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Sample records for eurasian badger meles

  1. Blood biochemistry reflects seasonal nutritional and reproductive constraints in the eurasian badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Domingo-Roura, X; Newman, C; Calafell, F; Macdonald, D W

    2001-01-01

    Physiological responses to nutritional and reproductive constraints were explored in a wild population of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) inhabiting Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. We compared seasonal blood levels of lipid and protein compounds to variables describing the sex, age, body condition, wounds, testes position, and flea abundance of the badgers. We found seasonal variations in albumin/globulins and urea/creatinine ratios matched by differences in body condition. High creatinine, urea, and triglycerides levels were obtained in animals in poor nutritional condition and with low levels of body fat. The maintenance of urea/creatinine ratios indicates that the badger does not demonstrate a stage of protein conservation in periods of food scarcity during the summer or periods of cold weather. Hypercholesterolaemia, especially in fat animals, was confirmed. We also offer baseline levels of metabolites commonly used in clinical biochemistry for their further use in the analysis of the status and the management of wild badger populations. PMID:11331518

  2. Physiological stress in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles): effects of host, disease and environment.

    PubMed

    George, Sheila C; Smith, Tessa E; Mac Cana, Pól S S; Coleman, Robert; Montgomery, William I

    2014-05-01

    A method for monitoring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) to stressors was validated by measuring cortisol excretion in serum and faeces. Serum and faecal samples were collected under anaesthesia from live-captured, wild badgers and fresh faeces was collected from latrines at 15 social groups in County Down, Northern Ireland. Variation in levels of cortisol in wild badgers was investigated relative to disease status, season, age, sex, body mass, body condition and reproductive status and environmental factors that might influence stress. Faecal cortisol levels were significantly higher in animals testing culture-positive for Mycobacterium bovis. Prolonged elevation of cortisol can suppress immune function, which may have implications for disease transmission. There was a strong seasonal pattern in both serum cortisol, peaking in spring and faecal cortisol, peaking in summer. Cortisol levels were also higher in adults with poor body condition and low body mass. Faecal samples collected from latrines in grassland groups had significantly higher cortisol than those collected from woodland groups, possibly as a result of greater exposure to sources of environmental stress. This study is the first to investigate factors influencing physiological stress in badgers and indicates that serological and faecal excretion are valid indices of the HPA response to a range of stressors. PMID:24607571

  3. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum in a badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Wragg, Peter N; Strugnell, Benjamin W; Whatmore, Adrian M; Foster, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    A 7.5-kg female European badger (Meles meles) was submitted under the United Kingdom Government's Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme to the Thirsk Regional Laboratory of the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency. Postmortem examination revealed a large, poorly encapsulated retropharyngeal abscess full of necrotic debris and pus. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum was isolated from the lymph node and confirmed by phenotypic profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA DNA sequencing. Workers should be aware of the potential for badgers to harbor zoonoses other than those more traditionally associated with the species. PMID:22362809

  4. Validation of the BrockTB Stat-Pak Assay for Detection of Tuberculosis in Eurasian Badgers (Meles meles) and Influence of Disease Severity on Diagnostic Accuracy?

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Mark A.; Crawshaw, Tim; Waterhouse, Sue; Delahay, Richard; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.

    2008-01-01

    A lateral-flow immunoassay (BrockTB Stat-Pak) for detecting tuberculosis in Eurasian badgers was 49% sensitive and 93% specific against culture for M. bovis (n = 1,464) at necropsy. However, the sensitivity was significantly higher (66 to 78%) in animals with more severe tuberculosis, indicating that the BrockTB Stat-Pak may be useful for the detection of badgers with the greatest risk of transmitting disease. PMID:18272706

  5. Social group size affects Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Wei, Gao; Cox, D R; Bourne, F John; Burke, Terry; Butlin, Roger K; Cheeseman, C L; Gettinby, George; Gilks, Peter; Hedges, Simon; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; McInerney, John P; Morrison, W Ivan; Pope, Lisa C

    2009-07-01

    1. In most social animals, the prevalence of directly transmitted pathogens increases in larger groups and at higher population densities. Such patterns are predicted by models of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles). 2. We investigated the relationship between badger abundance and M. bovis prevalence, using data on 2696 adult badgers in 10 populations sampled at the start of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial. 3. M. bovis prevalence was consistently higher at low badger densities and in small social groups. M. bovis prevalence was also higher among badgers whose genetic profiles suggested that they had immigrated into their assigned social groups. 4. The association between high M. bovis prevalence and small badger group size appeared not to have been caused by previous small-scale culling in study areas, which had been suspended, on average, 5 years before the start of the current study. 5. The observed pattern of prevalence might occur through badgers in smaller groups interacting more frequently with members of neighbouring groups; detailed behavioural data are needed to test this hypothesis. Likewise, longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the size of infected groups might be suppressed by disease-related mortality. 6. Although M. bovis prevalence was lower at high population densities, the absolute number of infected badgers was higher. However, this does not necessarily mean that the risk of M. bovis transmission to cattle is highest at high badger densities, since transmission risk depends on badger behaviour as well as on badger density. PMID:19486382

  6. Molecular evidence for hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in a Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma) and a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus).

    PubMed

    Harasawa, Ryô; Orusa, Riccardo; Giangaspero, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We report detection of hemoplasma in wild Japanese badgers (Meles meles anakuma) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus). Sequence analysis of the entire 16S rRNA genes identified Mycoplasma haemocanis in the raccoon dog sample, and a potential novel Mycoplasma species in the Japanese badger. PMID:24484489

  7. Reproductive Biology Including Evidence for Superfetation in the European Badger Meles meles (Carnivora: Mustelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Corner, Leigh A. L.; Stuart, Lynsey J.; Kelly, David J.; Marples, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the European badger (Meles meles) is of wide interest because it is one of the few mammal species that show delayed implantation and one of only five which are suggested to show superfetation as a reproductive strategy. This study aimed to describe the reproductive biology of female Irish badgers with a view to increasing our understanding of the process of delayed implantation and superfetation. We carried out a detailed histological examination of the reproductive tract of 264 female badgers taken from sites across 20 of the 26 counties in the Republic of Ireland. The key results show evidence of multiple blastocysts at different stages of development present simultaneously in the same female, supporting the view that superfetation is relatively common in this population of badgers. In addition we present strong evidence that the breeding rate in Irish badgers is limited by failure to conceive, rather than failure at any other stages of the breeding cycle. We show few effects of age on breeding success, suggesting no breeding suppression by adult females in this population. The study sheds new light on this unusual breeding strategy of delayed implantation and superfetation, and highlights a number of significant differences between the reproductive biology of female Irish badgers and those of Great Britain and Swedish populations. PMID:26465324

  8. Coccidiosis in the European badger, Meles meles in Wytham Woods: infection and consequences for growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Newman, C; Macdonald, D W; Anwar, M A

    2001-08-01

    In total 1502 faecal samples were collected from a population of European badgers (Meles meles) between 1992 and 1995 at Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK. Two coccidia species, Eimeria melis and Isospora melis, were identified. Cubs showed a marked seasonal pattern of infection with E. melis, with infection occurring at significantly higher intensity and prevalence than in adults. There was preliminary evidence to suggest that infantile coccidiosis in badgers may be associated with impaired growth and increased mortality. PMID:11510678

  9. Detection and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum in a German badger (Meles meles) by ITS sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild badger (Meles meles) with a severe nodular dermatitis was presented for post mortem examination. Numerous cutaneous granulomas with superficial ulceration were present especially on head, dorsum, and forearms were found at necropsy. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed a severe ...

  10. Performance of a Noninvasive Test for Detecting Mycobacterium bovis Shedding in European Badger (Meles meles) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J.; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, in cattle herds in the United Kingdom is increasing, resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir and is the subject of control measures aimed at reducing the incidence of infection in cattle populations. Understanding the epidemiology of M. bovis in badger populations is essential for directing control interventions and understanding disease spread; however, accurate diagnosis in live animals is challenging and currently uses invasive methods. Here we present a noninvasive diagnostic procedure and sampling regimen using field sampling of latrines and detection of M. bovis with quantitative PCR tests, the results of which strongly correlate with the results of immunoassays in the field at the social group level. This method allows M. bovis infections in badger populations to be monitored without trapping and provides additional information on the quantities of bacterial DNA shed. Therefore, our approach may provide valuable insights into the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations and inform disease control interventions. PMID:26041891

  11. Trophic Enrichment Factors for Blood Serum in the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, David J.; Robertson, Andrew; Murphy, Denise; Fitzsimons, Tara; Costello, Eamon; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Marples, Nicola M.

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists undertaking stable isotopic analyses of animal diets require trophic enrichment factors (TEFs) for the specific animal tissues that they are studying. Such basic data are available for a small number of species, so values from trophically or phylogenetically similar species are often substituted for missing values. By feeding a controlled diet to captive European badgers (Meles meles) we determined TEFs for carbon and nitrogen in blood serum. TEFs for nitrogen and carbon in blood serum were +3.0±0.4‰ and +0.4±0.1‰ respectively. The TEFs for serum in badgers are notably different from those published for the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). There is currently no data for TEFs in the serum of other mustelid species. Our data show that species sharing similar niches (red fox) do not provide adequate proxy values for TEFs of badgers. Our findings emphasise the importance of having species-specific data when undertaking trophic studies using stable isotope analysis. PMID:23300863

  12. Long-lasting systemic bait markers for Eurasian badgers.

    PubMed

    Cagnacci, Francesca; Massei, Giovanna; Coats, Julia; de Leeuw, Anton; Cowan, David P

    2006-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess whether Rhodamine B, ethyl-iophenoxic acid (EtIPA), and propyl-iophenoxic acid (PrIPA) can be used as long-lasting systemic bait markers for free-living badgers (Meles meles). Between June and November 2003, these chemicals were incorporated into bait distributed around badger setts. Serum, hair, and whiskers from individually marked badgers were collected in the following 4 to 24 wk. Rhodamine B was detectable as fluorescent bands up to 24 wk after ingestion of the bait. Individual badgers were found positive for EtIPA and PrIPA up to 20 wk and 18 wk after exposure, respectively. This study indicates that Rhodamine B, PrIPA, and EtIPA could be used as long-lasting markers for badgers. PMID:17255463

  13. Coccidiosis in the European badger (Meles meles) from England, an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M A; Newman, C; MacDonald, D W; Woolhouse, M E; Kelly, D W

    2000-03-01

    In total 445 faecal samples were collected from 259 European badgers (Meles meles) in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK (462080). Microscopical examination revealed infection with 2 species of coccidia Eimeria melis and Isospora melis. From the initial examination of each animal, point prevalence rates of 0.44 and 0.35 were calculated for Eimeria and Isospora respectively. The intensity of infection was significantly greater for Eimeria than Isopora and the distribution of intensities was highly skewed for both species, with a few individuals shedding the majority of oocysts. Incidence and recovery rates for both coccidia species were calculated from longitudinal data collected at 3-monthly intervals from a subset of the adult badger population, and the predicted prevalence rates based on these were similar to the point prevalence rates. This suggests little, if any, parasite-induced mortality in the adult population. In contrast, there was a marked and significant reduction in the point prevalence and intensity of infection with Eimeria from cub to adult badger suggesting a degree of acquired immunity to Eimeria melis on initial exposure and/or that there is significant Eimeria-associated mortality in the cub population. No such relationship was found for Isospora infection. In those adult badgers with co-infections there was a direct relationship between the intensity of Eimeria and Isospora. The taxonomic status of these parasites suggests a heteroxenous life-cycle for I. melis, and direct transmission of E. melis. However, the greater than expected prevalence of co-infection is consistent with a common source of infection, such as communal latrines. PMID:10759083

  14. Winter Is Coming: Seasonal Variation in Resting Metabolic Rate of the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    McClune, David W.; Kostka, Berit; Delahay, Richard J.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Marks, Nikki J.; Scantlebury, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a measure of the minimum energy requirements of an animal at rest, and can give an indication of the costs of somatic maintenance. We measured RMR of free-ranging European badgers (Meles meles) to determine whether differences were related to sex, age and season. Badgers were captured in live-traps and placed individually within a metabolic chamber maintained at 20 ± 1°C. Resting metabolic rate was determined using an open-circuit respirometry system. Season was significantly correlated with RMR, but no effects of age or sex were detected. Summer RMR values were significantly higher than winter values (mass-adjusted mean ± standard error: 2366 ± 70 kJ⋅d−1; 1845 ± 109 kJ⋅d−1, respectively), with the percentage difference being 24.7%. While under the influence of anaesthesia, RMR was estimated to be 25.5% lower than the combined average value before administration, and after recovery from anaesthesia. Resting metabolic rate during the autumn and winter was not significantly different to allometric predictions of basal metabolic rate for mustelid species weighing 1 kg or greater, but badgers measured in the summer had values that were higher than predicted. Results suggest that a seasonal reduction in RMR coincides with apparent reductions in physical activity and body temperature as part of the overwintering strategy (‘winter lethargy’) in badgers. This study contributes to an expanding dataset on the ecophysiology of medium-sized carnivores, and emphasises the importance of considering season when making predictions of metabolic rate. PMID:26352150

  15. Culling-induced changes in badger (Meles meles) behaviour, social organisation and the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Philip; Delahay, Richard John; Cheeseman, Chris; Johnson, Paul James; Macdonald, David Whyte

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, attempts since the 1970s to control the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle by culling a wildlife host, the European badger (Meles meles), have produced equivocal results. Culling-induced social perturbation of badger populations may lead to unexpected outcomes. We test predictions from the 'perturbation hypothesis', determining the impact of culling operations on badger populations, movement of surviving individuals and the influence on the epidemiology of bTB in badgers using data dervied from two study areas within the UK Government's Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). Culling operations did not remove all individuals from setts, with between 34-43% of badgers removed from targeted social groups. After culling, bTB prevalence increased in badger social groups neighbouring removals, particularly amongst cubs. Seventy individual adult badgers were fitted with radio-collars, yielding 8,311 locational fixes from both sites between November 2001 and December 2003. Home range areas of animals surviving within removed groups increased by 43.5% in response to culling. Overlap between summer ranges of individuals from Neighbouring social groups in the treatment population increased by 73.3% in response to culling. The movement rate of individuals between social groups was low, but increased after culling, in Removed and Neighbouring social groups. Increased bTB prevalence in Neighbouring groups was associated with badger movements both into and out of these groups, although none of the moving individuals themselves tested positive for bTB. Significant increases in both the frequency of individual badger movements between groups and the emergence of bTB were observed in response to culling. However, no direct evidence was found to link the two phenomena. We hypothesise that the social disruption caused by culling may not only increase direct contact and thus disease transmission between surviving badgers, but may also increase social stress within the surviving population, causing immunosuppression and enhancing the expression of disease. PMID:22194946

  16. Culling-Induced Changes in Badger (Meles meles) Behaviour, Social Organisation and the Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Philip; Delahay, Richard John; Cheeseman, Chris; Johnson, Paul James; Macdonald, David Whyte

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, attempts since the 1970s to control the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle by culling a wildlife host, the European badger (Meles meles), have produced equivocal results. Culling-induced social perturbation of badger populations may lead to unexpected outcomes. We test predictions from the ‘perturbation hypothesis’, determining the impact of culling operations on badger populations, movement of surviving individuals and the influence on the epidemiology of bTB in badgers using data dervied from two study areas within the UK Government's Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). Culling operations did not remove all individuals from setts, with between 34–43% of badgers removed from targeted social groups. After culling, bTB prevalence increased in badger social groups neighbouring removals, particularly amongst cubs. Seventy individual adult badgers were fitted with radio-collars, yielding 8,311 locational fixes from both sites between November 2001 and December 2003. Home range areas of animals surviving within removed groups increased by 43.5% in response to culling. Overlap between summer ranges of individuals from Neighbouring social groups in the treatment population increased by 73.3% in response to culling. The movement rate of individuals between social groups was low, but increased after culling, in Removed and Neighbouring social groups. Increased bTB prevalence in Neighbouring groups was associated with badger movements both into and out of these groups, although none of the moving individuals themselves tested positive for bTB. Significant increases in both the frequency of individual badger movements between groups and the emergence of bTB were observed in response to culling. However, no direct evidence was found to link the two phenomena. We hypothesise that the social disruption caused by culling may not only increase direct contact and thus disease transmission between surviving badgers, but may also increase social stress within the surviving population, causing immunosuppression and enhancing the expression of disease. PMID:22194946

  17. Discovery of a polyomavirus in European badgers (Meles meles) and the evolution of host range in the family Polyomaviridae

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Sarah C.; Murphy, Aisling A.; Cotten, Matthew; Palser, Anne L.; Benson, Phillip; Lesellier, Sandrine; Gormley, Eamonn; Richomme, Céline; Grierson, Sylvia; Bhuachalla, Deirdre Ni; Chambers, Mark; Kellam, Paul; Boschiroli, María-Laura

    2015-01-01

    Polyomaviruses infect a diverse range of mammalian and avian hosts, and are associated with a variety of symptoms. However, it is unknown whether the viruses are found in all mammalian families and the evolutionary history of the polyomaviruses is still unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a novel polyomavirus in the European badger (Meles meles), which to our knowledge represents the first polyomavirus to be characterized in the family Mustelidae, and within a European carnivoran. Although the virus was discovered serendipitously in the supernatant of a cell culture inoculated with badger material, we subsequently confirmed its presence in wild badgers. The European badger polyomavirus was tentatively named Meles meles polyomavirus 1 (MmelPyV1). The genome is 5187 bp long and encodes proteins typical of polyomaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses including all known polyomavirus genomes consistently group MmelPyV1 with California sea lion polyomavirus 1 across all regions of the genome. Further evolutionary analyses revealed phylogenetic discordance amongst polyomavirus genome regions, possibly arising from evolutionary rate heterogeneity, and a complex association between polyomavirus phylogeny and host taxonomic groups. PMID:25626684

  18. Discovery of a polyomavirus in European badgers (Meles meles) and the evolution of host range in the family Polyomaviridae.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah C; Murphy, Aisling A; Cotten, Matthew; Palser, Anne L; Benson, Phillip; Lesellier, Sandrine; Gormley, Eamonn; Richomme, Céline; Grierson, Sylvia; Bhuachalla, Deirdre Ni; Chambers, Mark; Kellam, Paul; Boschiroli, María-Laura; Ehlers, Bernhard; Jarvis, Michael A; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-06-01

    Polyomaviruses infect a diverse range of mammalian and avian hosts, and are associated with a variety of symptoms. However, it is unknown whether the viruses are found in all mammalian families and the evolutionary history of the polyomaviruses is still unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a novel polyomavirus in the European badger (Meles meles), which to our knowledge represents the first polyomavirus to be characterized in the family Mustelidae, and within a European carnivoran. Although the virus was discovered serendipitously in the supernatant of a cell culture inoculated with badger material, we subsequently confirmed its presence in wild badgers. The European badger polyomavirus was tentatively named Meles meles polyomavirus 1 (MmelPyV1). The genome is 5187 bp long and encodes proteins typical of polyomaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses including all known polyomavirus genomes consistently group MmelPyV1 with California sea lion polyomavirus 1 across all regions of the genome. Further evolutionary analyses revealed phylogenetic discordance amongst polyomavirus genome regions, possibly arising from evolutionary rate heterogeneity, and a complex association between polyomavirus phylogeny and host taxonomic groups. PMID:25626684

  19. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bo?ena; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Bie?, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Grne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland. PMID:23129201

  20. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population. PMID:25913367

  1. Evolution of MHC class I genes in the European badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune system and provides a good model with which to understand the evolutionary processes underlying functional genes. Trans-species polymorphism and orthology are both commonly found in MHC genes; however, mammalian MHC class I genes tend to cluster by species. Concerted evolution has the potential to homogenize different loci, whereas birth-and-death evolution can lead to the loss of orthologs; both processes result in monophyletic groups within species. Studies investigating the evolution of MHC class I genes have been biased toward a few particular taxa and model species. We present the first study of MHC class I genes in a species from the superfamily Musteloidea. The European badger (Meles meles) exhibits moderate variation in MHC class I sequences when compared to other carnivores. We identified seven putatively functional sequences and nine pseudogenes from genomic (gDNA) and complementary (cDNA) DNA, signifying at least two functional class I loci. We found evidence for separate evolutionary histories of the α1 and α2/α3 domains. In the α1 domain, several sequences from different species were more closely related to each other than to sequences from the same species, resembling orthology or trans-species polymorphism. Balancing selection and probable recombination maintain genetic diversity in the α1 domain, evidenced by the detection of positive selection and a recombination event. By comparison, two recombination breakpoints indicate that the α2/α3 domains have most likely undergone concerted evolution, where recombination has homogenized the α2/α3 domains between genes, leading to species-specific clusters of sequences. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing MHC domains separately. PMID:22957169

  2. Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Burke, Terry; MacDonald, David W

    2014-10-01

    Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e. recognizing and binding a wider range of antigens than homozygotes) is expected to be more detectable when multiple pathogens are considered simultaneously. Here, we test whether MHC diversity in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles) is driven by pathogen-mediated selection. We examined individual prevalence (infected or not), infection intensity and co-infection of 13 pathogens from a range of taxa and examined their relationships with MHC class I and class II variability. This population has a variable, but relatively low, number of MHC alleles and is infected by a variety of naturally occurring pathogens, making it very suitable for the investigation of MHC-pathogen relationships. We found associations between pathogen infections and specific MHC haplotypes and alleles. Co-infection status was not correlated with MHC heterozygosity, but there was evidence of heterozygote advantage against individual pathogen infections. This suggests that rare-allele advantages and/or fluctuating selection, and heterozygote advantage are probably the selective forces shaping MHC diversity in this species. We show stronger evidence for MHC associations with infection intensity than for prevalence and conclude that examining both pathogen prevalence and infection intensity is important. Moreover, examination of a large number and diversity of pathogens, and both MHC class I and II genes (which have different functions), provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms driving MHC diversity. PMID:25211523

  3. Effect of culling and vaccination on bovine tuberculosis infection in a European badger (Meles meles) population by spatial simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Marwa; Frankena, Klaas; O'Keeffe, James; Byrne, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is partially hindered by spill-back infection from wild badgers (Meles meles). The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of interventions (combinations of culling and/or vaccination) on bTB dynamics in an Irish badger population. A spatial agent-based stochastic simulation model was developed to evaluate the effect of various control strategies for bovine tuberculosis in badgers: single control strategies (culling, selective culling, vaccination, and vaccine baits), and combined strategies (Test vaccinate/cull (TVC)), split area approaches using culling and vaccination, or selective culling and vaccination, and mixed scenarios where culling was conducted for five years and followed by vaccination or by a TVC strategy. The effect of each control strategy was evaluated over a 20-year period. Badger control was simulated in 25%, 50%, and 75% area (limited area strategy) or in the entire area (100%, wide area strategy). For endemic bTB, a culling strategy was successful in eradicating bTB from the population only if applied as an area-wide strategy. However, this was achieved only by risking the extinction of the badger population. Selective culling strategies (selective culling or TVC) mitigated this negative impact on the badger population's viability. Furthermore, both strategies (selective culling and TVC) allowed the badger population to recover gradually, in compensation for the population reduction following the initial use of removal strategies. The model predicted that vaccination can be effective in reducing bTB prevalence in badgers, when used in combination with culling strategies (i.e. TVC or other strategies). If fecundity was reduced below its natural levels (e.g. by using wildlife contraceptives), the effectiveness of vaccination strategies improved. Split-area simulations highlighted that interventions can have indirect effects (e.g. on population size) in non-treatment areas. Our model suggests that mixed control strategies could maintain infection prevalence to a low level for a considerable period even with a growing population. The model supported the hypothesis that culling strategies appeared to be the most effective method for the control of bTB in badgers using parameters, where available, from ROI, either singly or in combination with other strategies. In this model, the success of a vaccination strategy depended partially upon population density and the proportion of the population infected, therefore an initial culling program (to reduce density and/or remove infected badgers) followed by long-term vaccination may be effective in controlling bTB in badgers. PMID:26774448

  4. Factors affecting European badger (Meles meles) capture numbers in one county in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; O'Keeffe, James; Sleeman, D Paddy; Davenport, John; Martin, S Wayne

    2013-04-01

    Understanding factors affecting the number of badgers captured at and around badger setts (burrows) is of considerable applied importance. These factors could be used to estimate probable badger densities for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control and also for monitoring badger populations from a conservation perspective. Furthermore, badger management and vaccination programs would benefit by increasing the probability of efficiently capturing the target badger populations. Within this context, it was investigated whether badger capture numbers can be estimated from field signs and previous capture histories. Badger capture records (initial and repeated capture numbers at a sett) from a large-scale removal program (405 km(2), 643 setts) were used. Univariable count models indicated that there were a number of significant potential predictors of badger numbers, during initial capture attempts. Using a multivariable zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model of initial captures we found that badger capture numbers were significantly affected by sett type, season, year, and the number of sett entrances in active use. Badger capture numbers were also affected by the total previous catch during repeated capture events and by the number of previous capture attempts. There was a significant negative trend in badger captures across events. Measures of the ability of these models to estimate badger captures suggested that the models might be useful in estimating badger numbers across a population; however the confidence intervals associated with these predictions were large. PMID:22995474

  5. Climate and the individual: inter-annual variation in the autumnal activity of the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Noonan, Michael J; Markham, Andrew; Newman, Chris; Trigoni, Niki; Buesching, Christina D; Ellwood, Stephen A; Macdonald, David W

    2014-01-01

    We establish intra-individual and inter-annual variability in European badger (Meles meles) autumnal nightly activity in relation to fine-scale climatic variables, using tri-axial accelerometry. This contributes further to understanding of causality in the established interaction between weather conditions and population dynamics in this species. Modelling found that measures of daylight, rain/humidity, and soil temperature were the most supported predictors of ACTIVITY, in both years studied. In 2010, the drier year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, RAIN, and 30cmTEMP (w = 0.557), while in 2012, a wetter year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, and the RAIN*10cmTEMP (w = 0.999). ACTIVITY also differed significantly between individuals. In the 2012 autumn study period, badgers with the longest per noctem activity subsequently exhibited higher Body Condition Indices (BCI) when recaptured. In contrast, under drier 2010 conditions, badgers in good BCI engaged in less per noctem activity, while badgers with poor BCI were the most active. When compared on the same calendar dates, to control for night length, duration of mean badger nightly activity was longer (9.5 hrs ±3.3 SE) in 2010 than in 2012 (8.3 hrs ±1.9 SE). In the wetter year, increasing nightly activity was associated with net-positive energetic gains (from BCI), likely due to better foraging conditions. In a drier year, with greater potential for net-negative energy returns, individual nutritional state proved crucial in modifying activity regimes; thus we emphasise how a 'one size fits all' approach should not be applied to ecological responses. PMID:24465376

  6. Climate and the Individual: Inter-Annual Variation in the Autumnal Activity of the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michael J.; Markham, Andrew; Newman, Chris; Trigoni, Niki; Buesching, Christina D.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Macdonald, David W.

