differed statistically from one another (as per single-variable or canonical-discriminant analyses). Second, we demonstrated that amebas themselves could discriminate self (clone) from different (themselves vs. other clones). In mix-cell-line cultures between closely-related (E. invadens IP-1 vs. E. invadens VK-1:NS) or distant-phylogenetic clones (E. terrapinae vs. E. moshkovskii Laredo), amebas consistently aggregated with same-clone members. Third, we identified six putative cell-signals secreted by the amebas (RasGap/Ankyrin, coronin-WD40, actin, protein kinases, heat shock 70, and ubiquitin) and which known functions in Entamoeba spp. included: cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cell movement, and stress-induced encystation. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-clone characterization of Entamoeba spp. morphometrics, aggregative behavior, and cell-signaling secretion in the context of clone-recognition. Protists allow us to study cell-cell recognition from ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Modern protistan lineages can be central to studies about the origins and evolution of multicellularity. PMID:26990199

  1. Amoebiasis vaccine development: A snapshot on E. histolytica with emphasis on perspectives of Gal/GalNAc lectin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Walia, Amandeep Kaur; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Kennedy, John F

    2016-10-01

    Amoebiasis/amebiasis is a gastrointestinal infection caused by an enteric dwelling protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The disease is endemic in the developing world and is transmitted mainly via the faecal-oral route (e.g., in water or food) and may or may not be symptomatic. This disease of socio-economic importance worldwide involves parasite adherence and cytolysis of human cells followed by invasion that is mediated by galactose-binding (Gal/GalNAc) surface lectin. Disruption of the mucus layer leads to invasive intestinal and extraintestinal infection. Gal-lectin based vaccinations have conferred protection in various animal models against E. histolytica infections. Keeping in view the pivotal role of Gal/GalNAc lectin in amoebiasis vaccine development, its regulation, genomic view of the parasite involving gene conversion in lectin gene families, current knowledge about involvement of Gal/GalNAc lectin in adherence, pathogenicity, signalling, encystment, generating host immune response, and in turn protozoa escape strategies, and finally its role as effective vaccine candidate has been described. This review will help researchers to explore pathogenesis mechanism along with genomic studies and will also provide a framework for future amoebiasis vaccine development studies. PMID:27181579

  2. Solution structure of the calmodulin-like C-terminal domain of Entamoeba α-actinin2.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Göran; Persson, Cecilia; Mayzel, Maxim; Hedenström, Mattias; Backman, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Cell motility is dependent on a dynamic meshwork of actin filaments that is remodelled continuously. A large number of associated proteins that are severs, cross-links, or caps the filament ends have been identified and the actin cross-linker α-actinin has been implied in several important cellular processes. In Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of human amoebiasis, α-actinin is believed to be required for infection. To better understand the role of α-actinin in the infectious process we have determined the solution structure of the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain using NMR. The final structure ensemble of the apo form shows two lobes, that both resemble other pairs of calcium-binding EF-hand motifs, connected with a mobile linker. PMID:26800385

  3. Novel protein-protein interactions between Entamoeba histolyticad-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vibhor; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ali, Vahab; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Zhang, Kam Y J; Bhakuni, Vinod

    2012-08-01

    Physical interactions between d-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (EhPGDH) and phosphoserine aminotransferase (EhPSAT) from an enteric human parasite Entamoeba histolytica was observed by pull-down assay, gel filtration chromatography, chemical cross-linking, emission anisotropy, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations. The protein-protein complex had a 1:1 stochiometry with a dissociation constant of 3.453 × 10(-7) M. Ionic interactions play a significant role in complex formation and stability. Analysis of the energy minimized average simulated model of the protein complex show that the nucleotide binding domain of EhPGDH specifically interacts with EhPSAT. Denaturation studies suggest that the nucleotide binding domain (Nbd) and substrate binding domain (Sbd) of EhPGDH are independent folding/unfolding units. Thus the Nbd-EhPGDH was separately cloned over-expressed and purified to homogeneity. Fluorescence anisotropy study show that the purified Nbd interacts with EhPSAT. Forward enzyme catalyzed reaction for the EhPGDH-PSAT complex showed efficient Km values for 3-phosphoglyceric acid as compared to only EhPGDH suggesting a possibility of substrate channelling in the protein complex. PMID:22386871

  4. The Eukaryotic Replication Machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; O'Donnell, M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular replicating machine, or "replisome," is composed of numerous different proteins. The core replication proteins in all cell types include a helicase, primase, DNA polymerases, sliding clamp, clamp loader, and single-strand binding (SSB) protein. The core eukaryotic replisome proteins evolved independently from those of bacteria and thus have distinct architectures and mechanisms of action. The core replisome proteins of the eukaryote include: an 11-subunit CMG helicase, DNA polymerase alpha-primase, leading strand DNA polymerase epsilon, lagging strand DNA polymerase delta, PCNA clamp, RFC clamp loader, and the RPA SSB protein. There are numerous other proteins that travel with eukaryotic replication forks, some of which are known to be involved in checkpoint regulation or nucleosome handling, but most have unknown functions and no bacterial analogue. Recent studies have revealed many structural and functional insights into replisome action. Also, the first structure of a replisome from any cell type has been elucidated for a eukaryote, consisting of 20 distinct proteins, with quite unexpected results. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the eukaryotic core replisome proteins, their structure, individual functions, and how they are organized at the replication fork as a machine. PMID:27241931

  5. Eukaryotic selenoproteins and selenoproteomes.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, Alexey V; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2009-11-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for which both beneficial and toxic effects in human health have been described. It is now clear that the importance of having adequate amounts of this micronutrient in the diet is primarily due to the fact that selenium is required for biosynthesis of selenocysteine, the twenty first naturally occurring amino acid in protein. In this review, we provide an overview of eukaryotic selenoproteins and selenoproteomes, which are sets of selenoproteins in these organisms. In eukaryotes, selenoproteins show a mosaic occurrence, with some organisms, such as vertebrates and algae, having dozens of these proteins, while other organisms, such as higher plants and fungi, having lost all selenoproteins during evolution. We also discuss selenoprotein functions and evolutionary trends in the use of these proteins in eukaryotes. Functional analysis of selenoproteins is critical for better understanding of the role of selenium in human health and disease. PMID:19477234

  6. Eukaryotic Cell Panorama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific results that support an illustration of a eukaryotic cell, enlarged by one million times to show the distribution and arrangement of macromolecules. The panoramic cross section includes eight panels that extend…

  7. Prokaryote and eukaryote evolvability.

    PubMed

    Poole, Anthony M; Phillips, Matthew J; Penny, David

    2003-05-01

    The concept of evolvability covers a broad spectrum of, often contradictory, ideas. At one end of the spectrum it is equivalent to the statement that evolution is possible, at the other end are untestable post hoc explanations, such as the suggestion that current evolutionary theory cannot explain the evolution of evolvability. We examine similarities and differences in eukaryote and prokaryote evolvability, and look for explanations that are compatible with a wide range of observations. Differences in genome organisation between eukaryotes and prokaryotes meets this criterion. The single origin of replication in prokaryote chromosomes (versus multiple origins in eukaryotes) accounts for many differences because the time to replicate a prokaryote genome limits its size (and the accumulation of junk DNA). Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes appear to switch from genetic stability to genetic change in response to stress. We examine a range of stress responses, and discuss how these impact on evolvability, particularly in unicellular organisms versus complex multicellular ones. Evolvability is also limited by environmental interactions (including competition) and we describe a model that places limits on potential evolvability. Examples are given of its application to predator competition and limits to lateral gene transfer. We suggest that unicellular organisms evolve largely through a process of metabolic change, resulting in biochemical diversity. Multicellular organisms evolve largely through morphological changes, not through extensive changes to cellular biochemistry. PMID:12689728

  8. Lateral gene transfer in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J O

    2005-06-01

    Lateral gene transfer -- the transfer of genetic material between species -- has been acknowledged as a major mechanism in prokaryotic genome evolution for some time. Recently accumulating data indicate that the process also occurs in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. However, there are large rate variations between groups of eukaryotes; animals and fungi seem to be largely unaffected, with a few exceptions, while lateral gene transfer frequently occurs in protists with phagotrophic lifestyles, possibly with rates comparable to prokaryotic organisms. Gene transfers often facilitate the acquisition of functions encoded in prokaryotic genomes by eukaryotic organisms, which may enable them to colonize new environments. Transfers between eukaryotes also occur, mainly into larger phagotrophic eukaryotes that ingest eukaryotic cells, but also between plant lineages. These findings have implications for eukaryotic genomic research in general, and studies of the origin and phylogeny of eukaryotes in particular. PMID:15761667

  9. Diphtheroid colitis in a Boa constrictor infected with amphibian Entamoeba sp.

    PubMed

    Richter, Barbara; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2008-05-01

    A female boa (Boa constrictor) from a zoological collection was submitted for necropsy after sudden death. Prominent pathological findings included a diphtheroid colitis, endoparasitism, focal pneumonia and inclusion bodies typical for inclusion body disease (IBD). In the colon entamoebae were identified, which differed in size and distribution from Entamoeba invadens. Gene sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA revealed 100% similarity with an Entamoeba species from the African bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus), probably Entamoeba ranarum. The snake was possibly immunosuppressed, and the source of infection remains unclear. This is the first report of an infection with an amphibian Entamoeba species associated with colitis in a snake. PMID:18291588

  10. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin

    PubMed Central

    Martin, William F.; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. PMID:26323761

  11. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-09-26

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. PMID:26323761

  12. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  13. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2012-02-14

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  14. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G

    2015-02-03

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  15. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2012-05-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  16. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-11-17

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  17. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-12-01

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  18. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-10-27

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  19. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-09-14

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  20. Entamoeba marina n. sp.; a New Species of Entamoeba Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment of Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Entamoeba includes anaerobic lobose amoebae, most of which are parasites of various vertebrates and invertebrates. We report a new Entamoeba species, E. marina n. sp. that was isolated from a sample of tidal flat sediment collected at Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Trophozoites of E. marina were 12.8-32.1 μm in length and 6.8-15.9 μm in width, whereas the cysts were 8.9-15.8 μm in diam. and contained four nuclei. The E. marina cells contained a rounded nucleus with a small centric karyosome and uniformly arranged peripheral chromatin. Although E. marina is morphologically indistinguishable from other tetranucleated cyst-forming Entamoeba species, E. marina can be distinguished from them based on the combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA gene and the difference of collection sites. Therefore, we propose E. marina as a new species of the genus Entamoeba. PMID:26452446

  1. Endosymbiosis and Eukaryotic Cell Evolution.

    PubMed

    Archibald, John M

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the evolution of eukaryotic cellular complexity is one of the grand challenges of modern biology. It has now been firmly established that mitochondria and plastids, the classical membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotic cells, evolved from bacteria by endosymbiosis. In the case of mitochondria, evidence points very clearly to an endosymbiont of α-proteobacterial ancestry. The precise nature of the host cell that partnered with this endosymbiont is, however, very much an open question. And while the host for the cyanobacterial progenitor of the plastid was undoubtedly a fully-fledged eukaryote, how - and how often - plastids moved from one eukaryote to another during algal diversification is vigorously debated. In this article I frame modern views on endosymbiotic theory in a historical context, highlighting the transformative role DNA sequencing played in solving early problems in eukaryotic cell evolution, and posing key unanswered questions emerging from the age of comparative genomics. PMID:26439354

  2. Synchronization of Eukaryotic Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-11-01

    From unicellular organisms as small as a few microns to the largest vertebrates on earth we find groups of beating flagella or cilia that exhibit striking spatio-temporal organization. This may take the form of precise frequency and phase locking as frequently found in the swimming of green algae, or beating with long-wavelength phase modulations known as metachronal waves, seen in ciliates and in our respiratory systems. The remarkable similarity in the underlying molecular structure of flagella across the whole eukaryotic world leads naturally to the hypothesis that a similarly universal mechanism might be responsible for synchronization. Although this mechanism is poorly understood, one appealing hypothesis is that it results from hydrodynamic interactions between flagella. In this talk I will describe a synthesis of recent experimental and theoretical studies of this issue that have provided the strongest evidence to date for the hydrodynamic origin of flagellar synchronization. At the unicellular level this includes studies of the beating of the two flagella of the wild type unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in their native state and under conditions of regrowth following autotomy, and of the flagellar dominance mutant ptx1, which displays unusual anti-phase synchronization. Analysis of the related multicellular organism Volvox carteri shows it to be an ideal model organism for the study of metachronal waves. Supported by BBSRC, EPSRC, ERC, and The Wellcome Trust.

  3. Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor Produced by E. histolytica Improves Motor Recovery and Develops Neuroprotection after Traumatic Injury to the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Bermeo, Gabriela; García, Elisa; Flores-Romero, Adrian; Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Marroquín, Rubén; Flores, Carmina; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Silva-García, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is a pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica that has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Either MLIF or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered directly onto the spinal cord (SC) immediately after injury. Motor recovery was evaluated. We also analyzed neuroprotection by quantifying the number of surviving ventral horn motor neurons and the persistence of rubrospinal tract neurons. To evaluate the mechanism through which MLIF improved the outcome of SC injury, we quantified the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes at the site of injury. Finally, the levels of nitric oxide and of lipid peroxidation were also determined in peripheral blood. Results showed that MLIF improved the rate of motor recovery and this correlated with an increased survival of ventral horn and rubrospinal neurons. These beneficial effects were in turn associated with a reduction in iNOS gene products and a significant upregulation of IL-10 and TGF-β expression. In the same way, MLIF reduced the concentration of nitric oxide and the levels of lipid peroxidation in systemic circulation. The present results demonstrate for the first time the neuroprotective effects endowed by MLIF after SC injury. PMID:24294606

  4. A simple fibril and lectin model for cyst walls of Entamoeba and perhaps Giardia

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, John; Robbins, Phillips

    2010-01-01

    Cyst walls of Entamoeba and Giardia protect them from environmental insults, stomach acids, and intestinal proteases. Each cyst wall contains a sugar homopolymer: chitin in Entamoeba and a unique N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer in Giardia. Entamoeba cyst wall proteins include Jacob lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) that cross-link chitin, chitinases that degrade chitin, and Jessie lectins that make walls impermeable. Giardia cyst wall proteins are also lectins that bind fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. While many of the details remain to be determined for the Giardia cyst wall, current data suggests a relatively simple fibril and lectin model for the Entamoeba cyst wall. PMID:20934911

  5. Genetic Variation among Human Isolates of Uninucleated Cyst-Producing Entamoeba Species

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Jaco J.; Polderman, Anton M.; Clark, C. Graham

    2001-01-01

    Twelve human infections with Entamoeba spp. producing uninucleated cysts were studied. DNA was extracted from infected feces and used to amplify part of the ameba small-subunit rRNA gene. Sequence analysis identified four distinct types of Entamoeba, all of which are related to Entamoeba polecki and E. chattoni and two of which have not been reported previously. Whether these genetic types represent different species is unclear. We propose that the agent of all human infections with uninucleated cyst-producing Entamoeba species be reported as “E. polecki-like.” PMID:11283106

  6. Entamoeba sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus) (Aves: Struthionidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Herrera, S; Castro, A; Ponce, F

    2000-10-01

    The first case of Entamoeba of the 1-nucleate mature cyst group in birds is described. Trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba have been found in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from farms located all over Spain. The cysts are large (13.47microm mean diameter); they possess one nucleus when mature, with a large endosome and peripheral chromatine arranged in small granules; chromatoid bodies, when present, are large and elongated. Trophozoites are large (19. 88microm mean diameter), with a clear differentiation between ecto- and endoplasm, this containing numerous vacuoles; the nucleus is large and diffuse. The characteristics of this amoeba resembles but do not completely fulfill those of E. suis and E. chattoni; also, these species are from mammals. PMID:10962154

  7. Origins of Eukaryotic Sexual Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is a nearly universal feature of eukaryotic organisms. Given its ubiquity and shared core features, sex is thought to have arisen once in the last common ancestor to all eukaryotes. Using the perspectives of molecular genetics and cell biology, we consider documented and hypothetical scenarios for the instantiation and evolution of meiosis, fertilization, sex determination, uniparental inheritance of organelle genomes, and speciation. PMID:24591519

  8. Archaeology of Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the characterization of the archaeal DNA replication system together with comparative genomic analysis have led to the identification of several previously uncharacterized archaeal proteins involved in replication and currently reveal a nearly complete correspondence between the components of the archaeal and eukaryotic replication machineries. It can be inferred that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes and even the last common ancestor of all extant archaea possessed replication machineries that were comparable in complexity to the eukaryotic replication system. The eukaryotic replication system encompasses multiple paralogs of ancestral components such that heteromeric complexes in eukaryotes replace archaeal homomeric complexes, apparently along with subfunctionalization of the eukaryotic complex subunits. In the archaea, parallel, lineage-specific duplications of many genes encoding replication machinery components are detectable as well; most of these archaeal paralogs remain to be functionally characterized. The archaeal replication system shows remarkable plasticity whereby even some essential components such as DNA polymerase and single-stranded DNA-binding protein are displaced by unrelated proteins with analogous activities in some lineages. PMID:23881942

  9. Phylogenomics Reshuffles the Eukaryotic Supergroups

    PubMed Central

    Burki, Fabien; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Minge, Marianne; Skjæveland, Åsmund; Nikolaev, Sergey I.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Pawlowski, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Resolving the phylogenetic relationships between eukaryotes is an ongoing challenge of evolutionary biology. In recent years, the accumulation of molecular data led to a new evolutionary understanding, in which all eukaryotic diversity has been classified into five or six supergroups. Yet, the composition of these large assemblages and their relationships remain controversial. Methodology/Principle Findings Here, we report the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for two species belonging to the supergroup Rhizaria and present the analysis of a unique dataset combining 29908 amino acid positions and an extensive taxa sampling made of 49 mainly unicellular species representative of all supergroups. Our results show a very robust relationship between Rhizaria and two main clades of the supergroup chromalveolates: stramenopiles and alveolates. We confirm the existence of consistent affinities between assemblages that were thought to belong to different supergroups of eukaryotes, thus not sharing a close evolutionary history. Conclusions This well supported phylogeny has important consequences for our understanding of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. In particular, it questions a single red algal origin of the chlorophyll-c containing plastids among the chromalveolates. We propose the abbreviated name ‘SAR’ (Stramenopiles+Alveolates+Rhizaria) to accommodate this new super assemblage of eukaryotes, which comprises the largest diversity of unicellular eukaryotes. PMID:17726520

  10. Drug resistance in eukaryotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fairlamb, Alan H; Gow, Neil A R; Matthews, Keith R; Waters, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbial pathogens are major contributors to illness and death globally. Although much of their impact can be controlled by drug therapy as with prokaryotic microorganisms, the emergence of drug resistance has threatened these treatment efforts. Here, we discuss the challenges posed by eukaryotic microbial pathogens and how these are similar to, or differ from, the challenges of prokaryotic antibiotic resistance. The therapies used for several major eukaryotic microorganisms are then detailed, and the mechanisms that they have evolved to overcome these therapies are described. The rapid emergence of resistance and the restricted pipeline of new drug therapies pose considerable risks to global health and are particularly acute in the developing world. Nonetheless, we detail how the integration of new technology, biological understanding, epidemiology and evolutionary analysis can help sustain existing therapies, anticipate the emergence of resistance or optimize the deployment of new therapies. PMID:27572976

  11. Synaptic view of eukaryotic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Synapses are stable adhesive domains between two neighbouring cells of the multicellular organisms which serve for cell-cell communication as well as for information processing and storing. The synaptic concept was developed over more than 100 years specifically for neuronal cell-cell communication. In the last ten years, this concept was adapted to embrace other cell-cell communication phenomena. Here, we focus on the recently emerged phagocytic synapse and propose new endosymbiotic synapses and "intracellular organellar synapses". All these synapses of eukaryotic cells are in a good position to explain the high capacity of eukaryotic cells for integration of diverse signalling inputs into coherent cellular behaviour.