    2014-01-01

    We establish intra-individual and inter-annual variability in European badger (Meles meles) autumnal nightly activity in relation to fine-scale climatic variables, using tri-axial accelerometry. This contributes further to understanding of causality in the established interaction between weather conditions and population dynamics in this species. Modelling found that measures of daylight, rain/humidity, and soil temperature were the most supported predictors of ACTIVITY, in both years studied. In 2010, the drier year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, RAIN, and30cmTEMP (w = 0.557), while in 2012, a wetter year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, and the RAIN*10cmTEMP (w = 0.999). ACTIVITY also differed significantly between individuals. In the 2012 autumn study period, badgers with the longest per noctem activity subsequently exhibited higher Body Condition Indices (BCI) when recaptured. In contrast, under drier 2010 conditions, badgers in good BCI engaged in less per noctem activity, while badgers with poor BCI were the most active. When compared on the same calendar dates, to control for night length, duration of mean badger nightly activity was longer (9.5 hrs ±3.3 SE) in 2010 than in 2012 (8.3 hrs ±1.9 SE). In the wetter year, increasing nightly activity was associated with net-positive energetic gains (from BCI), likely due to better foraging conditions. In a drier year, with greater potential for net-negative energy returns, individual nutritional state proved crucial in modifying activity regimes; thus we emphasise how a ‘one size fits all’ approach should not be applied to ecological responses. PMID:24465376

  7. Confirmation of low genetic diversity and multiple breeding females in a social group of Eurasian badgers from microsatellite and field data.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Roura, X; Macdonald, D W; Roy, M S; Marmi, J; Terradas, J; Woodroffe, R; Burke, T; Wayne, R K

    2003-02-01

    The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is a facultatively social carnivore that shows only rudimentary co-operative behaviour and a poorly defined social hierarchy. Behavioural evidence and limited genetic data have suggested that more than one female may breed in a social group. We combine pregnancy detection by ultrasound and microsatellite locus scores from a well-studied badger population from Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK, to demonstrate that multiple females reproduce within a social group. We found that at least three of seven potential mothers reproduced in a group that contained 11 reproductive age females and nine offspring. Twelve primers showed variability across the species range and only five of these were variable in Wytham. The microsatellites showed a reduced repeat number, a significantly higher number of nonperfect repeats, and moderate heterozygosity levels in Wytham. The high frequency of imperfect repeats and demographic phenomena might be responsible for the reduced levels of variability observed in the badger. PMID:12535103

  8. Social organization and movement influence the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in an undisturbed high-density badger Meles meles population.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J; Delahay, R J; Walker, N J; Cheeseman, C L

    2007-03-01

    1. The culling of European badgers Meles meles has been a central part of attempts to control bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle for many years. Recent results, however, indicate that this approach could in practice enhance disease spread. 2. This paper looks at the relationship between TB incidence and badger ecology in a high-density population in south-west England, which has been the subject of a long-term intensive study. The principal aims were to relate the probability of TB incidence, as detected by culture of clinical samples (i.e. excretion of bacilli), at the level of the individual and of the social group to demographic processes, movement, social organization and disease dynamics. 3. The probability of an individual being an incident case was greater in groups where TB was already present, although this was less influential in groups that were subject to some instability in numbers. Both individuals and groups were more likely to be incident cases where the social group was diminishing in size, although no relationship was observed with group size itself. This suggests that the process of group size reduction rather than group size per se has most influence on disease dynamics. The likelihood that either an individual or a group was an incident case was positively correlated with both individual and group-level movement. When the proportion of females in a social group was high, the positive association between movement and incidence was found to be more pronounced and there was a significantly higher probability of incident cases among males. 4. These relationships highlight the importance of social structure in driving TB transmission dynamics in this stable, high-density badger population. The results support the idea that a stable social structure mitigates against new incident cases of disease, and are consistent with the contention that badger culling may create the social circumstances for enhanced transmission of TB. PMID:17302842

  9. Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations.

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Agren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Cirović, D; Sprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

    2014-11-01

    Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

  10. Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Ågren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Ćirović, D; Šprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

    2014-01-01

    Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

  11. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles): characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2012-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the α1 and β1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the presentation of peptides. The MHC thus plays an important role in pathogen defense. European badgers (Meles meles) are a good species in which to study the MHC, as they harbor a variety of pathogens. We present the first characterization of MHC class II genes, isolated from genomic DNA (gDNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA), in the European badger. Examination of seven individuals revealed four DRB, two DQB, two DQA, and two DRA putatively functional gDNA sequences. All of these sequences, except DRA, exhibited high variability in exon 2; DRB had the highest variability. The ABS codons demonstrated high variability, due potentially to balancing selection, while non-ABS codons had lower variability. Positively selected sites were detected in DRB and DQA. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated trans-species polymorphism of class II genes. Comparison with cDNA from whole blood revealed that only DRB had a transcription pattern reflecting the alleles that were present in the gDNA, while the other three genes had disparities between gDNA and cDNA. Only one sequence was transcribed, even though two gDNA sequences were present, from each of both DQB and DRA. Our characterization of badger MHC sequences forms a basis for further studies of MHC variability, mate choice, and pathogen resistance in this, and other, species. PMID:22038175

  12. Movement of badgers (Meles meles) in a high-density population: individual, population and disease effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, L M; Delahay, R; Cheeseman, C L; Langton, S; Smith, G C; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    1998-01-01

    The movement of 1763 badgers trapped between 36 social groups in Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, over 18 years was analysed to determine the frequency and duration of moves, the factors associated with a predisposition to move and the spatial pattern of movements. Of those badgers whose capture history could be categorized, nearly half had moved. Of these, 73.1% were classified as 'occasional movers', 22.1% as 'permanent movers' and 4.8% as 'frequent movers'. Most adult badgers that moved made occasional moves (78.8%, n = 67). Cubs made all types of move including permanent moves (29%, n = 10). Seventy per cent of females were non-movers compared with 37% of males. Badgers were significantly more likely to move to smaller groups, whereas male badgers were significantly more likely to move to groups with a greater proportion of females. The spatial pattern of movement differed from the distribution of groups with bovine tuberculosis in the study area. However, temporal changes in movement were significantly related to the incidence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the following year, indicating that as the movement of badgers between groups varies so does the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the population. This finding is of central importance in the formulation of badger control policy. PMID:9718736

  13. Population estimation and trappability of the European badger (Meles meles): implications for tuberculosis management.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; O'Keeffe, James; Green, Stuart; Sleeman, D Paddy; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn; Murphy, Denise; Martin, S Wayne; Davenport, John

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of population size and trappability inform vaccine efficacy modelling and are required for adaptive management during prolonged wildlife vaccination campaigns. We present an analysis of mark-recapture data from a badger vaccine (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) study in Ireland. This study is the largest scale (755 km(2)) mark-recapture study ever undertaken with this species. The study area was divided into three approximately equal-sized zones, each with similar survey and capture effort. A mean badger population size of 671 (SD: 76) was estimated using a closed-subpopulation model (CSpM) based on data from capturing sessions of the entire area and was consistent with a separate multiplicative model. Minimum number alive estimates calculated from the same data were on average 49-51% smaller than the CSpM estimates, but these are considered severely negatively biased when trappability is low. Population densities derived from the CSpM estimates were 0.82-1.06 badgers km(-2), and broadly consistent with previous reports for an adjacent area. Mean trappability was estimated to be 34-35% per session across the population. By the fifth capture session, 79% of the adult badgers caught had been marked previously. Multivariable modelling suggested significant differences in badger trappability depending on zone, season and age-class. There were more putatively trap-wary badgers identified in the population than trap-happy badgers, but wariness was not related to individual's sex, zone or season of capture. Live-trapping efficacy can vary significantly amongst sites, seasons, age, or personality, hence monitoring of trappability is recommended as part of an adaptive management regime during large-scale wildlife vaccination programs to counter biases and to improve efficiencies. PMID:23227211

  14. Population Estimation and Trappability of the European Badger (Meles meles): Implications for Tuberculosis Management

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Andrew W.; O’Keeffe, James; Green, Stuart; Sleeman, D. Paddy; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Gormley, Eamonn; Murphy, Denise; Martin, S. Wayne; Davenport, John

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of population size and trappability inform vaccine efficacy modelling and are required for adaptive management during prolonged wildlife vaccination campaigns. We present an analysis of mark-recapture data from a badger vaccine (Bacille Calmette–Guérin) study in Ireland. This study is the largest scale (755 km2) mark-recapture study ever undertaken with this species. The study area was divided into three approximately equal–sized zones, each with similar survey and capture effort. A mean badger population size of 671 (SD: 76) was estimated using a closed-subpopulation model (CSpM) based on data from capturing sessions of the entire area and was consistent with a separate multiplicative model. Minimum number alive estimates calculated from the same data were on average 49–51% smaller than the CSpM estimates, but these are considered severely negatively biased when trappability is low. Population densities derived from the CSpM estimates were 0.82–1.06 badgers km−2, and broadly consistent with previous reports for an adjacent area. Mean trappability was estimated to be 34–35% per session across the population. By the fifth capture session, 79% of the adult badgers caught had been marked previously. Multivariable modelling suggested significant differences in badger trappability depending on zone, season and age-class. There were more putatively trap-wary badgers identified in the population than trap-happy badgers, but wariness was not related to individual’s sex, zone or season of capture. Live-trapping efficacy can vary significantly amongst sites, seasons, age, or personality, hence monitoring of trappability is recommended as part of an adaptive management regime during large–scale wildlife vaccination programs to counter biases and to improve efficiencies. PMID:23227211

  15. Association of quantitative interferon-γ responses with the progression of naturally acquired Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild European badgers (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Alexandra J; Chambers, Mark A; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is one of the biggest challenges facing cattle farming in Great Britain. European badgers (Meles meles) are a reservoir host for the causal agent, Mycobacterium bovis. There have been significant recent advances in diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in humans, cattle and badgers, with the development of species-specific assays for interferon-γ (IFN-γ), an important cytokine in tuberculous infections. Using data collected from longitudinal studies of naturally infected wild badgers, we report that the magnitude of the IFN-γ response to M. bovis antigens at the disclosing test event was positively correlated with subsequent progression of disease to a seropositive or excreting state. In addition, we show that the magnitude of the IFN-γ response, despite fluctuation, declined with time after the disclosing event for all badgers, but remained significantly higher in those animals with evidence of disease progression. We discuss how our findings may be related to the immunopathogenesis of natural M. bovis infection in badgers. PMID:25109384

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Test for Tuberculosis in Live European Badgers (Meles meles) Based on Measurement of Gamma Interferon mRNA by Real-Time PCR?

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, J.; Mealing, D.; Dalley, D.; Dav, D.; Lesellier, S.; Palmer, S.; Bowen-Davies, J.; Crawshaw, T. R.; Chambers, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for the measurement of gamma interferon (IFN-?) mRNA in European badger (Meles meles) blood cultures was developed. The levels of IFN-? mRNA in blood cultures stimulated with either bovine or avian tuberculin or specific mycobacterial antigens were compared with those in a nonstimulated control blood culture as the basis for determining the tuberculosis (TB) status of live badgers. The assay was validated by testing 247 animals for which there were matching data from postmortem examination and culture of tissues. Relative changes in the levels of IFN-? mRNA in response to bovine tuberculin and specific antigens were found to be greater among badgers with tissues positive for TB on culture. The test was at its most accurate (87% of test results were correct) by using blood cultures containing bovine tuberculin as the antigen and when the response to avian tuberculin was taken into account by subtracting the avian tuberculin response from the bovine tuberculin response. At a specificity of 90.7%, the test was 70.6% sensitive. At the same specificity, the current serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TB in badgers was only 53% sensitive. This work demonstrates that measurement of IFN-? mRNA by real-time PCR is a valid method for the detection of TB in live badgers and may provide an alternative to the current serological methods of diagnosis, the Brock test. The testing procedure can be completed within 5 h of receipt of the blood culture samples. In addition, the use of a molecular biology-based test offers the potential to fully automate the testing procedure through the use of robotics. PMID:17537931

  17. Tuberculosis in cattle herds are sentinels for Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles): the Irish Greenfield Study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Gormley, E; Collins, D M; McGrath, G; Sovsic, E; Costello, E; Corner, L A L

    2011-07-01

    In Ireland badgers are removed in response to tuberculosis (TB) breakdowns in cattle herds (focal culling). Prevalence studies, conducted using a detailed post mortem and bacteriological examination, showed that 36-50% of badgers were infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Focal culling forms part of the medium term national strategy for the control of bovine TB in cattle and is based on the premise that badgers in areas with herd breakdowns have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger population at large. However, the hypothesis that cattle can be used as sentinels for infection in the badger population has never been formally tested. In this study we tested the hypothesis by determining the infection prevalence in badgers in areas where there had been historically, a consistently low prevalence of infection in cattle. Low cattle TB prevalence areas were defined as those herds with ≤ 2 standard reactors in the annual round of skin testing over the preceding 5 years (Greenfield sites). Using GIS, and adjusting for variation in land use, previous culling and cattle density, 198 Greenfield sites were identified and surveyed, and 138 areas with badger setts or signs of badger activity were identified. A single badger was removed from 87 sites and all were examined using detailed post mortem and bacteriological procedures. A prevalence of M. bovis infection of 14.9% was found in the Greenfield site badgers. This prevalence was significantly lower (P<0.001) than in badgers removed during focal culling (36.6%). The results validate the use of cattle as sentinels for TB in badgers and support the medium term national strategy for the control of bovine TB. The geographic variation in M. bovis infection prevalence in the Irish badger populations will be used when devising strategies for the incorporation of badger vaccination into the long term bovine TB control programme. PMID:21444162

  18. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-10-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

  19. Will Trespassers Be Prosecuted or Assessed According to Their Merits? A Consilient Interpretation of Territoriality in a Group-Living Carnivore, the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michael J.; Newman, Chris; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-spatial interactions of Carnivores have traditionally been described using the vocabulary of territoriality and aggression, with scent marks interpreted as ‘scent fences’. Here, we investigate the role of olfactory signals in assumed territorial marking of group-living solitary foragers using European badgers Meles meles as a model. We presented anal gland secretions (n = 351) from known individuals to identifiable recipients (n = 187), to assess response-variation according to familiarity (own-group, neighbours, strangers) and spatial context (in-context: at a shared border; out-of-context: at an unshared border/ the main sett). Sniffing and over-marking (with subcaudal gland secretion) responses were strongest to anal gland secretions from strangers, intermediate to neighbouring-group and weakest to own-group members. Secretions from both, strangers and neighbours, were sniffed for longer than were own-group samples, although neighbour-secretion presented out-of-context evoked no greater interest than in-context. On an individual level, responses were further moderated by the relevance of individual-specific donor information encoded in the secretion, as it related to the physiological state of the responder. There was a trend bordering on significance for males to sniff for longer than did females, but without sex-related differences in the frequency of subcaudal over-marking responses, and males over-marked oestrous female secretions more than non-oestrous females. There were no age-class related differences in sniff-duration or in over-marking. Evaluating these results in the context of the Familiarity hypothesis, the Threat-level hypothesis, and the Individual advertisement hypothesis evidences that interpretations of territorial scent-marks depicting rigid and potentially agonistic discrimination between own- and foreign-group conspecifics are overly simplistic. We use our findings to advance conceptual understanding of badger socio-spatial ecology, and the general context of territoriality and group-range dynamics. PMID:26147753

  20. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-01-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

  1. A Multi-Metric Approach to Investigate the Effects of Weather Conditions on the Demographic of a Terrestrial Mammal, the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Nouvellet, Pierre; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Macdonald, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Models capturing the full effects of weather conditions on animal populations are scarce. Here we decompose yearly temperature and rainfall into mean trends, yearly amplitude of change and residual variation, using daily records. We establish from multi-model inference procedures, based on 1125 life histories (from 1987 to 2008), that European badger (Meles meles) annual mortality and recruitment rates respond to changes in mean trends and to variability in proximate weather components. Variation in mean rainfall was by far the most influential predictor in our analysis. Juvenile survival and recruitment rates were highest at intermediate levels of mean rainfall, whereas low adult survival rates were associated with only the driest, and not the wettest, years. Both juvenile and adult survival rates also exhibited a range of tolerance for residual standard deviation around daily predicted temperature values, beyond which survival rates declined. Life-history parameters, annual routines and adaptive behavioural responses, which define the badgers’ climatic niche, thus appear to be predicated upon a bounded range of climatic conditions, which support optimal survival and recruitment dynamics. That variability in weather conditions is influential, in combination with mean climatic trends, on the vital rates of a generalist, wide ranging and K-selected medium-sized carnivore, has major implications for evolutionary ecology and conservation. PMID:23874517

  2. Resource availability affects individual niche variation and its consequences in group-living European badgers Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Kelly, Simon D; Bearhop, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Although intra-population variation in niches is a widespread phenomenon with important implications for ecology, evolution and management of a range of animal species, the causes and consequences of this variation remain poorly understood. We used stable isotope analysis to characterise foraging niches and to investigate the causes and consequences of individual niche variation in the European badger, a mustelid mammal that lives in territorial social groups, but forages alone. We found that the degree of individual niche variation within social groups was negatively related to the availability of farmland habitats, which represent an important foraging habitat for badgers; and was positively related to territory size, supporting the idea that resource limitation and ecological opportunity lead to increased individual specialisation. We also found that the degree of individual specialisation related to an individual's body condition and that this effect varied with ecological context; such that specialisation had a stronger positive relationship with body condition in social groups with reduced availability of key farmland habitats. Body condition was also related to the utilisation of specific resources (woodland invertebrates), but again this relationship varied with the availability of farmland foraging habitats. This study supports the idea that resource availability plays an important role in determining patterns of individual niche variation, and identifies the potential adaptive consequences of specialised foraging strategies. PMID:25656581

  3. Polygynandry, extra-group paternity and multiple-paternity litters in European badger (Meles meles) social groups.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry

    2007-12-01

    The costs and benefits of natal philopatry are central to the formation and maintenance of social groups. Badger groups, thought to form passively according to the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), are maintained through natal philopatry and delayed dispersal; however, there is minimal evidence for the functional benefits of such grouping. We assigned parentage to 630 badger cubs from a high-density population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, born between 1988 and 2005. Our methodological approach was different to previous studies; we used 22 microsatellite loci to assign parent pairs, which in combination with sibship inference provided a high parentage assignment rate. We assigned both parents to 331 cubs at > or = 95% confidence, revealing a polygynandrous mating system with up to five mothers and five fathers within a social group. We estimated that only 27% of adult males and 31% of adult females bred each year, suggesting a cost to group living for both sexes. Any strong motivation or selection to disperse, however, may be reduced because just under half of the paternities were gained by extra-group males, mainly from neighbouring groups, with males displaying a mixture of paternity strategies. We provide the strongest evidence to date for multiple-paternity litters, and for the first time show that within-group and extra-group males can sire cubs in the same litter. We investigate the factors that may play a role in determining the degree of delayed dispersal and conclude that the ecological constraints hypothesis, benefits of philopatry hypothesis, and life history hypothesis may all play a part, as proposed by the broad constraints hypothesis. PMID:17971085

  4. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination reduces the severity and progression of tuberculosis in badgers

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Mark A.; Rogers, Fiona; Delahay, Richard J.; Lesellier, Sandrine; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna; Gowtage, Sonya; Davé, Dipesh; Palmer, Si; Brewer, Jacky; Crawshaw, Timothy; Clifton-Hadley, Richard; Carter, Steve; Cheeseman, Chris; Hanks, Chris; Murray, Alistair; Palphramand, Kate; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Smith, Graham C.; Tomlinson, Alexandra; Walker, Neil J.; Wilson, Gavin J.; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Gettinby, George; McDonald, Robbie A.; Hewinson, R. Glyn

    2011-01-01

    Control of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has proven particularly challenging where reservoirs of infection exist in wildlife populations. In Britain and Ireland, control is hampered by a reservoir of infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). Badger culling has positive and negative effects on bovine TB in cattle and is difficult, costly and controversial. Here we show that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of captive badgers reduced the progression, severity and excretion of Mycobacterium bovis infection after experimental challenge. In a clinical field study, BCG vaccination of free-living badgers reduced the incidence of positive serological test results by 73.8 per cent. In common with other species, BCG did not appear to prevent infection of badgers subjected to experimental challenge, but did significantly reduce the overall disease burden. BCG vaccination of badgers could comprise an important component of a comprehensive programme of measures to control bovine TB in cattle. PMID:21123260

  5. A DNA vaccine encoding MPB83 from Mycobacterium bovis reduces M. bovis dissemination to the kidneys of mice and is expressed in primary cell cultures of the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Chambers, M A; Stagg, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Lowrie, D; Newell, D; Hewinson, R G

    2001-10-01

    Nucleic acid (DNA) vaccination against tuberculosis in the European badger (Meles meles) is one approach to addressing the escalating problem of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain. The aim of vaccination is to reduce the burden of tuberculosis within the badger population and the shedding of Mycobacterium bovis to levels that would break the transmission of infection to cattle. To this end, the vaccine would be required to limit the amount of disseminated tuberculosis in the badger, especially dissemination to the kidney from where M. bovis can be shed in the urine. A promising candidate DNA vaccine encoding a 26 kDa major antigen (MPB83) of M. bovis was evaluated in a mouse model of disseminated M. bovis infection. Using the DNA vaccine, protection against infection of the kidney was found to be greater than that achieved with the current live vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Kidney tissue and skeletal muscle from the badger was used to derive primary cell cultures in which to examine the expression of MPB83 following transfection with the DNA vaccine. Kidney cortex gave rise to a monotypic culture of epithelial cells whilst the muscle gave rise to a mixed culture of fibroblasts and myoblasts. During culture the myoblasts differentiated into multinucleated myotubes, verified by immunofluorescent detection of mammalian desmin. Successful expression of MPB83 by transfected epithelial and myotube cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody specific to the protein. These observations fulfil the early requirements for the development of a DNA vaccine for badger tuberculosis. PMID:11883890

  6. In situ adaptive response to climate and habitat quality variation: spatial and temporal variation in European badger (Meles meles) body weight.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; Fogarty, Ursula; O'Keeffe, James; Newman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Variation in climatic and habitat conditions can affect populations through a variety of mechanisms, and these relationships can act at different temporal and spatial scales. Using post-mortem badger body weight records from 15 878 individuals captured across the Republic of Ireland (7224 setts across ca. 15 000 km(2) ; 2009-2012), we employed a hierarchical multilevel mixed model to evaluate the effects of climate (rainfall and temperature) and habitat quality (landscape suitability), while controlling for local abundance (unique badgers caught/sett/year). Body weight was affected strongly by temperature across a number of temporal scales (preceding month or season), with badgers being heavier if preceding temperatures (particularly during winter/spring) were warmer than the long-term seasonal mean. There was less support for rainfall across different temporal scales, although badgers did exhibit heavier weights when greater rainfall occurred one or 2 months prior to capture. Badgers were also heavier in areas with higher landscape habitat quality, modulated by the number of individuals captured per sett, consistent with density-dependent effects reducing weights. Overall, the mean badger body weight of culled individuals rose during the study period (2009-2012), more so for males than for females. With predicted increases in temperature, and rainfall, augmented by ongoing agricultural land conversion in this region, we project heavier individual badger body weights in the future. Increased body weight has been associated with higher fecundity, recruitment and survival rates in badgers, due to improved food availability and energetic budgets. We thus predict that climate change could increase the badger population across the Republic of Ireland. Nevertheless, we emphasize that, locally, populations could still be vulnerable to extreme weather variability coupled with detrimental agricultural practice, including population management. PMID:25846328

  7. Spatial and temporal analyses of metrics of tuberculosis infection in badgers (Meles meles) from the Republic of Ireland: Trends in apparent prevalence.

    PubMed

    Byrne, A W; Kenny, K; Fogarty, U; O'Keeffe, J J; More, S J; McGrath, G; Teeling, M; Martin, S W; Dohoo, I R

    2015-12-01

    Badgers are a wildlife host of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and an important contributor to the epidemiology of bTB in cattle in Ireland and Britain. Repeated culling of badgers in high prevalence cattle bTB areas has been used in the Republic of Ireland as one tool to reduce intra- and interspecific transmission of M. bovis. We assessed factors that influenced infection prevalence of culled badgers from 2009 to 2012 (n=4948) where spatial, temporal and intrinsic factor data were available using multivariable modelling. Prevalence appeared higher in western areas than eastern areas of Ireland and badgers were more likely to be test-positive if caught at a sett (burrow system) which was close to other infected setts (spatial clustering of infection). There was a significant positive association between badger test-status and cattle prevalence of M. bovis infection at a spatial scale of 1km around setts. Badgers were more likely to be deemed test positive if they were male (OR: 1.9) or a parous female (OR: 1.7), compared to a female who had never conceived. Our results are consistent with different groups within badger populations having differential exposures and therefore infection risk (for example, parous vs. non-parous females). Furthermore, bTB clusters within the badger population, with greater risk to badgers in setts that are closest to other infected setts. The effective scale of the association of bTB risk between badger and cattle populations may be relatively large in Ireland. Our data indicate that the overall trend in prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers has decreased in Ireland (P<0.001) while controlling for significant confounders over the study period, and follows a longer temporal trend from 2007 to 2013, where unadjusted apparent prevalence declined from 26% to 11% during 2007 to mid-2011, followed by a stable trend between 9 and 11% thereafter (n=10,267). PMID:26556049

  8. Effects of photoperiod, melatonin implants and castration on molting and on plasma thyroxine, testosterone and prolactin levels in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Maurel, D; Coutant, C; Boissin, J

    1989-01-01

    1. The seasonal molt, which lasts six months in the badger, begins in mid-July and ends at the beginning of winter. It occurs under natural long-day conditions, following the seasonal drop in plasma testosterone levels, concomitant with high levels of thyroxine and prolactin. 2. To examine the role of the different factors involved (day length, prolactin, thyroxine, testosterone), different groups of badgers, divided into subgroups of castrated or intact animals, were subjected to the influence of long days (20L: 4D), short days (4L:20D) or the effect of subcutaneous melatonin implants. 3. In all cases, castration resulted in a significantly earlier onset of molting 1-3 months, depending on the group, regardless of the experimental conditions (20L:4D, 4L:20D, melatonin). 4. However, molting started earliest in animals subjected to long days, irrespective of whether they were castrated or intact. 5. In the melatonin-implanted badgers, molting started either early (castrated animals), or late or not at all (intact animals). 6. Lastly, in castrated badgers subjected to experimental photoperiods (short days or long days) or melatonin implants, the period of molting was shortened from 6 months (intact outdoor animals) to 4 months. 7. The advance in shedding was always related to an early drop in testosterone (or an absence of testosterone in the castrated animals) and to a higher or earlier increase in thyroxine levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2570666

  9. Avoiding verisimilitude when modelling ecological responses to climate change: the influence of weather conditions on trapping efficiency in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Noonan, Michael J; Rahman, M Abidur; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W

    2015-10-01

    The signal for climate change effects can be abstruse; consequently, interpretations of evidence must avoid verisimilitude, or else misattribution of causality could compromise policy decisions. Examining climatic effects on wild animal population dynamics requires ability to trap, observe or photograph and to recapture study individuals consistently. In this regard, we use 19 years of data (1994-2012), detailing the life histories on 1179 individual European badgers over 3288 (re-) trapping events, to test whether trapping efficiency was associated with season, weather variables (both contemporaneous and time lagged), body-condition index (BCI) and trapping efficiency (TE). PCA factor loadings demonstrated that TE was affected significantly by temperature and precipitation, as well as time lags in these variables. From multi-model inference, BCI was the principal driver of TE, where badgers in good condition were less likely to be trapped. Our analyses exposed that this was enacted mechanistically via weather variables driving BCI, affecting TE. Notably, the very conditions that militated for poor trapping success have been associated with actual survival and population abundance benefits in badgers. Using these findings to parameterize simulations, projecting best-/worst-case scenario weather conditions and BCI resulted in 8.6% ± 4.9 SD difference in seasonal TE, leading to a potential 55.0% population abundance under-estimation under the worst-case scenario; 38.6% over-estimation under the best case. Interestingly, simulations revealed that while any single trapping session might prove misrepresentative of the true population abundance, due to weather effects, prolonging capture-mark-recapture studies under sub-optimal conditions decreased the accuracy of population estimates significantly. We also use these projection scenarios to explore how weather could impact government-led trapping of badgers in the UK, in relation to TB management. We conclude that population monitoring must be calibrated against the likelihood that weather conditions could be altering trap success directly, and therefore biasing model design. PMID:25857625

  10. Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers in localized culling areas.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Cox, D R; Gilks, Peter; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; Le Fevre, Andrea M; Bourne, F John; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Gettinby, George; Hewinson, R Glyn; McInerney, John P; Mitchell, A P; Morrison, W Ivan; Watkins, Gavin H

    2009-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease that can have serious consequences for cattle farming and, potentially, for public health. In Britain, failure to control bovine TB has been linked to persistent infection of European badger (Meles meles) populations. However, culling of badgers in the vicinity of recent TB outbreaks in cattle has failed to reduce the overall incidence of cattle TB. Using data from a large-scale study conducted in 1998-2005, we show that badgers collected on such localized culls had elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine TB, suggesting that infections in cattle and badgers were indeed associated. Moreover, there was a high degree of similarity in the M. bovis strain types isolated from cattle and associated badgers. This similarity between strain types appeared to be unaffected by time lags between the detection of infection in cattle and culling of badgers, or by the presence of purchased cattle that might have acquired infection elsewhere. However, localized culling appeared to prompt an increase in the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers, probably by disrupting ranging and territorial behavior and hence increasing intraspecific transmission rates. This elevated prevalence among badgers could offset the benefits, for cattle, of reduced badger densities and may help to explain the failure of localized culling to reduce cattle TB incidence. PMID:19204342

  11. BCG Vaccination Reduces Risk of Tuberculosis Infection in Vaccinated Badgers and Unvaccinated Badger Cubs

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stephen P.; Chambers, Mark A.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Schuchert, Pia; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Murray, Alistair; Rogers, Fiona; Gettinby, George; Smith, Graham C.; Delahay, Richard J.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles). Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.52) the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.88) in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.76; P = 0.03). When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.81; P = 0.02). PMID:23251352

  12. Badger responses to small-scale culling may compromise targeted control of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bielby, Jon; Donnelly, Christl A; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2014-06-24

    Where wildlife disease requires management, culling is frequently considered but not always effective. In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by infection in wild badger (Meles meles) populations. Large-scale badger culling can reduce the incidence of confirmed cattle TB, but these benefits are undermined by culling-induced changes in badger behavior (termed perturbation), which can increase transmission among badgers and from badgers to cattle. Test-vaccinate/remove (TVR) is a novel approach that entails testing individual badgers for infection, vaccinating test-negative animals, and killing test-positive animals. Imperfect capture success, diagnostic sensitivity, and vaccine effectiveness mean that TVR would be expected to leave some infected and some susceptible badgers in the population. Existing simulation models predict that TVR could reduce cattle TB if such small-scale culling causes no perturbation, but could increase cattle TB if considerable perturbation occurs. Using data from a long-term study, we show that past small-scale culling was significantly associated with four metrics of perturbation in badgers: expanded ranging, more frequent immigration, lower genetic relatedness, and elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of TB. Though we could not reject the hypothesis that culling up to three badgers per social group might avoid perturbation, we also could not reject the hypothesis that killing a single badger prompted detectable perturbation. When considered alongside existing model predictions, our findings suggest that implementation of TVR, scheduled for 2014, risks exacerbating the TB problem rather than controlling it. Ongoing illegal badger culling is likewise expected to increase cattle TB risks. PMID:24927589

  13. Badger responses to small-scale culling may compromise targeted control of bovine tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bielby, Jon; Donnelly, Christl A.; Pope, Lisa C.; Burke, Terry; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2014-01-01

    Where wildlife disease requires management, culling is frequently considered but not always effective. In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by infection in wild badger (Meles meles) populations. Large-scale badger culling can reduce the incidence of confirmed cattle TB, but these benefits are undermined by culling-induced changes in badger behavior (termed perturbation), which can increase transmission among badgers and from badgers to cattle. Test–vaccinate/remove (TVR) is a novel approach that entails testing individual badgers for infection, vaccinating test-negative animals, and killing test-positive animals. Imperfect capture success, diagnostic sensitivity, and vaccine effectiveness mean that TVR would be expected to leave some infected and some susceptible badgers in the population. Existing simulation models predict that TVR could reduce cattle TB if such small-scale culling causes no perturbation, but could increase cattle TB if considerable perturbation occurs. Using data from a long-term study, we show that past small-scale culling was significantly associated with four metrics of perturbation in badgers: expanded ranging, more frequent immigration, lower genetic relatedness, and elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of TB. Though we could not reject the hypothesis that culling up to three badgers per social group might avoid perturbation, we also could not reject the hypothesis that killing a single badger prompted detectable perturbation. When considered alongside existing model predictions, our findings suggest that implementation of TVR, scheduled for 2014, risks exacerbating the TB problem rather than controlling it. Ongoing illegal badger culling is likewise expected to increase cattle TB risks. PMID:24927589

  14. Estimating the extent of spatial association of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G E; McGrath, G E; More, S J

    2010-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infects the wildlife species badgers Meles meles who are linked with the spread of the associated disease tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. Control of livestock infections depends in part on the spatial and social structure of the wildlife host. Here we describe spatial association of M. bovis infection in a badger population using data from the first year of the Four Area Project in Ireland. Using second-order intensity functions, we show there is strong evidence of clustering of TB cases in each the four areas, i.e. a global tendency for infected cases to occur near other infected cases. Using estimated intensity functions, we identify locations where particular strains of TB cluster. Generalized linear geostatistical models are used to assess the practical range at which spatial correlation occurs and is found to exceed 6 in all areas. The study is of relevance concerning the scale of localized badger culling in the control of the disease in cattle. PMID:19653926

  15. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; MacArthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km-2 (95% confidence interval 0.449-0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400-76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985-88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2-2.9%), equating to an 88% (70-105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83-123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (-25 to +49%).

  16. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; Macarthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km−2 (95% confidence interval 0.449–0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400–76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985–88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2–2.9%), equating to an 88% (70–105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83–123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (−25 to +49%). PMID:24457532

  17. The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers.

    PubMed

    King, Hayley C; Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Hung, Yu-Jiun; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs. Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 10(3)- 4 × 10(5) M. bovis cells g(-1) of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir. Our findings highlight the potential importance of monitoring environmental reservoirs of M. bovis which may constitute a component of disease spread that is currently overlooked and yet may be responsible for a proportion of transmission amongst badgers and onwards to cattle. PMID:26247348

  18. The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers

    PubMed Central

    King, Hayley C.; Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Hung, Yu-Jiun; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J.; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs. Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 103 − 4 × 105 M. bovis cells g−1 of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir. Our findings highlight the potential importance of monitoring environmental reservoirs of M. bovis which may constitute a component of disease spread that is currently overlooked and yet may be responsible for a proportion of transmission amongst badgers and onwards to cattle. PMID:26247348

  19. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, C. A.; Bento, A. I.; Goodchild, A. V.; Downs, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  20. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C A; Bento, A I; Goodchild, A V; Downs, S H

    2015-10-24

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  1. Spatial Targeting for Bovine Tuberculosis Control: Can the Locations of Infected Cattle Be Used to Find Infected Badgers?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine M.; Downs, Sara H.; Mitchell, Andy; Hayward, Andrew C.; Fry, Hannah; Le Comber, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a disease of historical importance to human health in the UK that remains a major animal health and economic issue. Control of the disease in cattle is complicated by the presence of a reservoir species, the Eurasian badger. In spite of uncertainty in the degree to which cattle disease results from transmission from badgers, and opposition from environmental groups, culling of badgers has been licenced in two large areas in England. Methods to limit culls to smaller areas that target badgers infected with TB whilst minimising the number of uninfected badgers culled is therefore of considerable interest. Here, we use historical data from a large-scale field trial of badger culling to assess two alternative hypothetical methods of targeting TB-infected badgers based on the distribution of cattle TB incidents: (i) a simple circular ‘ring cull’; and (ii) geographic profiling, a novel technique for spatial targeting of infectious disease control that predicts the locations of sources of infection based on the distribution of linked cases. Our results showed that both methods required coverage of very large areas to ensure a substantial proportion of infected badgers were removed, and would result in many uninfected badgers being culled. Geographic profiling, which accounts for clustering of infections in badger and cattle populations, produced a small but non-significant increase in the proportion of setts with TB-infected compared to uninfected badgers included in a cull. It also provided no overall improvement at targeting setts with infected badgers compared to the ring cull. Cattle TB incidents in this study were therefore insufficiently clustered around TB-infected badger setts to design an efficient spatially targeted cull; and this analysis provided no evidence to support a move towards spatially targeted badger culling policies for bovine TB control. PMID:26565626

  2. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB) in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles). The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to reduce bTB in badgers include efforts to minimise such external sources of infection. PMID:22738118

  3. Badgers gasohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-29

    It is reported that Badger Energy is to participate in a gasohol project that will utilize the Tate and Lyle fermentation process at the proposed plant at Thibodaux, La., to produce 20 million gal/year of ethanol. The facility will be able to process alternative feedstocks such as grain, sorghum and sugar cane. The Dept. of Energy is funding the first phase of the project, which includes a feasibility study, by a grant of $1.9 million.

  4. Evidence for a Role of the Host-Specific Flea (Paraceras melis) in the Transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European Badger

    PubMed Central

    Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W.; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

  5. Evidence for a role of the host-specific flea (Paraceras melis) in the transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European badger.

    PubMed

    Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

  6. A Badger Teaches in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a visit to the principal's office to see his family heirloom (a quilted Hawaiian flag), and reading the book "Badger's Parting Gifts," created powerful and ongoing lessons for the author's second graders, imparting an eternal way of thinking about gifts, family, friends, and human values. (SR)

  7. 10. VIEW OF THE BADGER STATE MINEYARD, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE BADGER STATE MINEYARD, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE HOIST HOUSE ON THE LEFT, THE IDLER TOWER, AND A LEG OF THE HEADFRAME ON THE RIGHT - Butte Mineyards, Badger State Mine, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  9. The BADGER Inline Equation of State Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heltemes, Thad A.

    The complex multiphysics capabilities of radiation hydrodynamics codes require detailed equation of state (EOS) data. These EOS data need to accurately describe the behavior of materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. This is particularly true for integrated high-gain target explosion --- reaction chamber response simulations where conditions ranging from thermonuclear to solid-state are present throughout the simulation. The models employed to facilitate representing the desired material(s) need to represent solid, liquid, gas and plasma states of matter. Each of these states of matter have unique physical phenomena that must be described in an EOS model. In addition to pure material phase information, an ideal EOS model will incorporate phase-change and chemical reaction information. The BADGER Fortran EOS library was created to meet the needs of these multiphysics simulation codes. BADGER incorporates the most recently published ion EOS, electron EOS and ionization models. It was written as a software library with the express intent of being directly linked into external codes to eliminate the requirement of generating tabular data. The library accepts an arbitrary material composition of natural elements or isotopes and calculates the EOS variables and mean ionization based on the density, temperature and plasma condition (local thermodynamic equilibrium or non-LTE). The results are stored in a data array that is accessible to the external code. When an EOS calculation is requested, the material is broken down into individual isotopes and the EOS/ionization calculation is performed on each isotope. BADGER assumes a thermodynamically consistent average atom model, so the final material result is simply the sum of the isotopic constituents. The BADGER ion and electron EOS models have been verified against SESAME tabulated EOS data from Los Alamos National Laboratory for aluminum and tungsten and the ionization model was verified against FLYCHK tabulated mean ionization data from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The BADGER EOS library will allow for the first time modeling of integrated ICF target and chamber systems using a single, consistent EOS and ionization model throughout.

  10. Tuberculosis in East Sussex. II. Aspects of badger ecology and surveillance for tuberculosis in badger populations (1976-1984).

    PubMed Central

    Wilesmith, J. W.; Sayers, P. E.; Bode, R.; Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.; Brewer, J. I.; Hillman, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    Following the disclosure of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers in East Sussex in 1976, badgers have been examined from and around farms on which cattle have become infected, but with no other attributable source of infection. These farms are confined to the downland of the south-west of the county and M. bovis has been confirmed in badger populations utilising their land. The available evidence indicates that M. bovis infection in badgers is also confined to this area. A detailed study in one area on the South Downs suggested that M. bovis is endemic in the badger population and therefore presents a continued risk for cattle occupying the area. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 1(Contd.) PMID:3525670

  11. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae in United Kingdom Badgers: Prevalence and Spatial Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. Sian; Hazel, Sarah M.; Williams, Nicola J.; Phiri, Amos; French, Nigel P.; Hart, C. Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen (72%) of 25 badger social groups were found to excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Ried, S. enterica serovar Binza, S. enterica serovar Agama, or S. enterica serovar Lomita. Each serovar was susceptible to a panel of antimicrobials. Based on results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the S. enterica serovar Agama and S. enterica serovar Binza isolates were very similar, but two clones each of S. enterica serovar Lomita and S. enterica serovar Ried were found. Badgers excreting S. enterica serovar Agama were spatially clustered. PMID:12839821

  12. Quantifying badger exposure and the risk of bovine tuberculosis for cattle herds in county Kilkenny, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Olea-Popelka, F J; Phelan, J; White, P W; McGrath, G; Collins, J D; O'keeffe, J; Duggan, M; Collins, D M; Kelton, D F; Berke, O; More, S J; Martin, S W

    2006-07-17

    The objectives of the study were to quantify the levels of badger exposure for cattle and to test the hypothesis that increased badger exposure does not increase the risk of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in a herd. Information that became available from the targeted removal of badgers over the study period, and from a badger-removal project in county Kilkenny, during 1996-1999 was used. The specific location of cattle within each farm, and the length of time that cattle spent in each farm field during the grazing season, and in the barnyard during winter, was used to build an exposure coefficient to quantify the amount of badger exposure that cattle encountered either on pasture or in the barn. The study design was a matched case-control study in which the control herds were selected using incidence density sampling. During the 4-year study period, 543 badgers were removed and of these 96 badgers were classified as tuberculosis positive; 96 BTB herd breakdowns occurred. There was a significant association between case herds and having a higher badger sett exposure coefficient during 1996-1998. No significant association between case herds and having a higher exposure coefficient based on the number of badgers, or the number of tuberculous badgers, during September 1997-December 1999 was found. PMID:16488029

  13. Mathematical model for transmission of tuberculosis in badger population with vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasmi, Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Badger was first time identified as a carrier of Bovine tuberculosis disease in England since 30 years ago. Bovine tuberculosis can be transmitted to another species through the faces, saliva, and breath. The control of tuberculosis in the badger is necessary to reduce the spread of the disease to other species. Many actions have been taken by the government to tackle the disease such as culling badgers with cyanide gas, but this way destroys the natural balance and disrupts the badger population. An alternative way to eliminate tuberculosis within badger population is by vaccination. Here in this paper a model for transmission of badger tuberculosis with vaccination is discussed. The existence of the endemic equilibrium, the stability and the basic reproduction ratio are shown analytically. Numerical simulations show that with proper vaccination level, the basic reproduction ratio could be reduced significantly. Sensitivity analysis for variation of parameters are shown numerically.

  14. Simple model for tuberculosis in cattle and badgers.

    PubMed

    Cox, D R; Donnelly, Christl A; Bourne, F John; Gettinby, George; McInerney, John P; Morrison, W Ivan; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2005-12-01

    As an aid to the study of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a simple model has been developed of an epidemic involving two species, cattle and badgers. Each species may infect the other. The proportion of animals affected is assumed relatively small so that the usual nonlinear aspects of epidemic theory are avoided. The model is used to study the long-run and transient effect on cattle of culling badgers and the effect of a period without routine testing for TB, such as occurred during the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Great Britain. Finally, by examining the changes in cattle TB over the last 15 years, and with some other working assumptions, it is estimated that the net reproduction number of the epidemic is approximately 1.1. The implications for controlling the disease are discussed. PMID:16306260

  15. Entanglement Chern Number of the Kane-Mele Model with Ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Hiromu; Kariyado, Toshikaze; Fukui, Takahiro; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The entanglement Chern number, the Chern number for the entanglement Hamiltonian, is used to characterize the Kane-Mele model, which is a typical model of the quantum spin Hall phase with time-reversal symmetry. We first obtain the global phase diagram of the Kane-Mele model in terms of the entanglement spin Chern number, which is defined by using a spin subspace as a subspace to be traced out in preparing the entanglement Hamiltonian. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of the entanglement Chern number without time-reversal symmetry by extending the Kane-Mele model to include the Zeeman term. The numerical results confirm that the sum of the entanglement spin Chern number is equal to the Chern number.

  16. 75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger..., including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee Falls... Maysteel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS,...

  17. 77 FR 51800 - Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10339, Badger State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... CORPORATION Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10339, Badger State... Receiver for Badger State Bank, Cassville, Wisconsin (``the Receiver'') intends to terminate its receivership for said institution. The FDIC was appointed receiver of Badger State Bank. The liquidation of...

  18. Rabies Virus Infection in Ferret Badgers (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) in Taiwan: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jen-Chieh; Tsai, Kuo-Jung; Hsu, Wei-Cheng; Tu, Yang-Chang; Chuang, Wei-Chieh; Chang, Chia-Yi; Chang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Te-En; Fang, Kuo-Yun; Chang, Yung-Fu; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Lee, Shu-Hwae

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen ferret badgers (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca), collected 2010-13 and stored frozen, were submitted for rabies diagnosis by direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcription PCR. We detected seven positive animal samples, including some from 2010, which indicated that the ferret badger population in Taiwan had been affected by rabies prior to 2010. PMID:26267459

  19. 78 FR 2988 - Badger Creek Limited; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Badger Creek Limited; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice..., as amended, 18 CFR 292.205(c) (2012), Badger Creek Limited filed a petition for declaratory...

  20. Badger (Taxidea taxus) disturbances increase soil heterogeneity in a degraded shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western United States, overgrazing, weed invasion and wildfire have resulted in the conversion of shrub-steppe to annual grasslands, with substantial effects on ecosystem function. In these landscapes, badgers disturb large areas of soil while foraging for prey. Mounds created by badgers cont...

  1. Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A.; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Methodology Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; “Control”, “Feed Storage”, “Cattle Housing” and “Both”, whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Results Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle. PMID:22220199

  2. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents–Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  3. Trial design to estimate the effect of vaccination on tuberculosis incidence in badgers.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Inma; McGrath, Guy; Murphy, Denise; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J; Martin, Wayne; O'Keeffe, James; De Jong, Mart C M

    2011-07-01

    The principal wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in Ireland is the European badger. Studies in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) have shown that badgers culled in association with cattle herd tuberculosis breakdowns (focal culling) have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger population at large. This observation is one rationale for the medium term national strategy of focal badger culling. A vaccination strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in badgers is a preferred long-term option. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been shown to decrease disease severity in captive badgers under controlled conditions. As the vaccine has been tested in a controlled environment with precise information on infection pressure, it cannot be assumed a priori that the effects of vaccination are similar in the wild, where other environmental and/or ecological factors prevail. For this reason we have designed a vaccine field trial to assess the impact of vaccination on the incidence of TB infection in a wild badger population. The selected study area for the vaccine trial (approximately 755 square kilometers) is divided into three zones each of which has similar characteristics in terms of size, number of main badger setts, cattle herds, cattle and land classification type. Three vaccination levels (100%, 50% and 0%) will be allocated to the three zones in a way that a gradient of vaccination coverage North to South is achieved. The middle zone (zone B) will be vaccinated at a 50% coverage but zone A and C will be randomly allocated with 100% or 0% vaccination coverage. Vaccination within zone B will be done randomly at individual badger level. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a field tuberculosis vaccination trial for badgers, the epidemiological methods that were used to design the trial and the subsequent data analysis. The analysis will enable us to quantify the magnitude of the observed vaccination effect on M. bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions and to improve our knowledge of the biological effects of vaccination on susceptibility and infectiousness. PMID:21450420

  4. Environmental silica in badger lungs: a possible association with susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, D.A.; Kung, I.T.; Or, R.S.

    1985-04-01

    Badger lungs contain dark granular foci (0.2 to 2.0 mm) comprising aggregates of enlarged macrophages containing birefringent crystalline particles. Particles were examined from the lungs of three badgers; many were silicates and a significant number were pure silica (SiO/sub 2/). The particles and the accompanying pathology resembled mixed dust fibrosis and silicosis in humans, diseases associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis.

  5. Farmer attitudes to vaccination and culling of badgers in controlling bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Warren, M; Lobley, M; Winter, M

    2013-07-13

    Controversy persists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland concerning methods of controlling the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between badgers and cattle. The National Trust, a major land-owning heritage organisation, in 2011, began a programme of vaccinating badgers against bTB on its Killerton Estate in Devon. Most of the estate is farmed by 18 tenant farmers, who thus have a strong interest in the Trust's approach, particularly as all have felt the effects of the disease. This article reports on a study of the attitudes to vaccination of badgers and to the alternative of a culling programme, using face-to-face interviews with 14 of the tenants. The results indicated first that the views of the respondents were more nuanced than the contemporary public debate about badger control would suggest. Secondly, the attitude of the interviewees to vaccination of badgers against bTB was generally one of resigned acceptance. Thirdly, most respondents would prefer a combination of an effective vaccination programme with an effective culling programme, the latter reducing population of density sufficiently (and preferably targeting the badgers most likely to be diseased) for vaccination to have a reasonable chance of success. While based on a small sample, these results will contribute to the vigorous debate concerning contrasting policy approaches to bTB control in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. PMID:23775132

  6. Complication associated with abdominal surgical implantation of a radio transmitter in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jessica H; Gaffney, Patricia M; Gilardi, Kirsten; Murray, Michael; Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K

    2010-03-01

    Radio telemetry has greatly advanced the understanding of wild animal ecology. Telemetry studies must ensure that placement of transmitters does not influence the health and behavior of study animals. Here, 10 American badgers (Taxidea taxus) were implanted with beeswax-coated abdominal radio transmitters under general anesthesia and tracked for an average of 14 mo. Behavior and movements of all badgers indicated successful short-term recovery from implantation; however, three mortalities were observed between 5 mo and 15 mo after capture. Cause of death could not be determined for two badgers due to decomposition of the carcasses. A third badger that was recovered in good postmortem condition died from sepsis secondary to a transmitter-related omental torsion. This study indicates that there is some risk associated with abdominally implanted radio transmitters in badgers. Future studies involving implanted transmitters in mammals should focus on identifying safe and effective telemetry devices that do not affect the health of study animals. American badger, omental adhesion, peritoneal implant, telemetry, Taxidea taxus. PMID:20722276

  7. Eliminating bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: insight from a dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Wood, James L. N.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a multi-species infection that commonly affects cattle and badgers in Great Britain. Despite years of study, the impact of badgers on BTB incidence in cattle is poorly understood. Using a two-host transmission model of BTB in cattle and badgers, we find that published data and parameter estimates are most consistent with a system at the threshold of control. The most consistent explanation for data obtained from cattle and badger populations includes within-host reproduction numbers close to 1 and between-host reproduction numbers of approximately 0.05. In terms of controlling infection in cattle, reducing cattle-to-cattle transmission is essential. In some regions, even large reductions in badger prevalence can have a modest impact on cattle infection and a multi-stranded approach is necessary that also targets badger-to-cattle transmission directly. The new perspective highlighted by this two-host approach provides insight into the control of BTB in Great Britain. PMID:25972466

  8. 'Big science' in the field: experimenting with badgers and bovine TB, 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Since wild badgers were first connected with outbreaks of bovine TB (bTB) in UK cattle herds in the early 1970s, the question of whether to cull them to control infections in cattle has been the subject of a protracted public and policy controversy. Following the recommendation of Prof. John Krebs that a "scientifically based experimental trial" be carried out to test the effectiveness of badger culling, the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) was commissioned by Government in 1998. One of the largest field experiments ever conducted in the UK, the RBCT sought to recreate the conditions of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) across approximately 3000 km(2) of the South West of England. Despite widespread expectations that the RBCT would provide the necessary evidence to resolve the controversy, its findings have instead been widely contested and reinterpreted, while arguments over badger culling have become increasingly polarised. This paper will investigate the complexities of field experimental knowledge by following the story of the RBCT from this initial proposal, through processes of research design, implementation, analysis, interpretation and reinterpretation of the findings by multiple actors. It asks what kind of experiment the RBCT actually was, and examines how it has contributed to the protracted controversy over whether to cull badgers in order to control bTB in cattle. Finally, it will explore the wider implications of this case for contemporary debates over the contribution that RCTs can make to formulating public policy. PMID:26141169

  9. Localized reactive badger culling increases risk of bovine tuberculosis in nearby cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Vial, Flavie; Donnelly, Christl A

    2012-02-23

    Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle is complicated by the maintenance of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bTB) in badgers, acting as reservoirs of infection. Although over 20 000 badgers were culled to control bTB between 1975 and 1997, the incidence of bTB in cattle has substantially increased in parts of Great Britain in recent decades. Our case-control study, involving 1208 cattle herds, provides further evidence of the detrimental effect of localized reactive badger culling in response to the disclosure of a confirmed bTB herd breakdown in cattle. The presence of any reactive badger culling activity and increased numbers of badgers culled in the vicinity of a herd were associated with significantly increased bTB risk, even after adjusting for other important local risk factors. Such findings may partly explain why some earlier localized approaches to bTB control were ineffective. PMID:21752812

  10. Efficacy of trapping during the initial proactive culls in the randomised badger culling trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C; Cheeseman, C L

    2007-05-26

    The randomised badger culling trial (RBCT) has shown that widespread badger culling in predefined areas of approximately 100 km2 led to a reduction in the number of cattle herds testing positive for bovine tuberculosis (TB) ('herd breakdowns'), but was associated with an increase in cattle tb in surrounding areas. This study has tried to estimate the trapping efficacy and the level of reduction of the badger population during the initial proactive culls in the RBCT. For seven triplets trapping efficacy was estimated between 71 per cent and 85 per cent, and for three triplets between 35 per cent and 46 per cent. Two of the latter triplets had trapping coinciding with harsh climatic conditions. Badger population removal was estimated at 64 per cent to 77 per cent in the former and 32 per cent to 39 per cent in the latter triplets. In most of the treatment areas there was therefore a consistent and substantial reduction in the number of badgers at the end of the initial cull. All the proactive treatment areas were subjected to further culls, and it is therefore likely that greater reductions would have occurred by the end of 2005, when the analysis of cattle herd breakdowns took place. PMID:17526893

  11. Pathogen and rodenticide exposure in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in California.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jessica H; Girard, Yvette A; Gilardi, Kirsten; Hernandez, Yvette; Poppenga, Robert; Chomel, Bruno B; Foley, Janet E; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-04-01

    Urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. American badgers (Taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in California, USA, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. As such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to control nuisance wildlife on agricultural lands. We evaluated free-ranging badgers in California for exposure to pathogens and anticoagulant rodenticides that pose a risk to wildlife, domestic animals, or public health. We found serologic evidence of badger exposure to Francisella tularensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, canine distemper virus, and three Bartonella species: B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Badger tissues contained anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum and bromadiolone, commonly used to control periurban rodent pests. These data provide a preliminary investigation of pathogen and toxicant exposure in the wild badger population. PMID:22493124

  12. 75 FR 43556 - Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Sourcepoint Staffing, Seek, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30070). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Sourcepoint... Adjustment Assistance on April 28, 2010, applicable to workers of Badger Meter, Inc., including...