  12. Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic chemosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Merigo, Flavia; Osculati, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    In the last decades, microbiologists demonstrated that microorganisms possess chemosensory capabilities and communicate with each other via chemical signals. In parallel, it was demonstrated that solitary eukaryotic chemosensory cells are diffusely located on the mucosae of digestive and respiratory apparatuses. It is now evident that on the mucosal surfaces of vertebrates, two chemoreceptorial systems (i.e. eukaryotic and prokaryotic) coexist in a common microenvironment. To date, it is not known if the two chemosensory systems reciprocally interact and compete for detection of chemical cues. This appears to be a fruitful field of study and future researches must consider that the mucosal epithelia possess more chemosensory capabilities than previously supposed. PMID:20347567

  13. Molecular Detection of Eukaryotes in a Single Human Stool Sample from Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial eukaryotes represent an important component of the human gut microbiome, with different beneficial or harmful roles; some species are commensal or mutualistic, whereas others are opportunistic or parasitic. The diversity of eukaryotes inhabiting humans remains relatively unexplored because of either the low abundance of these organisms in human gut or because they have received limited attention from a whole-community perspective. Methodology/Principal Finding In this study, a single fecal sample from a healthy African male was studied using both culture-dependent methods and extended molecular methods targeting the 18S rRNA and ITS sequences. Our results revealed that very few fungi, including Candida spp., Galactomyces spp., and Trichosporon asahii, could be isolated using culture-based methods. In contrast, a relatively a high number of eukaryotic species could be identified in this fecal sample when culture-independent methods based on various primer sets were used. A total of 27 species from one sample were found among the 977 analyzed clones. The clone libraries were dominated by fungi (716 clones/977, 73.3%), corresponding to 16 different species. In addition, 187 sequences out of 977 (19.2%) corresponded to 9 different species of plants; 59 sequences (6%) belonged to other micro-eukaryotes in the gut, including Entamoeba hartmanni and Blastocystis sp; and only 15 clones/977 (1.5%) were related to human 18S rRNA sequences. Conclusion Our results revealed a complex eukaryotic community in the volunteer’s gut, with fungi being the most abundant species in the stool sample. Larger investigations are needed to assess the generality of these results and to understand their roles in human health and disease. PMID:22808282

  14. Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, A.H; Javaux, E.J; Hewitt, D; Cohen, P

    2006-01-01

    The geological record of protists begins well before the Ediacaran and Cambrian diversification of animals, but the antiquity of that history, its reliability as a chronicle of evolution and the causal inferences that can be drawn from it remain subjects of debate. Well-preserved protists are known from a relatively small number of Proterozoic formations, but taphonomic considerations suggest that they capture at least broad aspects of early eukaryotic evolution. A modest diversity of problematic, possibly stem group protists occurs in ca 1800–1300 Myr old rocks. 1300–720 Myr fossils document the divergence of major eukaryotic clades, but only with the Ediacaran–Cambrian radiation of animals did diversity increase within most clades with fossilizable members. While taxonomic placement of many Proterozoic eukaryotes may be arguable, the presence of characters used for that placement is not. Focus on character evolution permits inferences about the innovations in cell biology and development that underpin the taxonomic and morphological diversification of eukaryotic organisms. PMID:16754612

  15. Changing ideas about eukaryotic origins

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tom A.; Embley, T. Martin

    2015-01-01

    The origin of eukaryotic cells is one of the most fascinating challenges in biology, and has inspired decades of controversy and debate. Recent work has led to major upheavals in our understanding of eukaryotic origins and has catalysed new debates about the roles of endosymbiosis and gene flow across the tree of life. Improved methods of phylogenetic analysis support scenarios in which the host cell for the mitochondrial endosymbiont was a member of the Archaea, and new technologies for sampling the genomes of environmental prokaryotes have allowed investigators to home in on closer relatives of founding symbiotic partners. The inference and interpretation of phylogenetic trees from genomic data remains at the centre of many of these debates, and there is increasing recognition that trees built using inadequate methods can prove misleading, whether describing the relationship of eukaryotes to other cells or the root of the universal tree. New statistical approaches show promise for addressing these questions but they come with their own computational challenges. The papers in this theme issue discuss recent progress on the origin of eukaryotic cells and genomes, highlight some of the ongoing debates, and suggest possible routes to future progress. PMID:26323752

  16. Evolution: Steps on the road to eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, T. Martin; Williams, Tom A.

    2015-05-01

    A new archaeal phylum represents the closest known relatives of eukaryotes, the group encompassing all organisms that have nucleated cells. The discovery holds promise for a better understanding of eukaryotic origins. See Article p.173

  17. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  18. Increased sampling reveals novel lineages of Entamoeba: consequences of genetic diversity and host specificity for taxonomy and molecular detection.

    PubMed

    Stensvold, C Rune; Lebbad, Marianne; Victory, Emma L; Verweij, Jaco J; Tannich, Egbert; Alfellani, Mohammed; Legarraga, Paulette; Clark, C Graham

    2011-07-01

    To expand the representation for phylogenetic analysis, ten additional complete Entamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were obtained from humans, non-human primates, cattle and a tortoise. For some novel sequences no corresponding morphological data were available, and we suggest that these organisms should be referred to as ribosomal lineages (RL) rather than being assigned species names at present. To investigate genetic diversity and host specificity of selected Entamoeba species, a total of 91 new partial small subunit rRNA gene sequences were obtained, including 49 from Entamoeba coli, 18 from Entamoeba polecki, and 17 from Entamoeba hartmanni. We propose a new nomenclature for significant variants within established Entamoeba species. Based on current data we propose that the uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoeba infecting humans is called Entamoeba polecki and divided into four subtypes (ST1-ST4) and that Entamoeba coli is divided into two subtypes (ST1-ST2). New hosts for several species were detected and, while host specificity and genetic diversity of several species remain to be clarified, it is clear that previous reliance on cultivated material has given us a misleading and incomplete picture of variation within the genus Entamoeba. PMID:21295520

  19. Replicating Damaged DNA in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Siede, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage is one of many possible perturbations that challenge the mechanisms that preserve genetic stability during the copying of the eukaryotic genome in S phase. This short review provides, in the first part, a general introduction to the topic and an overview of checkpoint responses. In the second part, the mechanisms of error-free tolerance in response to fork-arresting DNA damage will be discussed in some detail. PMID:24296172

  20. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia M.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Santos, Nuno C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been the focus of intense research toward the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components) are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity, and cytotoxicity are also reviewed. PMID:24688483

  1. Open questions on the origin of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the origin of the eukaryotic cell remains enigmatic. It is now known that the last eukaryotic common ancestor was complex and that endosymbiosis played a crucial role in eukaryogenesis at least via the acquisition of the alphaproteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. However, the nature of the mitochondrial host is controversial, although the recent discovery of an archaeal lineage phylogenetically close to eukaryotes reinforces models proposing archaea-derived hosts. We argue that, in addition to improved phylogenomic analyses with more comprehensive taxon sampling to pinpoint the closest prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes, determining plausible mechanisms and selective forces at the origin of key eukaryotic features, such as the nucleus or the bacterial-like eukaryotic membrane system, is essential to constrain existing models. PMID:26455774

  2. A Eukaryote without a Mitochondrial Organelle.

    PubMed

    Karnkowska, Anna; Vacek, Vojtěch; Zubáčová, Zuzana; Treitli, Sebastian C; Petrželková, Romana; Eme, Laura; Novák, Lukáš; Žárský, Vojtěch; Barlow, Lael D; Herman, Emily K; Soukal, Petr; Hroudová, Miluše; Doležal, Pavel; Stairs, Courtney W; Roger, Andrew J; Eliáš, Marek; Dacks, Joel B; Vlček, Čestmír; Hampl, Vladimír

    2016-05-23

    The presence of mitochondria and related organelles in every studied eukaryote supports the view that mitochondria are essential cellular components. Here, we report the genome sequence of a microbial eukaryote, the oxymonad Monocercomonoides sp., which revealed that this organism lacks all hallmark mitochondrial proteins. Crucially, the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly pathway, thought to be conserved in virtually all eukaryotic cells, has been replaced by a cytosolic sulfur mobilization system (SUF) acquired by lateral gene transfer from bacteria. In the context of eukaryotic phylogeny, our data suggest that Monocercomonoides is not primitively amitochondrial but has lost the mitochondrion secondarily. This is the first example of a eukaryote lacking any form of a mitochondrion, demonstrating that this organelle is not absolutely essential for the viability of a eukaryotic cell. PMID:27185558

  3. How eukaryotic genes are transcribed

    PubMed Central

    Venters, Bryan J.; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is far more complex than one might have imagined thirty years ago. However, progress towards understanding gene regulatory mechanisms has been rapid and comprehensive, which has made the integration of detailed observations into broadly connected concepts a challenge. This review attempts to integrate the following concepts: 1) a well-defined organization of nucleosomes and modification states at most genes, 2) regulatory networks of sequence-specific transcription factors, 3) chromatin remodeling coupled to promoter assembly of the general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, and 4) phosphorylation states of RNA polymerase II coupled to chromatin modification states during transcription. The wealth of new insights arising from the tools of biochemistry, genomics, cell biology, and genetics is providing a remarkable view into the mechanics of gene regulation. PMID:19514890

  4. Ancestral relationships of the major eukaryotic lineages.

    PubMed

    Sogin, M L; Morrison, H G; Hinkle, G; Silberman, J D

    1996-03-01

    Molecular systematics has revolutionized our understanding of microbial evolution. Phylogenetic frameworks relating all organisms in this biosphere can be inferred from comparisons of slowly evolving molecules such as the small and large subunit ribosomal RNAs. Unlike today's text book standard, the "Five Kingdoms" (plants, animals, fungi, protists and bacteria), molecular studies define three primary lines of descent (Eukaryotes, Eubacteria, and Archaebacteria). Within the Eukaryotes, the "higher" kingdoms (Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia) are joined by at least two novel complex evolutionary assemblages, the "Alveolates" (ciliates, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans) and the "Stramenopiles" (diatoms, oomycetes, labyrinthulids, brown algae and chrysophytes). The separation of these eukaryotic groups (described as the eukaryotic "crown") occurred approximately 10(9) years ago and was preceded by a succession of earlier diverging protist lineages, some as ancient as the separation of the prokaryotic domains. The molecular phylogenies suggest that multiple endosymbiotic events introduced plastids into discrete eukaryotic lineages. PMID:9019131

  5. Unlocking the eukaryotic membrane protein structural proteome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Kyongwon; Stroud, Robert Michael

    2012-01-01

    Summary Most of the 231 unique membrane protein structures (as of 3/2010) are of bacterial membrane proteins (MPs) expressed in bacteria, or eukaryotic MPs from natural sources. However eukaryotic membrane proteins, especially those with more than three membrane crossings rarely succumb to any suitable expression in bacterial cells. They typically require expression in eukaryotic cells that can provide appropriate endoplasmic reticulum, chaperones, targeting and post-translational processing. In evidence, only ~20 eukaryotic MP structures have resulted from heterologous expression. This is required for a general approach to target particular human or pathogen membrane proteins of importance to human health. The first of these appeared in 2005. Our review addresses the special issues that pertain to the expression of eukaryotic and human membrane proteins, and recent advances in the tool kit for crystallization and structure determination. PMID:20739007

  6. Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    1981-01-01

    The primary taxa of eukaryote classification should be monophyletic and based on fundamental cell structure rather than nutritional adaptive zones. The classical two kingdom classification into "plants" and "animals" and the newer four kingdom classifications into "protis", "fungi" "animals" and "plants" are therefore both unsatisfactory. Eukaryotes can be classified into nine kingdoms each defined in terms of a unique constellation of cell structures. Five kingdoms have plate-like mitochondrial cristae: (1) Eufungi (the non-ciliated fungi, which unlike the other eight kingdoms have unstacked Golgi cisternae), (2) Ciliofungi (the posteriorly ciliated fungi), (3) Animalia (Animals, sponges, mesozoa, and choanociliates; phagotrophs with basically posterior ciliation), (4) Biliphyta (Non-phagotrophic, phycobilisome-containing, algae; i.e. theGlaucophyceae and Rhodophyceae), (5) Viridiplantae (Non-phagotrophic green plants, with starch-containing plastids). Kingdom (6), the Euglenozoa, has disc-shaped cristae and an intraciliary dense rod and may be phagotrophic and/or phototrophic with plastids with three-membraned envelopes. Kingdom (7), the cryptophyta, has flattened tubular cristae, tubular mastigonemes on both cilia,m and starch in thecompartment between the plastid endoplasmic reticulum and the plastid envelope; their plastids, if present, have phycobilins inside the paired thylakoids and chlorophyll c2. Kingdom (8), the Chromophyta, has tubular cristae, together with tubular mastigonemes on one anterior cilum and/or a plastid endoplasmic reticulum and chlorophyll c1 + c2. Members of the ninth kingdom, the Protozoa, are mainly phagotrophic, and have tubular or vesicular cristae (or lack mitochondria altogether), and lack tubular mastigonemes on their (primitively anterior) cilia; plastids if present have three-envelop membranes, chlorophyll c2, and no internal starch, and a plastid endoplasmic reticulum is absent. Kingdoms 4-9 are primitively anteriorly biciliate

  7. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

  8. Detection of the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis in periodontal pockets

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Mark; Amard, Véronique; Bar-Pinatel, Charlotte; Charpentier, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Michel; Desmuyck, Yvan; Ihler, Serge; Rochet, Jean-Pierre; Roux de La Tribouille, Véronique; Saladin, Luc; Verdy, Marion; Gironès, Núria; Fresno, Manuel; Santi-Rocca, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a public health issue, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease is still unclear: genetics of patients cannot explain the dispersed or isolated localisation of gingival pockets, while bacteria-based models are insufficient to distinguish gingivitis and periodontitis. The possible role of parasites in the establishment of periodontitis has been poorly studied until now. The aim of this project was to study a potential link between colonisation of gingival crevices by the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis and periodontitis. In eight different dental clinics in France, samples were taken in periodontal pockets (72) or healthy sites (33), and submitted to microscopic observation and molecular identification by PCR with a new set of primers designed to specifically detect E. gingivalis. This blind sample analysis showed the strong sensitivity of PCR compared with clinical diagnosis (58/72 = 81%), and microscopy (51/65 = 78%). The results of this work show that the parasites detected by microscopy mainly – if not exclusively – belong to the species E. gingivalis and that the presence of the parasite is correlated with periodontitis. PMID:24983705

  9. Circular RNAs in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Huang, Chuan; Wang, Xiaolin; Shan, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are now recognized as large species of transcripts in eukaryotic cells. From model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila, mice to human beings, thousands of circRNAs formed from back-splicing of exons have been identified. The known complexity of transcriptome has been greatly expanded upon the discovery of these RNAs. Studies about the biogenesis and physiological functions have yielded substantial knowledge for the circRNAs, and they are now more likely to be viewed as regulatory elements coded by the genome rather than unavoidable noise of gene expression. Certain human diseases may also relate to circRNAs. These circRNAs show diversifications in features such as sequence composition and cellular localization, and thus we propose that they may be divided into subtypes such as cytoplasmic circRNAs, nuclear circRNAs, and exon-intron circRNAs (EIciRNAs). Here we summarize and discuss knowns and unknowns for these RNAs, and we need to keep in mind that the whole field is still at the beginning of exciting explorations. PMID:27047251

  10. The eukaryotic fossil record in deep time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, N.

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defining constituents of the Phanerozoic biosphere, but they also extend well back into the Proterozoic record, primarily in the form of microscopic body fossils. Criteria for identifying pre-Ediacaran eukaryotes include large cell size, morphologically complex cell walls and/or the recognition of diagnostically eukaryotic cell division patterns. The oldest unambiguous eukaryote currently on record is an acanthomorphic acritarch (Tappania) from the Palaeoproterozoic Semri Group of central India. Older candidate eukaryotes are difficult to distinguish from giant bacteria, prokaryotic colonies or diagenetic artefacts. In younger Meso- and Neoproterozoic strata, the challenge is to recognize particular grades and clades of eukaryotes, and to document their macro-evolutionary expression. Distinctive unicellular forms include mid-Neoproterozoic testate amoebae and phosphate biomineralizing 'scale-microfossils' comparable to an extant green alga. There is also a significant record of seaweeds, possible fungi and problematica from this interval, documenting multiple independent experiments in eukaryotic multicellularity. Taxonomically resolved forms include a bangiacean red alga and probable vaucheriacean chromalveolate algae from the late Mesoproterozoic, and populations of hydrodictyacean and siphonocladalean green algae of mid Neoproterozoic age. Despite this phylogenetic breadth, however, or arguments from molecular clocks, there is no convincing evidence for pre-Ediacaran metazoans or metaphytes. The conspicuously incomplete nature of the Proterozoic record makes it difficult to resolve larger-scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. Even so, both body fossils and biomarker data point to a pre-Ediacaran biosphere dominated overwhelming by prokaryotes. Contemporaneous eukaryotes appear to be limited to conspicuously shallow water environments, and exhibit fundamentally lower levels of morphological diversity and evolutionary turnover than

  11. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular chronomics

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, F.; Cornélissen, G.; Faraone, P.; Poeggeler, B.; Hardeland, R.; Katinas, G.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Otsuka, K.; Bakken, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    An impeccable time series, published in 1930, consisting of hourly observations on colony advance in a fluid culture of E. coli, was analyzed by a periodogram and power spectrum in 1961. While the original senior author had emphasized specifically periodicity with no estimate of period length, he welcomed further analyses. After consulting his technician, he knew of no environmental periodicity related to human schedules other than an hourly photography. A periodogram analysis in 1961 showed a 20.75-h period. It was emphasized that “… the circadian period disclosed is not of exactly 24-h length.” Confirmations notwithstanding, a committee ruled out microbial circadian rhythms based on grounds that could have led to a different conclusion, namely first, the inability of some committee members to see (presumably by eyeballing) the rhythms in their own data, and second, what hardly follows, that there were “too many analyses” in the published papers. Our point in dealing with microbes and humans is that analyses are indispensable for quantification and for discovering a biologically novel spectrum of cyclicities, matching physical ones. The scope of circadian organization estimated in 1961 has become broader, including about 7-day, about half-yearly, about-yearly and ex-yearly and decadal periodisms, among others. Microbial circadians have become a field of their own with eyeballing, yet time-microscopy can quantify characteristics with their uncertainties and can assess broad chronomes (time structures) with features beyond circadians. As yet only suggestive differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes further broaden the perspective and may lead to life’s sites of origin and to new temporal aspects of life’ s development as a chronomic tree by eventual rhythm dating in ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:16275493