  13. 77 FR 71587 - Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Badger Creek Limited's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. American badgers selectively excavate burrows in areas used by black-footed ferrets: implications for predator avoidance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated how American badgers (Taxidea taxus) might exert selective pressure on black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) to develop antipredator defenses. In a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in South Dakota, badgers concentrated their activities where burrow openings and prairie dogs were abundant, a selective behavior that was exhibited by ferrets in the same colony. Badgers excavated burrows more often when in areas recently used by a ferret, suggesting that badgers hunt ferrets or steal prey from ferrets, or both. We also conducted an analysis of survival studies for ferrets and Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii) released onto prairie dog colonies. This polecat is the ferret's ecological equivalent but evolved without a digging predator. Badgers accounted for 30.0% of predation on polecats and 5.5% of predation on ferrets. In contrast, both polecats and ferrets have evolutionary experience with canids, providing a plausible explanation for the similar relative impact of coyotes (Canis latrans) on them (65.0% and 67.1% of predation, respectively). We hypothesize that ferrets and badgers coexist because ferrets are superior at exploitation competition and are efficient at avoiding badgers, and badgers are superior at interference competition.

  15. Aboveground predation by an American badger (Taxidea taxus) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    During research on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), we repeatedly observed a female American badger (Taxidea taxus) hunting prairie dogs on a colony in southern Phillips County, Montana. During 1-14 June 2006, we observed 7 aboveground attacks (2 successful) and 3 successful excavations of prairie dogs. The locations and circumstances of aboveground attacks suggested that the badger improved her probability of capturing prairie dogs by planning the aboveground attacks based on perceptions of speeds, angles, distances, and predicted escape responses of prey. Our observations add to previous reports on the complex and varied predatory methods and cognitive capacities of badgers. These observations also underscore the individuality of predators and support the concept that predators are active participants in predator-prey interactions.

  16. Molecular characterization of cryptically circulating rabies virus from ferret badgers, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hue-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chan, Fang-Tse; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Pang, Victor Fei

    2014-05-01

    After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 2012-2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the RABV affecting the Taiwan ferret badgers (RABV-TWFB) is a distinct lineage within the group of lineages from Asia and that it has been differentiated from its closest lineages, China I (including isolates from Chinese ferret badgers) and the Philippines, 158-210 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of RABV-TWFB originated 91-113 years ago. Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host. PMID:24751120

  17. Performing Arts Program, Badger High School: Justification, Proposal, Implementation, Stage One Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Dan

    This document presents a justification, proposal, and implementation plan for a comprehensive theatre arts program at Badger High School, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin that would offer a full schedule of amateur and professional arts programs involving the students and the community. The brief Justification section notes that every elementary and…

  18. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Local Transmission Patterns of Mycobacterium bovis in Sympatric Cattle and Badger Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David; Mallon, Tom; McCormick, Carl; Orton, Richard J.; McDowell, Stanley; Trewby, Hannah; Skuce, Robin A.; Kao, Rowland R.

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) technology holds great promise as a tool for the forensic epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. It is likely to be particularly useful for studying the transmission dynamics of an observed epidemic involving a largely unsampled ‘reservoir’ host, as for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British and Irish cattle and badgers. BTB is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex that also includes the aetiological agent for human TB. In this study, we identified a spatio-temporally linked group of 26 cattle and 4 badgers infected with the same Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) type of M. bovis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between sequences identified differences that were consistent with bacterial lineages being persistent on or near farms for several years, despite multiple clear whole herd tests in the interim. Comparing WGS data to mathematical models showed good correlations between genetic divergence and spatial distance, but poor correspondence to the network of cattle movements or within-herd contacts. Badger isolates showed between zero and four SNP differences from the nearest cattle isolate, providing evidence for recent transmissions between the two hosts. This is the first direct genetic evidence of M. bovis persistence on farms over multiple outbreaks with a continued, ongoing interaction with local badgers. However, despite unprecedented resolution, directionality of transmission cannot be inferred at this stage. Despite the often notoriously long timescales between time of infection and time of sampling for TB, our results suggest that WGS data alone can provide insights into TB epidemiology even where detailed contact data are not available, and that more extensive sampling and analysis will allow for quantification of the extent and direction of transmission between cattle and badgers. PMID:23209404

  19. Whole genome sequencing reveals local transmission patterns of Mycobacterium bovis in sympatric cattle and badger populations.

    PubMed

    Biek, Roman; O'Hare, Anthony; Wright, David; Mallon, Tom; McCormick, Carl; Orton, Richard J; McDowell, Stanley; Trewby, Hannah; Skuce, Robin A; Kao, Rowland R

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) technology holds great promise as a tool for the forensic epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. It is likely to be particularly useful for studying the transmission dynamics of an observed epidemic involving a largely unsampled 'reservoir' host, as for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British and Irish cattle and badgers. BTB is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex that also includes the aetiological agent for human TB. In this study, we identified a spatio-temporally linked group of 26 cattle and 4 badgers infected with the same Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) type of M. bovis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between sequences identified differences that were consistent with bacterial lineages being persistent on or near farms for several years, despite multiple clear whole herd tests in the interim. Comparing WGS data to mathematical models showed good correlations between genetic divergence and spatial distance, but poor correspondence to the network of cattle movements or within-herd contacts. Badger isolates showed between zero and four SNP differences from the nearest cattle isolate, providing evidence for recent transmissions between the two hosts. This is the first direct genetic evidence of M. bovis persistence on farms over multiple outbreaks with a continued, ongoing interaction with local badgers. However, despite unprecedented resolution, directionality of transmission cannot be inferred at this stage. Despite the often notoriously long timescales between time of infection and time of sampling for TB, our results suggest that WGS data alone can provide insights into TB epidemiology even where detailed contact data are not available, and that more extensive sampling and analysis will allow for quantification of the extent and direction of transmission between cattle and badgers. PMID:23209404

  20. The topological Anderson insulator phase in the Kane-Mele model

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Christoph P.; Sekera, Tibor; Bruder, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that adding disorder to a topologically trivial mercury telluride/cadmium telluride (HgTe/CdTe) quantum well can induce a transition to a topologically nontrivial state. The resulting state was termed topological Anderson insulator and was found in computer simulations of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model. Here, we show that the topological Anderson insulator is a more universal phenomenon and also appears in the Kane-Mele model of topological insulators on a honeycomb lattice. We numerically investigate the interplay of the relevant parameters, and establish the parameter range in which the topological Anderson insulator exists. A staggered sublattice potential turns out to be a necessary condition for the transition to the topological Anderson insulator. For weak enough disorder, a calculation based on the lowest-order Born approximation reproduces quantitatively the numerical data. Our results thus considerably increase the number of candidate materials for the topological Anderson insulator phase. PMID:27045779

  1. Anomalous band inversion protected by symmetry in a topological insulator of the Kane-Mele model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie-Xiang; Che, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing Au on a graphene derivative, which involves substituting four C atoms with three N atoms in a 3 ×3 cell graphene, we realized a topological insulator of the Kane-Mele model with a gap of 50 meV surrounding the Dirac point of graphene. In this material, we observed an anomalous band inversion (BI) protected by the symmetry with character e of group C3 V. The symmetry constrains two e bands with mirror-symmetry combination and mirror-antisymmetry combination (MAC) of Au and N orbitals degenerate at Γ , whereas the interaction of π* of graphene on the e -MAC band tends to lift this degenerate, resulting in that the π* and e -MAC band exchange their orbital components near Γ , causing thus a discontinued BI.

  2. Electric and geometric controlling of the magnetic coupling in Kane-Mele nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Weicheng; Zou, Liang-Jian; Lin, H.-Q.

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, we show that indirect spin interaction J between two magnetic impurities located on honeycomb Kane-Mele zigzag/armchair ribbons (KMZR/KMAR) is easily controlled by staggered potential and geometry. We demonstrate that J in periodic-boundary KMZR reaches maximum at the edges, and oscillates between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic couplings when tuning the sublattice staggered potential Δ. The odd-even length effect of J in KMZR and the width dependence of J in KMAR are also presented. These results clearly demonstrate the unique role of topological edge states and finite-size effect in magnetic coupling of quantum spin Hall (QSH) ribbons, and the controllability of the edge magnetism, hence favoring the fabrication of the spintronic devices in two-dimensional buckled honeycomb materials, e.g., silicene and germanene.

  3. The topological Anderson insulator phase in the Kane-Mele model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Christoph P.; Sekera, Tibor; Bruder, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2016-04-01

    It has been proposed that adding disorder to a topologically trivial mercury telluride/cadmium telluride (HgTe/CdTe) quantum well can induce a transition to a topologically nontrivial state. The resulting state was termed topological Anderson insulator and was found in computer simulations of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model. Here, we show that the topological Anderson insulator is a more universal phenomenon and also appears in the Kane-Mele model of topological insulators on a honeycomb lattice. We numerically investigate the interplay of the relevant parameters, and establish the parameter range in which the topological Anderson insulator exists. A staggered sublattice potential turns out to be a necessary condition for the transition to the topological Anderson insulator. For weak enough disorder, a calculation based on the lowest-order Born approximation reproduces quantitatively the numerical data. Our results thus considerably increase the number of candidate materials for the topological Anderson insulator phase.

  4. Topological Rice-Mele model in an emergent lattice: Exact diagonalization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedroń, Krzysztof; Dutta, Omjyoti; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2016-03-01

    Using exact diagonalization methods we study possible phases in a one-dimensional model of two differently populated fermionic species in a periodically driven optical lattice. The shaking amplitude and frequency are chosen to resonantly drive s -p transition while minimizing the standard intraband tunnelings. We verify numerically the presence of an emergent density wave configuration of composites for appropriate filling fraction and minimized intraband tunnelings. The majority fermions moving in such a lattice mimic the celebrated Rice-Mele model. Far away from that region, the structure changes to a clustered phase, with the intermediate phase abundantly populated by defects of the density wave. These defects lead to localized modes carrying fractional particle charge. The results obtained are compared with earlier approximate predictions.

  5. The topological Anderson insulator phase in the Kane-Mele model.

    PubMed

    Orth, Christoph P; Sekera, Tibor; Bruder, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that adding disorder to a topologically trivial mercury telluride/cadmium telluride (HgTe/CdTe) quantum well can induce a transition to a topologically nontrivial state. The resulting state was termed topological Anderson insulator and was found in computer simulations of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model. Here, we show that the topological Anderson insulator is a more universal phenomenon and also appears in the Kane-Mele model of topological insulators on a honeycomb lattice. We numerically investigate the interplay of the relevant parameters, and establish the parameter range in which the topological Anderson insulator exists. A staggered sublattice potential turns out to be a necessary condition for the transition to the topological Anderson insulator. For weak enough disorder, a calculation based on the lowest-order Born approximation reproduces quantitatively the numerical data. Our results thus considerably increase the number of candidate materials for the topological Anderson insulator phase. PMID:27045779

  6. Topological quantum phase transition in Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yin; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Han-Tao; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2013-12-01

    We systematically explore the ground-state phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model on the honeycomb lattice; particularly, we focus on its magnetic properties, which are ubiquitous and important in many realistic heavy-fermion materials but have not been clearly studied in the previous publication [X. Y. Feng, J. Dai, C. H. Chung, and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.016402 111, 016402 (2013)]. Besides the Kondo insulator found in that paper, two kinds of antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave phases are discovered. One is the normal antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave state and the other is a nontrivial topological antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave state, which shows the unexpected Z2 topological order with a quantized spin Hall conductance and a helical edge state similar to the hotly studied topological insulators. The quantum spin Hall insulator in the work of Feng is found to be absent since it is always unstable to antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave states at least at the mean-field level in our model. Interestingly, the transition between the two spin-density-wave phases is an exotic topological quantum phase transition, whose critical behavior is described by an emergent three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics, in which conduction electrons contribute to the low-energy Dirac fermions while the spin-wave fluctuation of local spins gives rise to an effective dynamic U(1) gauge field. Such nontrivial transition shows radical critical thermodynamic, transport, and single-particle behaviors, which provide a fingerprint for this transition. Additionally, the transition of antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave states to the Kondo insulator is found to be first order. The introduction of two novel magnetic phases and their topological quantum phase transition show rich and intrinsic physics involved in the Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model.

  7. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing stations networks in the Northern Pan-Eurasian region.

  8. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in groups of badgers: an exploration of the impact of trapping efficiency, infection prevalence and the use of multiple tests.

    PubMed

    Buzdugan, S N; Chambers, M A; Delahay, R J; Drewe, J A

    2016-06-01

    Accurate detection of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in live badgers would enable targeted tuberculosis control. Practical challenges in sampling wild badger populations mean that diagnosis of infection at the group (rather than the individual) level is attractive. We modelled data spanning 7 years containing over 2000 sampling events from a population of wild badgers in southwest England to quantify the ability to correctly identify the infection status of badgers at the group level. We explored the effects of variations in: (1) trapping efficiency; (2) prevalence of M. bovis; (3) using three diagnostic tests singly and in combination with one another; and (4) the number of badgers required to test positive in order to classify groups as infected. No single test was able to reliably identify infected badger groups if 80% sensitive, at least 94% specific, and able to be performed rapidly in the field. PMID:26733317

  9. Herd-level bovine tuberculosis risk factors: assessing the role of low-level badger population disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wright, David M; Reid, Neil; Ian Montgomery, W; Allen, Adrian R; Skuce, Robin A; Kao, Rowland R

    2015-01-01

    Bovine TB (bTB) is endemic in Irish cattle and has eluded eradication despite considerable expenditure, amid debate over the relative roles of badgers and cattle in disease transmission. Using a comprehensive dataset from Northern Ireland (>10,000 km(2); 29,513 cattle herds), we investigated interactions between host populations in one of the first large-scale risk factor analyses for new herd breakdowns to combine data on both species. Cattle risk factors (movements, international imports, bTB history, neighbours with bTB) were more strongly associated with herd risk than area-level measures of badger social group density, habitat suitability or persecution (sett disturbance). Highest risks were in areas of high badger social group density and high rates of persecution, potentially representing both responsive persecution of badgers in high cattle risk areas and effects of persecution on cattle bTB risk through badger social group disruption. Average badger persecution was associated with reduced cattle bTB risk (compared with high persecution areas), so persecution may contribute towards sustaining bTB hotspots; findings with important implications for existing and planned disease control programmes. PMID:26279310

  10. Foods of American badgers in west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during the duck nesting season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roaldson, J.M.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Although the American badger (Taxidea taxus) is common in grasslands and preys on a wide diversity of foods including birds, little is known about badger diet in areas where nesting ducks are common. Small mammals, primarily Muridae and Geomyidae, were the most common food items in the diet of badgers collected from west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during April-July 1987 through 1990, based on analysis of gastrointestinal tracts of 47 adult ( 1/4 -y-old) and 5 juvenile (<6-mo-old) badgers. Remains of mammals occurred in 98% of samples from adult badgers. Small quantities of insects were found in 40% of adult samples. Bird remains were in 32% of adult samples, most birds identified as Anatidae; ducks or ducklings occurred in 27% and duck eggs in 60% of those samples. Remains of reptiles, amphibians and mollusks were present, but were less common than other foods. Insects and bird eggs were more common during spring (April-May) than summer (June-July). Birds were more frequent in diets of adults than juvenile badgers.

  11. Herd-level bovine tuberculosis risk factors: assessing the role of low-level badger population disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David M.; Reid, Neil; Ian Montgomery, W.; Allen, Adrian R.; Skuce, Robin A.; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine TB (bTB) is endemic in Irish cattle and has eluded eradication despite considerable expenditure, amid debate over the relative roles of badgers and cattle in disease transmission. Using a comprehensive dataset from Northern Ireland (>10,000 km2; 29,513 cattle herds), we investigated interactions between host populations in one of the first large-scale risk factor analyses for new herd breakdowns to combine data on both species. Cattle risk factors (movements, international imports, bTB history, neighbours with bTB) were more strongly associated with herd risk than area-level measures of badger social group density, habitat suitability or persecution (sett disturbance). Highest risks were in areas of high badger social group density and high rates of persecution, potentially representing both responsive persecution of badgers in high cattle risk areas and effects of persecution on cattle bTB risk through badger social group disruption. Average badger persecution was associated with reduced cattle bTB risk (compared with high persecution areas), so persecution may contribute towards sustaining bTB hotspots; findings with important implications for existing and planned disease control programmes. PMID:26279310

  12. European Transmission Interconnection; Eurasian power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Systems and philosophies perceived on a grand scale, encompassing new ideas, are often characterized as a dream. But in fact, such dreams often lead to the first step to fruitful development. This article is based on a preliminary study of the existing electrical high-tension networks of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union - which, as explained herein, may be merged into a multinational energy supply system. Such a system would constitute a completely interconnected Eurasian Power Grid. The idea of a Eurasian super grid, spanning from the Atlantic to the Ural and Siberia, is not new. Various studies have been conducted by both western Europe and the Soviet Union on this topic. Our world is currently in an era of extra high voltage (EHV) and ultra high voltage (UHV) electrical systems. This translates into existing UHV lines of 1150 kV which have already been proven in successful operation. Such UHV systems are capable of transmitting thousands of megawatts over a distance of a 1000 miles. Furthermore, national boundaries are not more a hindrance than the challenge of interconnecting complete networks into an overall synchronized working system with load exchange capabilities in all directions.

  13. Optimising and evaluating the characteristics of a multiple antigen ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a badger vaccine field trial.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Inma; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J; Whelan, Clare; Martin, Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A L; Murphy, Denise; De Jong, Mart C M

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU) obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%), while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation. PMID:24983473

  14. Metagenomic Analysis of the Viral Flora of Pine Marten and European Badger Feces

    PubMed Central

    van den Brand, Judith M. A.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Schapendonk, Claudia M.; Simon, James H.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the diversity of viruses in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about potential pathogens. Metagenomic analysis of the enteric viral flora revealed a new anellovirus and bocavirus species in pine martens and a new circovirus-like virus and geminivirus-related DNA virus in European badgers. In addition, sequences with homology to viruses from the families Paramyxo- and Picornaviridae were detected. PMID:22171250

  15. SCHIP expansion and parental coverage: an evaluation of Wisconsin's BadgerCare.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Barbara; Kaplan, Thomas; Haveman, Robert; Cho, Yoonyoung

    2006-11-01

    The Wisconsin BadgerCare program, which became operational in July 1999, expanded public health insurance eligibility to both parents and children in families with incomes below 185% of the U.S. poverty line (200% for those already enrolled). This eligibility expansion was part of a federal initiative known as the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Wisconsin was one of only four states that initially expanded coverage to parents of eligible children. In this paper, we attempt to answer the following question: To what extent does a public program with the characteristics of Wisconsin's BadgerCare program reduce the proportion of the low-income adult population without health care coverage? Using a coordinated set of administrative databases, we track three cohorts of mother-only families: those who were receiving cash assistance under the Wisconsin AFDC and TANF programs in September 1995, 1997, and 1999, and who subsequently left welfare. We follow these 19,201 "welfare leaver" families on a quarterly basis for up to 25 quarters, from 2 years before they left welfare through the end of 2001, making it possible to use the labor market information and welfare history of the women in analyzing outcomes. We apply multiple methods to address the policy evaluation question, including probit, random effects, and two difference-in-difference strategies, and compare the results across methods. All of our estimates indicate that BadgerCare substantially increased public health care coverage for mother-only families leaving welfare. Our best estimate is that BadgerCare increased the public health care coverage of all adult leavers by about 17-25% points. PMID:16516989

  16. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

  17. Targeted badger removal and the subsequent risk of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in county Laois, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Olea-Popelka, F J; Fitzgerald, P; White, P; McGrath, G; Collins, J D; O'Keeffe, J; Kelton, D F; Berke, O; More, S; Martin, S W

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the impact of targeted removal of badgers on the subsequent bovine tuberculosis (BTB) risk in cattle herds in county Laois, Ireland. The study period was 1989-2005. For each of 122 targeted badger-removal licenses (permit to remove badgers in the proximity of cattle herds undergoing a serious BTB episode), the herd number (index herd) for which the license was given was obtained. The herds in the proximity of the index herd were identified from another database. The main "exposure" in our study was the geographical location of herds relative to the area in which targeted badger removal was conducted. We categorized herds into five different exposure groups: herds were classified as non-exposed and denoted as group 0 (reference group) if they were located 500 m or more from the edge of any parcel of land of the index herd; group 1, was the index herds, group 2 the immediate (contiguous) neighbors of the index herd, group 3 herds were not immediate neighbors but within 150 m and group 4 herds were between 150 m and 500 m distance from the edge of any parcel of land of the index herd, respectively. We conducted a survival analysis (allowing multiple failures per herd) to compare the hazard of having a BTB episode in any of the four groups of exposed herds vs. the hazard in herds in the reference group. We controlled for other known risk factors as well taking into account a temporal component. Our analysis showed that the hazard ratio for the index herds (group 1) were non-significantly increased, indicating that there was no difference in the hazard of failing a BTB test (after the targeted badger removal was conducted) between index herds and reference herds. For the rest of the herds farther away from badger removal activities the hazards were lower than herds in areas not under badger removal. The hazard in the reference group decreased over the study period. PMID:18945503

  18. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  19. Contrasting Eurasian spring and summer climate anomalies associated with western and eastern Eurasian spring snow cover changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Liu, Ge; Ping, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Spring snow cover variations over Eurasia consist of a same-sign component and a west-east dipole component. The same-sign component is dominant during late 1970s through 1980s, and the two components are equally important during 1990s and 2000s. Present study contrasted Eurasian spring and summer climate anomalies associated with western and eastern Eurasian spring snow cover variations and between 1975-1989 and 1993-2007 and found notable differences and obvious interdecadal changes in Eurasian climate anomalies. After 1990, spring surface temperature anomalies display an obvious west-east contrast pattern, consistent with a prominent atmospheric wave pattern over Eurasia. The temperature anomalies are larger corresponding to western than eastern Eurasian snow cover change. Snow-albedo effect plays a main role in temperature change during 1975-1989, whereas atmospheric processes also contribute largely to temperature change during 1993-2007. Large soil moisture anomalies occur corresponding to western Eurasian snow cover and during 1975-1989. The snow-hydrological effect on summer precipitation is mainly detected over the West Siberian Plain where soil moisture anomalies persist over 3 months. Over most of other Eurasian regions, atmospheric circulation pattern plays a dominant role in summer surface temperature and precipitation variations. The relationship of Indian summer rainfall to western Eurasian spring snow cover was weakened since the mid-1990s, and the correlation of Northeast China summer rainfall with local spring snow cover changed from positive to negative around 1990.

  20. "My Business Was Not with Lost Souls and the Underprivileged": The Contribution of Colin Badger (1906-1993) to Adult Education in Victoria, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushbrook, Peter

    Colin Badger was an adult educator who contributed to Victorian adult education in Australia. After graduating from the University of Adelaide in 1936, Badger became a tutor for the South Australian Workers Education Association (WEA), where he became aware of the possibilities of adult education. After study in London, he returned to Australia to…

  1. Oral vaccination of guinea pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in a lipid matrix protects against aerosol infection with virulent M. bovis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. Using a guinea pig pulmonary challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of candidate badger oral vaccines, based on broth-grown or ball-milled BCG, delivered either as aqueous suspensions or formulated in two lipids with differing fatty acid profiles (one being animal derived and the other being vegetable derived). Protection was determined in terms of increasing body weight after aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis, reduced dissemination of M. bovis to the spleen, and, in the case of one oral formulation, restricted growth of M. bovis in the lungs. Only oral BCG formulated in lipid gave significant protection. These data point to the potential of the BCG-lipid formulation for further development as a tool for controlling tuberculosis in badgers. PMID:18519560

  2. Risk of tuberculosis cattle herd breakdowns in Ireland: effects of badger culling effort, density and historic large-scale interventions.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; White, Paul W; McGrath, Guy; O'Keeffe, James; Martin, S Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) continues to be a problem in cattle herds in Ireland and Britain. It has been suggested that failure to eradicate this disease is related to the presence of a wildlife reservoir (the badger). A large-scale project was undertaken in the Republic of Ireland during 1997-2002 to assess whether badger removal could contribute to reducing risk of cattle herd breakdowns in four areas. During the period of that "four area" study, there was a significant decrease in risk in intensively culled (removal) areas relative to reference areas. In the present study, we revisit these areas to assess if there were any residual area effects of this former intervention a decade on (2007-2012). Over the study period there was an overall declining trend in bTB breakdown risk to cattle herds. Cattle herds within former removal areas experienced significantly reduced risk of breakdown relative to herds within former reference areas or herds within non-treatment areas (OR: 0.53; P < 0.001). Increased herd breakdown risk was associated with increasing herd size (OR: 1.92-2.03; P < 0.001) and herd bTB history (OR: 2.25-2.40; P < 0.001). There was increased risk of herd breakdowns in areas with higher badger densities, but this association was only significant early in the study (PD*YEAR interaction; P < 0.001). Badgers were culled in areas with higher cattle bTB risk (targeted culling). Risk tended to decline with cumulative culling effort only in three counties, but increased in the fourth (Donegal). Culling badgers is not seen as a viable long-term strategy. However, mixed policy options with biosecurity and badger vaccination, may help in managing cattle breakdown risk. PMID:25344430

  3. Hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks Artificial-Recharge Project : Morgan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Alan W.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks artificial-recharge project in Morgan County, Colo., was made with the aid of three digital computer models: A canal-distribution model, a ground-water flow model, and a stream-aquifer model. Statistical summaries of probable diversions from the South Platte River based on a 27-year period of historical flows indicate that an average-annual diversion of 96,000 acre-feet and a median-annual diversion of 43,000 acre-feet would be available. Diversions would sustain water in ponds for waterfowl habitat for an average of about five months per year, with a miximum pond surface area of about 300 acres with the median diversions and a maximum pond surface area of about 1,250 acres at least one-half of the years with the historic diversions. If the annual diversion were 43,000 acre-feet, recharge to the two alluvial aquifers would raise water levels sufficiently to create flowing streams in the channels of Beaver and Badger Creeks while allowing an increase in current ground-water pumping. The only area of significant waterlogging would be along the proposed delivery canal on the west edge of Badger Creek valley. If the total water available were diverted, the aquifer system could not transmit the water fast enough to the irrigation areas to avoid considerable waterlogging in the recharge areas. The impact of the proposed project on the South Platte River basin would be minimal once the ground-water system attained steady-state conditions, but that may take decades with a uniform diversion of the 43,000 acre-feet annually. (USGS)

  4. Public attitudes towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    White, P C; Whiting, S J

    2000-08-12

    In 1999, a questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate public preferences towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Three alternative treatments were considered: (1) widespread culling, (2) the current experimental trials, and (3) no culling. One hundred residents from Glastonbury and York were interviewed in person and asked to give preference ratings to each of the three treatments. The single most preferred treatment was no culling, and the least preferred was the widespread cull. Respondents who favoured either the widespread cull or the experimental trials tended to be more knowledgeable about the problem and cited the level of tuberculosis in cattle as the primary factor guiding their preferences. Respondents who favoured the no culling option tended to be less knowledgeable, and cited the conservation and welfare impacts on badger populations as the most important factors. Analysis of the distribution of preference scores suggested that although it was not necessarily the most preferred treatment the experimental trial may be a relatively acceptable alternative. PMID:10985460

  5. Effects of Arctic warming on Eurasian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uotila, Petteri; Vihma, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The rapid warming in the Arctic has been one of the most dramatic signs of the climate change during the last decades. Arctic warming has been at least twice as fast as the global mean. Simultaneously with the strong warming in the central Arctic, an increased occurrence of extreme weather events, often of unprecedented strength and duration, has already been observed in the northern hemisphere. In this study we address the effects of Arctic warming patterns on climate extremes in Eurasia, and on the atmospheric circulation linking the Arctic with the mid-latitudes. Our objective is to enhance the understanding of the regional differences in the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages, which is an issue that has received a little attention in previous studies. We focus on the period since 1979, when high quality atmospheric reanalysis data are available. We apply the Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) to extract the geographical patterns of Arctic surface temperature and relate these patterns with composites of atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices. The extreme indices data are derived from the observational HadEX2 data set. We recognise the fact that the remote effects of Arctic warming may occur with a time lag of several weeks. Therefore we compare Arctic surface temperature patterns and temporally lagged composites of atmospheric circulation and climate extreme data. We compute the frequencies of occurrence of Arctic surface temperature patterns and decompose changes in relevant quantities, such as precipitation, into two components. The first component represents quantity changes associated with changes in frequencies of occurrence of temperature patterns, whilst the second component describes quantity changes due to the local temperature change within each surface temperature pattern. Our preliminary results demonstrate fundamental differences in the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages between the western and central parts of the Eurasian continent. For example, in autumn and early winter, the sea ice cover and air temperatures have a different relationship in the western and central Eurasia, but in late winter their statistical relationships turn similar. Furthermore, frequencies of occurrence of Arctic temperature change significantly from the 1980s until the latest decade. These frequency changes are associated with a particularly distinct reorganisation of the atmospheric circulation over Eurasia, while elsewhere the largest contribution to the atmospheric circulation change in the Northern Hemisphere is associated with local changes in Arctic surface temperatures. We are carrying out more analysis with the SOM technique to different seasons and variables that can provide further insights on the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages.

  6. Winter Eurasian Climate Variability: Role of Cyclone and Anticyclone Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Zhang, X.; Guan, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates variability of extratropical Eurasian cyclone and anticyclone activity by using a modified automated cyclone and anticyclone identification and tracking algorithm. The cyclone and anticyclone activities are quantified by their regionally integrated intensity (CI and ACI) during 1978/79-2011/2012 winter seasons. We found that the time evolutions of the CI and ACI exhibit a general negative correlation of -0.7 between them at a significant level of 99.99%. This anticyclone (cyclone) variability contributes to the substantially large-scale sea level pressure variability over extratropical Eurasian continent, and explains the interannual fluctuation of surface air temperature over mid latitude Eurasia as well as the adjacent continents. The ACI swings from one phase to another, also producing large changes in snow cover extend, snow equivalent water as well as frequency of extreme cold events over the Eurasian continent. The strengthening of anticyclone intensity is preceded by retreated of the October sea-ice extent over Barents-Kara Sea, which associates tightly with an increasing stability at lower troposphere around the Ural Mountains and induces strengthening Eurasian anticyclones activity in the subsequent winter.

  7. Understanding Higher Education Admissions Reforms in the Eurasian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Todd W.; Gabrscek, Sergij

    2012-01-01

    In the twenty years since independence, new Eurasian nation-states of the former Soviet Union have introduced major changes to the way students are admitted to institutions of higher education. Azerbaijan (1992), Uzbekistan (1993), Kazakhstan (1999), Russia (2001), Kyrgyzstan (2002), Ukraine (2004), and Georgia (2005) have all created new state or

  8. Understanding Higher Education Admissions Reforms in the Eurasian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Todd W.; Gabrscek, Sergij

    2012-01-01

    In the twenty years since independence, new Eurasian nation-states of the former Soviet Union have introduced major changes to the way students are admitted to institutions of higher education. Azerbaijan (1992), Uzbekistan (1993), Kazakhstan (1999), Russia (2001), Kyrgyzstan (2002), Ukraine (2004), and Georgia (2005) have all created new state or…

  9. BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heltemes, T. A.; Moses, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The BADGER equation of state library was developed to enable inertial confinement fusion plasma codes to more accurately model plasmas in the high-density, low-temperature regime. The code had the capability to calculate 1- and 2-T plasmas using the Thomas-Fermi model and an individual electron accounting model. Ion equation of state data can be calculated using an ideal gas model or via a quotidian equation of state with scaled binding energies. Electron equation of state data can be calculated via the ideal gas model or with an adaptation of the screened hydrogenic model with ℓ-splitting. The ionization and equation of state calculations can be done in local thermodynamic equilibrium or in a non-LTE mode using a variant of the Busquet equivalent temperature method. The code was written as a stand-alone Fortran library for ease of implementation by external codes. EOS results for aluminum are presented that show good agreement with the SESAME library and ionization calculations show good agreement with the FLYCHK code. Program summaryProgram title: BADGERLIB v1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEND_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEND_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 41 480 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 904 451 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90. Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, or Mac. Operating system: Windows, Linux, MacOS X. RAM: 249.496 kB plus 195.630 kB per isotope record in memory Classification: 19.1, 19.7. Nature of problem: Equation of State (EOS) calculations are necessary for the accurate simulation of high energy density plasmas. Historically, most EOS codes used in these simulations have relied on an ideal gas model. This model is inadequate for low-temperature, high-density plasma conditions; the gaseous and liquid phases; and the solid phase. The BADGER code was developed to give more realistic EOS data in these regimes. Solution method: BADGER has multiple, user-selectable models to treat the ions, average-atom ionization state and electrons. Ion models are ideal gas and quotidian equation of state (QEOS), ionization models are Thomas-Fermi and individual accounting method (IEM) formulation of the screened hydrogenic model (SHM) with l-splitting, electron ionization models are ideal gas and a Helmholtz free energy minimization method derived from the SHM. The default equation of state and ionization models are appropriate for plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The code can calculate non-LTE equation of state (EOS) and ionization data using a simplified form of the Busquet equivalent-temperature method. Restrictions: Physical data are only provided for elements Z=1 to Z=86. Multiple solid phases are not currently supported. Liquid, gas and plasma phases are combined into a generalized "fluid" phase. Unusual features: BADGER divorces the calculation of average-atom ionization from the electron equation of state model, allowing the user to select ionization and electron EOS models that are most appropriate to the simulation. The included ion ideal gas model uses ground-state nuclear spin data to differentiate between isotopes of a given element. Running time: Example provided only takes a few seconds to run.

  10. Topological phase transition in a generalized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model: A combined quantum Monte Carlo and Green's function study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Wang, Lei; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2013-03-01

    We study a generalized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with third-neighbor hopping, an interacting two-dimensional model with a topological phase transition as a function of third-neighbor hopping, by means of the determinant projector quantum Monte Carlo method. This technique is essentially numerically exact on models without a fermion sign problem, such as the one we consider. We determine the interaction dependence of the Z2 topological insulator/trivial insulator phase boundary by calculating the Z2 invariants directly from the single-particle Green's function. The interactions push the phase boundary to larger values of third-neighbor hopping, thus, stabilizing the topological phase. The observation of boundary shifting entirely stems from quantum fluctuations. We also identify qualitative features of the single-particle Green's function which are computationally useful in numerical searches for topological phase transitions without the need to compute the full topological invariant.

  11. Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or comparable procedures. It will prove a basis for the long-term continuation of advanced measurements on aerosols, clouds, GHGs and trace gases in Northern Pan- Eurasian area to be operated by PEEX educated technical staff.

  12. Vaccination against tuberculosis in badgers and cattle: an overview of the challenges, developments and current research priorities in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Chambers, M A; Carter, S P; Wilson, G J; Jones, G; Brown, E; Hewinson, R G; Vordermeier, M

    2014-07-26

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a significant threat to the cattle industry in England and Wales. It is widely acknowledged that a combination of measures targeting both cattle and wildlife will be required to eradicate bovine TB or reduce its prevalence until European official freedom status is achieved. Vaccination of cattle and/or badgers could contribute to bovine TB control in Great Britain, although there are significant gaps in our knowledge regarding the impact that vaccination would actually have on bovine TB incidence. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that vaccination with BCG can reduce the progression and severity of TB in both badgers and cattle. This is encouraging in terms of the prospect of a sustained vaccination programme achieving reductions in disease prevalence; however, developing vaccines for tackling the problem of bovine TB is challenging, time-consuming and resource-intensive, as this review article sets out to explain. PMID:25059963

  13. PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RABIES VIRUS IN FERRET BADGERS ASSOCIATED WITH A RABIES OUTBREAK IN TAIWAN.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hue-Ying; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Inoue, Satoshi; Chan, Fang-Tse; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Pang, Victor Fei

    2016-01-01

    Until Rabies virus (RABV) infection in Taiwan ferret badgers (TWFB; Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) was diagnosed in mid-June 2013, Taiwan had been considered rabies free for >50 yr. Although rabies has also been reported in ferret badgers in China, the pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigens of ferret badger-associated rabies have not been described. We performed a comprehensive pathologic study and molecular detection of rabies virus in three necropsied rabid TWFBs and evaluated archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of six other TWFBs necropsied during 2004 and 2012. As in other RABV-infected species, the characteristic pathologic changes in TWFBs were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, and the formation of typical intracytoplasmic Negri bodies, with the brain stem most affected. There was also variable spongiform degeneration, primarily in the perikaryon of neurons and neuropil, in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brain stem. In nonnervous system tissues, representative lesions included adrenal necrosis and lymphocytic interstitial sialadenitis. Immunohistochemical staining and fluorescent antibody test demonstrated viral antigens in the perikaryon of the neurons and axonal or dendritic processes throughout the nervous tissue and in the macrophages in various tissues. Similar to raccoons (Procyon lotor) and skunks (Mephitidae), the nervous tissue of rabid TWFBs displayed widely dispersed lesions, RABV antigens, and large numbers of Negri bodies. We traced the earliest rabid TWFB case back to 2004. PMID:26560756

  14. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) conceal caches from onlookers.

    PubMed

    Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-09-01

    Animals that cache food risk having their stored food pilfered by conspecifics. Previous research has shown that a number of food-caching species of corvid use strategies that decrease the probability of conspecifics pilfering their caches. In this experiment, we investigated whether Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) would choose between caching behind an opaque and caching behind a transparent barrier whilst being observed by a conspecific. If caching in out-of-sight locations is a strategy to prevent conspecifics from pilfering these caches, then the jays should place a greater proportion of caches behind the opaque barrier when being observed than when caching in private. In accordance with this prediction, jays cached a greater proportion of food behind the opaque barrier when they were observed than when they cached in private. These results suggest that Eurasian jays may opt to cache in out-of-view locations to reduce the likelihood of conspecifics pilfering their caches. PMID:24638877

  15. Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Jia, Z.; Gao, R.; Fu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of small-scale convection in the upper mantle for the Eurasian region (20°E~170°E,15°N~75°N), using the anomaly of isostatic gravity. The results show that the regional lithospheric tectonics is strongly correlated with the upper mantle flow in the Eurasian region. Two intensive convective belts against the weak background convection can be recognized from convection patterns in this region: Alpine-Himalayan collision belt and West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt. Alpine-Himalayan belt is caused by the collision between the northern plate (Eurasian plate) and the southern plates (African plate and Indian plate). West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Both of them are also seismotectonic belts. The collision and the subduction are two important geological events occurred since Mesozoic era and Cenozoic era in the Eurasian region. Therefore, the mantle flows may be one of the main driving forces of two events. In addition, most plate boundaries in this region can be recognized and the characteristics of upper mantle convection are different completely between the Eurasian plate and the plates around it (African plate, Arabian plate, Indian plate, Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate). Main structures and geodynamic characteristics of the Eurasian can also be explained by our model results. The Tibet plateau is located in the intensive convective belt. Around the belt, the upwelling materials push the lithosphere to lift unitarily and form the plateau. Towards the north of the Tibet plateau, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains, Zungarian Basin and Altai Mountains correspond successively to the downward flow, the upward flow, the downward flow and the upward flow in the mantle. It shows that the basic tectonic pattern of the interphase basin-and-range structure corresponds to the convective pattern of the interphase downward-and-upward flows. In China-Mongolian Continent, the convective pattern in the eastern area of 105°E structural zone is entirely different from the western area, weak in the East and intensive in the West. West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is located in the intensive convective areas and along this northeastern belt, there exist a series of interphase downward-and-upward flows. In summary, our results suggest that small-scale mantle convection in the upper mantle is one of the main driving forces of lithospheric dynamics of the Eurasian region. This work was supported by the Sinoprobe-02 project, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40874067) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20070491520)

  16. Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (χ(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae. PMID:26198549

  17. Photosynthesis in Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, R. A.; Naylor, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Gas exchange of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) indicated a near-zero CO2 compensation point and a high temperature optimum for photosynthesis. These properties are characteristic of plants fixing CO2 by a β-carboxylation mechanism. Operation of the Calvin cycle was shown and no evidence for β-carboxylation was obtained. These results indicate that near-zero CO2 compensation points are not dependent on a β-carboxylation mechanism. PMID:16658110

  18. Dangerous liaisons disperse the Mediterranean dwarf palm: fleshy-pulp defensive role against seed predators.

    PubMed

    Fedriani, José M; Delibes, Miguel

    2011-02-01

    We chose the interaction between the Mediterranean dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis) and its major seed disperser, the Eurasian badger (Meles meles), to evaluate the hypothesis that endozoochory is characterized by a mixture of conflicting and overlapping interests, with the capacity of being positive or negative for plant fitness. For instance, because of the potential protective role against invertebrate seed predators of C. humilis pulp, we expected that badger-ingested diaspores (i.e., seeds without pulp) would show lower survival than control seeds with the pulp attached. Conversely, due to the possible germination inhibitory function of C. humilis fruit pulp, it was also likely that badger-ingested seeds germinate in higher proportion than control seeds. We evaluated our predictions by carrying out a field sowing and monitoring it over two years. We estimated several stage-specific transition probabilities as well as the cumulative probability of seedling recruitment under different treatments. Our experimental results revealed the multifunctionality of C. humilis fruit pulp and that fruit ingestion by badgers had conflicting outcomes for the palm. As predicted, seed survival was much lower and seed predation by invertebrates much higher for badger-ingested than for control seeds, suggesting a defensive role of C. humilis ripe fruit pulp. All early-emerged seedlings came from badger-ingested seeds, suggesting an inhibitory function of fruit pulp. Though we did not find an effect of removal from the maternal environment on most components of fitness, seedling survival for badger-ingested seeds was higher away from than beneath conspecifics. Badgers imposed a sizeable short-term fitness cost to C. humilis and therefore could be categorized as a "dangerous liaison." Nonetheless, because of the high mobility of the badger, its dispersal service appears paramount given the severe fragmentation and isolation of most C. humilis populations across the highly humanized Mediterranean basin. Our study thus illustrates the necessity of assessing concurrently direct and indirect effects of plant-disperser interactions at different stages of the plant life cycle and recruitment process. PMID:21618910

  19. Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Smith, Alan; Court, Pinar; Vipond, Julia; Nadian, Allan; Hewinson, R Glyn; Batchelor, Hannah K; Perrie, Yvonne; Williams, Ann; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-10-29

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is causing considerable economic loss to farmers and Government in the United Kingdom as its incidence is increasing. Efforts to control bTB in the UK are hampered by the infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) that represent a wildlife reservoir and source of recurrent M. bovis exposure to cattle. Vaccination of badgers with the human TB vaccine, M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), in oral bait represents a possible disease control tool and holds the best prospect for reaching badger populations over a wide geographical area. Using mouse and guinea pig models, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy, respectively, of candidate badger oral vaccines based on formulation of BCG in lipid matrix, alginate beads, or a novel microcapsular hybrid of both lipid and alginate. Two different oral doses of BCG were evaluated in each formulation for their protective efficacy in guinea pigs, while a single dose was evaluated in mice. In mice, significant immune responses (based on lymphocyte proliferation and expression of IFN-gamma) were only seen with the lipid matrix and the lipid in alginate microcapsular formulation, corresponding to the isolation of viable BCG from alimentary tract lymph nodes. In guinea pigs, only BCG formulated in lipid matrix conferred protection to the spleen and lungs following aerosol route challenge with M. bovis. Protection was seen with delivery doses in the range 10(6)-10(7) CFU, although this was more consistent in the spleen at the higher dose. No protection in terms of organ CFU was seen with BCG administered in alginate beads or in lipid in alginate microcapsules, although 10(7) in the latter formulation conferred protection in terms of increasing body weight after challenge and a smaller lung to body weight ratio at necropsy. These results highlight the potential for lipid, rather than alginate, -based vaccine formulations as suitable delivery vehicles for an oral BCG vaccine in badgers. PMID:18789366

  20. Evidence of multiple late-Wisconsin floods from glacial Lake Missoula in Badger Coulee, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Russell C.

    1982-07-01

    Catastrophic floods from glacial Lake Missoula entered the Pasco Basin in south-central Washington and backflooded its marginal valleys. Badger Coulee, one such valley, contains beds of fine-grained slackwater sediment deposited by these floods. The slackwater sediment contains two ash layers of the Mount St. Helens set S tephra, about 13,000 yr old. The ash was deposited on a ground surface developed atop slackwater sediment deposited during preash flooding. Evidence of the former ground surface includes the reworked ash, inferred trace fossils, stream and debris-flow deposits, slopewash and/or eolian sediment, and colluvium at the ash horizon. These features and the ash were buried by slackwater sediment deposited during postash flooding. Nonflood, subaerial deposits are not present atop other beds. Instead, beds commonly are reversely graded across "contacts," suggesting that multiple beds were continuously deposited. The exposed beds thus record at least two late-Wisconsin floods, one preash, the other postash. The pre- and postash floods may be correlative with earlier-reported floods thought to have occurred 17,500-14,000 and 14,000-13,000 yr B.P., respectively.

  1. Predicting Eurasian watermilfoil's (Myriophylum spicatum L.) distribution and response to biological control in Fall River, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), was first observed in Fall River, California in approximately 2001. Its presence has had impacts on the river. During 2009 and 2010 we determined Eurasian watermilfoil abundance and distribution. We also determined water temperature and total P conce...

  2. Denisovan Ancestry in East Eurasian and Native American Populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengfei; Stoneking, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Although initial studies suggested that Denisovan ancestry was found only in modern human populations from island Southeast Asia and Oceania, more recent studies have suggested that Denisovan ancestry may be more widespread. However, the geographic extent of Denisovan ancestry has not been determined, and moreover the relationship between the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania and that elsewhere has not been studied. Here we analyze genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 2,493 individuals from 221 worldwide populations, and show that there is a widespread signal of a very low level of Denisovan ancestry across Eastern Eurasian and Native American (EE/NA) populations. We also verify a higher level of Denisovan ancestry in Oceania than that in EE/NA; the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania is correlated with the amount of New Guinea ancestry, but not the amount of Australian ancestry, indicating that recent gene flow from New Guinea likely accounts for signals of Denisovan ancestry across Oceania. However, Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA populations is equally correlated with their New Guinea or their Australian ancestry, suggesting a common source for the Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA and Oceanian populations. Our results suggest that Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA is derived either from common ancestry with, or gene flow from, the common ancestor of New Guineans and Australians, indicating a more complex history involving East Eurasians and Oceanians than previously suspected. PMID:26104010

  3. Arctic sea ice and Eurasian climate: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Li, Fei; He, Shengping; Sandven, Stein; Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Lohmann, Katja; Keenlyside, Noel; Furevik, Tore; Suo, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and has shown significant climate change in recent decades, including the Arctic warming and decline of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness. In contrast to the Arctic warming and reduction of Arctic sea ice, Europe, East Asia and North America have experienced anomalously cold conditions, with record snowfall during recent years. In this paper, we review current understanding of the sea-ice impacts on the Eurasian climate. Paleo, observational and modelling studies are covered to summarize several major themes, including: the variability of Arctic sea ice and its controls; the likely causes and apparent impacts of the Arctic sea-ice decline during the satellite era, as well as past and projected future impacts and trends; the links and feedback mechanisms between the Arctic sea ice and the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation, the recent Eurasian cooling, winter atmospheric circulation, summer precipitation in East Asia, spring snowfall over Eurasia, East Asian winter monsoon, and midlatitude extreme weather; and the remote climate response (e.g., atmospheric circulation, air temperature) to changes in Arctic sea ice. We conclude with a brief summary and suggestions for future research.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhitao; Zhao, Wenge; Liu, Peng; Li, Shulan; Xu, Chunzhu

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) was determined using long PCR. The genome was 17,260 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (33.0%), C (23.2%), T (30.9%) and G (12.9%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Eurasian water shrew. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees. Neomys elegans, Soriculus fumidus, and N. fodiens formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) in all examinations. This clade with the Anourosorex squamipes as the sister taxon to Sorex. PMID:26006281

  5. Severe mortality of a population of threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoises: the American badger as a potential predator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emblidge, Patrick G.; Nussear, Ken E.; Esque, Todd C.; Aiello, Christina M.; Walde, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States, adult Agassiz’s desert tortoises Gopherus agassizii typically experience high survival, but population declines associated with anthropogenic impacts led to their listing as a threatened Species under the US Endangered Species Act in 1990. Predation of adult tortoises is not often considered a significant threat as they are adapted to deter most predation attempts. Despite these adaptations, some populations have experienced elevated mortality attributed to predators, suggesting that predation pressure may occasionally increase. During the tortoise activity seasons of 2012 and 2013, we observed unsustainably high mortality in 1 of 4 populations of adult desert tortoises (22 and 84%, respectively) in the western Mojave Desert in the vicinity of Barstow, CA. Photographic evidence from trail cameras and examination of carcass condition suggest that American badgers Taxidea taxus— a sometimes cited but unconfirmed predator of adult tortoises — may have been responsible for some of the mortality observed. We discuss the American badger as a plausible predator of a local tortoise population, but recommend further investigation into these events and the impacts such mortality can have on tortoise persistence.

  6. Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils: Russia and contiguous countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, E. D.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Sabodina, E. P.

    2014-03-01

    The development of the Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils is a challenge necessitated by the intensive and exhaustive use of soil resources. The long-term strategy of interaction between humans and the environment should be directed towards the creation of favorable conditions for the development of society and saving of nature via application of new legislative norms aimed at preservation of pedodiversity and especially valuable soils. It is important to develop pedology as a fundamental science and to harmonize the relation-ships between humans and nature. The 30-year-long experience of Russia in the development of the Red Data Books of Soils is analyzed, and several conclusions aimed at improving the efficiency of special protection of soils in Russia and contiguous countries are made.