  12. Complementing the Eukaryotic Protein Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Pesch, Robert; Zimmer, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Protein interaction networks are important for the understanding of regulatory mechanisms, for the explanation of experimental data and for the prediction of protein functions. Unfortunately, most interaction data is available only for model organisms. As a possible remedy, the transfer of interactions to organisms of interest is common practice, but it is not clear when interactions can be transferred from one organism to another and, thus, the confidence in the derived interactions is low. Here, we propose to use a rich set of features to train Random Forests in order to score transferred interactions. We evaluated the transfer from a range of eukaryotic organisms to S. cerevisiae using orthologs. Directly transferred interactions to S. cerevisiae are on average only 24% consistent with the current S. cerevisiae interaction network. By using commonly applied filter approaches the transfer precision can be improved, but at the cost of a large decrease in the number of transferred interactions. Our Random Forest approach uses various features derived from both the target and the source network as well as the ortholog annotations to assign confidence values to transferred interactions. Thereby, we could increase the average transfer consistency to 85%, while still transferring almost 70% of all correctly transferable interactions. We tested our approach for the transfer of interactions to other species and showed that our approach outperforms competing methods for the transfer of interactions to species where no experimental knowledge is available. Finally, we applied our predictor to score transferred interactions to 83 targets species and we were able to extend the available interactome of B. taurus, M. musculus and G. gallus with over 40,000 interactions each. Our transferred interaction networks are publicly available via our web interface, which allows to inspect and download transferred interaction sets of different sizes, for various species, and at specified

  13. Evolutionary mechanisms for establishing eukaryotic cellular complexity.

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred D; Barlow, Lael D; Rachubinski, Richard A; Dacks, Joel B

    2014-07-01

    Through a comparative approach, evolutionary cell biology makes use of genomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology of non-model eukaryotes to provide new avenues for understanding basic cellular processes. This approach has led to proposed mechanisms underpinning the evolution of eukaryotic cellular organization including endosymbiotic and autogenous processes and neutral and adaptive processes. Together these mechanisms have contributed to the genesis and complexity of organelles, molecular machines, and genome architecture. We review these mechanisms and suggest that a greater appreciation of the diversity in eukaryotic form has led to a more complete understanding of the evolutionary connections between organelles and the unexpected routes by which this diversity has been reached. PMID:24656655

  14. Paleobiological Perspectives on Early Eukaryotic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms radiated in Proterozoic oceans with oxygenated surface waters, but, commonly, anoxia at depth. Exceptionally preserved fossils of red algae favor crown group emergence more than 1200 million years ago, but older (up to 1600–1800 million years) microfossils could record stem group eukaryotes. Major eukaryotic diversification ∼800 million years ago is documented by the increase in the taxonomic richness of complex, organic-walled microfossils, including simple coenocytic and multicellular forms, as well as widespread tests comparable to those of extant testate amoebae and simple foraminiferans and diverse scales comparable to organic and siliceous scales formed today by protists in several clades. Mid-Neoproterozoic establishment or expansion of eukaryophagy provides a possible mechanism for accelerating eukaryotic diversification long after the origin of the domain. Protists continued to diversify along with animals in the more pervasively oxygenated oceans of the Phanerozoic Eon. PMID:24384569

  15. The Eukaryotic Replisome Goes Under the Microscope

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Mike; Li, Huilin

    2016-01-01

    The machinery at the eukaryotic replication fork has seen many new structural advances using electron microscopy and crystallography. Recent structures of eukaryotic replisome components include the Mcm2-7 complex, the CMG helicase, DNA polymerases, a Ctf4 trimer hub and the first look at a core replisome of 20 different proteins containing the helicase, primase, leading polymerase and a lagging strand polymerase. The eukaryotic core replisome shows an unanticipated architecture, with one polymerase sitting above the helicase and the other below. Additionally, structures of Mcm2 bound to an H3/H4 tetramer suggest a direct role of the replisome in handling nucleosomes, which are important to DNA organization and gene regulation. This review provides a summary of some of the many recent advances in the structure of the eukaryotic replisome. PMID:27003891

  16. Repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Olmo, Ettore; Heslop-Harrison, J S Pat

    2015-09-01

    Repetitive DNA--sequence motifs repeated hundreds or thousands of times in the genome--makes up the major proportion of all the nuclear DNA in most eukaryotic genomes. However, the significance of repetitive DNA in the genome is not completely understood, and it has been considered to have both structural and functional roles, or perhaps even no essential role. High-throughput DNA sequencing reveals huge numbers of repetitive sequences. Most bioinformatic studies focus on low-copy DNA including genes, and hence, the analyses collapse repeats in assemblies presenting only one or a few copies, often masking out and ignoring them in both DNA and RNA read data. Chromosomal studies are proving vital to examine the distribution and evolution of sequences because of the challenges of analysis of sequence data. Many questions are open about the origin, evolutionary mode and functions that repetitive sequences might have in the genome. Some, the satellite DNAs, are present in long arrays of similar motifs at a small number of sites, while others, particularly the transposable elements (DNA transposons and retrotranposons), are dispersed over regions of the genome; in both cases, sequence motifs may be located at relatively specific chromosome domains such as centromeres or subtelomeric regions. Here, we overview a range of works involving detailed characterization of the nature of all types of repetitive sequences, in particular their organization, abundance, chromosome localization, variation in sequence within and between chromosomes, and, importantly, the investigation of their transcription or expression activity. Comparison of the nature and locations of sequences between more, and less, related species is providing extensive information about their evolution and amplification. Some repetitive sequences are extremely well conserved between species, while others are among the most variable, defining differences between even closely relative species. These data suggest

  17. Metabolic Constraints on the Eukaryotic Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2009-04-01

    Mutualism, obligate mutualism, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic ‘fusion’ of Serial Endosymbiosis Theory represent progressively more rapid and less distorted real-time communication between biological structures instantiating information sources. Such progression in accurate information transmission requires, in turn, progressively greater channel capacity that, through the homology between information source uncertainty and free energy density, requires ever more energetic metabolism. The eukaryotic transition, according to this model, may have been entrained by an ecosystem resilience shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism.

  18. Transfer of DNA from Bacteria to Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the members of the Agrobacterium genus have been considered the only bacterial species naturally able to transfer and integrate DNA into the genomes of their eukaryotic hosts. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that this ability to genetically transform eukaryotic host cells might be more widespread in the bacterial world. Indeed, analyses of accumulating genomic data reveal cases of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes and suggest that it represents a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. Specifically, recent reports indicate that bacteria other than Agrobacterium, such as Bartonella henselae (a zoonotic pathogen), Rhizobium etli (a plant-symbiotic bacterium related to Agrobacterium), or even Escherichia coli, have the ability to genetically transform their host cells under laboratory conditions. This DNA transfer relies on type IV secretion systems (T4SSs), the molecular machines that transport macromolecules during conjugative plasmid transfer and also during transport of proteins and/or DNA to the eukaryotic recipient cells. In this review article, we explore the extent of possible transfer of genetic information from bacteria to eukaryotic cells as well as the evolutionary implications and potential applications of this transfer. PMID:27406565

  19. Transfer of DNA from Bacteria to Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Historically, the members of the Agrobacterium genus have been considered the only bacterial species naturally able to transfer and integrate DNA into the genomes of their eukaryotic hosts. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that this ability to genetically transform eukaryotic host cells might be more widespread in the bacterial world. Indeed, analyses of accumulating genomic data reveal cases of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes and suggest that it represents a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. Specifically, recent reports indicate that bacteria other than Agrobacterium, such as Bartonella henselae (a zoonotic pathogen), Rhizobium etli (a plant-symbiotic bacterium related to Agrobacterium), or even Escherichia coli, have the ability to genetically transform their host cells under laboratory conditions. This DNA transfer relies on type IV secretion systems (T4SSs), the molecular machines that transport macromolecules during conjugative plasmid transfer and also during transport of proteins and/or DNA to the eukaryotic recipient cells. In this review article, we explore the extent of possible transfer of genetic information from bacteria to eukaryotic cells as well as the evolutionary implications and potential applications of this transfer. PMID:27406565

  20. The problem of the eukaryotic genome size.

    PubMed

    Patrushev, L I; Minkevich, I G

    2008-12-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning the unsolved problem of the huge interspecific eukaryotic genome size variations not correlating with the species phenotypic complexity (C-value enigma also known as C-value paradox) is reviewed. Characteristic features of eukaryotic genome structure and molecular mechanisms that are the basis of genome size changes are examined in connection with the C-value enigma. It is emphasized that endogenous mutagens, including reactive oxygen species, create a constant nuclear environment where any genome evolves. An original quantitative model and general conception are proposed to explain the C-value enigma. In accordance with the theory, the noncoding sequences of the eukaryotic genome provide genes with global and differential protection against chemical mutagens and (in addition to the anti-mutagenesis and DNA repair systems) form a new, third system that protects eukaryotic genetic information. The joint action of these systems controls the spontaneous mutation rate in coding sequences of the eukaryotic genome. It is hypothesized that the genome size is inversely proportional to functional efficiency of the anti-mutagenesis and/or DNA repair systems in a particular biological species. In this connection, a model of eukaryotic genome evolution is proposed. PMID:19216716

  1. Metal-regulated transcription in eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, D J

    1992-01-01

    This review has summarized many of the major aspects of metal-regulated gene transcription in eukaryotic organisms as they are currently understood at the mechanistic level. Clearly, metals represent a class of important transcriptional effector molecules which regulate gene expression in different ways and both by activation or repression of gene transcription. To date, studies of metal-regulated transcription in fungi have resulted in the most detailed description of the structure, function and mechanisms of action of eukaryotic metal-responsive transcription factors. Recently, significant progress has been made in higher eukaryotic systems through the biochemical detection and purification of MRE binding proteins which may represent MRTFs. Additionally, perhaps fungi will be exploited for their genetics and ease of manipulation to clone and functionally analyze cDNAs for MRTFs from higher eukaryotes. The isolation of cDNAs for higher eukaryotic MRTFs will provide important tools for answering a number of interesting questions in metal-regulated gene transcription. How do higher eukaryotes activate MT gene transcription in response to a broad range of environmental metals? What are the tissue distributions of MRTFs and how does their activity correlate with the exposure of different tissues to varying concentrations of metals? What are the identities of other genes regulated by MRTFs and why are such genes metal-responsive? A comprehensive understanding of the detailed mechanisms for metal-regulated transcription will ultimately require an understanding of how eukaryotic cells sense, transport, distribute and remove metals from their environment. These questions provide an interesting and exciting area of investigation for geneticists, physiologists, molecular biologists, biophysicists and biochemists now and in the future. PMID:1561077

  2. Origins and activities of the eukaryotic exosome.

    PubMed

    Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Brodersen, Ditlev E; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2009-05-15

    The exosome is a multi-subunit 3'-5' exonucleolytic complex that is conserved in structure and function in all eukaryotes studied to date. The complex is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, where it continuously works to ensure adequate quantities and quality of RNAs by facilitating normal RNA processing and turnover, as well as by participating in more complex RNA quality-control mechanisms. Recent progress in the field has convincingly shown that the nucleolytic activity of the exosome is maintained by only two exonuclease co-factors, one of which is also an endonuclease. The additional association of the exosome with RNA-helicase and poly(A) polymerase activities results in a flexible molecular machine that is capable of dealing with the multitude of cellular RNA substrates that are found in eukaryotic cells. Interestingly, the same basic set of enzymatic activities is found in prokaryotic cells, which might therefore illustrate the evolutionary origin of the eukaryotic system. In this Commentary, we compare the structural and functional characteristics of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA-degradation systems, with an emphasis on some of the functional networks in which the RNA exosome participates in eukaryotes. PMID:19420235

  3. Atypical mitochondrial inheritance patterns in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predominantly maternally inherited in eukaryotes. Diverse molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of strict maternal inheritance (SMI) of mtDNA have been described, but the evolutionary forces responsible for its predominance in eukaryotes remain to be elucidated. Exceptions to SMI have been reported in diverse eukaryotic taxa, leading to the prediction that several distinct molecular mechanisms controlling mtDNA transmission are present among the eukaryotes. We propose that these mechanisms will be better understood by studying the deviations from the predominating pattern of SMI. This minireview summarizes studies on eukaryote species with unusual or rare mitochondrial inheritance patterns, i.e., other than the predominant SMI pattern, such as maternal inheritance of stable heteroplasmy, paternal leakage of mtDNA, biparental and strictly paternal inheritance, and doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. The potential genes and mechanisms involved in controlling mitochondrial inheritance in these organisms are discussed. The linkage between mitochondrial inheritance and sex determination is also discussed, given that the atypical systems of mtDNA inheritance examined in this minireview are frequently found in organisms with uncommon sexual systems such as gynodioecy, monoecy, or andromonoecy. The potential of deviations from SMI for facilitating a better understanding of a number of fundamental questions in biology, such as the evolution of mtDNA inheritance, the coevolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and, perhaps, the role of mitochondria in sex determination, is considerable. PMID:26501689

  4. Comprehensive Molecular Structure of the Eukaryotic Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Derek J.; Devkota, Batsal; Huang, Andrew D.; Topf, Maya; Narayanan, Eswar; Sali, Andrej; Harvey, Stephen C.; Frank, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Despite the emergence of a large number of X-ray crystallographic models of the bacterial 70S ribosome over the past decade, an accurate atomic model of the eukaryotic 80S ribosome is still not available. Eukaryotic ribosomes possess more ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA than bacterial ribosomes, which are implicated in extra-ribosomal functions in the eukaryotic cells. By combining cryo-EM with RNA and protein homology modeling, we obtained an atomic model of the yeast 80S ribosome complete with all ribosomal RNA expansion segments and all ribosomal proteins for which a structural homolog can be identified. Mutation or deletion of 80S ribosomal proteins can abrogate maturation of the ribosome, leading to several human diseases. We have localized one such protein unique to eukaryotes, rpS19e, whose mutations are associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia in humans. Additionally, we characterize crucial and novel interactions between the dynamic stalk base of the ribosome with eukaryotic elongation factor 2. PMID:20004163

  5. Comparative genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipidbiosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.

  6. Evolution of Proteasome Regulators in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Philippe; Kajava, Andrey V.; Delsuc, Fredéric; Coux, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms require protein degradation to terminate biological processes and remove damaged proteins. One such machine is the 20S proteasome, a specialized barrel-shaped and compartmentalized multicatalytic protease. The activity of the 20S proteasome generally requires the binding of regulators/proteasome activators (PAs), which control the entrance of substrates. These include the PA700 (19S complex), which assembles with the 20S and forms the 26S proteasome and allows the efficient degradation of proteins usually labeled by ubiquitin tags, PA200 and PA28, which are involved in proteolysis through ubiquitin-independent mechanisms and PI31, which was initially identified as a 20S inhibitor in vitro. Unlike 20S proteasome, shown to be present in all Eukaryotes and Archaea, the evolutionary history of PAs remained fragmentary. Here, we made a comprehensive survey and phylogenetic analyses of the four types of regulators in 17 clades covering most of the eukaryotic supergroups. We found remarkable conservation of each PA700 subunit in all eukaryotes, indicating that the current complex PA700 structure was already set up in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Also present in LECA, PA200, PA28, and PI31 showed a more contrasted evolutionary picture, because many lineages have subsequently lost one or two of them. The paramount conservation of PA700 composition in all eukaryotes and the dynamic evolution of PA200, PA28, and PI31 are discussed in the light of current knowledge on their physiological roles. PMID:25943340

  7. Observations on the intestinal protozoa infecting man in Rhodesia.

    PubMed

    Goldsmid, J M; Rogers, S; Mahomed, K

    1976-09-18

    Humans in Rhodesia harbour a wide range of intestinal protozoa. Of the species included, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia have previously been recorded. Other species which are either rarely reported or which have previously never been reported from this country, include Trichomonas hominis, Chilomastix mesnili, Enteromonas hominis, Retortamonas intestinalis, Balantidum coli,Entamoeba hartmanni,Entamoeba histolytica Laredo. Endolimax nana, Dientamoeba fragilis and Isospora belli. The importance in Rhodesia of these species, and especially of E. histolytica, is discussed. PMID:988643

  8. Communities of microbial eukaryotes in the mammalian gut within the context of environmental eukaryotic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Walters, William A.; Lauber, Christian L.; Clemente, Jose C.; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Teiling, Clotilde; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Brunelle, Julie; Driscoll, Mark; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A.; Knight, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbes (protists) residing in the vertebrate gut influence host health and disease, but their diversity and distribution in healthy hosts is poorly understood. Protists found in the gut are typically considered parasites, but many are commensal and some are beneficial. Further, the hygiene hypothesis predicts that association with our co-evolved microbial symbionts may be important to overall health. It is therefore imperative that we understand the normal diversity of our eukaryotic gut microbiota to test for such effects and avoid eliminating commensal organisms. We assembled a dataset of healthy individuals from two populations, one with traditional, agrarian lifestyles and a second with modern, westernized lifestyles, and characterized the human eukaryotic microbiota via high-throughput sequencing. To place the human gut microbiota within a broader context our dataset also includes gut samples from diverse mammals and samples from other aquatic and terrestrial environments. We curated the SILVA ribosomal database to reflect current knowledge of eukaryotic taxonomy and employ it as a phylogenetic framework to compare eukaryotic diversity across environment. We show that adults from the non-western population harbor a diverse community of protists, and diversity in the human gut is comparable to that in other mammals. However, the eukaryotic microbiota of the western population appears depauperate. The distribution of symbionts found in mammals reflects both host phylogeny and diet. Eukaryotic microbiota in the gut are less diverse and more patchily distributed than bacteria. More broadly, we show that eukaryotic communities in the gut are less diverse than in aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and few taxa are shared across habitat types, and diversity patterns of eukaryotes are correlated with those observed for bacteria. These results outline the distribution and diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in the mammalian gut and across

  9. Structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, W.

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Introduction; Polytene Chromosomel Giant Chromosomes in Ciliates; The sp-I Genes in the Balbiani Rings of Chironomus Salivary Glands; The White Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster; The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dense Cluster of Functionally Related Vital Genes in the DOPA Decarboxylase Region of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome; Heat Shock Puffs and Response to Environmental Stress; The Y Chromosomal Lampbrush Loops of Drosophila; Contributions of Electron Microscopic Spreading Preparations (''Miller Spreads'') to the Analysis of Chromosome Structure; Replication of DNA in Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Gene Amplification in Dipteran Chromosomes; The Significance of Plant Transposable Elements in Biologically Relevant Processes; Arrangement of Chromosomes in Interphase Cell Nuclei; Heterochromatin and the Phenomenon of Chromosome Banding; Multiple Nonhistone Protein-DNA Complexes in Chromatin Regulate the Cell- and Stage-Specific Activity of an Eukaryotic Gene; Genetics of Sex Determination in Eukaryotes; Application of Basic Chromosome Research in Biotechnology and Medicine. This book presents an overview of various aspects of chromosome research.

  10. Force generation in a regrowing eukaryotic flagellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polin, Marco; Bruneau, Bastien; Johnson, Thomas; Goldstein, Raymond

    2012-02-01

    Flagella are whip-like organelles with a complex internal structure, the axoneme, highly conserved across eukaryotic species. The highly regulated activity of motor proteins arranged along the axoneme moves the flagellum in the surrounding fluid, generating forces that can be used for swimming or fluid propulsion. Although our understanding of the general mechanism behind flagellar motion is well established, the details of its implementation in a real axoneme is still poorly understood. Here we explore the inner working of the eukaryotic flagellum using a uniflagellated mutant of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to investigate in detail the force and power generated by a moving flagellum during axonemal regrowth after deflagellation. These experiments will contribute to our understanding of the inner working of the eukaryotic flagellum.

  11. Reproduction, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic cell.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-08-18

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing questions about reproduction, individuality, and the units of selection in symbiotic associations, with special attention to the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Three kinds of reproduction are distinguished, and a possible evolutionary sequence giving rise to a mitochondrion-containing eukaryotic cell from an endosymbiotic partnership is analyzed as a series of transitions between each of the three forms of reproduction. The sequence of changes seen in this "egalitarian" evolutionary transition is compared with those that apply in "fraternal" transitions, such as the evolution of multicellularity in animals. PMID:26286983

  12. Uniquely designed nuclear structures of lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear structures of lower eukaryotes, specifically protists, often vary from those of yeasts and metazoans. Several studies have demonstrated the unique and fascinating features of these nuclear structures, such as a histone-independent condensed chromatin in dinoflagellates and two structurally distinct nuclear pore complexes in ciliates. Despite their unique molecular/structural features, functions required for formation of their cognate molecules/structures are highly conserved. This provides important information about the structure-function relationship of the nuclear structures. In this review, we highlight characteristic nuclear structures found in lower eukaryotes, and discuss their attractiveness as potential biological systems for studying nuclear structures. PMID:26963276

  13. Recombinant vector and eukaryotic host transformed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Sugden, W.M.

    1987-08-11

    A recombinant plasmid is described comprising: a segment from a first plasmid which is not a lymphotrophic herpes virus segment and which facilitates the replication of the recombinant plasmid in a prokaryotic host; a segment from a lymphotrophic herpes virus which is linked to the first plasmid segment such that is a capable of assisting in maintaining the recombinant plasmid as a plasmid if the recombinant plasmid is inserted into a eukaryotic host that has been transformed by the lymphotrophic herpes virus; and a foreign eukaryotic gene component linked as part of the recombinant plasmid.

  14. RING FISSION OF ANTHRACENE BY A EUKARYOTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ligninolytic fungi are unique among eukaryotes in their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism for this process is unknown. lthough certain PAHs are oxidized in vitro by the fungal lignin peroxidases (LiPs) that catalyze ligninolysis, it has...

  15. Endonucleolytic RNA cleavage by a eukaryotic exosome.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Alice; Tomecki, Rafal; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Séraphin, Bertrand

    2008-12-18

    The exosome is a major eukaryotic nuclease located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm that contributes to the processing, quality control and/or turnover of a large number of cellular RNAs. This large macromolecular assembly has been described as a 3'-->5' exonuclease and shown to contain a nine-subunit ring structure evolutionarily related to archaeal exosome-like complexes and bacterial polynucleotide phosphorylases. Recent results have shown that, unlike its prokaryotic counterparts, the yeast and human ring structures are catalytically inactive. In contrast, the exonucleolytic activity of the yeast exosome core was shown to be mediated by the RNB domain of the eukaryote-specific Dis3 subunit. Here we show, using in vitro assays, that yeast Dis3 has an additional endoribonuclease activity mediated by the PIN domain located at the amino terminus of this multidomain protein. Simultaneous inactivation of the endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic activities of the exosome core generates a synthetic growth phenotype in vivo, supporting a physiological function for the PIN domain. This activity is responsible for the cleavage of some natural exosome substrates, independently of exonucleolytic degradation. In contrast with current models, our results show that eukaryotic exosome cores have both endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic activities, mediated by two distinct domains of the Dis3 subunit. The mode of action of eukaryotic exosome cores in RNA processing and degradation should be reconsidered, taking into account the cooperation between its multiple ribonucleolytic activities. PMID:19060886

  16. The origin of the eukaryotic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, H.

    1984-01-01

    The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of the eukaryotic cell has been applied to the origin of the mitochondria and chloroplasts. However as has been pointed out by Mereschowsky in 1905, it should also be applied to the nucleus as well. If the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts are endosymbionts, then it is likely that the organism that did the engulfing was not a DNA-based organism. In fact, it is useful to postulate that this organism was a primitive RNA-based organism. This hypothesis would explain the preponderance of RNA viruses found in eukaryotic cells. The centriole and basal body do not have a double membrane or DNA. Like all MTOCs (microtubule organising centres), they have a structural or morphic RNA implicated in their formation. This would argue for their origin in the early RNA-based organism rather than in an endosymbiotic event involving bacteria. Finally, the eukaryotic cell uses RNA in ways quite unlike bacteria, thus pointing to a greater emphasis of RNA in both control and structure in the cell. The origin of the eukaryotic cell may tell us why it rather than its prokaryotic relative evolved into the metazoans who are reading this paper.

  17. Eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.E. . Banbury Center); McDonald, J.F. ); Weinstein, I.B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents. Topics covered include: overview of prokaryotic transposable elements, mutational effects of transposable element insertions, inducers/regulators of transposable element expression and transposition, genomic stress and environmental effects, and inducers/regulators of retroviral element expression.

  18. Eukaryote DIRS1-like retrotransposons: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DIRS1-like elements compose one superfamily of tyrosine recombinase-encoding retrotransposons. They have been previously reported in only a few diverse eukaryote species, describing a patchy distribution, and little is known about their origin and dynamics. Recently, we have shown that these retrotransposons are common among decapods, which calls into question the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons among eukaryotes. Results To determine the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons, we developed a new computational tool, ReDoSt, which allows us to identify well-conserved DIRS1-like elements. By screening 274 completely sequenced genomes, we identified more than 4000 DIRS1-like copies distributed among 30 diverse species which can be clustered into roughly 300 families. While the diversity in most species appears restricted to a low copy number, a few bursts of transposition are strongly suggested in certain species, such as Danio rerio and Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Conclusion In this study, we report 14 new species and 8 new higher taxa that were not previously known to harbor DIRS1-like retrotransposons. Now reported in 61 species, these elements appear widely distributed among eukaryotes, even if they remain undetected in streptophytes and mammals. Especially in unikonts, a broad range of taxa from Cnidaria to Sauropsida harbors such elements. Both the distribution and the similarities between the DIRS1-like element phylogeny and conventional phylogenies of the host species suggest that DIRS1-like retrotransposons emerged early during the radiation of eukaryotes. PMID:22185659

  19. Eukaryotes in Arctic and Antarctic cyanobacterial mats.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Anne D; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2012-11-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems throughout the polar regions. Most mats are multilayered three-dimensional structures with the filamentous cyanobacteria embedded in a gel-like matrix. Although early descriptions mentioned the presence of larger organisms including metazoans living in the mats, there have been few studies specifically focused on the microbial eukaryotes, which are often small cells with few morphological features suitable for identification by microscopy. Here, we applied 18S rRNA gene clone library analysis to identify eukaryotes in cyanobacterial mat communities from both the Antarctic and the extreme High Arctic. We identified 39 ribotypes at the level of 99% sequence similarity. These consisted of taxa within algal and other protist groups including Chlorophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Ciliophora, and Cercozoa. Fungi were also recovered, as were 21 metazoan ribotypes. The eukaryotic taxa appeared habitat-specific with little overlap between lake, pond, and ice shelf communities. Some ribotypes were common to both Arctic and Antarctic mats, suggesting global dispersal of these taxa and similarity in the environmental filters acting on protist communities. Many of these eukaryotic taxa likely benefit from protected, nutrient-rich microhabitats within the cyanobacterial mat environment. PMID:22630054

  20. Evaluation of five commercial methods for the extraction and purification of DNA from human faecal samples for downstream molecular detection of the enteric protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba spp.

    PubMed

    Paulos, Silvia; Mateo, Marta; de Lucio, Aida; Hernández-de Mingo, Marta; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fuentes, Isabel; Mateo, María; Carmena, David

    2016-08-01

    High quality, pure DNA is required for ensuring reliable and reproducible results in molecular diagnosis applications. A number of in-house and commercial methods are available for the extraction and purification of genomic DNA from faecal material, each one offering a specific combination of performance, cost-effectiveness, and easiness of use that should be conveniently evaluated in function of the pathogen of interest. In this comparative study the marketed kits QIAamp DNA stool mini (Qiagen), SpeedTools DNA extraction (Biotools), DNAExtract-VK (Vacunek), PowerFecal DNA isolation (MoBio), and Wizard magnetic DNA purification system (Promega Corporation) were assessed for their efficacy in obtaining DNA of the most relevant enteric protozoan parasites associated to gastrointestinal disease globally. A panel of 113 stool specimens of clinically confirmed patients with cryptosporidiosis (n=29), giardiasis (n=47) and amoebiasis by Entamoeba histolytica (n=3) or E. dispar (n=10) and apparently healthy subjects (n=24) were used for this purpose. Stool samples were aliquoted in five sub-samples and individually processed by each extraction method evaluated. Purified DNA samples were subsequently tested in PCR-based assays routinely used in our laboratory. The five compared methods yielded amplifiable amounts of DNA of the pathogens tested, although performance differences were observed among them depending on the parasite and the infection burden. Methods combining chemical, enzymatic and/or mechanical lysis procedures at temperatures of at least 56°C were proven more efficient for the release of DNA from Cryptosporidium oocysts. PMID:27241828

  1. Compounds of the upper gastrointestinal tract induce rapid and efficient excystation of Entamoeba invadens

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Biswa Nath; Pradel, Gabriele; Frevert, Ute; Eichinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The infective stage of Entamoeba parasites is an encysted form. This stage can be readily generated in vitro, which has allowed identification of stimuli that trigger the differentiation of the parasite trophozoite stage into the cyst stage. Studies of the second differentiation event, emergence of the parasite from the cyst upon infection of a host, have been hampered by the lack of an efficient means to excyst the parasite and complete the life cycle in vitro. We have determined that a combination of exposures to water, bicarbonate and bile induces rapid excystment of Entamoeba invadens cysts. The high efficiency of this method has allowed the visualization of the dynamics of the process by electron and confocal microscopy, and should permit the analysis of stage-specific gene expression and high through-put screening of inhibitory compounds. PMID:20018192

  2. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  3. eSLDB: eukaryotic subcellular localization database.

    PubMed

    Pierleoni, Andea; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic Subcellular Localization DataBase collects the annotations of subcellular localization of eukaryotic proteomes. So far five proteomes have been processed and stored: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. For each sequence, the database lists localization obtained adopting three different approaches: (i) experimentally determined (when available); (ii) homology-based (when possible); and (iii) predicted. The latter is computed with a suite of machine learning based methods, developed in house. All the data are available at our website and can be searched by sequence, by protein code and/or by protein description. Furthermore, a more complex search can be performed combining different search fields and keys. All the data contained in the database can be freely downloaded in flat file format. The database is available at http://gpcr.biocomp.unibo.it/esldb/. PMID:17108361

  4. The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Paul G; Katz, Miriam E; Knoll, Andrew H; Quigg, Antonietta; Raven, John A; Schofield, Oscar; Taylor, F J R

    2004-07-16

    The community structure and ecological function of contemporary marine ecosystems are critically dependent on eukaryotic phytoplankton. Although numerically inferior to cyanobacteria, these organisms are responsible for the majority of the flux of organic matter to higher trophic levels and the ocean interior. Photosynthetic eukaryotes evolved more than 1.5 billion years ago in the Proterozoic oceans. However, it was not until the Mesozoic Era (251 to 65 million years ago) that the three principal phytoplankton clades that would come to dominate the modern seas rose to ecological prominence. In contrast to their pioneering predecessors, the dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and diatoms all contain plastids derived from an ancestral red alga by secondary symbiosis. Here we examine the geological, geochemical, and biological processes that contributed to the rise of these three, distantly related, phytoplankton groups. PMID:15256663

  5. Structural insights into eukaryotic aquaporin regulation.

    PubMed

    Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna; Hedfalk, Kristina; Fischer, Gerhard; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Neutze, Richard

    2010-06-18

    Aquaporin-mediated water transport across cellular membranes is an ancient, ubiquitous mechanism within cell biology. This family of integral membrane proteins includes both water selective pores (aquaporins) and transport facilitators of other small molecules such as glycerol and urea (aquaglyceroporins). Eukaryotic aquaporins are frequently regulated post-translationally by gating, whereby the rate of flux through the channel is controlled, or by trafficking, whereby aquaporins are shuttled from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane. A number of high-resolution X-ray structures of eukaryotic aquaporins have recently been reported and the new structural insights into gating and trafficking that emerged from these studies are described. Basic structural themes reoccur, illustrating how the problem of regulation in diverse biological contexts builds upon a limited set of possible solutions. PMID:20416297

  6. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  7. The Iron Metallome in Eukaryotic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Dlouhy, Adrienne C.; Outten, Caryn E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is focused on the iron metallome in eukaryotes at the cellular and subcellular level, including properties, utilization in metalloproteins, trafficking, storage, and regulation of these processes. Studies in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells will be highlighted. The discussion of iron properties will center on the speciation and localization of intracellular iron as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms for coping with both low iron bioavailability and iron toxicity. The section on iron metalloproteins will emphasize heme, iron-sulfur cluster, and non-heme iron centers, particularly their cellular roles and mechanisms of assembly. The section on iron uptake, trafficking, and storage will compare methods used by yeast and mammalian cells to import iron, how this iron is brought into various organelles, and types of iron storage proteins. Regulation of these processes will be compared between yeast and mammalian cells at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. PMID:23595675

  8. Eukaryotic expression: developments for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Aricescu, A R; Assenberg, R; Bill, R M; Busso, D; Chang, V T; Davis, S J; Dubrovsky, A; Gustafsson, L; Hedfalk, K; Heinemann, U; Jones, I M; Ksiazek, D; Lang, C; Maskos, K; Messerschmidt, A; Macieira, S; Peleg, Y; Perrakis, A; Poterszman, A; Schneider, G; Sixma, T K; Sussman, J L; Sutton, G; Tarboureich, N; Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, T; Jones, E Yvonne

    2006-10-01

    The production of sufficient quantities of protein is an essential prelude to a structure determination, but for many viral and human proteins this cannot be achieved using prokaryotic expression systems. Groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium have developed and implemented high-throughput (HTP) methodologies for cloning, expression screening and protein production in eukaryotic systems. Studies focused on three systems: yeast (Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), baculovirus-infected insect cells and transient expression in mammalian cells. Suitable vectors for HTP cloning are described and results from their use in expression screening and protein-production pipelines are reported. Strategies for co-expression, selenomethionine labelling (in all three eukaryotic systems) and control of glycosylation (for secreted proteins in mammalian cells) are assessed. PMID:17001089

  9. Symbiosis and the origin of eukaryotic motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.

    1991-01-01

    Ongoing work to test the hypothesis of the origin of eukaryotic cell organelles by microbial symbioses is discussed. Because of the widespread acceptance of the serial endosymbiotic theory (SET) of the origin of plastids and mitochondria, the idea of the symbiotic origin of the centrioles and axonemes for spirochete bacteria motility symbiosis was tested. Intracellular microtubular systems are purported to derive from symbiotic associations between ancestral eukaryotic cells and motile bacteria. Four lines of approach to this problem are being pursued: (1) cloning the gene of a tubulin-like protein discovered in Spirocheata bajacaliforniesis; (2) seeking axoneme proteins in spirochets by antibody cross-reaction; (3) attempting to cultivate larger, free-living spirochetes; and (4) studying in detail spirochetes (e.g., Cristispira) symbiotic with marine animals. Other aspects of the investigation are presented.

  10. Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Nathan C; Duanmu, Deqiang; Martin, Shelley S; Bachy, Charles; Price, Dana C; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Worden, Alexandra Z; Lagarias, J Clark

    2014-03-11

    Plant phytochromes are photoswitchable red/far-red photoreceptors that allow competition with neighboring plants for photosynthetically active red light. In aquatic environments, red and far-red light are rapidly attenuated with depth; therefore, photosynthetic species must use shorter wavelengths of light. Nevertheless, phytochrome-related proteins are found in recently sequenced genomes of many eukaryotic algae from aquatic environments. We examined the photosensory properties of seven phytochromes from diverse algae: four prasinophyte (green algal) species, the heterokont (brown algal) Ectocarpus siliculosus, and two glaucophyte species. We demonstrate that algal phytochromes are not limited to red and far-red responses. Instead, different algal phytochromes can sense orange, green, and even blue light. Characterization of these previously undescribed photosensors using CD spectroscopy supports a structurally heterogeneous chromophore in the far-red-absorbing photostate. Our study thus demonstrates that extensive spectral tuning of phytochromes has evolved in phylogenetically distinct lineages of aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:24567382

  11. The architecture of a eukaryotic replisome

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jingchuan; Yuan, Zuanning; Shi, Yi; Georgescu, Roxana E.; Chait, Brian T.; Li, Huilin; O'Donnell, Michael E.

    2015-11-02

    At the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, it is widely believed that the Cdc45–Mcm2–7–GINS (CMG) helicase is positioned in front to unwind DNA and that DNA polymerases trail behind the helicase. Here we used single-particle EM to directly image a Saccharomyces cerevisiae replisome. Contrary to expectations, the leading strand Pol ε is positioned ahead of CMG helicase, whereas Ctf4 and the lagging-strand polymerase (Pol) α–primase are behind the helicase. This unexpected architecture indicates that the leading-strand DNA travels a long distance before reaching Pol ε, first threading through the Mcm2–7 ring and then making a U-turn at the bottom and reaching Pol ε at the top of CMG. Lastly, our work reveals an unexpected configuration of the eukaryotic replisome, suggests possible reasons for this architecture and provides a basis for further structural and biochemical replisome studies.

  12. Extracellular enzymes produced by marine eukaryotes, thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Yousuke; Nagano, Naoki; Okita, Yuji; Izumida, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes produced by six strains of thraustochytrids, Thraustochytrium, Schizochytrium, and Aurantiochytrium, were investigated. These strains produced 5 to 8 kinds of the extracellular enzymes, depending on the species. Only the genus Thraustochytrium produced amylase. When insoluble cellulose was used as substrate, cellulase was not detected in the six strains of thraustochytrids. This study indicates that marine eukaryotes, thraustochytrids, produced a wide variety of extracellular enzymes. PMID:19129663

  13. Ribosomal RNA sequence suggest microsporidia are extremely ancient eukaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vossbrinck, C. R.; Maddox, J. V.; Friedman, S.; Debrunner-Vossbrinck, B. A.; Woese, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix is presented. The results show that this rRNA sequence is more unlike those of other eukaryotes than any known eukaryote rRNA sequence. It is concluded that the lineage leading to microsporidia branched very early from that leading to other eukaryotes.