  7. Hepatocellular adenoma in a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).

    PubMed

    Bae, Il Hong; Pakhrin, Bidur; Jee, Hyang; Shin, Nam Shik; Kim, Dae Yong

    2007-03-01

    A 7-year-old female Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) at the Seoul Grand Park, Korea, died after displaying depression, anorexia, weight loss and rough skin for several days. At necropsy, a solitary friable round mass, which was approximately 12 x 9 x 5 cm and mottled dark red and yellow, was found bulging from the right hepatic lobe. Microscopically, the nonencapsulated, poorly circumscribed mass was composed of solid sheets of neoplastic hepatocytes. In addition, numerous small tan foci, ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 cm in diameter, were evenly scattered throughout the pancreatic tissue. These foci were found to be nonencapsulated, well-demarcated hyperplastic nodules of the exocrine pancreatic gland. We observed neither intrahepatic nor extrahepatic metastases. Based on the gross and microscopic changes, we diagnosed the animal as having a hepatocellular adenoma accompanied by exocrine pancreatic nodular hyperplasia. PMID:17322782

  8. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Iain; Lazaridis, Iosif; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fernandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Sirak, Kendra; Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R; Llamas, Bastien; Dryomov, Stanislav; Pickrell, Joseph; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Gerritsen, Fokke; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Lozano, Marina; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Guerra, Manuel A Rojo; Roodenberg, Jacob; Vergès, Josep Maria; Krause, Johannes; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt W; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Haak, Wolfgang; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2015-12-24

    Ancient DNA makes it possible to observe natural selection directly by analysing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report a genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide ancient DNA from Anatolian Neolithic farmers, whose genetic material we obtained by extracting from petrous bones, and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europe's first farmers. We also report a transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5600 and 300 bc, which allows us to identify admixture into the steppe from at least two external sources. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height. PMID:26595274

  9. Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    We address the connection between forces on the Eurasian plate, the plate's motion and the intraplate stress field. Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In this study we analyse the forces along the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate, presently the most prominent suture zone on Earth, resulting from the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate the force distribution along the Tethyan boundary as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We evaluate force distributions obeying this mechanical law on the basis of their ability to reproduce observed stress orientations. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Our investigation is structured according to two research objectives, pursued in a corresponding step-wise approach: (1) a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of Eurasia's stress field to the distribution of all acting forces; and (2) a quantification of collision-related forces along the southern boundary of Eurasia, including their relation to observed plate boundary structure, in particular plateau height. Intraplate stress observations as compiled in the World Stress Map project are used to constrain the distribution of forces acting on Eurasia. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and normal pressure from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.2 - 10.5 T N/m and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3 - 2.3 T N/m. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0 - 2.1 and 0 - 0.8 T N/m, respectively. The inferred collision forces are part of the best-fitting overall set of forces acting on the Eurasian plate, satisfying constraints from basic mechanics, absolute plate motion and stress field. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. We find that for both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateau, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force, thus confirming the hypothesis of balanced topography.

  10. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez, Marta; Gimeno, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Bulygina, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Eurasian fall snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea-ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea-ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis is based on snow observations from 820 Russian land stations, moisture transport using a Lagrangian approach derived from meteorological re-analyses. We show that declining sea-ice in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS) acts as moisture source for the enhanced Western Siberian snow depth as a result of changed tropospheric moisture transport. Transient disturbances enter the continent from the BKS region related to anomalies in the planetary wave pattern and move southward along the Ural mountains where they merge into the extension of the Mediterranean storm track.

  11. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia. PMID:15362842

  12. The effect of eurasian snow cover on global climate.

    PubMed

    Barnett, T P; Dümenil, L; Schlese, U; Roeckner, E

    1988-01-29

    Numerical simulations with a global atmospheric circulation model suggest that largescale variations in the amount of snowfall over Eurasia in the springtime are linked to the subsequent strength of the Asian summer monsoon. Large-scale changes in Eurasian snow cover are coupled to larger scale changes in the global climate system. There is a large, strong teleconnection to the atmospheric field over North America. The model results also show snow cover effects to subsequently alter other climatic fields known to be intimately associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Thus the model results seem to challenge the current dogma that the ENSO phenomenon is solely the result of close coupling between the atmosphere and ocean by suggesting that processes over continental land masses may also have to be considered. PMID:17838886

  13. Surface-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling in Eurasian Frozen Ground Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfeld, O. W.; Ford, T.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost represents an impermeable barrier to moisture, resulting in a saturated or near-saturated surface layer during the warm season in many continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. These surface conditions could lead to enhanced convection and precipitation during the warm season, and significant local recycling of moisture. In areas underlain by sporadic or isolated permafrost, or in seasonally frozen areas, the moisture can drain away more readily, resulting in much drier soil conditions. As climate change causes frozen ground degradation, this will thus also alter the patterns of atmospheric convection, moisture recycling, and the hydrologic cycle in high-latitude land areas. In this study, we analyze evaporative fraction (EF) as a proxy for evapotranspiration, and precipitation from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-land) reanalysis dataset. We focus on 1979-2012 and document patterns and changes in EF over the Eurasian high latitudes. We find strong, positive April EF trends over the study period, particularly in the Lena River Basin, 80% of which is underlain by continuous permafrost. In fact, these significant positive trends in spring EF are strongest over continuous permafrost across the Eurasian high latitudes, but negative for sporadic and isolated permafrost. In addition, we find a strong, statistically significant relationship between EF anomalies and the probability of subsequent precipitation over the Lena Basin during April. This association therefore suggests a potential land-atmosphere coupling between frozen ground and precipitation. As the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground distribution changes in the future, this will likely have repercussions for the Arctic hydrologic cycle.

  14. Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta Dłutowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews. PMID:23693084

  15. Contact Networks in a Wildlife-Livestock Host Community: Identifying High-Risk Individuals in the Transmission of Bovine TB among Badgers and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Monika; Hutchings, Michael R.; White, Piran C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The management of many pathogens, which are of concern to humans and their livestock, is complicated by the pathogens' ability to cross-infect multiple host species, including wildlife. This has major implications for the management of such diseases, since the dynamics of infection are dependent on the rates of both intra- and inter-specific transmission. However, the difficulty of studying transmission networks in free-living populations means that the relative opportunities for intra- versus inter-specific disease transmission have not previously been demonstrated empirically within any wildlife-livestock disease system. Methodology/Principal Findings Using recently-developed proximity data loggers, we quantify both intra-and inter-specific contacts in a wildlife-livestock disease system, using bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in badgers and cattle in the UK as our example. We assess the connectedness of individuals within the networks in order to identify whether there are certain ‘high-risk’ individuals or groups of individuals for disease transmission within and between species. Our results show that contact patterns in both badger and cattle populations vary widely, both between individuals and over time. We recorded only infrequent interactions between badger social groups, although all badgers fitted with data loggers were involved in these inter-group contacts. Contacts between badgers and cattle occurred more frequently than contacts between different badger groups. Moreover, these inter-specific contacts involved those individual cows, which were highly connected within the cattle herd. Conclusions/Significance This work represents the first continuous time record of wildlife-host contacts for any free-living wildlife-livestock disease system. The results highlight the existence of specific individuals with relatively high contact rates in both livestock and wildlife populations, which have the potential to act as hubs in the spread of disease through complex contact networks. Targeting testing or preventive measures at high-contact groups and individuals within livestock populations would enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of disease management strategies. PMID:19401755

  16. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  17. Seasonal acclimatization of metabolism in Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei-Hong; Li, Ming; Liu, Jin-Song; Shao, Shu-Li

    2008-12-01

    Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. Changes in photoperiod, ambient temperature and food availability trigger seasonal acclimatization in physiology and behavior of many birds. In the present study, seasonal adjustments in several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers were examined in wild-captured Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) from the Heilongjiang Province in China. In winter sparrows had higher body mass and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Consistently, the dry mass of liver, heart, gizzard, small intestine, large intestine and total digestive tract were higher in winter than in that in summer. The contents of mitochondrial protein in liver, and state-4 respiration and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in liver and muscle increased significantly in winter. Circulating level of serum triiodothyronine (T3) was significantly higher in winter than in summer. Together, these data suggest that tree sparrows mainly coped with cold by enhancing thermogenic capacities through increased organ masses and heightened activity of respiratory enzymes activities. The results support the view that prominent winter increases in BMR are manifestations of winter acclimatization in tree sparrows and that seasonal variation in metabolism in sparrows is similar to that in other small temperate-wintering birds. PMID:18804172

  18. Genotyping success of historical Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) samples.

    PubMed

    Polanc, Primož; Sindičić, Magda; Jelenčič, Maja; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Kos, Ivan; Huber, Duro

    2012-03-01

    Historical samples, like tanned hides and trophy skulls, can be extremely important for genetic studies of endangered or elusive species. Selection of a sampling protocol that is likely to provide sufficient amount and quality of DNA with a minimum damage to the original specimen is often critical for a success of the study. We investigated microsatellite genotyping success of DNA isolated from three different types of Eurasian lynx historical samples. We analysed a total of 20 microsatellite loci in 106 historical samples from the endangered Dinaric lynx population, established from re-introduction of three pairs of lynx in 1973 from Slovakian Carpathians. Of the three tested sample types, turbinal bone and septum from the nasal cavity of the trophy skulls had the lowest percentage of samples successfully genotyped for all 20 microsatellite loci. Footpad samples, collected using a cork drill, exhibited better results in polymerase chain reaction amplification and genotyping than samples of footpad epidermis cut with a scalpel. We report simple and efficient sampling protocols, which could be widely applied for future studies utilizing historical samples. PMID:22040140

  19. The Developmental Performance of the Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Northern Watermilfoil, Eurasian Watermilfoil, and Hybrid (Northern x Eurasian) Watermilfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roley, S. S.; Newman, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    The aquatic milfoil weevil (Euhrychiopsis lecontei) has expanded its range from the native northern watermilfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum) to the non-native Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Previous studies show that it prefers M. spicatum over M. sibiricum for feeding and oviposition and that weevils that develop on M. spicatum are larger and have shorter development times. Eurasian and northern watermilfoil have hybridized, and this hybrid has been hypothesized to be more invasive by exhibiting resistance to the milfoil weevil. To test for resistance, we compared development times, mass, and survival of the milfoil weevil on Eurasian, northern and hybrid watermilfoils. Weevil development was followed from egg to adult on individual rooted plants (n = 17 to 20 for each taxa). Mean development times (19.7 to 20.3 d) and mean adult eclosion mass (1.3 to 1.5 mg) were comparable and not significantly different. Weevil survival rates differed significantly among the taxa and were lowest on northern (45%), intermediate on the hybrid (61%), and highest on Eurasian watermilfoil (88%), but stem diameter may account for some of these differences. This study suggests that hybrid watermilfoil is not exceptionally resistant to milfoil weevil herbivory; rather it possesses resistance intermediate between the native and exotic hosts.

  20. A long-term observational study of the impact of badger removal on herd restrictions due to bovine TB in the Irish midlands during 1989--2004.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G E; Condon, J; More, S J; Dolan, L; Higgins, I; Eves, J

    2008-10-01

    An observational study was carried out, using data collected from four areas in the Irish midlands, between 1989 and 2004, to critically evaluate the long-term effects of proactive badger culling and to provide insights into reactive badger culling tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in cattle. Confirmed cattle herd TB incidence is the outcome measure used throughout. Relative to reactive culling, proactive badger culling was associated with a decrease in incidence in each of the 16 years of observation, which encompassed periods of both intensive and less-intensive badger removal. By 2004, we observed a decrease of 22% [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-29, P<0.001] in the entire proactive and 37% (95% CI 25-47, P<0.001), in the inner proactive removal areas. The size of the decrease increased with time (P=0.055). There was a decrease (constant over time) of at least 14% (95% CI 76-97, P=0.013) in incidence in the inner compared to the outer control area (herds < or = 2 km, >2 km, from proactive removal area boundaries, respectively). Incidence in the outer proactive removal area (herds < 1.6 km from the proactive removal boundary) was similar to the inner control area (P=0.890). Incidence in the outer control area and total control area, compared to a neighbouring area some distance away, increased over the course of the study. Differences with the total control area were not statistically significant but the outer control area was 11% higher than the neighbouring area by 2004 (borderline significance P=0.057). PMID:18081948

  1. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  2. The behaviors of optimal precursors during wintertime Eurasian blocking onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhina; Wang, Donghai

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the optimal precursors for wintertime Eurasian blocking onset are acquired by solving a nonlinear optimization problem whose objective function is constructed based on a blocking index with a triangular T21, three-level, quasi-geostrophic global spectral model. The winter climatological state is chosen as the reference basic state. Numerical results show that the optimal precursors are characterized by a baroclinic pattern with a westward tilt with height, which are mainly located upstream of the blocking region. For an optimization time of 5 days, these perturbations are mainly localized over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and continental Europe. With the extension of the optimization time to 8 days, these perturbations are distributed more upstream and extensively in the zonal direction. Wave spectrum analysis reveals that the optimal precursors are composed of not only synoptic-scale (wave numbers 5-18) waves, but planetary-scale (wave numbers 0-4) waves as well. The synoptic-scale optimal precursors are mainly located in the mid-latitude area, while the planetary-scale optimal precursors focus primarily on the high-latitude region. The formation of a strong planetary-scale positive blocking anomaly is accompanied by the reinforcement of synoptic-scale perturbations and further fragmentation into two branches, in which the northern branch is generally stronger than the southern one. The eddy forcing arising from the self-interaction of synoptic-scale disturbances is shown to be crucial in triggering the dipole blocking anomaly, and the planetary-scale optimal precursor provides the initial favorable background conditions for blocking onset.

  3. Teleconnections between Eurasian snow cover and the Maldives monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, Zahid; Sturman, Andrew; Hart, Deirdre; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2010-05-01

    Anomalous snow cover over Eurasia can influence monsoon circulation through changes in surface energy balance. Much of the research on the snow-monsoon relationship has focused on the Indian or Chinese monsoon, without examining possible links between the snow-monsoon relationship and summer rainfall over other parts of Asia. Although the Maldives lies in the Indian Ocean (southwest of India), the Asian monsoon flow influences the circulation patterns over the Maldives. However, no previous studies have directly examined possible relationships between Eurasian snow and Maldives monsoon rainfall (MMR: June-September). This paper describes a first attempt to explore the possible relationships between Eurasian snow cover (ESC) and the MMR. The possible relationships between Eurasian snow and the rainfall over the Maldives has been investigated using composite and correlation analyses. The relationship between ESC and monsoon rainfall was also examined using lag-lead correlations. Anomalies of an area-weighted MMR index have been correlated with anomalies of ESC for October-December of the previous year and January-May of the current year. Correlations have also been carried out between MMR and snow cover anomalies for winter (December-January), spring (March-May) and with snowmelt (snow cover difference between February and May). The time series were de-trended to minimize the influence of trends on the strength and significance of the correlations between variables. Relatively very weak correlations were found between the MMR and ESC anomalies for January-May of the current year and October-December of the previous year. The highest correlation between MMR and ESC (r = -0.15, insignificant at 5% level) was found for the month of February. Significant positive correlations were found between ESC in subsequent months, with the highest correlation (r = 0.80) between April and May, significant at the 1% level. Correlations between MMR and snow cover anomaly for winter, spring and the snowmelt period are -0.02, -0.02 and -0.18, respectively. Very weak correlation coefficients (insignificant at 5% level) between MMR and snow cover variables suggest that there is no teleconnections between MMR and winter/spring snow cover and snowmelt. Composites of monsoon rainfall averaged for the years of high and low snow cover in winter, spring and the snowmelt period also show different patterns of monsoon rainfall. The results of lag-lead correlation between the MMR anomaly and snow cover variables show an inverse relationship with the spring snow cover. However, the only significant inverse correlation is at lag -6, with a correlation coefficient of -0.51. Furthermore, winter snow cover shows strong inverse correlation with the MMR at lag +1, with a correlation coefficient of -0.34. Although the snowmelt period does not show a significant inverse relationship with MMR, it shows a strong positive correlation at lag -6 (r = 0.38). Lack of a consistent inverse relationship between the ESC variables (over different months and seasons) and MMR contradicts the findings of previous studies on the winter/spring snow cover relationship with Asian rainfall, as well as with Indian rainfall, where a strong significant inverse relationship has been found. Weak relationships found between MMR and winter/spring snow cover and snowmelt could be due to the data period used here (1979-2007). The correlation coefficients computed between winter snow cover anomalies and all-India summer monsoon rainfall for the same period used by Bamzai and Shukla (1999) in their 1973-94 study, and for the same period used for the Maldives region (1979-2007), confirms this. The same correlation coefficient (-0.34) was obtained as found by Bamzai and Shukla (1999) for the 1973-94 period. However, the correlation coefficient dropped to -0.18 for the 1979-2007 period, suggesting that the inverse relationship between ESC and monsoon has weakened over the more recent time period.

  4. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores. PMID:24886057

  5. Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic – cattle, sheep and goat – and other wildlife – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) – hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe. PMID:24010539

  6. Traces of Early Eurasians in the Mansi of Northwest Siberia Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Derbeneva, Olga A.; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Sukernik, Rem I.

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as Vogul) of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragmentlength polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups. PMID:11845409

  7. Traces of early Eurasians in the Mansi of northwest Siberia revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Derbeneva, Olga A; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Wallace, Douglas C; Sukernik, Rem I

    2002-04-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as "Vogul") of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragment--length polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups. PMID:11845409

  8. [Sequencing and analysis of complete genome of rabies viruses isolated from Chinese Ferret-Badger and dog in Zhejiang province].

    PubMed

    Lei, Yong-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Meng, Sheng-Li; Chen, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Fu-Ming; Ye, Bi-Feng; Tang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Based on sequencing the full-length genomes of four Chinese Ferret-Badger and dog, we analyze the properties of rabies viruses genetic variation in molecular level, get the information about rabies viruses prevalence and variation in Zhejiang, and enrich the genome database of rabies viruses street strains isolated from China. Rabies viruses in suckling mice were isolated, overlapped fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and full-length genomes were assembled to analyze the nucleotide and deduced protein similarities and phylogenetic analyses from Chinese Ferret-Badger, dog, sika deer, vole, used vaccine strain were determined. The four full-length genomes were sequenced completely and had the same genetic structure with the length of 11, 923 nts or 11, 925 nts including 58 nts-Leader, 1353 nts-NP, 894 nts-PP, 609 nts-MP, 1575 nts-GP, 6386 nts-LP, and 2, 5, 5 nts- intergenic regions(IGRs), 423 nts-Pseudogene-like sequence (psi), 70 nts-Trailer. The four full-length genomes were in accordance with the properties of Rhabdoviridae Lyssa virus by BLAST and multi-sequence alignment. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences among Chinese strains had the highest similarity, especially among animals of the same species. Of the four full-length genomes, the similarity in amino acid level was dramatically higher than that in nucleotide level, so the nucleotide mutations happened in these four genomes were most synonymous mutations. Compared with the reference rabies viruses, the lengths of the five protein coding regions had no change, no recombination, only with a few point mutations. It was evident that the five proteins appeared to be stable. The variation sites and types of the four genomes were similar to the reference vaccine or street strains. And the four strains were genotype 1 according to the multi-sequence and phylogenetic analyses, which possessed the distinct district characteristics of China. Therefore, these four rabies viruses are likely to be street viruses already existing in the natural world. PMID:20329558

  9. The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wells, R. Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Underhill, Peter A.; Evseeva, Irina; Blue-Smith, Jason; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Shanmugalakshmi, Sadagopal; Balakrishnan, Karuppiah; Read, Mark; Pearson, Nathaniel M.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Webster, Matthew T.; Zholoshvili, Irakli; Jamarjashvili, Elena; Gambarov, Spartak; Nikbin, Behrouz; Dostiev, Ashur; Aknazarov, Ogonazar; Zalloua, Pierre; Tsoy, Igor; Kitaev, Mikhail; Mirrakhimov, Mirsaid; Chariev, Ashir; Bodmer, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    The nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of population history. The maintenance of extended haplotypes characteristic of particular geographic regions, despite extensive admixture, allows complex demographic events to be deconstructed. In this study we report the frequencies of 23 Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphism haplotypes in 1,935 men from 49 Eurasian populations, with a particular focus on Central Asia. These haplotypes reveal traces of historical migrations, and provide an insight into the earliest patterns of settlement of anatomically modern humans on the Eurasian continent. Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three major waves of migration leading into Europe, the Americas, and India. The genetic results are interpreted in the context of Eurasian linguistic patterns. PMID:11526236

  10. Hematological and biochemical reference intervals for wild caught Eurasian otter from Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Morn, J; Molina, L; Flamme, G; Saavedra, D; Manteca-Vilanova, X

    2001-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals were determined from 33 wild caught Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra lutra) between November 1995 and May 1998 during a reintroduction project. Blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture after administration of ketamine and medetomidine. The mean, standard deviation, and range for 19 hematology parameters and 28 serum chemistry values are presented. There were no significant differences between sexes in most analytes. The results are in agreement with those reported previously for Eurasian otters with the exception of higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, lower eosinophil and lymphocyte counts and higher activities for aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. The Eurasian otters have lower erythrocyte counts but higher mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin values than the river otter (Lutra canadensis) in North America. PMID:11272491

  11. A lithosphere-dynamics constraint on mantle flow: Analysis of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, K. N.; Meijer, P. Th.; Govers, R.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    2010-09-01

    We present a method to estimate the poorly understood mechanical coupling between lithosphere and underlying mantle, and apply it to the Eurasian plate. Mechanical equilibrium of tectonic plates requires the torque from mantle tractions ($\\overline{TM) to be balanced by the torques from edge forces ($\\overline{TE) and lithospheric body forces ($\\overline{TB). The direction of $\\overline{TE proves tightly constrained by plate boundary nature but $\\overline{TB is affected uncertainties in the density structure of continents. We consistently find that the non-zero torque required from mantle tractions does not agree with the orientation of any published absolute motion model. We conclude that mechanical balance of the Eurasian plate requires an actively convecting mantle, which should result in a torque on the Eurasian plate located in the southwest Pacific.

  12. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas, steered in October by a Scandinavia block and a low to the East, extending to Central Russia land areas. The disturbances transport moisture southward where their tracks merge with the eastward extension of the Mediterranean storm track. Maxima in storm activity trigger increasing uplift, often accompanied by positive snowfall and snow depth anomalies. We show that declining sea ice in the Barents and Kara Seas acts as moisture source for enhanced Siberian snow cover as a result of changed tropospheric moisture transport. Transient disturbances enter the continent from the Barents and Kara Seas region related to anomalies in the planetary wave pattern and move southward along the Ural mountains.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results. PMID:26195214

  14. New reconstructions of Eurasian Ice Sheet build up and deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. L.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, O. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a series of new time-slice reconstructions from the DATED Project documenting the changing limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation (40-10 ka BP). Reconstructions are based on a compiled chronology of over 3000 dates representing the accumulated sum of knowledge on the timing of advance and retreat of the Scandinavian-British-Irish-Barents-Kara Sea Ice Sheets. The timing of both maximum extent and retreat were spatially variable across the ice sheet complex likely reflecting regional contrasts in forcing mechanisms and geographical setting. For example, maximum ice extent in the west occurs ~3000 years earlier than in the northeast sector. We expect the time-slices and derived area and volume estimates to be particularly useful for numerical and isostatic modelling requiring regional scale empirical constraints on past ice sheet extent, and design the reconstructions for this purpose. The ice sheet margin is delineated every 1000 years for the last 25 ka BP. Additional intervening snapshots are reconstructed when necessary to capture significant rapid changes in the ice margin. We also present some reconstructions at uneven intervals for earlier periods, reflecting the preservation bias of the chronological record. Uncertainty estimates (represented by maximum, minimum, preferred positions) are given for each time-slice. The ice sheet scale approach highlights instances of conflicting evidence and gaps in the ice sheet chronology. Greatest gaps are found along the western marine margins, in the Barents Sea and western Russia, and the inland areas glaciated during the Younger Dryas. The database and reconstructions will be updated as new information is published and made publically available via the project webpages. Future versions will extend the spatial coverage to include the Icelandic Ice Sheet and additionally include landform evidence to constrain ice sheet geometry (e.g. ice stream locations and thickness) and retreat patterns. In the database, each date is classified on the basis of stratigraphic information to facilitate interpretation of the ice sheet evolution, attributed to the source publication, fully documented with information relevant to its interpretation and searchable by: location, dated material, dating technique, stratigraphic position or setting, derived age and associated errors, pertinent comments from the source publication and sample elevation or depth, core name, laboratory id and/or sample name as applicable. For internal consistency all radiocarbon ages have been recalibrated using the most recent calibration curve (INTCAL09) and all terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure ages are reported using the same production rate and scaling model. The uncalibrated 14C and TCN ages as reported in the source publications are also given. TCN results are additionally reported with all the necessary details required to re-calculate the ages with different production rate and scaling models.

  15. Productivity of Northern Eurasian forests: Analysis of uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; McCallum, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Indicators of biological productivity of forests (live and dead biomass, net primary production, net and gross growth) are crucial for both assessment of the impacts of terrestrial ecosystems on major biogeochemical cycles and practice of sustainable forest management. However, different information and the diversity of methods used in the assessments of forests productivity cause substantial variation in reported estimates. The paper contains a systems analysis of the existing methods, their uncertainties, and a description of available information. With respect to Northern Eurasian forests, the major reasons for uncertainties could be categorized as following: (1) significant biases that are inherent in a number of important sources of available information (e.g., forest inventory data, results of measurements of some indicators in situ); (2) inadequacy and oversimplification of models of different types (empirical aggregations, process-based models); (3) lack of data for some regions; and (4) upscaling procedure of 'point' observations. Based on as comprehensive as possible adherence to the principles of systems analysis, we made an attempt to provide a reanalysis of indicators of forests productivity of Russia aiming at obtaining the results for which uncertainties could be estimated in a reliable and transparent way. Within a landscape-ecosystem approach it has required (1) development of an expert system for refinement of initial data including elimination of recognized biases; (2) delineation of ecological regions based on gradients of major indicators of productivity; (3) transition to multidimensional models (e.g., for calculation of spatially distributed biomass expansion factors); (4) use of process-based elements in empirical models; and (5) development of some approaches which presumably do not have recognized biases. However, taking into account the fuzzy character of the problem, the above approach (as well as any other individually used method) is not able to recognize structural uncertainties. In order to assess those, a special statistical procedure for harmonizing the multiple constraints of the estimates obtained by independent methods (landscape-ecosystem approach; flux measurements; process-based vegetation models; inverse modeling) was used to estimate uncertainty of the final results. Application of the above methodology resulted in a reliable assessment of major indicators of productivity. For instance, live biomass at the country's level is estimated with uncertainty of 4-6%, net primary production - 7-10% (confidential interval 0.9). It was recognized the tendency of increasing productivity of Russian forests during the last four decades at level of 0.5±0.2% year-1. However, all the above procedures includes expert estimates and judgements, and some problems still require additional considerations (e.g., elimination of biases of remote sensing data; assessment of uncertainties of process-based models; formal procedures of multiple constraints of the results were obtained by different methods).