  14. Endosymbiotic origin and differential loss of eukaryotic genes.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Sousa, Filipa L; Lockhart, Peter J; Bryant, David; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; McInerney, James O; Landan, Giddy; Martin, William F

    2015-08-27

    Chloroplasts arose from cyanobacteria, mitochondria arose from proteobacteria. Both organelles have conserved their prokaryotic biochemistry, but their genomes are reduced, and most organelle proteins are encoded in the nucleus. Endosymbiotic theory posits that bacterial genes in eukaryotic genomes entered the eukaryotic lineage via organelle ancestors. It predicts episodic influx of prokaryotic genes into the eukaryotic lineage, with acquisition corresponding to endosymbiotic events. Eukaryotic genome sequences, however, increasingly implicate lateral gene transfer, both from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and among eukaryotes, as a source of gene content variation in eukaryotic genomes, which predicts continuous, lineage-specific acquisition of prokaryotic genes in divergent eukaryotic groups. Here we discriminate between these two alternatives by clustering and phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic gene families having prokaryotic homologues. Our results indicate (1) that gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes is episodic, as revealed by gene distributions, and coincides with major evolutionary transitions at the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria; (2) that gene inheritance in eukaryotes is vertical, as revealed by extensive topological comparison, sparse gene distributions stemming from differential loss; and (3) that continuous, lineage-specific lateral gene transfer, although it sometimes occurs, does not contribute to long-term gene content evolution in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:26287458

  15. Structure of a eukaryotic thiaminase I

    PubMed Central

    Kreinbring, Cheryl A.; Remillard, Stephen P.; Hubbard, Paul; Brodkin, Heather R.; Leeper, Finian J.; Hawksley, Dan; Lai, Elaine Y.; Fulton, Chandler; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Thiaminases, enzymes that cleave vitamin B1, are sporadically distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Thiaminase I enzymes catalyze the elimination of the thiazole ring moiety from thiamin through substitution of the methylene group with a nitrogenous base or sulfhydryl compound. In eukaryotic organisms, these enzymes are reported to have much higher molecular weights than their bacterial counterparts. A thiaminase I of the single-celled amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi is the only eukaryotic thiaminase I to have been cloned, sequenced, and expressed. Here, we present the crystal structure of N. gruberi thiaminase I to a resolution of 2.8 Å, solved by isomorphous replacement and pseudo–two-wavelength multiwavelength anomalous diffraction and refined to an R factor of 0.231 (Rfree, 0.265). This structure was used to solve the structure of the enzyme in complex with 3-deazathiamin, a noncleavable thiamin analog and enzyme inhibitor (2.7 Å; R, 0.233; Rfree, 0.267). These structures define the mode of thiamin binding to this class of thiaminases and indicate the involvement of Asp272 as the catalytic base. This enzyme is able to use thiamin as a substrate and is active with amines such as aniline and veratrylamine as well as sulfhydryl compounds such as l-cysteine and β-mercaptoethanol as cosubstrates. Despite significant differences in polypeptide sequence and length, we have shown that the N. gruberi thiaminase I is homologous in structure and activity to a previously characterized bacterial thiaminase I. PMID:24351929

  16. Single-cell transcriptomics for microbial eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kolisko, Martin; Boscaro, Vittorio; Burki, Fabien; Lynn, Denis H; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-11-17

    One of the greatest hindrances to a comprehensive understanding of microbial genomics, cell biology, ecology, and evolution is that most microbial life is not in culture. Solutions to this problem have mainly focused on whole-community surveys like metagenomics, but these analyses inevitably loose information and present particular challenges for eukaryotes, which are relatively rare and possess large, gene-sparse genomes. Single-cell analyses present an alternative solution that allows for specific species to be targeted, while retaining information on cellular identity, morphology, and partitioning of activities within microbial communities. Single-cell transcriptomics, pioneered in medical research, offers particular potential advantages for uncultivated eukaryotes, but the efficiency and biases have not been tested. Here we describe a simple and reproducible method for single-cell transcriptomics using manually isolated cells from five model ciliate species; we examine impacts of amplification bias and contamination, and compare the efficacy of gene discovery to traditional culture-based transcriptomics. Gene discovery using single-cell transcriptomes was found to be comparable to mass-culture methods, suggesting single-cell transcriptomics is an efficient entry point into genomic data from the vast majority of eukaryotic biodiversity. PMID:25458215

  17. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters. PMID:22489166

  18. What Was the Real Contribution of Endosymbionts to the Eukaryotic Nucleus? Insights from Photosynthetic Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, David; Deschamps, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are composed of genes of different evolutionary origins. This is especially true in the case of photosynthetic eukaryotes, which, in addition to typical eukaryotic genes and genes of mitochondrial origin, also contain genes coming from the primary plastids and, in the case of secondary photosynthetic eukaryotes, many genes provided by the nuclei of red or green algal endosymbionts. Phylogenomic analyses have been applied to detect those genes and, in some cases, have led to proposing the existence of cryptic, no longer visible endosymbionts. However, detecting them is a very difficult task because, most often, those genes were acquired a long time ago and their phylogenetic signal has been heavily erased. We revisit here two examples, the putative cryptic endosymbiosis of green algae in diatoms and chromerids and of Chlamydiae in the first photosynthetic eukaryotes. We show that the evidence sustaining them has been largely overestimated, and we insist on the necessity of careful, accurate phylogenetic analyses to obtain reliable results. PMID:24984774

  19. Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Spang, Anja; Saw, Jimmy H; Jørgensen, Steffen L; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Martijn, Joran; Lind, Anders E; van Eijk, Roel; Schleper, Christa; Guy, Lionel; Ettema, Thijs J G

    2015-05-14

    The origin of the eukaryotic cell remains one of the most contentious puzzles in modern biology. Recent studies have provided support for the emergence of the eukaryotic host cell from within the archaeal domain of life, but the identity and nature of the putative archaeal ancestor remain a subject of debate. Here we describe the discovery of 'Lokiarchaeota', a novel candidate archaeal phylum, which forms a monophyletic group with eukaryotes in phylogenomic analyses, and whose genomes encode an expanded repertoire of eukaryotic signature proteins that are suggestive of sophisticated membrane remodelling capabilities. Our results provide strong support for hypotheses in which the eukaryotic host evolved from a bona fide archaeon, and demonstrate that many components that underpin eukaryote-specific features were already present in that ancestor. This provided the host with a rich genomic 'starter-kit' to support the increase in the cellular and genomic complexity that is characteristic of eukaryotes. PMID:25945739

  20. Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martijn, Joran; Lind, Anders E.; van Eijk, Roel; Schleper, Christa; Guy, Lionel; Ettema, Thijs J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the eukaryotic cell remains one of the most contentious puzzles in modern biology. Recent studies have provided support for the emergence of the eukaryotic host cell from within the archaeal domain of life, but the identity and nature of the putative archaeal ancestor remain a subject of debate. Here we describe the discovery of ‘Lokiarchaeota’, a novel candidate archaeal phylum, which forms a monophyletic group with eukaryotes in phylogenomic analyses, and whose genomes encode an expanded repertoire of eukaryotic signature proteins that are suggestive of sophisticated membrane remodelling capabilities. Our results provide strong support for hypotheses in which the eukaryotic host evolved from a bona fide archaeon, and demonstrate that many components that underpin eukaryote-specific features were already present in that ancestor. This provided the host with a rich genomic ‘starter-kit’ to support the increase in the cellular and genomic complexity that is characteristic of eukaryotes. PMID:25945739

  1. Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotes: The weak-link model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    The significance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic evolution remains controversial. Although many eukaryotic genes are of bacterial origin, they are often interpreted as being derived from mitochondria or plastids. Because of their fixed gene pool and gene loss, however, mitochondria and plastids alone cannot adequately explain the presence of all, or even the majority, of bacterial genes in eukaryotes. Available data indicate that no insurmountable barrier to HGT exists, even in complex multicellular eukaryotes. In addition, the discovery of both recent and ancient HGT events in all major eukaryotic groups suggests that HGT has been a regular occurrence throughout the history of eukaryotic evolution. A model of HGT is proposed that suggests both unicellular and early developmental stages as likely entry points for foreign genes into multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:24037739

  2. Prokaryotes Versus Eukaryotes: Who is Hosting Whom?

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals' actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a "forgotten organ," functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short-chain fatty acids), a process, which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host's biology remain almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which encourage us to postulate: who is hosting whom? PMID:26664911

  3. Earth's earliest non-marine eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Strother, Paul K; Battison, Leila; Brasier, Martin D; Wellman, Charles H

    2011-05-26

    The existence of a terrestrial Precambrian (more than 542 Myr ago) biota has been largely inferred from indirect chemical and geological evidence associated with palaeosols, the weathering of clay minerals and microbially induced sedimentary structures in siliciclastic sediments. Direct evidence of fossils within rocks of non-marine origin in the Precambrian is exceedingly rare. The most widely cited example comprises a single report of morphologically simple mineralized tubes and spheres interpreted as cyanobacteria, obtained from 1,200-Myr-old palaeokarst in Arizona. Organic-walled microfossils were first described from the non-marine Torridonian (1.2-1.0 Gyr ago) sequence of northwest Scotland in 1907. Subsequent studies found few distinctive taxa-a century later, the Torridonian microflora is still being characterized as primarily nondescript "leiospheres". We have comprehensively sampled grey shales and phosphatic nodules throughout the Torridonian sequence. Here we report the recovery of large populations of diverse organic-walled microfossils extracted by acid maceration, complemented by studies using thin sections of phosphatic nodules that yield exceptionally detailed three-dimensional preservation. These assemblages contain multicellular structures, complex-walled cysts, asymmetric organic structures, and dorsiventral, compressed organic thalli, some approaching one millimetre in diameter. They offer direct evidence of eukaryotes living in freshwater aquatic and subaerially exposed habitats during the Proterozoic era. The apparent dominance of eukaryotes in non-marine settings by 1 Gyr ago indicates that eukaryotic evolution on land may have commenced far earlier than previously thought. PMID:21490597

  4. Prokaryotes Versus Eukaryotes: Who is Hosting Whom?

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals’ actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a “forgotten organ,” functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short-chain fatty acids), a process, which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host’s biology remain almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which encourage us to postulate: who is hosting whom? PMID

  5. Synchronization of eukaryotic cells by periodic forcing.

    PubMed

    Battogtokh, Dorjsuren; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Tyson, John J

    2006-04-14

    We study a cell population described by a minimal mathematical model of the eukaryotic cell cycle subject to periodic forcing that simultaneously perturbs the dynamics of the cell cycle engine and cell growth, and we show that the population can be synchronized in a mode-locked regime. By simplifying the model to two variables, for the phase of cell cycle progression and the mass of the cell, we calculate the Lyapunov exponents to obtain the parameter window for synchronization. We also discuss the effects of intrinsic mitotic fluctuations, asymmetric division, and weak mutual coupling on the pace of synchronization. PMID:16712125

  6. Expression of eukaryotic polypeptides in chloroplasts

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2013-06-04

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  7. Polyamines in Eukaryotes, Bacteria, and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Michael, Anthony J

    2016-07-15

    Polyamines are primordial polycations found in most cells and perform different functions in different organisms. Although polyamines are mainly known for their essential roles in cell growth and proliferation, their functions range from a critical role in cellular translation in eukaryotes and archaea, to bacterial biofilm formation and specialized roles in natural product biosynthesis. At first glance, the diversity of polyamine structures in different organisms appears chaotic; however, biosynthetic flexibility and evolutionary and ecological processes largely explain this heterogeneity. In this review, I discuss the biosynthetic, evolutionary, and physiological processes that constrain or expand polyamine structural and functional diversity. PMID:27268252

  8. Reconstructing the mosaic glycolytic pathway of the anaerobic eukaryote Monocercomonoides.

    PubMed

    Liapounova, Natalia A; Hampl, Vladimir; Gordon, Paul M K; Sensen, Christoph W; Gedamu, Lashitew; Dacks, Joel B

    2006-12-01

    All eukaryotes carry out glycolysis, interestingly, not all using the same enzymes. Anaerobic eukaryotes face the challenge of fewer molecules of ATP extracted per molecule of glucose due to their lack of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle. This may have pressured anaerobic eukaryotes to acquire the more ATP-efficient alternative glycolytic enzymes, such as pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, through lateral gene transfers from bacteria and other eukaryotes. Most studies of these enzymes in eukaryotes involve pathogenic anaerobes; Monocercomonoides, an oxymonad belonging to the eukaryotic supergroup Excavata, is a nonpathogenic anaerobe representing an evolutionarily and ecologically distinct sampling of an anaerobic glycolytic pathway. We sequenced cDNA encoding glycolytic enzymes from a previously established cDNA library of Monocercomonoides and analyzed the relationships of these enzymes to those from other organisms spanning the major groups of Eukaryota, Bacteria, and Archaea. We established that, firstly, Monocercomonoides possesses alternative versions of glycolytic enzymes: fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase, both pyruvate kinase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (class II, type B). Secondly, we found evidence for the monophyly of oxymonads, kinetoplastids, diplomonads, and parabasalids, the major representatives of the Excavata. We also found several prokaryote-to-eukaryote as well as eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers involving glycolytic enzymes from anaerobic eukaryotes, further suggesting that lateral gene transfer was an important factor in the evolution of this pathway for denizens of this environment. PMID:17071828

  9. Horizontal Transfer and Evolution of Prokaryote Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clément; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryotic evolution, and mounting evidence suggests that it has also had an important impact on eukaryotic evolution. Although many prokaryote-to-prokaryote and eukaryote-to-eukaryote HTs of TEs have been characterized, only few cases have been reported between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we carried out a comprehensive search for all major groups of prokaryotic insertion sequences (ISs) in 430 eukaryote genomes. We uncovered a total of 80 sequences, all deriving from the IS607 family, integrated in the genomes of 14 eukaryote species belonging to four distinct phyla (Amoebozoa, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Stramenopiles). Given that eukaryote IS607-like sequences are most closely related to cyanobacterial IS607 and that their phylogeny is incongruent with that of their hosts, we conclude that the presence of IS607-like sequences in eukaryotic genomes is the result of several HT events. Selection analyses further suggest that our ability to detect these prokaryote TEs today in eukaryotes is because HT of these sequences occurred recently and/or some IS607 elements were domesticated after HT, giving rise to new eukaryote genes. Supporting the recent age of some of these HTs, we uncovered intact full-length, potentially active IS607 copies in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani. Overall, our study shows that prokaryote-to-eukaryote HT of TEs occurred at relatively low frequency during recent eukaryote evolution and it sets IS607 as the most widespread TE (being present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses). PMID:23563966

  10. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC. PMID:25802992

  11. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons: Structure and Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is an assembly of filamentous proteins and a host of associated proteins that collectively serve functional needs ranging from spatial organization and transport to the production and transmission of forces. These systems can exhibit a wide variety of non-equilibrium, self-assembled phases depending on context and function. While much recent progress has been made in understanding the self-organization, rheology and nonlinear mechanical properties of such active systems, in this talk, we will concentrate on some emerging aspects of cytoskeletal physics that are promising. One such aspect is the influence of cytoskeletal network topology and its dynamics on both active and passive intracellular transport. Another aspect we will highlight is the interplay between chirality of filaments, their elasticity and their interactions with the membrane that can lead to novel conformational states with functional implications. Finally we will consider homologs of cytoskeletal proteins in bacteria, which are involved in templating cell growth, segregating genetic material and force production, which we will discuss with particular reference to contractile forces during cell division. These prokaryotic structures function in remarkably similar yet fascinatingly different ways from their eukaryotic counterparts and can enrich our understanding of cytoskeletal functioning as a whole.

  12. Phosphorylation Stoichiometries of Human Eukaryotic Initiation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Andaya, Armann; Villa, Nancy; Jia, Weitao; Fraser, Christopher S.; Leary, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors are the principal molecular effectors regulating the process converting nucleic acid to functional protein. Commonly referred to as eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors), this suite of proteins is comprised of at least 25 individual subunits that function in a coordinated, regulated, manner during mRNA translation. Multiple facets of eIF regulation have yet to be elucidated; however, many of the necessary protein factors are phosphorylated. Herein, we have isolated, identified and quantified phosphosites from eIF2, eIF3, and eIF4G generated from log phase grown HeLa cell lysates. Our investigation is the first study to globally quantify eIF phosphosites and illustrates differences in abundance of phosphorylation between the residues of each factor. Thus, identification of those phosphosites that exhibit either high or low levels of phosphorylation under log phase growing conditions may aid researchers to concentrate their investigative efforts to specific phosphosites that potentially harbor important regulatory mechanisms germane to mRNA translation. PMID:24979134

  13. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC. PMID:25802992

  14. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  15. Extremophilic Eukaryote Life in Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Extremophilic microorganisms exist in all three domains of life (Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria), but are less known in eukaryotes. Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for these organisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent with all forming within geochemically similar basalt substrates. We used metagenomics to detect 18S rDNA from eukaryotic extremophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (temperature and pH) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, 11 samples from 3 fumaroles were collected over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 31.0oC to 62.7oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93 allowing for 8 different microenvironments. Fifty sequences per sample were analyzed with eighteen different organisms identified, the majority belonging to the family Cercozoa. The most diverse fumarole consisted of 8 different genera residing in a temperature of 34.1oC and a pH of 3.0. Unclassified mosses were identified in the fumarole with the highest temperature and Phaeoceros (hornworts) were identified at the most acidic fumarole. Both of these groups have been previously identified in geothermal areas.

  16. Eukaryotic replication origins: Strength in flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Charanya; Remus, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The eukaryotic replicative DNA helicase, Mcm2-7, is loaded in inactive form as a double hexameric complex around double-stranded DNA. To ensure that replication origins fire no more than once per S phase, activation of the Mcm2-7 helicase is temporally separated from Mcm2-7 loading in the cell cycle. This 2-step mechanism requires that inactive Mcm2-7 complexes be maintained for variable periods of time in a topologically bound state on chromatin, which may create a steric obstacle to other DNA transactions. We have recently found in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that Mcm2-7 double hexamers can respond to collisions with transcription complexes by sliding along the DNA template. Importantly, Mcm2-7 double hexamers remain functional after displacement along DNA and support replication initiation from sites distal to the origin. These results reveal a novel mechanism to specify eukaryotic replication origin sites and to maintain replication origin competence without the need for Mcm2-7 reloading. PMID:27416360

  17. The architecture of a eukaryotic replisome

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Jingchuan; Yuan, Zuanning; Shi, Yi; Georgescu, Roxana E.; Chait, Brian T.; Li, Huilin; O'Donnell, Michael E.

    2015-11-02

    At the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, it is widely believed that the Cdc45–Mcm2–7–GINS (CMG) helicase is positioned in front to unwind DNA and that DNA polymerases trail behind the helicase. Here we used single-particle EM to directly image a Saccharomyces cerevisiae replisome. Contrary to expectations, the leading strand Pol ε is positioned ahead of CMG helicase, whereas Ctf4 and the lagging-strand polymerase (Pol) α–primase are behind the helicase. This unexpected architecture indicates that the leading-strand DNA travels a long distance before reaching Pol ε, first threading through the Mcm2–7 ring and then making a U-turn at the bottom and reachingmore » Pol ε at the top of CMG. Lastly, our work reveals an unexpected configuration of the eukaryotic replisome, suggests possible reasons for this architecture and provides a basis for further structural and biochemical replisome studies.« less

  18. The Genome of Naegleria gruberi Illuminates Early Eukaryotic Versatility

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Ginger, Michael L.; Dacks, Joel; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Field, Mark C.; Kuo, Alan; Paredez, Alex; Chapman, Jarrod; Pham, Jonathan; Shu, Shengqiang; Neupane, Rochak; Cipriano, Michael; Mancuso, Joel; Tu, Hank; Salamov, Asaf; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Lucas, Susan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cande, W. Zacheus; Fulton, Chandler; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Dawson, Scott C.

    2010-03-01

    Genome sequences of diverse free-living protists are essential for understanding eukaryotic evolution and molecular and cell biology. The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi belongs to a varied and ubiquitous protist clade (Heterolobosea) that diverged from other eukaryotic lineages over a billion years ago. Analysis of the 15,727 protein-coding genes encoded by Naegleria's 41 Mb nuclear genome indicates a capacity for both aerobic respiration and anaerobic metabolism with concomitant hydrogen production, with fundamental implications for the evolution of organelle metabolism. The Naegleria genome facilitates substantially broader phylogenomic comparisons of free-living eukaryotes than previously possible, allowing us to identify thousands of genes likely present in the pan-eukaryotic ancestor, with 40% likely eukaryotic inventions. Moreover, we construct a comprehensive catalog of amoeboid-motility genes. The Naegleria genome, analyzed in the context of other protists, reveals a remarkably complex ancestral eukaryote with a rich repertoire of cytoskeletal, sexual, signaling, and metabolic modules.

  19. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    PubMed

    Morton, Elise R; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-11-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon. PMID:26619199

  20. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Elise R.; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon. PMID:26619199

  1. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba Gingivalis in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602391

  2. Eukaryotic gene prediction using GeneMark.hmm.

    PubMed

    Borodovsky, Mark; Lomsadze, Alex; Ivanov, Nikolai; Mills, Ryan

    2003-05-01

    In this unit, eukaryotic GeneMark.hmm is presented as a method for detecting genes in eukaryotic DNA sequences. The eukaryotic GeneMark.hmm uses Markov models of protein coding and noncoding sequences, as well as positional nucleotide frequency matrices for prediction of the translational start, translational termination and splice sites. All these models along with length distributions of exons, introns and intergenic regions are integrated into one Hidden Markov model. The unit describes running the program over the Internet and locally on a Unix machine. It also discusses GeneMarkS EV, which can be used to detect genes in eukaryotic viruses. PMID:18428701

  3. Catalytic properties of the eukaryotic exosome.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, Aleksander; Tomecki, Rafał; López, María Eugenia Gas; Séraphin, Bertrand; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The eukaryotic exosome complex is built around the backbone of a 9-subunit ring similar to phosporolytic ribonucleases such as RNase PH and polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). Unlike those enzymes, the ring is devoid of any detectable catalytic activities, with the possible exception of the plant version of the complex. Instead, the essential RNA decay capability is supplied by associated hydrolytic ribonucleases belonging to the Dis3 and Rrp6 families. Dis3 proteins are endowed with two different activities: the long known processive 3'-5' exonucleolytic one and the recently discovered endonucleolytic one. Rrp6 proteins are distributive exonucleases. This chapter will review the current knowledge about the catalytic properties of theses nucleases and their interplay within the exosome holocomplex. PMID:21618875

  4. Catalytic properties of the eukaryotic exosome.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, Aleksander; Tomecki, Rafał; Gas López, María Eugenia; Séraphin, Bertrand; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The eukaryotic exosome complex is built around the backbone of a 9-subunit ring similar to phosporolytic ribonucleases such as RNase PH and polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). Unlike those enzymes, the ring is devoid of any detectable catalytic activities, with the possible exception of the plant version of the complex. Instead, the essential RNA decay capability is supplied by associated hydrolytic ribonucleases belonging to the Dis3 and Rrp6 families. Dis3 proteins are endowed with two different activities: the long known processive 3'-5' exonucleolytic one and the recently discovered endonucleolytic one. Rrp6 proteins are distributive exonucleases. This chapter will review the current knowledge about the catalytic properties of theses nucleases and their interplay within the exosome holocomplex. PMID:21713678

  5. Metabolic and Nontranscriptional Circadian Clocks: Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Akhilesh B.; Rey, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks are cellular timekeeping mechanisms that coordinate behavior and physiology around the 24-h day in most living organisms. Misalignment of an organism’s clock with its environment is associated with long-term adverse fitness consequences, as exemplified by the link between circadian disruption and various age-related diseases in humans. Current eukaryotic models of the circadian oscillator rely on transcription/translation feedback loop mechanisms, supplemented with accessory cytosolic loops that connect them to cellular physiology. However, there is mounting evidence questioning the absolute necessity of transcription-based oscillators for circadian rhythmicity, supported by the recent discovery of oxidation-reduction cycles of peroxiredoxin proteins, which persist even in the absence of transcription. A more fundamental mechanism based on metabolic cycles could thus underlie circadian transcriptional and cytosolic rhythms, thereby promoting circadian oscillations to integral properties of cellular metabolism. PMID:24606143

  6. (Viruses of eukaryotic green algae): Performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. Discoveries include the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water; the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% mVdC and 0 to 37% mWdA and the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 18 refs.

  7. Processing ribonucleotides incorporated during eukaryotic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica S; Lujan, Scott A; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    The information encoded in DNA is influenced by the presence of non-canonical nucleotides, the most frequent of which are ribonucleotides. In this Review, we discuss recent discoveries about ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during replication by the three major eukaryotic replicases, DNA polymerases α, δ and ε. The presence of ribonucleotides in DNA causes short deletion mutations and may result in the generation of single- and double-strand DNA breaks, leading to genome instability. We describe how these ribonucleotides are removed from DNA through ribonucleotide excision repair and by topoisomerase I. We discuss the biological consequences and the physiological roles of ribonucleotides in DNA, and consider how deficiencies in their removal from DNA may be important in the aetiology of disease. PMID:27093943

  8. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  9. Viruses of Entamoeba histolytica. II. Morphogenesis of the polyhedral particle (ABRM 2 leads to HK-9) leads to HB-301 and the filamentous agent (ABRM) 2 leads to HK-9.

    PubMed

    Mattern, C F; Diamond, L S; Daniel, W A

    1972-02-01

    The intracellular development of two morphologically different amoebal viruses has been studied by electron microscopy. One is a polyhedral agent which was observed as early as 24 hr after infection in the perinuclear cytoplasm. Subsequently, cell lysis occurred and particles were found in large number bound to membranes of disrupted amoebae. Other particles were found in phagocytic vacuoles suggesting a possible portal of entry into amoebae. The other virus is a filamentous particle which is first seen in small clusters in the nucleus after 24 hr of infection. The number of particles increases such that by 72 hr massive whorls of particles occupy a substantial part of the nucleus. After rupture of the nuclear membrane, clusters of filaments are widely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Still later, the cytoplasmic membrane disintegrates and clusters of filaments are found extracellularly, but free of cell membranes. The morphology of these agents is discussed in comparison with a variety of plant, animal, and bacterial viruses. PMID:4335523

  10. Site-specific free energy changes in proteins upon ligand binding by nuclear magnetic resonance: Ca2+ -displacement by Ln3+ in a Ca2+ -binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Kousik; Mustafi, Sourajit M; Muthukumar, Subramanian; Chary, Kandala V R

    2011-04-01

    The study of protein-ligand interaction has been of a great interest in contemporary structural biology. The understanding of the nature of such interaction and determining the associated binding affinities are of utmost importance. Nuclear magnetic resonance has become a powerful tool in deriving information related to such interactions in proteins. Nuclear magnetic resonance data provide the site-specific information even in the case of proteins having multiple-binding sites and populations of respective species. In this communication, we set out to use such information to derive the associated microscopic binding constants. PMID:21235730

  11. Novel kingdom-level eukaryotic diversity in anoxic environments

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Scott C.; Pace, Norman R.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular evolutionary studies of eukaryotes have relied on a sparse collection of gene sequences that do not represent the full range of eukaryotic diversity in nature. Anaerobic microbes, particularly, have had little representation in phylogenetic studies. Such organisms are the least known of eukaryotes and probably are the most phylogenetically diverse. To provide fresh perspective on the natural diversity of eukaryotes in anoxic environments and also to discover novel sequences for evolutionary studies, we conducted a cultivation-independent, molecular phylogenetic survey of three anoxic sediments, including both freshwater and marine samples. Many previously unrecognized eukaryotes were identified, including representatives of seven lineages that are not specifically related to any known organisms at the kingdom-level and branch below the eukaryotic “crown” radiation of animals, plants, fungi, stramenopiles, etc. The survey additionally identified new sequences characteristic of known ecologically important eukaryotic groups with anaerobic members. Phylogenetic analyses with the new sequences enhance our understanding of the diversity and pattern of eukaryotic evolution. PMID:12060775

  12. Molecular paleontology and complexity in the last eukaryotic common ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Koumandou, V. Lila; Wickstead, Bill; Ginger, Michael L.; van der Giezen, Mark; Dacks, Joel B.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryogenesis, the origin of the eukaryotic cell, represents one of the fundamental evolutionary transitions in the history of life on earth. This event, which is estimated to have occurred over one billion years ago, remains rather poorly understood. While some well-validated examples of fossil microbial eukaryotes for this time frame have been described, these can provide only basic morphology and the molecular machinery present in these organisms has remained unknown. Complete and partial genomic information has begun to fill this gap, and is being used to trace proteins and cellular traits to their roots and to provide unprecedented levels of resolution of structures, metabolic pathways and capabilities of organisms at these earliest points within the eukaryotic lineage. This is essentially allowing a molecular paleontology. What has emerged from these studies is spectacular cellular complexity prior to expansion of the eukaryotic lineages. Multiple reconstructed cellular systems indicate a very sophisticated biology, which by implication arose following the initial eukaryogenesis event but prior to eukaryotic radiation and provides a challenge in terms of explaining how these early eukaryotes arose and in understanding how they lived. Here, we provide brief overviews of several cellular systems and the major emerging conclusions, together with predictions for subsequent directions in evolution leading to extant taxa. We also consider what these reconstructions suggest about the life styles and capabilities of these earliest eukaryotes and the period of evolution between the radiation of eukaryotes and the eukaryogenesis event itself. PMID:23895660

  13. Expression strategies for structural studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Joseph A; Shahsavar, Azadeh; Paulsen, Peter Aasted; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Nissen, Poul

    2016-06-01

    Integral membrane proteins in eukaryotes are central to various cellular processes and key targets in structural biology, biotechnology and drug development. However, the number of available structures for eukaryotic membrane protein belies their physiological importance. Recently, the number of available eukaryotic membrane protein structures has been steadily increasing due to the development of novel strategies in construct design, expression and structure determination. Here, we examine the major expression systems exploited for eukaryotic membrane proteins. Additionally we strive to tabulate and describe the recent expression strategies in eukaryotic membrane protein structural biology. We find that a majority of targets have been expressed in advanced host systems and modified from their wild-type form with distinct focus on conformation and thermostabilisation. However, strategies for native protein purification should also be considered where possible, particularly in light of the recent advances in single particle cryo electron microscopy. PMID:27362979

  14. Unveiling new microbial eukaryotes in the surface ocean.

    PubMed

    Massana, Ramon; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2008-06-01

    A decade after molecular techniques were used to discover novel bacteria and archaea in the oceans, the same approach has revealed a wealth of new marine eukaryotic microbes. The approach has been particularly successful with the smallest eukaryotes, where morphological and culture approaches frequently fail. Analysis of samples from the surface ocean, the most accessible and supposedly well-known oceanic region, reveals novel eukaryotic diversity at all different levels: from the highest taxonomic rank to the lowest microdiverse clusters. Moreover, marine eukaryotic assemblages show a large diversity with members belonging to many different lineages. The implication of this large and novel eukaryotic diversity for biodiversity surveys and ecosystem functioning opens new avenues for future research. PMID:18556239

  15. Energetics and genetics across the prokaryote-eukaryote divide

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background All complex life on Earth is eukaryotic. All eukaryotic cells share a common ancestor that arose just once in four billion years of evolution. Prokaryotes show no tendency to evolve greater morphological complexity, despite their metabolic virtuosity. Here I argue that the eukaryotic cell originated in a unique prokaryotic endosymbiosis, a singular event that transformed the selection pressures acting on both host and endosymbiont. Results The reductive evolution and specialisation of endosymbionts to mitochondria resulted in an extreme genomic asymmetry, in which the residual mitochondrial genomes enabled the expansion of bioenergetic membranes over several orders of magnitude, overcoming the energetic constraints on prokaryotic genome size, and permitting the host cell genome to expand (in principle) over 200,000-fold. This energetic transformation was permissive, not prescriptive; I suggest that the actual increase in early eukaryotic genome size was driven by a heavy early bombardment of genes and introns from the endosymbiont to the host cell, producing a high mutation rate. Unlike prokaryotes, with lower mutation rates and heavy selection pressure to lose genes, early eukaryotes without genome-size limitations could mask mutations by cell fusion and genome duplication, as in allopolyploidy, giving rise to a proto-sexual cell cycle. The side effect was that a large number of shared eukaryotic basal traits accumulated in the same population, a sexual eukaryotic common ancestor, radically different to any known prokaryote. Conclusions The combination of massive bioenergetic expansion, release from genome-size constraints, and high mutation rate favoured a protosexual cell cycle and the accumulation of eukaryotic traits. These factors explain the unique origin of eukaryotes, the absence of true evolutionary intermediates, and the evolution of sex in eukaryotes but not prokaryotes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Eugene Koonin, William Martin

  16. Mathematical modelling of eukaryotic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Hyrien, Olivier; Goldar, Arach

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication is a complex process. Replication starts at thousand origins that are activated at different times in S phase and terminates when converging replication forks meet. Potential origins are much more abundant than actually fire within a given S phase. The choice of replication origins and their time of activation is never exactly the same in any two cells. Individual origins show different efficiencies and different firing time probability distributions, conferring stochasticity to the DNA replication process. High-throughput microarray and sequencing techniques are providing increasingly huge datasets on the population-averaged spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication in several organisms. On the other hand, single-molecule replication mapping techniques such as DNA combing provide unique information about cell-to-cell variability in DNA replication patterns. Mathematical modelling is required to fully comprehend the complexity of the chromosome replication process and to correctly interpret these data. Mathematical analysis and computer simulations have been recently used to model and interpret genome-wide replication data in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in Xenopus egg extracts and in mammalian cells. These works reveal how stochasticity in origin usage confers robustness and reliability to the DNA replication process. PMID:20205354

  17. An investigation into eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases.

    PubMed

    King, Ross D; Lu, Chuan

    2014-08-01

    A common post-transcriptional modification of RNA is the conversion of uridine to its isomer pseudouridine. We investigated the biological significance of eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We conducted a comprehensive statistical analysis on growth data from automated perturbation (gene deletion) experiments, and used bi-logistic curve analysis to characterise the yeast phenotypes. The deletant strains displayed different alteration in growth properties, including in some cases enhanced growth and/or biphasic growth curves not seen in wild-type strains under matched conditions. These results demonstrate that disrupting pseudouridine synthases can have a significant qualitative effect on growth. We further investigated the significance of post-transcriptional pseudouridine modification through investigation of the scientific literature. We found that (1) In Toxoplasma gondii, a pseudouridine synthase gene is critical in cellular differentiation between the two asexual forms: Tachyzoites and bradyzoites; (2) Mutation of pseudouridine synthase genes has also been implicated in human diseases (mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA); dyskeratosis congenita). Taken together, these results are consistent with pseudouridine synthases having a Gene Ontology function of "biological regulation". PMID:25152040

  18. Induction of mitotic aneuploidy in lower eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Kappas, A.

    1993-12-31

    Genetic tests for induction of mitotic aneuploidy in lower eukarotes used mainly the fungal systems of Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There are several differences between the two systems such as the greater tolerance for aneuploidy and the fertility of triploids in S. cerevisiae, the stability of diploids and the selective advantage of haploids over diploids in Aspergillus and the mycelial growth of Aspergillus. On the other hand several similarities also exist between the two systems such as the general instability and varying growth rate of disomics and the random loss of extra chromosomes which produces more competitive types or the most frequent recovery of certain specific aneuploids. In using lower eukaryotes as test systems for the identification of aneugens several points should be considered which concern the relevance of such systems to higher organisms, the ability to identify primary aneuploidy and distinguish this from events, such as chromosomal breaks, which lead to secondary aneuploidy and the ability to obtain repeatable results. Within the framework of an EEC comparative study for evaluating assays for aneuploidy, a number of chemicals were assayed in A. nidulans for mitotic instability due to malsegregation of chromosomes at cell division.

  19. Biosynthesis of coenzyme Q in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kawamukai, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a component of the electron transport chain that participates in aerobic cellular respiration to produce ATP. In addition, CoQ acts as an electron acceptor in several enzymatic reactions involving oxidation-reduction. Biosynthesis of CoQ has been investigated mainly in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the findings have been extended to various higher organisms, including plants and humans. Analyses in yeast have contributed greatly to current understanding of human diseases related to CoQ biosynthesis. To date, human genetic disorders related to mutations in eight COQ biosynthetic genes have been reported. In addition, the crystal structures of a number of proteins involved in CoQ synthesis have been solved, including those of IspB, UbiA, UbiD, UbiX, UbiI, Alr8543 (Coq4 homolog), Coq5, ADCK3, and COQ9. Over the last decade, knowledge of CoQ biosynthesis has accumulated, and striking advances in related human genetic disorders and the crystal structure of proteins required for CoQ synthesis have been made. This review focuses on the biosynthesis of CoQ in eukaryotes, with some comparisons to the process in prokaryotes. PMID:26183239

  20. Oscillations of Eukaryotic Cilia and Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Arvind; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2006-11-01

    The undulating beat of eukaryotic flagella and cilia produces forces that move cells and cause locomotion. The timing mechanisms that generate these periodic undulations are still mysterious and the question of how these oscillations arise is still a subject of much research - both experimental and theoretical. Recent experimental results on paralyzed and reconstituted flagella offer new insight into the dynamical mechanisms that could result in sustained waveform generation. Motivated by these recent experimental results we propose a model that mimics the flagellar structure as motor driven elastic, inextensible filaments. We hypothesize that the oscillations arise due to motor (dynein) driven, constrained, relative sliding of parts of the flagella. The dynamical equations describing the evolution of the populations of attached and detached motors is actively coupled to the local configuration as well as local sliding velocities via strain and configuration dependent kinetic reaction rates. At the same time, the filament configuration is actively coupled to the motor densities via the dependence of the active internal torque densities on the motor populations as well as their internal state. Appropriate ensemble averaged force-velocity relationships for the motors completes the set of equations. Numerical solutions reveal onset of dynamical instabilities via Hopf-bifurcations with oscillatory waveforms emerging from a trivial base state corresponding to a straight, non-moving flagellum.