  16. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the permafrost areas. Overall, Russia should expect a disproportionate escalation of fire regimes compared to increasing climatic fire danger. Thus, development and implementation of an efficient adaptation strategy is a pressing problem of current forest management of the country. An appropriate system of forest fire protection which would be able to meet challenges of future climates is a corner stone of such a strategy. We consider possible systems solutions of this complex problem including (1) integrated ecological and socio-economic analysis of current and future fire regimes; (2) regional requirements to and specific features of a new paradigm of forest fire protection in the boreal zone of Northern Eurasia; (3) anticipatory strategy of the prevention of large-scale disturbances in forests, including adaptation of forest landscapes to the future climates (regulation of tree composition; setup of relevant spatial structure of forest landscapes; etc.); (4) implementation of an effective system of forest monitoring as part of integrated observing systems; (5) transition to ecologically-friendly systems of industrial development of northern territories; (6) development of new/ improvement of existing legislation and institutional frameworks of forest management which would be satisfactory to react on challenges of climate change; and (6) international cooperation.

  17. Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

  18. First nearctic records for Orius (Dimorphella) sibiricus Wagner (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), a Eurasian steppe inhabitant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius sibiricus Wagner, a dark-colored minute pirate bug widespread in the Eurasian Steppe, is recorded from sites near the Yukon River in Yukon, Canada. This species is distinguished from the melanic phenotype of Orius diespeter Herring by the more deeply and uniformly punctured dorsum, the subangu...

  19. 76 FR 537 - Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing an industry-specific Oil & Gas Equipment... the following product areas: Offshore/onshore oil and gas drilling and production equipment...

  20. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, August 20-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Timothy, Ed.; Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents a diverse collection written by a well-respected group of speakers and authors which includes government leaders, policy makers, education experts and administrators from all over the higher education world. The papers collected hereunder represent the conference proceedings of the Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum…

  1. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ip, Hon S.; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pederson, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  2. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, Jun 11-12, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This collection of papers introduces the proceedings of the Third Annual Conference--Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held 11-12 June, 2014 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. More than 350 speakers, delegates and participants from more 15 countries attended the Forum. The title of this year's Forum is "Successful…

  3. 78 FR 48765 - Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (EUR) Request for Proposals for the Fundraising...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (EUR) Request for Proposals for the Fundraising, Construction, Development, Organization, Management, Disassembly and Removal of a USA Pavilion/Exhibition at Universal...

  4. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Hon S.; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues. PMID:25898265

  5. Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and the Extinction of European Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place. PMID:24848272

  6. How might the North American ice sheet influence the northwestern Eurasian climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Dumas, C.; Kageyama, M.; Ritz, C.

    2015-10-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that past Northern Hemisphere ice sheets covering Canada and northern Europe at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exerted a strong influence on climate by causing changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In turn, these changes may have impacted the development of the ice sheets themselves through a combination of different feedback mechanisms. The present study is designed to investigate the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Eurasian ice sheet driven by simulated changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using the LMDZ5 atmospheric circulation model, we carried out 12 experiments under constant LGM conditions for insolation, greenhouse gases and ocean. In these experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet is removed. The 12 experiments differ in the North American ice-sheet topography, ranging from a white and flat (present-day topography) ice sheet to a full-size LGM ice sheet. This experimental design allows the albedo and the topographic impacts of the North American ice sheet onto the climate to be disentangled. The results are compared to our baseline experiment where both the North American and the Eurasian ice sheets have been removed. In summer, the sole albedo effect of the American ice sheet modifies the pattern of planetary waves with respect to the no-ice-sheet case, resulting in a cooling of the northwestern Eurasian region. By contrast, the atmospheric circulation changes induced by the topography of the North American ice sheet lead to a strong decrease of this cooling. In winter, the Scandinavian and the Barents-Kara regions respond differently to the American ice-sheet albedo effect: in response to atmospheric circulation changes, Scandinavia becomes warmer and total precipitation is more abundant, whereas the Barents-Kara area becomes cooler with a decrease of convective processes, causing a decrease of total precipitation. The gradual increase of the altitude of the American ice sheet leads to less total precipitation and snowfall and to colder temperatures over both the Scandinavian and the Barents and Kara sea sectors. We then compute the resulting annual surface mass balance over the Fennoscandian region from the simulated temperature and precipitation fields used to force an ice-sheet model. It clearly appears that the SMB is dominated by the ablation signal. In response to the summer cooling induced by the American ice-sheet albedo, high positive SMB values are obtained over the Eurasian region, leading thus to the growth of an ice sheet. On the contrary, the gradual increase of the American ice-sheet altitude induces more ablation over the Eurasian sector, hence limiting the growth of Fennoscandia. To test the robustness of our results with respect to the Eurasian ice sheet state, we carried out two additional LMDZ experiments with new boundary conditions involving both the American (flat or full LGM) and high Eurasian ice sheets. The most striking result is that the Eurasian ice sheet is maintained under full-LGM North American ice-sheet conditions, but loses ~ 10 % of its mass compared to the case in which the North American ice sheet is flat. These new findings qualitatively confirm the conclusions from our first series of experiments and suggest that the development of the Eurasian ice sheet may have been slowed down by the growth of the American ice sheet, offering thereby a new understanding of the evolution of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets throughout glacial-interglacial cycles.

  7. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Simon J.; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A.; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months – 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (≥3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  8. Emergence of a sylvatic enzootic formosan ferret badger-associated rabies in Taiwan and the geographical separation of two phylogenetic groups of rabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, K J; Hsu, W C; Chuang, W C; Chang, J C; Tu, Y C; Tsai, H J; Liu, H F; Wang, F I; Lee, S H

    2016-01-15

    Taiwan had been declared rabies-free in humans and domestic animals for five decades until July 2013, when surprisingly, three Formosan ferret badgers (FB) were diagnosed with rabies. Since then, a variety of wild carnivores and other wildlife species have been found dead, neurologically ill, or exhibiting aggressive behaviors around the island. To determine the affected animal species, geographic areas, and environments, animal bodies were examined for rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The viral genomes from the brains of selected rabid animals were sequenced for the phylogeny of rabies viruses (RABV). Out of a total of 1016 wild carnivores, 276/831 (33.2%) Formosan FBs were FAT positive, with occasional biting incidents in 1 dog and suspected spillover in 1 house shrew. All other animals tested, including dogs, cats, bats, mice, house shrews, and squirrels, were rabies-negative. The rabies was badger-associated and confined to nine counties/cities in sylvatic environments. Phylogeny of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes from 59 Formosan FB-associated RABV revealed them to be clustered in two distinct groups, TWI and TWII, consistent with the geographic segregation into western and eastern Taiwan provided by the Central Mountain Range and into northern rabies-free and central-southern rabies-affected regions by a river bisecting western Taiwan. The unique features of geographic and genetic segregation, sylvatic enzooticity, and FB-association of RABV suggest a logical strategy for the control of rabies in this nation. PMID:26711025

  9. Fine-scale landscape genetics of the American badger (Taxidea taxus): disentangling landscape effects and sampling artifacts in a poorly understood species.

    PubMed

    Kierepka, E M; Latch, E K

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetics is a powerful tool for conservation because it identifies landscape features that are important for maintaining genetic connectivity between populations within heterogeneous landscapes. However, using landscape genetics in poorly understood species presents a number of challenges, namely, limited life history information for the focal population and spatially biased sampling. Both obstacles can reduce power in statistics, particularly in individual-based studies. In this study, we genotyped 233 American badgers in Wisconsin at 12 microsatellite loci to identify alternative statistical approaches that can be applied to poorly understood species in an individual-based framework. Badgers are protected in Wisconsin owing to an overall lack in life history information, so our study utilized partial redundancy analysis (RDA) and spatially lagged regressions to quantify how three landscape factors (Wisconsin River, Ecoregions and land cover) impacted gene flow. We also performed simulations to quantify errors created by spatially biased sampling. Statistical analyses first found that geographic distance was an important influence on gene flow, mainly driven by fine-scale positive spatial autocorrelations. After controlling for geographic distance, both RDA and regressions found that Wisconsin River and Agriculture were correlated with genetic differentiation. However, only Agriculture had an acceptable type I error rate (3-5%) to be considered biologically relevant. Collectively, this study highlights the benefits of combining robust statistics and error assessment via simulations and provides a method for hypothesis testing in individual-based landscape genetics. PMID:26243136

  10. Why the honey badger don't care: Convergent evolution of venom-targeted nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mammals that survive venomous snake bites.

    PubMed

    Drabeck, Danielle H; Dean, Antony M; Jansa, Sharon A

    2015-06-01

    Honey badgers (Mellivora capensis) prey upon and survive bites from venomous snakes (Family: Elapidae), but the molecular basis of their venom resistance is unknown. The muscular nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR), targeted by snake α-neurotoxins, has evolved in some venom-resistant mammals to no longer bind these toxins. Through phylogenetic analysis of mammalian nAChR sequences, we show that honey badgers, hedgehogs, and pigs have independently acquired functionally equivalent amino acid replacements in the toxin-binding site of this receptor. These convergent amino acid changes impede toxin binding by introducing a positively charged amino acid in place of an uncharged aromatic residue. In venom-resistant mongooses, different replacements at these same sites are glycosylated, which is thought to disrupt binding through steric effects. Thus, it appears that resistance to snake venom α-neurotoxin has evolved at least four times among mammals through two distinct biochemical mechanisms operating at the same sites on the same receptor. PMID:25796346

  11. Differences in fire regimes and fire-climate feedbacks in North American and Eurasian boreal forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests contribute 9% of current annual fire emissions and contain nearly 40% of the world's terrestrial carbon stocks. Temperatures are projected to increase by the greatest magnitudes in high latitudes and lead to increased frequencies of forest fires. However, because of variations in climate and species-driven forest structure, fire regimes of North American and Eurasian boreal forests are distinctly different. These differences are generally not accounted for in global models. We quantified variations in fire and burn severity between the two continents using MODIS fire radiative power, differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, and spring albedo. These metrics suggest that Eurasian boreal fires are on average less than half as severe as those in North America. We examine how boreal forest fires may respond to 21st century climate change using the Community Land Model, and consider how these regimes may feed back to climate through fire-emitted aerosols, greenhouse gas fluxes, and land surface characteristics.

  12. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions; EU-FP-7 e-infra ENVRI "Common Operations of Environmental Research Infrastructures" project. New Siberian research infrastructure and data products should be developed in line with the ACTRIS, ICOS and ENVRI approaches. Furthermore, The Pan-Eurasian Experiment will be supported iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem - Atmosphere Processes Study) bringing the PEEX under umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The permafrost regions and boreal forests of the Pan Eurasian area can be identified as a hot spot of climate change research in a global scale. PEEX experiment can be considered as a crucial part of the strategic aims of several international and national roadmaps for climate change research and the development of next-generation research infrastructures. In this work we present the overall Science Plan for the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and report on the progress made in two PEEX science workshops organized in Helsinki in October 2012 and in Moscow in February 2013.

  13. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture throughout the African continent.

    PubMed

    Gallego Llorente, M; Jones, E R; Eriksson, A; Siska, V; Arthur, K W; Arthur, J W; Curtis, M C; Stock, J T; Coltorti, M; Pieruccini, P; Stretton, S; Brock, F; Higham, T; Park, Y; Hofreiter, M; Bradley, D G; Bhak, J; Pinhasi, R; Manica, A

    2015-11-13

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5× coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry. PMID:26449472

  14. Trace element analysis of three tissues from Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukmo; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Soohee; Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Seungwoo; Yu, Hee Jeong; Oh, Su-Jun; Park, Jung-Duck; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Han, Sung Yong; Lim, Jong-Deock; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2015-07-01

    Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) are endangered worldwide, but the specific cause of their decline has not been determined. This study analyzed the concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, Cu, Mn, and Zn, in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of Eurasian otters in South Korea. There were high individual variations in the tissue concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The kidneys had the highest concentrations of Cd and Se among the three tissue groups, and the livers had the highest concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Hg. The Pb and As concentrations in the livers were not significantly different from those in the kidneys, and the lungs had the lowest concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The age-related bioaccumulation of Cd and Hg was evident in the three tissue groups, and of Se in the kidneys. The Pb concentration was higher in the livers of juveniles compared with those of adults and the Zn concentration was higher in the lungs of juveniles. There were no apparent gender differences in the concentrations of the elements analyzed among the tissue groups. The Se concentration correlated with the Hg concentration in the livers and kidneys, and with the Cd concentration in the kidneys. The Hg and Cd levels correlated in the three tissue groups. The Cu and Zn levels also correlated in the livers and kidneys. In general, the element concentrations were within the ranges reported by previous studies of this species from European countries, except for Cd and Hg, the levels of which were mostly lower than those reported previously. These findings may provide baseline information to facilitate the conservation of the Eurasian otter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first available study of trace element concentrations in the tissues of Eurasian otters from South Korea or Asian countries. PMID:25762104

  15. The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

  16. Present-day intra-plate deformation of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Tesauro, Magdala

    2014-05-01

    We build on the results of two recent, yet independent, studies. In the first (Warners-Ruckstuhl et al., 2013) the forces on, and stresses within the Eurasian plate were established. In the second (Tesauro et al., 2012) the distribution of mechanically strong and weak parts of the Eurasian plate was found. The aim of our work is to predict lithospheric deformation of the Eurasian plate and to compare it with observations. This constitutes a test of both the force/stress results and of the strength results. Specific questions are to which extent stresses localize in specific regions and whether micro-plates as identified by geodesists arise naturally from the results. Importantly, Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2013) found an ensemble of mechanically consistent force models based on plate interaction forces, lithospheric body forces and convective tractions. Each of these force sets is in mechanical equilibrium. A subset drives Eurasia in the observed direction of absolute motion and generates a stress field in a homogeneous elastic plate that fits observed horizontal stress directions to first order. Deformation models constitute a further test and a possibility to discriminate between the remaining force sets. Following Tesauro et al. (2012) we assume five different compositions for the upper and lower crust. We use their geotherms and crustal thickness maps to estimate vertical distributions of strength at any location within the Eurasian plate. Based on the assumption that horizontal strain rates do not vary with depth allows us to estimate the vertically averaged viscosity of each point. We include major active faults in our mechanical model. We compare our results with GPS velocities, InSAR, seismic, and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

  17. Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Gui-Lian; Soubrier, Julien; Liu, Jin-Yi; Werdelin, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Thomson, Vicki A; Tuke, Jonathan; Wu, Lian-Juan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Chen, Quan-Jia; Lai, Xu-Long; Cooper, Alan

    2014-02-01

    The living hyena species (spotted, brown, striped and aardwolf) are remnants of a formerly diverse group of more than 80 fossil species, which peaked in diversity in the Late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma). The fossil history indicates an African origin, and morphological and ancient DNA data have confirmed that living spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) of Africa were closely related to extinct Late Pleistocene cave hyenas from Europe and Asia. The current model used to explain the origins of Eurasian cave hyena populations invokes multiple migrations out of Africa between 3.5-0.35 Ma. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from radiocarbon-dated Chinese Pleistocene hyena specimens to examine the origin of Asian populations, and temporally calibrate the evolutionary history of spotted hyenas. Our results support a far more recent evolutionary timescale (430-163 kya) and suggest that extinct and living spotted hyena populations originated from a widespread Eurasian population in the Late Pleistocene, which was only subsequently restricted to Africa. We developed statistical tests of the contrasting population models and their fit to the fossil record. Coalescent simulations and Bayes Factor analysis support the new radiocarbon-calibrated timescale and Eurasian origins model. The new Eurasian biogeographic scenario proposed for the hyena emphasizes the role of the vast steppe grasslands of Eurasia in contrast to models only involving Africa. The new methodology for combining genetic and geological data to test contrasting models of population history will be useful for a wide range of taxa where ancient and historic genetic data are available. PMID:24320717

  18. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  19. Present-day deformation of the intra-Eurasian plate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Tesauro, Magdala

    2015-04-01

    We build on the results of two recent, yet independent, studies. In the first (Warners-Ruckstuhl et al., 2013) the forces on, and stresses within the Eurasian plate were established. In the second (Tesauro et al., 2012) the distribution of mechanically strong and weak parts of the Eurasian plate was found. We predict lithospheric deformation of the Eurasian plate, mainly focused on the Tibetan Plateau and in a lesser scale, on the Zagros Mountains and Anatolia, and compare it with observations. This constitutes a test of both the force/stress results and of the strength results. Specific questions are to which extent stresses localize in specific regions and whether micro-plates as identified by geodesists arise naturally from the results. Importantly, Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2013) found an ensemble of mechanically consistent force models based on plate interaction forces, lithospheric body forces and convective tractions. Each of these force sets is in mechanical equilibrium. A subset drives Eurasia in the observed direction of absolute motion and generates a stress field in a homogeneous elastic plate that fits observed horizontal stress directions to first order. Deformation models constitute a further test to discriminate between the remaining force sets. Following Tesauro et al. (2012) we assume five different compositions for the upper and lower crust. We use their geotherms and crustal thickness maps to estimate vertical distributions of strength at any location within the Eurasian plate. From the power-law relationship between strength and viscosity, and based on the assumption that horizontal strain rates do not vary with depth, we estimate the vertically averaged viscosity of each element of the domain. The combination of forces and averaged viscosities, and the inclusion of major active faults in our mechanical model allow us to predict deformation (velocities, strain rates and rotation rates). We compare our results with GPS velocities, InSAR, seismic, and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

  20. Eurasian snow cover variability and links to winter climate in the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, Jason C.; Cohen, Judah L.; Butler, Amy H.; Riddle, Emily E.; Kumar, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Observational studies and modeling experiments illustrate that variability in October Eurasian snow cover extent impacts boreal wintertime conditions over the Northern Hemisphere (NH) through a dynamical pathway involving the stratosphere and changes in the surface-based Arctic Oscillation (AO). In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive study of the Eurasian snow-AO relationship in twenty coupled climate models run under pre-industrial conditions from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Our analyses indicate that the coupled climate models, individually and collectively, do not capture well the observed snow-AO relationship. The models lack a robust lagged response between October Eurasian snow cover and several NH wintertime variables (e.g., vertically propagating waves and geopotential heights). Additionally, the CMIP5 models do not simulate the observed spatial distribution and statistics of boreal fall snow cover across the NH including Eurasia. However, when analyzing individual 40-year time slices of the models, there are periods of time in select models when the observed snow-AO relationship emerges. This finding suggests that internal variability may play a significant role in the observed relationship. Further analysis demonstrates that the models poorly capture the downward propagation of stratospheric anomalies into the troposphere, a key facet of NH wintertime climate variability irrespective of the influence of Eurasian snow cover. A weak downward propagation signal may be related to several factors including too few stratospheric vortex disruptions and weaker-than-observed tropospheric wave driving. The analyses presented can be used as a roadmap for model evaluations in future studies involving NH wintertime climate variability, including those considering future climate change.

  1. Interactions between Eurasian/African and Arabian plates: Eskişehir Fault, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Süha; Gündoğdu, Erdem; Bekler, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    The Eskişehir Fault is an active right-lateral widespread intra-continental deformation zone which separates central western Anatolia from the Aegean domain. The inversion of fault slip vectors along the Eskişehir Fault yields a strike-slip stress state with NW-trending σHmax (σ1) and NE-trending σHmin (σ3) axes since the Early Pliocene. A change in strike-slip faulting under a compressional stress regime: from old transpression to young transtension, probably occurred in the Quaternary. The inversion of the earthquake source mechanism indicates that the transtensional stress regime continues up to the present. The İnönü and Eskişehir Basins developed under the transtensional stress regime producing consistent and local normal faulting with a continuing NE-trending σHmin (σ3). The stress regime change resulted in a decrease in σHmax (σ1) and/or an increase in σHmin (σ3) stress magnitudes due to coeval influence of the superimposed plate forces and the interaction of three plates (Eurasian/African/Arabian): (1) continental collision of Eurasian/Arabian plates with Anatolian block in the east, (2) westward escape of the Anatolian block by anticlockwise rotation at the west-southwest border of the Eurasian and Arabian/African plates and (3) a complex subduction process between African and Eurasian plates along the Aegean (Hellenic) and the Cyprus arcs which favors western extrusion of the Anatolian block in the eastern Mediterranean region.

  2. First description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Daniela; Simpson, Vic R; Fontanesi, Luca; Fusillo, Romina; Marcelli, Manlio; Bongiovanni, Laura; Romanucci, Mariarita; Palmieri, Chiara; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Adiaspiromycosis is a pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of the ubiquitous fungus Emmonsia spp., a common soil inhabitant. Information about the replication and dissemination of the fungus from the primary site is lacking. Members of the Family Mustelidae seem to be highly susceptible to this infection, which has been previously reported in otters (Lutra lutra) in Czech Republic/Slovakia, Finland and in the UK. In many cases, Emmonsia‑associated lesions have also been reported as incidental findings during necropsies of otherwise healthy animals. A road‑killed male Eurasian otter was submitted for the post‑mortem examination on 21st December 2009 at the Veterinary Pathology Unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Teramo, as part of the RECAL [RECovery and post‑mortem Analysis of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni (Salerno, Italy), and surrounding areas] project. Histologically, multifocal round structures with a PAS‑positive thick tri‑laminar wall and a central basophilic granular mass were observed within the alveoli. The adiaspores were surrounded by a severe granulomatous reaction with high number of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. Numerous multifocal cholesterol granulomas were observed close to those fungal‑induced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter in Italy. PMID:25273962

  3. Eurasian snow cover variability in relation to warming trend and Arctic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Sae-Rim; Kim, WonMoo; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2016-03-01

    Two distinct modes of snow cover variability over Eurasia are investigated using cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis. The first mode of Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) represents a seasonally asymmetric trend between spring and fall. The spring SCE shows a decreasing trend, while the fall SCE particularly in October exhibits a clear increasing trend. This seasonally asymmetric trend of SCE is closely linked to Arctic sea ice decline accompanied by warming in the northern Eurasia. The decreased SCE during spring is primarily attributed to the warm air temperature anomalies, while the increased SCE in October results from the loss of sea ice and the ensuing moisture transport to the atmosphere, which is realized as increased snow in October. The second mode of Eurasian SCE, on the other hand, is closely related to Arctic Oscillation (AO), which is a dominant mode of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric variability. The snow cover variability over Europe during winter is largely affected by AO variability, rather than the warming signal represented by the first CSEOF mode. Detailed descriptions of the two distinct modes of Eurasian SCE and their interactions with oceanic and atmospheric variables are presented along with possible implications for future climate.

  4. Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) – implications for future reintroductions

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syrůčková, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487–489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction. PMID:25067948

  5. Utility of Surface Pollen Assemblages to Delimit Eastern Eurasian Steppe Types

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng; Wang, Yu-Fei; Ferguson, David K.; Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Ya-Meng; Cai, Zhe; Wang, Qing; Ma, Hong-Zhen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Modern pollen records have been used to successfully distinguish between specific prairie types in North America. Whether the pollen records can be used to detect the occurrence of Eurasian steppe, or even to further delimit various steppe types was until now unclear. Here we characterized modern pollen assemblages of meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe from eastern Eurasia along an ecological humidity gradient. The multivariate ordination of the pollen data indicated that Eurasian steppe types could be clearly differentiated. The different steppe types could be distinguished primarily by xerophilous elements in the pollen assemblages. Redundancy analysis indicated that the relative abundances of Ephedra, Tamarix, Nitraria and Zygophyllaceae were positively correlated with aridity. The relative abundances of Ephedra increased from meadow steppe to typical steppe and desert steppe. Tamarix and Zygophyllaceae were found in both typical steppe and desert steppe, but not in meadow steppe. Nitraria was only found in desert steppe. The relative abundances of xerophilous elements were greater in desert steppe than in typical steppe. These findings indicate that Eurasian steppe types can be differentiated based on recent pollen rain. PMID:25763576

  6. Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) - implications for future reintroductions.

    PubMed

    Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syrůčková, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487-489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction. PMID:25067948

  7. Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    PubMed Central

    Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  8. Estimating reassortment rates in co-circulating Eurasian swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Lycett, S J; Baillie, G; Coulter, E; Bhatt, S; Kellam, P; McCauley, J W; Wood, J L N; Brown, I H; Pybus, O G; Leigh Brown, A J

    2012-11-01

    Swine have often been considered as a mixing vessel for different influenza strains. In order to assess their role in more detail, we undertook a retrospective sequencing study to detect and characterize the reassortants present in European swine and to estimate the rate of reassortment between H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes with Eurasian (avian-like) internal protein-coding segments. We analysed 69 newly obtained whole genome sequences of subtypes H1N1-H3N2 from swine influenza viruses sampled between 1982 and 2008, using Illumina and 454 platforms. Analyses of these genomes, together with previously published genomes, revealed a large monophyletic clade of Eurasian swine-lineage polymerase segments containing H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. We subsequently examined reassortments between the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments and estimated the reassortment rates between lineages using a recently developed evolutionary analysis method. High rates of reassortment between H1N2 and H1N1 Eurasian swine lineages were detected in European strains, with an average of one reassortment every 2-3 years. This rapid reassortment results from co-circulating lineages in swine, and in consequence we should expect further reassortments between currently circulating swine strains and the recent swine-origin H1N1v pandemic strain. PMID:22971819

  9. Reversible immobilization of eurasian otters with a combination of ketamine and medetomidine.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moran, J; Perez, E; Sanmartin, M; Saavedra, D; Manteca-Vilanova, X

    2001-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of the combination of medetomidine and ketamine was examined in order to establish an adequate chemical immobilization protocol in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) for use during translocation projects in Spain. Thirty-eight Eurasian otters ranging in body mass from 3 to 8.7 kg (mean 5.3 kg) were successfully anesthetized on 82 occasions. The dosage of ketamine was 5.1+/-0.8 (3.4-6.6) mg/kg (mean +/- SD; range) combined with medetomidine at a dosage of 51+/-8 Rg/kg (34-66 microg/kg). In most cases anaesthetic effect occurred within 3 min and the mean induction time was 5.5+/-3.2 min. The mean pulse rate was 95 beats/min. The mean respiratory rate was 32 respirations/min while the relative oxyhemoglobin saturation was 93%. According to these results, this anesthetic protocol is considered safe and can be recommended in wild caught Eurasian otters for immobilization during translocation projects. It is safe, rapid and can be reversed when needed with atipamezole. However caution is required as heart depression resulting in bradychardia may occur. PMID:11504230

  10. Estimating reassortment rates in co-circulating Eurasian swine influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, G.; Coulter, E.; Bhatt, S.; Kellam, P.; McCauley, J. W.; Wood, J. L. N.; Brown, I. H.; Pybus, O. G.; Leigh Brown, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Swine have often been considered as a mixing vessel for different influenza strains. In order to assess their role in more detail, we undertook a retrospective sequencing study to detect and characterize the reassortants present in European swine and to estimate the rate of reassortment between H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes with Eurasian (avian-like) internal protein-coding segments. We analysed 69 newly obtained whole genome sequences of subtypes H1N1H3N2 from swine influenza viruses sampled between 1982 and 2008, using Illumina and 454 platforms. Analyses of these genomes, together with previously published genomes, revealed a large monophyletic clade of Eurasian swine-lineage polymerase segments containing H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. We subsequently examined reassortments between the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments and estimated the reassortment rates between lineages using a recently developed evolutionary analysis method. High rates of reassortment between H1N2 and H1N1 Eurasian swine lineages were detected in European strains, with an average of one reassortment every 23 years. This rapid reassortment results from co-circulating lineages in swine, and in consequence we should expect further reassortments between currently circulating swine strains and the recent swine-origin H1N1v pandemic strain. PMID:22971819

  11. Musculoskeletal anatomy of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (Carnivora: Felidae) forelimb: Adaptations to capture large prey?