  1. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity

    SciTech Connect

    Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Krupovic, Mart

    2015-05-15

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order “Megavirales” that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources

  2. Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Miklós; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified. PMID:22688819

  3. Does a helicase activity help mismatch repair in eukaryotes?

    PubMed

    Song, Limin; Yuan, Fenghua; Zhang, Yanbin

    2010-07-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects innate DNA replication infidelities. Many components of eukaryotic MMR have been identified, the molecular mechanism of MMR has been largely demonstrated, and furthermore the nick-directed MMR reactions have been reconstituted with purified human proteins in vitro. However, some fundamental questions still remain to be answered. One such question is whether a DNA helicase activity is required for MMR in eukaryotes. This short review presents an overview of the interactions between eukaryotic DNA helicases and MMR factors, and suggests a possible mechanism for how DNA helicases may be involved in repair of DNA mismatches. PMID:20552646

  4. An engineered eukaryotic protein glycosylation pathway in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Valderrama-Rincon, Juan D; Fisher, Adam C; Merritt, Judith H; Fan, Yao-Yun; Reading, Craig A; Chhiba, Krishan; Heiss, Christian; Azadi, Parastoo; Aebi, Markus; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2012-05-01

    We performed bottom-up engineering of a synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli for the production of eukaryotic trimannosyl chitobiose glycans and the transfer of these glycans to specific asparagine residues in target proteins. The glycan biosynthesis was enabled by four eukaryotic glycosyltransferases, including the yeast uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine transferases Alg13 and Alg14 and the mannosyltransferases Alg1 and Alg2. By including the bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase PglB from Campylobacter jejuni, we successfully transferred glycans to eukaryotic proteins. PMID:22446837

  5. Widespread 3′-end uridylation in eukaryotic RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yayun; Shen, Jianguo; Wu, Huanian; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Jinguang; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    RNA 3′ uridylation occurs pervasively in eukaryotes, but is poorly characterized in viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that a broad array of RNA viruses, including mycoviruses, plant viruses and animal viruses, possess a novel population of RNA species bearing nontemplated oligo(U) or (U)-rich tails, suggesting widespread 3′ uridylation in eukaryotic viruses. Given the biological relevance of 3′ uridylation to eukaryotic RNA degradation, we propose a conserved but as-yet-unknown mechanism in virus-host interaction. PMID:27151171

  6. Sequencing our way towards understanding global eukaryotic biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Bik, Holly M.; Porazinska, Dorota L.; Creer, Simon; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic eukaryotes are abundant, diverse, and fill critical ecological roles across every ecosystem on earth, yet there is a well-recognized gap in our understanding of their global biodiversity. Fundamental advances in DNA sequencing and bioinformatics now allow accurate en masse biodiversity assessments of microscopic eukaryotes from environmental samples. Despite a promising outlook, the field of eukaryotic marker gene surveys faces significant challenges: how to generate data that is most useful to the community, especially in the face of evolving sequencing technology and bioinformatics pipelines, and how to incorporate an expanding number of target genes. PMID:22244672

  7. Widespread 3'-end uridylation in eukaryotic RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yayun; Shen, Jianguo; Wu, Huanian; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Jinguang; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    RNA 3' uridylation occurs pervasively in eukaryotes, but is poorly characterized in viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that a broad array of RNA viruses, including mycoviruses, plant viruses and animal viruses, possess a novel population of RNA species bearing nontemplated oligo(U) or (U)-rich tails, suggesting widespread 3' uridylation in eukaryotic viruses. Given the biological relevance of 3' uridylation to eukaryotic RNA degradation, we propose a conserved but as-yet-unknown mechanism in virus-host interaction. PMID:27151171

  8. How Natural a Kind Is “Eukaryote?”

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, W. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Systematics balances uneasily between realism and nominalism, uncommitted as to whether biological taxa are discoveries or inventions. If the former, they might be taken as natural kinds. I briefly review some philosophers’ concepts of natural kinds and then argue that several of these apply well enough to “eukaryote.” Although there are some sticky issues around genomic chimerism and when eukaryotes first appeared, if we allow for degrees in the naturalness of kinds, existing eukaryotes rank highly, higher than prokaryotes. Most biologists feel this intuitively: All I attempt to do here is provide some conceptual justification. PMID:24890508

  9. HIV-1 Replication and the Cellular Eukaryotic Translation Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Santiago; Batisse, Julien; Libre, Camille; Bernacchi, Serena; Marquet, Roland; Paillart, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication. PMID:25606970

  10. HIV-1 replication and the cellular eukaryotic translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Santiago; Batisse, Julien; Libre, Camille; Bernacchi, Serena; Marquet, Roland; Paillart, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication. PMID:25606970

  11. Symbiosis as a General Principle in Eukaryotic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved and diversified in the context of persistent colonization by non-pathogenic microorganisms. Various resident microorganisms provide a metabolic capability absent from the host, resulting in increased ecological amplitude and often evolutionary diversification of the host. Some microorganisms confer primary metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis and cellulose degradation, and others expand the repertoire of secondary metabolism, including the synthesis of toxins that confer protection against natural enemies. A further route by which microorganisms affect host fitness arises from their modulation of the eukaryotic-signaling networks that regulate growth, development, behavior, and other functions. These effects are not necessarily based on interactions beneficial to the host, but can be a consequence of either eukaryotic utilization of microbial products as cues or host–microbial conflict. By these routes, eukaryote–microbial interactions play an integral role in the function and evolutionary diversification of eukaryotes. PMID:24492707

  12. Giant viruses and the origin of modern eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick; Gaïa, Morgan

    2016-06-01

    Several authors have suggested that viruses from the NucleoCytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses group (NCLDV) have played an important role in the origin of modern eukaryotes. Notably, the viral eukaryogenesis theory posits that the nucleus originated from an ancient NCLDV-related virus. Focusing on the viral factory instead of the virion adds credit to this hypothesis, but also suggests alternative scenarios. Beside a role in the emergence of the nucleus, ancient NCLDV may have provided new genes and/or chromosomes to the proto-eukaryotic lineage. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that NCLDV informational proteins, related to those of Archaea and Eukarya, were either recruited by ancient NCLDV from proto-eukaryotes and/or transferred to proto-eukaryotes, in agreement with the antiquity of NCLDV and their possible role in eukaryogenesis. PMID:26894379

  13. Evolution of prokaryote and eukaryote lines inferred from sequence evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. T.; George, D. G.; Yeh, L.-S.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of prokaryotes and early eukaryotes, including their symbiotic relationships, as inferred from phylogenetic trees of bacterial ferredoxin, 5S ribosomal RNA, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase large chain, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase polypeptide II.

  14. Mitochondrial genome evolution and the origin of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Lang, B F; Gray, M W; Burger, G

    1999-01-01

    Recent results from ancestral (minimally derived) protists testify to the tremendous diversity of the mitochondrial genome in various eukaryotic lineages, but also reinforce the view that mitochondria, descendants of an endosymbiotic alpha-Proteobacterium, arose only once in evolution. The serial endosymbiosis theory, currently the most popular hypothesis to explain the origin of mitochondria, postulates the capture of an alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont by a nucleus-containing eukaryotic host resembling extant amitochondriate protists. New sequence data have challenged this scenario, instead raising the possibility that the origin of the mitochondrion was coincident with, and contributed substantially to, the origin of the nuclear genome of the eukaryotic cell. Defining more precisely the alpha-proteobacterial ancestry of the mitochondrial genome, and the contribution of the endosymbiotic event to the nuclear genome, will be essential for a full understanding of the origin and evolution of the eukaryotic cell as a whole. PMID:10690412

  15. Challenges posed by extracellular vesicles from eukaryotic microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Julie M.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) produced by eukaryotic microbes play an important role during infection. EV release is thought to benefit microbial invasion by delivering a high concentration of virulence factors to distal host cells or to the cytoplasm of a host cell. EV can significantly impact the outcome of host-pathogen interaction in a cargo-dependent manner. Release of EV from eukaryotic microbes poses unique challenges when compared to their bacterial or archaeal counterparts. Firstly, the membrane-bound organelles within eukaryotes facilitate multiple mechanisms of vesicle generation. Secondly, the fungal cell wall poses a unique barrier between the vesicle release site at the plasma membrane and its destined extracellular environment. This review focuses on these eukaryotic-specific aspects of vesicle synthesis and release. PMID:25460799

  16. The Eukaryotic Tree of Life from a Global Phylogenomic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burki, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics has revolutionized our knowledge of the eukaryotic tree of life. With the advent of genomics, a new discipline of phylogenetics has emerged: phylogenomics. This method uses large alignments of tens to hundreds of genes to reconstruct evolutionary histories. This approach has led to the resolution of ancient and contentious relationships, notably between the building blocks of the tree (the supergroups), and allowed to place in the tree enigmatic yet important protist lineages for understanding eukaryote evolution. Here, I discuss the pros and cons of phylogenomics and review the eukaryotic supergroups in light of earlier work that laid the foundation for the current view of the tree, including the position of the root. I conclude by presenting a picture of eukaryote evolution, summarizing the most recent progress in assembling the global tree. PMID:24789819

  17. The Evolution Of Steroids And Eukaryotes In The Proterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    The ecology and diversity of eukaryotic organisms in the mid-Proterozoic ~1,800 to 800 Ma were fundamentally different than later in Earth history. The first fossils with eukaryotic affinity occur in the geological record about 2 billion years ago, but eukaryotic diversity and abundance remain low well into the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Ma). The first organism recognized as a member of a known eukaryotic kingdom, the red alga Bangiomorpha, only appears 1,200 Ma ago. In contrast to many younger assemblages, eukaryotes in the mid-Proterozoic predominantly inhabited agitated and well-oxygenated shoreline facies. In sedimentary rocks deposited in deep-water environments, fossils resembling eukaryotes usually remain rare, simple and small. The distinct ecology and apparently low diversity of early eukaryotes should also have left a distinct biomarker record of eukaryotic membrane lipids. Biomarkers are molecular fossils of natural products. They often retain the diagnostic carbon skeleton of their biological precursors and may endure billions of years enclosed in sedimentary rocks. Eukaryotic membranes contain a suite of distinct sterols with 26 to 30 carbon atoms. In the fossil record, these sterols are often preserved in the form of (C26) to (C30) hydrocarbon steranes. Their relative abundance is often characteristic of specific environments and geological periods in the Phanerozoic. We may expect particularly distinct sterane assemblages in the early history of eukaryote evolution. However, in conflicting contrast to the ecology and evolutionary status of earlier eukaryotes, the distribution of different sterane pseudo-homologues in the mid-Proterozoic is virtually indistinguishable from the Phanerozoic. Although the missing disparity between old and young biomarkers may, in principle, have a biological explanation, it is at least possible that many Proterozoic biomarker assemblages have experienced overprint with petroleum and petroleum products of younger origin

  18. Molecular mechanisms of translation initiation in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Pestova, Tatyana V.; Kolupaeva, Victoria G.; Lomakin, Ivan B.; Pilipenko, Evgeny V.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Agol, Vadim I.; Hellen, Christopher U. T.

    2001-01-01

    Translation initiation is a complex process in which initiator tRNA, 40S, and 60S ribosomal subunits are assembled by eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) into an 80S ribosome at the initiation codon of mRNA. The cap-binding complex eIF4F and the factors eIF4A and eIF4B are required for binding of 43S complexes (comprising a 40S subunit, eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAi and eIF3) to the 5′ end of capped mRNA but are not sufficient to promote ribosomal scanning to the initiation codon. eIF1A enhances the ability of eIF1 to dissociate aberrantly assembled complexes from mRNA, and these factors synergistically mediate 48S complex assembly at the initiation codon. Joining of 48S complexes to 60S subunits to form 80S ribosomes requires eIF5B, which has an essential ribosome-dependent GTPase activity and hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP induced by eIF5. Initiation on a few mRNAs is cap-independent and occurs instead by internal ribosomal entry. Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and hepatitis C virus epitomize distinct mechanisms of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation. The eIF4A and eIF4G subunits of eIF4F bind immediately upstream of the EMCV initiation codon and promote binding of 43S complexes. EMCV initiation does not involve scanning and does not require eIF1, eIF1A, and the eIF4E subunit of eIF4F. Initiation on some EMCV-like IRESs requires additional noncanonical initiation factors, which alter IRES conformation and promote binding of eIF4A/4G. Initiation on the hepatitis C virus IRES is even simpler: 43S complexes containing only eIF2 and eIF3 bind directly to the initiation codon as a result of specific interaction of the IRES and the 40S subunit. PMID:11416183

  19. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Garg, Sriram; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F

    2015-08-18

    Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners--the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)--and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle genomes were relinquished to the chromosomes of the host (endosymbiotic gene transfer). However, notwithstanding eukaryote-specific gene inventions, single-gene phylogenies have never traced eukaryotic genes to three single prokaryotic sources, an issue that hinges crucially upon factors influencing phylogenetic inference. In the age of genomes, single-gene trees, once used to test the predictions of endosymbiotic theory, now spawn new theories that stand to eventually replace endosymbiotic theory with descriptive, gene tree-based variants featuring supernumerary symbionts: prokaryotic partners distinct from the cornerstone trio and whose existence is inferred solely from single-gene trees. We reason that the endosymbiotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts brought into the eukaryotic--and plant and algal--lineage a genome-sized sample of genes from the proteobacterial and cyanobacterial pangenomes of their respective day and that, even if molecular phylogeny were artifact-free, sampling prokaryotic pangenomes through endosymbiotic gene transfer would lead to inherited chimerism. Recombination in prokaryotes (transduction, conjugation, transformation) differs from recombination in eukaryotes (sex). Prokaryotic recombination leads to pangenomes, and eukaryotic recombination leads to vertical inheritance. Viewed from the perspective of endosymbiotic theory, the critical transition at the eukaryote origin that allowed escape from Muller's ratchet--the origin of eukaryotic recombination, or sex--might have required surprisingly little evolutionary innovation. PMID:25733873

  20. A statistical anomaly indicates symbiotic origins of eukaryotic membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Suneyna; Mittal, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Compositional analyses of nucleic acids and proteins have shed light on possible origins of living cells. In this work, rigorous compositional analyses of ∼5000 plasma membrane lipid constituents of 273 species in the three life domains (archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryotes) revealed a remarkable statistical paradox, indicating symbiotic origins of eukaryotic cells involving eubacteria. For lipids common to plasma membranes of the three domains, the number of carbon atoms in eubacteria was found to be similar to that in eukaryotes. However, mutually exclusive subsets of same data show exactly the opposite—the number of carbon atoms in lipids of eukaryotes was higher than in eubacteria. This statistical paradox, called Simpson's paradox, was absent for lipids in archaea and for lipids not common to plasma membranes of the three domains. This indicates the presence of interaction(s) and/or association(s) in lipids forming plasma membranes of eubacteria and eukaryotes but not for those in archaea. Further inspection of membrane lipid structures affecting physicochemical properties of plasma membranes provides the first evidence (to our knowledge) on the symbiotic origins of eukaryotic cells based on the “third front” (i.e., lipids) in addition to the growing compositional data from nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:25631820

  1. Characterization of eukaryotic microbial diversity in hypersaline Lake Tyrrell, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, Karla B.; Nelson, William C.; Holm, Johanna B.; Eisenkolb, Nadine; Andrade, Karen; Emerson, Joanne B.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the community structure of the microbial eukaryotic community from hypersaline Lake Tyrrell, Australia, using near full length 18S rRNA sequences. Water samples were taken in both summer and winter over a 4-year period. The extent of eukaryotic diversity detected was low, with only 35 unique phylotypes using a 97% sequence similarity threshold. The water samples were dominated (91%) by a novel cluster of the Alveolate, Apicomplexa Colpodella spp., most closely related to C. edax. The Chlorophyte, Dunaliella spp. accounted for less than 35% of water column samples. However, the eukaryotic community entrained in a salt crust sample was vastly different and was dominated (83%) by the Dunaliella spp. The patterns described here represent the first observation of microbial eukaryotic dynamics in this system and provide a multiyear comparison of community composition by season. The lack of expected seasonal distribution in eukaryotic communities paired with abundant nanoflagellates suggests that grazing may significantly structure microbial eukaryotic communities in this system. PMID:23717306

  2. Transferred interbacterial antagonism genes augment eukaryotic innate immune function

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Seemay; Daugherty, Matthew D.; Peterson, S. Brook; Biboy, Jacob; Yang, Youyun; Jutras, Brandon L.; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Ferrin, Michael A.; Harding, Brittany N.; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Yang, X. Frank; Vollmer, Waldemar; Malik, Harmit S.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits1. Though documented instances of HGT from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option2. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce anti-bacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial competition. The type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) proteins are potent bacteriocidal enzymes that degrade the cell wall when delivered into competing bacterial cells by the type VI secretion system (T6SS)3. Here we show that tae genes have been transferred to eukaryotes on at least six occasions, and that the resulting domesticated amidase effector (dae) genes have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years via purifying selection. We show that the dae genes acquired eukaryotic secretion signals, are expressed within recipient organisms, and encode active antibacterial toxins that possess substrate specificity matching extant Tae proteins of the same lineage. Finally, we show that a dae gene in the deer tick Ixodes scapularis limits proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Our work demonstrates that a family of horizontally acquired toxins honed to mediate interbacterial antagonism confers previously undescribed antibacterial capacity to eukaryotes. We speculate that the selective pressure imposed by competition between bacteria has produced a reservoir of genes encoding diverse antimicrobial functions that are tailored for facile co-option by eukaryotic innate immune systems. PMID:25470067

  3. Single Cell Genomics and Transcriptomics for Unicellular Eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Ciobanu, Doina; Clum, Alicia; Singh, Vasanth; Salamov, Asaf; Han, James; Copeland, Alex; Grigoriev, Igor; James, Timothy; Singer, Steven; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2014-03-14

    Despite their small size, unicellular eukaryotes have complex genomes with a high degree of plasticity that allow them to adapt quickly to environmental changes. Unicellular eukaryotes live with prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes, frequently in symbiotic or parasitic niches. To this day their contribution to the dynamics of the environmental communities remains to be understood. Unfortunately, the vast majority of eukaryotic microorganisms are either uncultured or unculturable, making genome sequencing impossible using traditional approaches. We have developed an approach to isolate unicellular eukaryotes of interest from environmental samples, and to sequence and analyze their genomes and transcriptomes. We have tested our methods with six species: an uncharacterized protist from cellulose-enriched compost identified as Platyophrya, a close relative of P. vorax; the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidate, a parasite of water flea Daphnia; the mycoparasitic fungi Piptocephalis cylindrospora, a parasite of Cokeromyces and Mucor; Caulochytrium protosteloides, a parasite of Sordaria; Rozella allomycis, a parasite of the water mold Allomyces; and the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here, we present the four components of our approach: pre-sequencing methods, sequence analysis for single cell genome assembly, sequence analysis of single cell transcriptomes, and genome annotation. This technology has the potential to uncover the complexity of single cell eukaryotes and their role in the environmental samples.

  4. Ocean plankton. Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Colomban; Audic, Stéphane; Henry, Nicolas; Decelle, Johan; Mahé, Frédéric; Logares, Ramiro; Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cédric; Le Bescot, Noan; Probert, Ian; Carmichael, Margaux; Poulain, Julie; Romac, Sarah; Colin, Sébastien; Aury, Jean-Marc; Bittner, Lucie; Chaffron, Samuel; Dunthorn, Micah; Engelen, Stefan; Flegontova, Olga; Guidi, Lionel; Horák, Aleš; Jaillon, Olivier; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Lukeš, Julius; Malviya, Shruti; Morard, Raphael; Mulot, Matthieu; Scalco, Eleonora; Siano, Raffaele; Vincent, Flora; Zingone, Adriana; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer; Bowler, Chris; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Raes, Jeroen; Sieracki, Michael E; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric

    2015-05-22

    Marine plankton support global biological and geochemical processes. Surveys of their biodiversity have hitherto been geographically restricted and have not accounted for the full range of plankton size. We assessed eukaryotic diversity from 334 size-fractionated photic-zone plankton communities collected across tropical and temperate oceans during the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition. We analyzed 18S ribosomal DNA sequences across the intermediate plankton-size spectrum from the smallest unicellular eukaryotes (protists, >0.8 micrometers) to small animals of a few millimeters. Eukaryotic ribosomal diversity saturated at ~150,000 operational taxonomic units, about one-third of which could not be assigned to known eukaryotic groups. Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ~11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies. Most eukaryotic plankton biodiversity belonged to heterotrophic protistan groups, particularly those known to be parasites or symbiotic hosts. PMID:25999516

  5. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2016-01-01

    Two major obstacles hinder the application of evolutionary theory to the origin of eukaryotes. The first is more apparent than real-the endosymbiosis that led to the mitochondrion is often described as "non-Darwinian" because it deviates from the incremental evolution championed by the modern synthesis. Nevertheless, endosymbiosis can be accommodated by a multi-level generalization of evolutionary theory, which Darwin himself pioneered. The second obstacle is more serious-all of the major features of eukaryotes were likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor thus rendering comparative methods ineffective. In addition to a multi-level theory, the development of rigorous, sequence-based phylogenetic and comparative methods represents the greatest achievement of modern evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, the rapid evolution of major features in the eukaryotic stem group requires the consideration of an alternative framework. Such a framework, based on the contingent nature of these evolutionary events, is developed and illustrated with three examples: the putative intron proliferation leading to the nucleus and the cell cycle; conflict and cooperation in the origin of eukaryotic bioenergetics; and the inter-relationship between aerobic metabolism, sterol synthesis, membranes, and sex. The modern synthesis thus provides sufficient scope to develop an evolutionary framework to understand the origin of eukaryotes. PMID:27128953

  6. Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Barbero, Erika; Lasser, Elyse; Dunthorn, Micah; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Patterson, David J; Katz, Laura A

    2006-01-01

    Perspectives on the classification of eukaryotic diversity have changed rapidly in recent years, as the four eukaryotic groups within the five-kingdom classification—plants, animals, fungi, and protists—have been transformed through numerous permutations into the current system of six “supergroups.” The intent of the supergroup classification system is to unite microbial and macroscopic eukaryotes based on phylogenetic inference. This supergroup approach is increasing in popularity in the literature and is appearing in introductory biology textbooks. We evaluate the stability and support for the current six-supergroup classification of eukaryotes based on molecular genealogies. We assess three aspects of each supergroup: (1) the stability of its taxonomy, (2) the support for monophyly (single evolutionary origin) in molecular analyses targeting a supergroup, and (3) the support for monophyly when a supergroup is included as an out-group in phylogenetic studies targeting other taxa. Our analysis demonstrates that supergroup taxonomies are unstable and that support for groups varies tremendously, indicating that the current classification scheme of eukaryotes is likely premature. We highlight several trends contributing to the instability and discuss the requirements for establishing robust clades within the eukaryotic tree of life. PMID:17194223

  7. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    Two major obstacles hinder the application of evolutionary theory to the origin of eukaryotes. The first is more apparent than real—the endosymbiosis that led to the mitochondrion is often described as “non-Darwinian” because it deviates from the incremental evolution championed by the modern synthesis. Nevertheless, endosymbiosis can be accommodated by a multi-level generalization of evolutionary theory, which Darwin himself pioneered. The second obstacle is more serious—all of the major features of eukaryotes were likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor thus rendering comparative methods ineffective. In addition to a multi-level theory, the development of rigorous, sequence-based phylogenetic and comparative methods represents the greatest achievement of modern evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, the rapid evolution of major features in the eukaryotic stem group requires the consideration of an alternative framework. Such a framework, based on the contingent nature of these evolutionary events, is developed and illustrated with three examples: the putative intron proliferation leading to the nucleus and the cell cycle; conflict and cooperation in the origin of eukaryotic bioenergetics; and the inter-relationship between aerobic metabolism, sterol synthesis, membranes, and sex. The modern synthesis thus provides sufficient scope to develop an evolutionary framework to understand the origin of eukaryotes. PMID:27128953

  8. Evolutionary Advantage Conferred by an Eukaryote-to-Eukaryote Gene Transfer Event in Wine Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Marsit, Souhir; Mena, Adriana; Bigey, Frédéric; Sauvage, François-Xavier; Couloux, Arnaud; Guy, Julie; Legras, Jean-Luc; Barrio, Eladio; Dequin, Sylvie; Galeote, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Although an increasing number of horizontal gene transfers have been reported in eukaryotes, experimental evidence for their adaptive value is lacking. Here, we report the recent transfer of a 158-kb genomic region between Torulaspora microellipsoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts or closely related strains. This genomic region has undergone several rearrangements in S. cerevisiae strains, including gene loss and gene conversion between two tandemly duplicated FOT genes encoding oligopeptide transporters. We show that FOT genes confer a strong competitive advantage during grape must fermentation by increasing the number and diversity of oligopeptides that yeast can utilize as a source of nitrogen, thereby improving biomass formation, fermentation efficiency, and cell viability. Thus, the acquisition of FOT genes has favored yeast adaptation to the nitrogen-limited wine fermentation environment. This finding indicates that anthropic environments offer substantial ecological opportunity for evolutionary diversification through gene exchange between distant yeast species. PMID:25750179

  9. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Garg, Sriram; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners—the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)—and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle genomes were relinquished to the chromosomes of the host (endosymbiotic gene transfer). However, notwithstanding eukaryote-specific gene inventions, single-gene phylogenies have never traced eukaryotic genes to three single prokaryotic sources, an issue that hinges crucially upon factors influencing phylogenetic inference. In the age of genomes, single-gene trees, once used to test the predictions of endosymbiotic theory, now spawn new theories that stand to eventually replace endosymbiotic theory with descriptive, gene tree-based variants featuring supernumerary symbionts: prokaryotic partners distinct from the cornerstone trio and whose existence is inferred solely from single-gene trees. We reason that the endosymbiotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts brought into the eukaryotic—and plant and algal—lineage a genome-sized sample of genes from the proteobacterial and cyanobacterial pangenomes of their respective day and that, even if molecular phylogeny were artifact-free, sampling prokaryotic pangenomes through endosymbiotic gene transfer would lead to inherited chimerism. Recombination in prokaryotes (transduction, conjugation, transformation) differs from recombination in eukaryotes (sex). Prokaryotic recombination leads to pangenomes, and eukaryotic recombination leads to vertical inheritance. Viewed from the perspective of endosymbiotic theory, the critical transition at the eukaryote origin that allowed escape from Muller’s ratchet—the origin of eukaryotic recombination, or sex—might have required surprisingly little evolutionary innovation. PMID:25733873

  10. Amebiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... article/000298.htm Amebiasis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amebiasis is an infection of the intestines caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica . Causes Entamoeba histolytica can live in the large intestine (colon) without causing damage ...

  11. An ancestral bacterial division system is widespread in eukaryotic mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Leger, Michelle M; Petrů, Markéta; Žárský, Vojtěch; Eme, Laura; Vlček, Čestmír; Harding, Tommy; Lang, B Franz; Eliáš, Marek; Doležal, Pavel; Roger, Andrew J

    2015-08-18

    Bacterial division initiates at the site of a contractile Z-ring composed of polymerized FtsZ. The location of the Z-ring in the cell is controlled by a system of three mutually antagonistic proteins, MinC, MinD, and MinE. Plastid division is also known to be dependent on homologs of these proteins, derived from the ancestral cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to plastids. In contrast, the mitochondria of model systems such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mammals, and Arabidopsis thaliana seem to have replaced the ancestral α-proteobacterial Min-based division machinery with host-derived dynamin-related proteins that form outer contractile rings. Here, we show that the mitochondrial division system of these model organisms is the exception, rather than the rule, for eukaryotes. We describe endosymbiont-derived, bacterial-like division systems comprising FtsZ and Min proteins in diverse less-studied eukaryote protistan lineages, including jakobid and heterolobosean excavates, a malawimonad, stramenopiles, amoebozoans, a breviate, and an apusomonad. For two of these taxa, the amoebozoan Dictyostelium purpureum and the jakobid Andalucia incarcerata, we confirm a mitochondrial localization of these proteins by their heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The discovery of a proteobacterial-like division system in mitochondria of diverse eukaryotic lineages suggests that it was the ancestral feature of all eukaryotic mitochondria and has been supplanted by a host-derived system multiple times in distinct eukaryote lineages. PMID:25831547

  12. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  13. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481783

  14. High Conformational Stability of Secreted Eukaryotic Catalase-peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Zámocký, Marcel; García-Fernández, Queralt; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Jakopitsch, Christa; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Loewen, Peter C.; Fita, Ignacio; Obinger, Christian; Carpena, Xavi

    2012-01-01

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) are bifunctional heme enzymes widely spread in archaea, bacteria, and lower eukaryotes. Here we present the first crystal structure (1.55 Å resolution) of an eukaryotic KatG, the extracellular or secreted enzyme from the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea. The heme cavity of the homodimeric enzyme is similar to prokaryotic KatGs including the unique distal +Met-Tyr-Trp adduct (where the Trp is further modified by peroxidation) and its associated mobile arginine. The structure also revealed several conspicuous peculiarities that are fully conserved in all secreted eukaryotic KatGs. Peculiarities include the wrapping at the dimer interface of the N-terminal elongations from the two subunits and cysteine residues that cross-link the two subunits. Differential scanning calorimetry and temperature- and urea-mediated unfolding followed by UV-visible, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy combined with site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that secreted eukaryotic KatGs have a significantly higher conformational stability as well as a different unfolding pattern when compared with intracellular eukaryotic and prokaryotic catalase-peroxidases. We discuss these properties with respect to the structure as well as the postulated roles of this metalloenzyme in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22822072

  15. A Search for Extraterrestrial Eukaryotes: Physical and Paleontological Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1998-10-01

    Physical and biochemical aspects of a proposed search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes (SETE) are considered. Such a program should approach the distinction between a primitive eukaryote and an archaebacteria. The emphasis on gene silencing suggests a possible assay suitable for a robotic investigation of eukaryoticity, so as to be able to decide whether the first steps towards eukaryogenesis have been taken in an extraterrestrial planet, or satellite. The experiment would consist of searching for cellular division and the systematic related delay in replication of heterochromatic chromosome segments. It should be noticed that the direct search for a membrane-bounded set of chromosomes does not necessarily determine eukaryotic identity, as there are prokaryotes that have membrane-bounded nucleoids. A closer look at the protein fraction of chromatin (mainly histones) does not help either, as there are some eukaryotes that may lack histones; there are also some bacteria as well as archaebacteria with histone-like proteins in their nucleoids. Comments on the recent suggestion of possible environments for a SETE program are discussed: the deep crust of Mars, and the Jovian satellite Europa, provided the existence of an ocean under its ice-covered surface is confirmed by the current Galileo mission.

  16. An ancestral bacterial division system is widespread in eukaryotic mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Michelle M.; Petrů, Markéta; Žárský, Vojtěch; Eme, Laura; Vlček, Čestmír; Harding, Tommy; Lang, B. Franz; Eliáš, Marek; Doležal, Pavel; Roger, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial division initiates at the site of a contractile Z-ring composed of polymerized FtsZ. The location of the Z-ring in the cell is controlled by a system of three mutually antagonistic proteins, MinC, MinD, and MinE. Plastid division is also known to be dependent on homologs of these proteins, derived from the ancestral cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to plastids. In contrast, the mitochondria of model systems such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mammals, and Arabidopsis thaliana seem to have replaced the ancestral α-proteobacterial Min-based division machinery with host-derived dynamin-related proteins that form outer contractile rings. Here, we show that the mitochondrial division system of these model organisms is the exception, rather than the rule, for eukaryotes. We describe endosymbiont-derived, bacterial-like division systems comprising FtsZ and Min proteins in diverse less-studied eukaryote protistan lineages, including jakobid and heterolobosean excavates, a malawimonad, stramenopiles, amoebozoans, a breviate, and an apusomonad. For two of these taxa, the amoebozoan Dictyostelium purpureum and the jakobid Andalucia incarcerata, we confirm a mitochondrial localization of these proteins by their heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The discovery of a proteobacterial-like division system in mitochondria of diverse eukaryotic lineages suggests that it was the ancestral feature of all eukaryotic mitochondria and has been supplanted by a host-derived system multiple times in distinct eukaryote lineages. PMID:25831547

  17. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  18. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481783

  19. Evolution of early eukaryotic cells: genomes, proteomes, and compartments.

    PubMed

    Bogorad, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotes arose from an endosymbiotic association of an alpha-proteobacterium-like organism (the ancestor of mitochondria) with a host cell (lacking mitochondria or plastids). Plants arose by the addition of a cyanobacterium-like endosymbiont (the ancestor of plastids) to the two-member association. Each member of the association brought a unique internal environment and a unique genome. Analyses of recently acquired genomic sequences with newly developed algorithms have revealed (a) that the number of endosymbiont genes that remain in eukaryotic cells-principally in the nucleus-is surprisingly large, (b) that protein products of a large number of genes (or their descendents) that entered the association in the genome of the host are now directed to an organelle derived from an endosymbiont, and (c) that protein products of genes traceable to endosymbiont genomes are directed to the nucleo-cytoplasmic compartment. Consideration of these remarkable findings has led to the present suggestion that contemporary eukaryotic cells evolved through continual chance relocation and testing of genes as well as combinations of gene products and biochemical processes in each unique cell compartment derived from a member of the eukaryotic association. Most of these events occurred during about 300 million years, or so, before contemporary forms of eukaryotic cells appear in the fossil record; they continue today. PMID:17912611

  20. A search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes: physical and paleontological aspects.

    PubMed

    Chela-Flores, J

    1998-10-01

    Physical and biochemical aspects of a proposed search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes (SETE) are considered. Such a program should approach the distinction between a primitive eukaryote and an archaebacteria. The emphasis on gene silencing suggests a possible assay suitable for a robotic investigation of eukaryoticity, so as to be able to decide whether the first steps towards eukaryogenesis have been taken in an extraterrestrial planet, or satellite. The experiment would consist of searching for cellular division and the systematic related delay in replication of heterochromatic chromosome segments. It should be noticed that the direct search for a membrane-bounded set of chromosomes does not necessarily determine eukaryotic identity, as there are prokaryotes that have membrane-bounded nucleoids. A closer look at the protein fraction of chromatin (mainly histones) does not help either, as there are some eukaryotes that may lack histones; there are also some bacteria as well as archaebacteria with histone-like proteins in their nucleoids. Comments on the recent suggestion of possible environments for a SETE program are discussed: the deep crust of Mars, and the Jovian satellite Europa, provided the existence of an ocean under its ice-covered surface is confirmed by the current Galileo mission. PMID:9742730

  1. Sequence evidence for common ancestry of eukaryotic endomembrane coatomers

    PubMed Central

    Promponas, Vasilis J.; Katsani, Katerina R.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Ouzounis, Christos A.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are defined by compartments through which the trafficking of macromolecules is mediated by large complexes, such as the nuclear pore, transport vesicles and intraflagellar transport. The assembly and maintenance of these complexes is facilitated by endomembrane coatomers, long suspected to be divergently related on the basis of structural and more recently phylogenomic analysis. By performing supervised walks in sequence space across coatomer superfamilies, we uncover subtle sequence patterns that have remained elusive to date, ultimately unifying eukaryotic coatomers by divergent evolution. The conserved residues shared by 3,502 endomembrane coatomer components are mapped onto the solenoid superhelix of nucleoporin and COPII protein structures, thus determining the invariant elements of coatomer architecture. This ancient structural motif can be considered as a universal signature connecting eukaryotic coatomers involved in multiple cellular processes across cell physiology and human disease. PMID:26931514

  2. Unraveling Adaptation in Eukaryotic Pathways: Lessons from Protocells

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, Giovanna; Endres, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic adaptation pathways operate within wide-ranging environmental conditions without stimulus saturation. Despite numerous differences in the adaptation mechanisms employed by bacteria and eukaryotes, all require energy consumption. Here, we present two minimal models showing that expenditure of energy by the cell is not essential for adaptation. Both models share important features with large eukaryotic cells: they employ small diffusible molecules and involve receptor subunits resembling highly conserved G-protein cascades. Analyzing the drawbacks of these models helps us understand the benefits of energy consumption, in terms of adjustability of response and adaptation times as well as separation of cell-external sensing and cell-internal signaling. Our work thus sheds new light on the evolution of adaptation mechanisms in complex systems. PMID:24204235

  3. Unraveling adaptation in eukaryotic pathways: lessons from protocells.

    PubMed

    De Palo, Giovanna; Endres, Robert G

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic adaptation pathways operate within wide-ranging environmental conditions without stimulus saturation. Despite numerous differences in the adaptation mechanisms employed by bacteria and eukaryotes, all require energy consumption. Here, we present two minimal models showing that expenditure of energy by the cell is not essential for adaptation. Both models share important features with large eukaryotic cells: they employ small diffusible molecules and involve receptor subunits resembling highly conserved G-protein cascades. Analyzing the drawbacks of these models helps us understand the benefits of energy consumption, in terms of adjustability of response and adaptation times as well as separation of cell-external sensing and cell-internal signaling. Our work thus sheds new light on the evolution of adaptation mechanisms in complex systems. PMID:24204235

  4. Diversity and reductive evolution of mitochondria among microbial eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Hjort, Karin; Goldberg, Alina V.; Tsaousis, Anastasios D.; Hirt, Robert P.; Embley, T. Martin

    2010-01-01

    All extant eukaryotes are now considered to possess mitochondria in one form or another. Many parasites or anaerobic protists have highly reduced versions of mitochondria, which have generally lost their genome and the capacity to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. These organelles have been called hydrogenosomes, when they make hydrogen, or remnant mitochondria or mitosomes when their functions were cryptic. More recently, organelles with features blurring the distinction between mitochondria, hydrogenosomes and mitosomes have been identified. These organelles have retained a mitochondrial genome and include the mitochondrial-like organelle of Blastocystis and the hydrogenosome of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus. Studying eukaryotic diversity from the perspective of their mitochondrial variants has yielded important insights into eukaryote molecular cell biology and evolution. These investigations are contributing to understanding the essential functions of mitochondria, defined in the broadest sense, and the limits to which reductive evolution can proceed while maintaining a viable organelle. PMID:20124340

  5. Alternative Mechanisms to Initiate Translation in Eukaryotic mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Salas, Encarnación; Piñeiro, David; Fernández, Noemí

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the cellular proteome is under the control of multiple processes, one of the most important being translation initiation. The majority of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs initiates translation by the cap-dependent or scanning mode of translation initiation, a mechanism that depends on the recognition of the m7G(5′)ppp(5′)N, known as the cap. However, mRNAs encoding proteins required for cell survival under stress bypass conditions inhibitory to cap-dependent translation; these mRNAs often harbor internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements in their 5′UTRs that mediate internal initiation of translation. This mechanism is also exploited by mRNAs expressed from the genome of viruses infecting eukaryotic cells. In this paper we discuss recent advances in understanding alternative ways to initiate translation across eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22536116

  6. Sequence evidence for common ancestry of eukaryotic endomembrane coatomers.

    PubMed

    Promponas, Vasilis J; Katsani, Katerina R; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are defined by compartments through which the trafficking of macromolecules is mediated by large complexes, such as the nuclear pore, transport vesicles and intraflagellar transport. The assembly and maintenance of these complexes is facilitated by endomembrane coatomers, long suspected to be divergently related on the basis of structural and more recently phylogenomic analysis. By performing supervised walks in sequence space across coatomer superfamilies, we uncover subtle sequence patterns that have remained elusive to date, ultimately unifying eukaryotic coatomers by divergent evolution. The conserved residues shared by 3,502 endomembrane coatomer components are mapped onto the solenoid superhelix of nucleoporin and COPII protein structures, thus determining the invariant elements of coatomer architecture. This ancient structural motif can be considered as a universal signature connecting eukaryotic coatomers involved in multiple cellular processes across cell physiology and human disease. PMID:26931514

  7. DNA Transposons and the Evolution of Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Feschotte, Cédric; Pritham, Ellen J.

    2007-01-01

    Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms. This review focuses on DNA-mediated or class 2 transposons and emphasizes how this class of elements is distinguished from other types of mobile elements in terms of their structure, amplification dynamics, and genomic effect. We provide an up-to-date outlook on the diversity and taxonomic distribution of all major types of DNA transposons in eukaryotes, including Helitrons and Mavericks. We discuss some of the evolutionary forces that influence their maintenance and diversification in various genomic environments. Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages. PMID:18076328

  8. Aggregative multicellularity evolved independently in the eukaryotic supergroup Rhizaria.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew W; Kolisko, Martin; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Roger, Andrew J

    2012-06-19

    Multicellular forms of life have evolved many times, independently giving rise to a diversity of organisms such as animals, plants, and fungi that together comprise the visible biosphere. Yet multicellular life is far more widespread among eukaryotes than just these three lineages. A particularly common form of multicellularity is a social aggregative fruiting lifestyle whereby individual cells associate to form a "fungus-like" sorocarp. This complex developmental process that requires the interaction of thousands of cells working in concert was made famous by the "cellular slime mold"Dictyostelium discoideum, which became an important model organism. Although sorocarpic protistan lineages have been identified in five of the major eukaryote groups, the ubiquitous and globally distributed species Guttulinopsis vulgaris has eluded proper classification. Here we demonstrate, by phylogenomic analyses of a 159-protein data set, that G. vulgaris is a member of Rhizaria and is thus the first member of thi