    PubMed

    Viranta, Suvi; Lommi, Hanna; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian carnivores adhere to two different feeding strategies relative to their body masses. Large carnivores prey on animals that are the same size or larger than themselves, whereas small carnivores prey on smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) falls in between these two categories. Lynx descend from larger forms that were probably large prey specialists, but during the Pleistocene became predators of small prey. The modern Eurasian lynx may be an evolutionary reversal toward specializing in large prey again. We hypothesized that the musculoskeletal anatomy of lynx should show traits for catching large prey. To test our hypothesis, we dissected the forelimb muscles of six Eurasian lynx individuals and compared our findings to results published for other felids. We measured the bones and compared their dimensions to the published material. Our material displayed a well-developed pectoral girdle musculature with some uniquely extensive muscle attachments. The upper arm musculature resembled that of the pantherine felids and probably the extinct sabertooths, and also the muscles responsible for supination and pronation were similar to those in large cats. The muscles controlling the pollex were well-developed. However, skeletal indices were similar to those of small prey predators. Our findings show that lynx possess the topographic pattern of muscle origin and insertion like in large felids. J. Morphol. 277:753-765, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26997516

  12. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  13. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC. PMID:22515208

  14. Early Eurasian migration traces in the Tarim Basin revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Chunxiang; Gao, Shizhu; Xie, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hui

    2010-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of 58 samples from the Daheyan village located in the central Taklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin were determined in this study. Among the 58 samples, 29 haplotypes belonging to 18 different haplogroups were analyzed. Almost all the mtDNAs belong to a subset of either the defined Western or Eastern Eurasian pool. Extensive Eastern Eurasian lineages exist in the Daheyan population in which Northern-prevalent haplogroups present higher frequencies. In the limited existing Western Eurasian lineages, two sub-haplogroups, U3 and X2, that are rare in Central Asia were found in this study, which may be indicative of the remnants of an early immigrant population from the Near East and Caucasus regions preserved only in the Tarim Basin. The presence of U3 in modern and archeological samples in the Tarim Basin suggests that the immigration took place earlier than 2,000 years ago and points to human continuity in this area, with at least one Western lineage originating from the Near East and Caucasus regions. PMID:20091803

  15. The origin of Eurasian Mammoth Faunas (Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2014-07-01

    Pleistocene Mammoth Faunas were the most successful, cold-adapted large mammal assemblages in the history of the Earth. However, the causes for their emergence can not be attributed only to the global trend of climate cooling which occurred during the Neogene/Quaternary period. The formation of the Eurasian Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex was a result of interacting tectonic, geographical, climatic, ecological and phylogenetic processes. The key environmental factors controlling the origin and evolution of Palaearctic cold-adapted large mammal faunas were successive aridification of major parts of Eurasia, rhythmic global climatic cooling with prolonged and intensified cold stages, and increasing continentality. Between 2.6 Ma and around 700 ka BP, largely independent mammal faunas became established in continental Asian steppe regions as well as in the circumpolar tundra. Both faunal complexes were adapted to open environmental conditions but were largely separated from each other. The principal requirements in order for species to evolve into members of Mammoth Faunas are progressing adaptation to aridity, decreasing temperatures and rapid temperature fluctuations. Eurasian Mammoth Faunas were mainly composed of the descendants of either Central Asian steppe or Arctic tundra faunal elements. The majority of species of Central Asian origin emerged in regions north of the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. Between 640 and 480 ka BP, saiga, musk-ox and reindeer occasionally spread far beyond the limits of their respective traditional areas, thus anticipating the subsequent merge of steppe and tundra originated species in Eurasian Mammoth Faunas. During the pronounced cold period of MIS 12, tundra species regularly expanded south- and southwestward into a newly formed type of biome, the so-called tundra-steppe. In parallel, species originating from the Asian steppe dispersed into new habitats north and northwest of their ancestral distribution areas. This drastic faunal turnover led to the formation of the earliest pan-Eurasian Mammoth Fauna at around 460 ka BP. The sister taxa of several species involved in Mammoth Faunas underwent separate evolution in Central Asia, thus indicating ecological differences between the Asian core steppe and Eurasian tundra-steppe habitats. During temperate and humid stages of the late Middle to Late Pleistocene periods the transcontinental reach of the steppe-tundra biome collapsed. As a result, the majority of the characteristic mammal species were forced back to continental steppe or Arctic tundra refugia, only returning during subsequent cold stages when the formation of a new and more evolved Mammoth Fauna began. The maximum geographic extension of the Palaearctic Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex occurred during the Late Pleistocene, when it covered an area of up to 190 degrees of longitude and 40 degrees of latitude.

  16. How might the North American ice sheet influence the Northwestern Eurasian climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Kageyama, M.; Dumas, C.; Ritz, C.

    2015-01-01

    During the last glacial period (∼21 000 years ago), two continental-scale ice sheets covered the Canada and northern Europe. It is now widely acknowledged that these past ice sheets exerted a strong influence on climate by causing changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In turn, these changes may have impacted the development of the ice sheets themselves through a combination of different feedback mechanisms. The present study is designed to investigate the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Eurasian ice sheet through simulated changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using the LMDz5 atmospheric circulation model, we carried out twelve experiments run under constant Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions for insolation, greenhouse gases and ocean. In the all experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet is removed. The twelve experiments differ in the North American ice-sheet topography, ranging from a white and flat (present-day topography) ice sheet to a full-size LGM ice sheet. This experimental design allows to disentangle the albedo and the topographic impacts of the North American ice sheet onto the climate. The results are compared to our baseline experiment where both the North American and the Eurasian ice sheets have been removed. In summer, we show that the only albedo effect of the American ice sheet modifies the pattern of planetary waves with respect to the no-ice sheet case, causing a cooling of the Eurasian region. By contrast, the atmospheric circulation changes induced by the topography of the North American ice sheet imply summer warming in Northwestern Eurasia. In winter, the Scandinavian and the Barents-Kara regions respond differently to the albedo effect: in response to atmospheric circulation changes, Scandinavia is warmed up and precipitation is more abundant whereas Barents-Kara area is cooled down, decreasing convection process and thus leading to less precipitation. The height increase of American ice sheet leads to less precipitation and snowfalls and colder temperatures over both Scandinavian and Barents-Kara sectors. The simulated temperature and precipitation fields have then been used to force an ice-sheet model and to compute the resulting surface mass balance over the Fennoscandian region as a function of the American ice-sheet configuration. It clearly appears that the SMB is dominated by the ablation signal. In response to the summer cooling induced by the American ice-sheet albedo, a highly positive SMB is simulated over the Eurasian ice sheet, leading thus to the growth of the ice sheet. On the contrary, the topography of the American ice sheet leads to more ablation, hence limiting its growth.

  17. Survey of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in road-killed wild carnivores in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Loureiro, Filipa; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Matos, Manuela; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

    2014-12-01

    A survey to determine the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in wild carnivores in Portugal was conducted by testing samples from road-killed animals between 2009 and 2012. Postmortem examinations were performed and tissues were collected from wild carnivores representing four families and six different species, with a total of 74 animals analyzed. Cultures were performed by using Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 solid media and acid-fast isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mycobactin dependency characteristics. Tissues were also screened for MAP by directly extracting DNA and testing for the MAP-specific sequences. The occurrence of infected animals (an animal had at least one tissue that was positive for culture or direct PCR) was 27.0% (n = 20). MAP was isolated from culture of 25 tissue samples (3.8%) and was detected by direct PCR in 40 (6.0%) samples. Infection was recorded in 5/6 studied species: 7/49 (14.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 3/3 (100%) beech martens (Martes foina), 2/4 (50.0%) Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 7/15 (46.7%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and 1/1 (100%) European badger (Meles meles). These species represent three different taxonomic families: Canidae (14.3% were positive), Mustelidae (75.0% were positive), and Herpestidae (46.7% were positive). The results of this study confirm the presence of MAP infection in wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:25632662

  18. Detection and identification of Bartonella sp. in fleas from carnivorous mammals in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Márquez, F J; Millán, J; Rodríguez-Liébana, J J; García-Egea, I; Muniain, M A

    2009-12-01

    A total of 559 fleas representing four species (Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Spilopsyllus cuniculi) collected on carnivores (five Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, six European wildcat Felis silvestris, 10 common genet Genetta genetta, three Eurasian badger Meles meles, 22 red fox Vulpes vulpes, 87 dogs and 23 cats) in Andalusia, southern Spain, were distributed in 156 pools of monospecific flea from each carnivore, and tested for Bartonella infection in an assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16 S-23 S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Twenty-one samples (13.5%) were positive and the sequence data showed the presence of four different Bartonella species. Bartonella henselae was detected in nine pools of Ctenocephalides felis from cats and dogs and in three pools of Ctenocephalides canis from cats; Bartonella clarridgeiae in Ctenocephalides felis from a cat, and Bartonella alsatica in Spilopsyllus cuniculi from a wildcat. DNA of Bartonella sp., closely related to Bartonella rochalimae, was found in seven pools of Pulex irritans from foxes. This is the first detection of B. alsatica and Bartonella sp. in the Iberian Peninsula. All of these Bartonella species have been implicated as agents of human diseases. The present survey confirms that carnivores are major reservoirs for Bartonella spp. PMID:19941605

  19. The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Busby, George B.J.; Hellenthal, Garrett; Montinaro, Francesco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Bulayeva, Kazima; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Toncheva, Draga; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Nesheva, Desislava; Anagnostou, Paolo; Cali, Francesco; Brisighelli, Francesca; Romano, Valentino; Lefranc, Gerard; Buresi, Catherine; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Haj-Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Ploski, Rafal; Krajewski, Pawel; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Herrera, Rene J.; Wilson, James F.; Myers, Simon; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8, 9, 10, 11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. PMID:26387712

  20. Eurasian snow cover and Indian monsoon : A new episode of a debated relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peings, Y.; Douville, H.

    2009-04-01

    Since the pioneering works of Blanford at the end of the 19th century, suggesting that Indian monsoon rainfall could be sensitive to snow conditions over Himalaya, many studies have been devoted to a better understanding of the possible teleconnection between winter/spring Eurasian snow cover and the following Indian monsoon. This issue has been recently revisited at CNRM using a maximum covariance analysis. This statistical tool has been applied on both observations (summer precipitation over India on the one hand, satellite data of snow cover or in situ measurements of snow depth on the other hand) and a subset of global coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations from the CMIP3 database. In line with former studies, the observations suggest a link between an east-west snow dipole over Eurasia and the Indian summer monsoon precipitation. However, our results indicate that this relationship is neither statistically significant nor stationary over the last forty years. Moreover, the strongest signal appears over eastern Eurasia and is not consistent with the Blanford hypothesis whereby more snow should lead to a weaker monsoon. The 20th century CMIP3 simulations provide longer timeseries to look for robust snow-monsoon relationships. Some models do show an apparent influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon precipitation, but the snow patterns are model-dependent and not the same as in the observations. Moreover, the apparent snow-monsoon relationship generally denotes a too strong ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) influence on both winter snow cover and summer monsoon rainfall rather than a direct effect of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon. New sensitivity studies with the ARPEGE-Climat model are needed to assess the potential impact of snow anomalies on the monsoon, using climatological sea surface temperature to get rid of the oceanic variability.

  1. Modelling the Eurasian Ice Sheet through a full (Weichselian) glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Martin J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Hald, Morten; Svendsen, John-Inge

    2001-11-01

    Recently acquired glacial geological and oceanographic datasets provide information on the Weichselian glaciations of Scandinavia and the Eurasian Arctic. A numerical ice-sheet model, forced by global sea level and solar insolation changes, was run to reconstruct ice sheets compatible with these data. A 'maximum' reconstruction assumes that the modern-type temperature distribution across the Eurasian Arctic is reduced by 10 °C at three stages during the Weichselian, which are related to minimum levels of solar insolation. Conversely, a 'minimum' model incorporates a reduction in temperature of only 5 °C in Early and Middle Weichselian time. The 'maximum' reconstruction employs the relatively larger sea-level fall suggested by the δ18O deep-sea record, while the 'minimum' run uses the more conservative sea-level estimate from New Guinea coral reef terraces. The maximum model predicts three major glacial advances in the Weichselian. These compare well to geological evidence for ice-sheet growth during the Early, Middle and Late Weichselian. Geological evidence for the Late Weichselian ice sheet is compatible with either reconstruction if ice growth across the Taymyr Peninsula is curtailed. The models show that ice-sheet advance caused by the interaction of sea level and solar insolation changes yields a time-dependent ice volume function similar to that established from the geological record. Periods of seasonally open water within the seas bordering the Eurasian Arctic generally occur prior to glaciation, and may provide a source of precipitation for ice-sheet growth. In contrast, periods of ice-rafted debris deposition and depletion in surface-ocean δ18O in sea-floor sediments compare well with the model's determination of ice-sheet decay and melting.

  2. The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape.

    PubMed

    Busby, George B J; Hellenthal, Garrett; Montinaro, Francesco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Bulayeva, Kazima; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Toncheva, Draga; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Nesheva, Desislava; Anagnostou, Paolo; Cali, Francesco; Brisighelli, Francesca; Romano, Valentino; Lefranc, Gerard; Buresi, Catherine; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Haj-Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Ploski, Rafal; Krajewski, Pawel; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Herrera, Rene J; Wilson, James F; Myers, Simon; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-10-01

    Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1-7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8-11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. PMID:26387712

  3. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification. PMID:26234211

  4. Genetic diversity in India and the inference of Eurasian population expansion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic studies of populations from the Indian subcontinent are of great interest because of India's large population size, complex demographic history, and unique social structure. Despite recent large-scale efforts in discovering human genetic variation, India's vast reservoir of genetic diversity remains largely unexplored. Results To analyze an unbiased sample of genetic diversity in India and to investigate human migration history in Eurasia, we resequenced one 100-kb ENCODE region in 92 samples collected from three castes and one tribal group from the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. Analyses of the four Indian populations, along with eight HapMap populations (692 samples), showed that 30% of all SNPs in the south Indian populations are not seen in HapMap populations. Several Indian populations, such as the Yadava, Mala/Madiga, and Irula, have nucleotide diversity levels as high as those of HapMap African populations. Using unbiased allele-frequency spectra, we investigated the expansion of human populations into Eurasia. The divergence time estimates among the major population groups suggest that Eurasian populations in this study diverged from Africans during the same time frame (approximately 90 to 110 thousand years ago). The divergence among different Eurasian populations occurred more than 40,000 years after their divergence with Africans. Conclusions Our results show that Indian populations harbor large amounts of genetic variation that have not been surveyed adequately by public SNP discovery efforts. Our data also support a delayed expansion hypothesis in which an ancestral Eurasian founding population remained isolated long after the out-of-Africa diaspora, before expanding throughout Eurasia. PMID:21106085

  5. Indigenous Arabs are descendants of the earliest split from ancient Eurasian populations.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Fakhro, Khalid; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Ramstetter, Monica D; Arbiza, Leonardo; Vincent, Thomas L; Robay, Amal; Malek, Joel A; Suhre, Karsten; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Al-Nabet Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Salit, Jacqueline; Keinan, Alon; Clark, Andrew G; Crystal, Ronald G; Mezey, Jason G

    2016-02-01

    An open question in the history of human migration is the identity of the earliest Eurasian populations that have left contemporary descendants. The Arabian Peninsula was the initial site of the out-of-Africa migrations that occurred between 125,000 and 60,000 yr ago, leading to the hypothesis that the first Eurasian populations were established on the Peninsula and that contemporary indigenous Arabs are direct descendants of these ancient peoples. To assess this hypothesis, we sequenced the entire genomes of 104 unrelated natives of the Arabian Peninsula at high coverage, including 56 of indigenous Arab ancestry. The indigenous Arab genomes defined a cluster distinct from other ancestral groups, and these genomes showed clear hallmarks of an ancient out-of-Africa bottleneck. Similar to other Middle Eastern populations, the indigenous Arabs had higher levels of Neanderthal admixture compared to Africans but had lower levels than Europeans and Asians. These levels of Neanderthal admixture are consistent with an early divergence of Arab ancestors after the out-of-Africa bottleneck but before the major Neanderthal admixture events in Europe and other regions of Eurasia. When compared to worldwide populations sampled in the 1000 Genomes Project, although the indigenous Arabs had a signal of admixture with Europeans, they clustered in a basal, outgroup position to all 1000 Genomes non-Africans when considering pairwise similarity across the entire genome. These results place indigenous Arabs as the most distant relatives of all other contemporary non-Africans and identify these people as direct descendants of the first Eurasian populations established by the out-of-Africa migrations. PMID:26728717

  6. Solar influences on spatial patterns of Eurasian winter temperature and atmospheric general circulation anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haishan; Ma, Hedi; Li, Xing; Sun, Shanlei

    2015-09-01

    Solar influences on spatial patterns of Eurasian winter climate and possible mechanisms are investigated based on a multiple linear regression method and multisource observational and reanalysis data. Robust and significant solar signals are detected in Eurasian surface air temperature (SAT), and strong solar activity evidently warms most area of the continent. The spatial pattern of sea level pressure (SLP) responses to solar activity is similar but not identical to that of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Compared to the NAO, geographic distribution of solar-induced SLP anomalies shifts eastward, with significantly enhanced influences over northern Eurasia. Relatively weaker solar signals were also found in mid-to-upper troposphere. The spatial pattern of 500 hPa geopotential anomalies resembles a negative Scandinavia teleconnection pattern, and the 200 hPa subtropical jet is weakened, while zonal wind at high latitudes is enhanced due to strong solar activity. The anomalous zonal circulations can be attributed to the "top-down" mechanism. During high solar activity winters, an enhanced stratospheric zonal wind anomaly propagates downward, causing zonal wind anomalies in the troposphere. However, the "bottom-up" mechanisms may provide more reasonable explanations of the distinct solar influences on Eurasian climate. Solar-induced strong warm advection in lower atmosphere tends to increase SAT but decrease SLP, resulting in enhanced solar influences over northern Eurasia. Meanwhile, change in the land-ocean thermal contrast (LOTC) could also amplify the circulation anomaly. Inhomogeneous surface heating caused by anomalous solar activity modifies LOTC, which probably enhances the solar-induced circulation patterns. Such a positive feedback may potentially strengthen the solar influences.

  7. Indigenous Arabs are descendants of the earliest split from ancient Eurasian populations

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Fakhro, Khalid; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Ramstetter, Monica D.; Arbiza, Leonardo; Vincent, Thomas L.; Robay, Amal; Malek, Joel A.; Suhre, Karsten; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Al-Nabet Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Salit, Jacqueline; Keinan, Alon; Clark, Andrew G.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Mezey, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    An open question in the history of human migration is the identity of the earliest Eurasian populations that have left contemporary descendants. The Arabian Peninsula was the initial site of the out-of-Africa migrations that occurred between 125,000 and 60,000 yr ago, leading to the hypothesis that the first Eurasian populations were established on the Peninsula and that contemporary indigenous Arabs are direct descendants of these ancient peoples. To assess this hypothesis, we sequenced the entire genomes of 104 unrelated natives of the Arabian Peninsula at high coverage, including 56 of indigenous Arab ancestry. The indigenous Arab genomes defined a cluster distinct from other ancestral groups, and these genomes showed clear hallmarks of an ancient out-of-Africa bottleneck. Similar to other Middle Eastern populations, the indigenous Arabs had higher levels of Neanderthal admixture compared to Africans but had lower levels than Europeans and Asians. These levels of Neanderthal admixture are consistent with an early divergence of Arab ancestors after the out-of-Africa bottleneck but before the major Neanderthal admixture events in Europe and other regions of Eurasia. When compared to worldwide populations sampled in the 1000 Genomes Project, although the indigenous Arabs had a signal of admixture with Europeans, they clustered in a basal, outgroup position to all 1000 Genomes non-Africans when considering pairwise similarity across the entire genome. These results place indigenous Arabs as the most distant relatives of all other contemporary non-Africans and identify these people as direct descendants of the first Eurasian populations established by the out-of-Africa migrations. PMID:26728717

  8. Resurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of Eurasian elk (Alces alces), with a report on associated pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varestrongylus alces Demidova & Naumitscheva, 1953 is resurrected for protostrongylid nematodes of Eurasian elk in Europe. Descriptions of males (11.36-16.95 mm) and females (16.25- 21.52 mm) are based on specimens collected from the terminal bronchioles in the lungs of Eurasian elk, Alces alces (L...

  9. Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity of Eurasian Red Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Corrie L; Vilstrup, Julia T; Fernández, Ruth; Marchi, Nina; Håkansson, Bo; Krog, Mogens; Asferg, Tommy; Baagøe, Hans; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    Melanistic Eurasian red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris are commonly found on the Danish island of Funen. They are thought to represent native Danish squirrel types and are presently under threat from admixture with introduced red squirrels. In response, a conservation program was started in 2009 that involves the translocation of melanistic squirrels from Funen to the squirrel-free island of Langeland. Using mitochondrial DNA of 101 historical and modern samples from throughout Denmark, we assess for the first time population structure and mitochondrial genetic diversity of Danish squirrels compared to its larger pan-Eurasian distribution. We find that Danish squirrels have low levels of genetic diversity, especially melanistic individuals. Bayesian skyline reconstructions show that Danish squirrels have most probably experienced a severe bottleneck within the last 200 years. Also, fine-scale genetic structure was found between squirrels from the regions of Funen, Zealand and Jutland, which mimics the insular geography of Denmark. Additional nuclear DNA analyses will be required to determine the precise admixture levels between original Danish and introduced squirrels and to locate unmixed candidate populations for specific conservation efforts. PMID:26519513

  10. mtDNA analysis of 174 Eurasian populations using a new iterative rank correlation method.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Zoltán; Fehér, Tibor; Németh, Endre; Pamjav, Horolma

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we analyse 27-dimensional mtDNA haplogroup distributions of 174 Eurasian, North-African and American populations, including numerous ancient data as well. The main contribution of this work was the description of the haplogroup distribution of recent and ancient populations as compounds of certain hypothetic ancient core populations immediately or indirectly determining the migration processes in Eurasia for a long time. To identify these core populations, we developed a new iterative algorithm determining clusters of the 27 mtDNA haplogroups studied having strong rank correlation among each other within a definite subset of the populations. Based on this study, the current Eurasian populations can be considered as compounds of three early core populations regarding to maternal lineages. We wanted to show that a simultaneous analysis of ancient and recent data using a new iterative rank correlation algorithm and the weighted SOC learning technique may reveal the most important and deterministic migration processes in the past. This technique allowed us to determine geographically, historically and linguistically well-interpretable clusters of our dataset having a very specific, hardly classifiable structure. The method was validated using a 2-dimensional stepping stone model. PMID:26142878

  11. Pilfering Eurasian jays use visual and acoustic information to locate caches.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-11-01

    Pilfering corvids use observational spatial memory to accurately locate caches that they have seen another individual make. Accordingly, many corvid cache-protection strategies limit the transfer of visual information to potential thieves. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) employ strategies that reduce the amount of visual and auditory information that is available to competitors. Here, we test whether or not the jays recall and use both visual and auditory information when pilfering other birds' caches. When jays had no visual or acoustic information about cache locations, the proportion of available caches that they found did not differ from the proportion expected if jays were searching at random. By contrast, after observing and listening to a conspecific caching in gravel or sand, jays located a greater proportion of caches, searched more frequently in the correct substrate type and searched in fewer empty locations to find the first cache than expected. After only listening to caching in gravel and sand, jays also found a larger proportion of caches and searched in the substrate type where they had heard caching take place more frequently than expected. These experiments demonstrate that Eurasian jays possess observational spatial memory and indicate that pilfering jays may gain information about cache location merely by listening to caching. This is the first evidence that a corvid may use recalled acoustic information to locate and pilfer caches. PMID:24889656

  12. On the Causes of and Long Term Changes in Eurasian Heat Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max

    2012-01-01

    The MERRA reanalysis, other observations, and the GEOS-S model have been used to diagnose the causes of Eurasian heat waves including the recent extreme events that occurred in Europe during 2003 and in Russia during 2010. The results show that such extreme events are an amplification of natural patterns of atmospheric variability (in this case a particular large-scale atmospheric planetary wave) that develop over the Eurasian continent as a result of internal atmospheric forcing. The amplification occurs when the wave occasionally becomes locked in place for several weeks to months resulting in extreme heat and drying with the location depending on the phase of the upper atmospheric wave. Model experiments suggest that forcing from both the ocean (SST) and land playa role phase-locking the waves. An ensemble of very long GEOS-S model simulations (spanning the 20th century) forced with observed SST and greenhouse gases show that the model is capable of generating very similar heat waves, and that they have become more extreme in the last thirty years as a result of the overall warming of the Asian continent.

  13. The Cenozoic Eurasian plate is not a single rigid plate: clues from paleomagnetism. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogné, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Cenozoic paleomagnetic inclination anomaly in Central Asia has been explained as a generalized error in the sedimentary magnetic field record over Asia due to an inclination flattening mechanism or as a persistent anomalous non-dipolar component of the magnetic field throughout the Tertiary. We propose that the inclination anomaly does not primarily result from either of these mechanisms. We present an analysis of the Asian paleomagnetic database for Meso-Cenozoic times from which we conclude that the inclination anomaly is most likely related to an underestimated global plate-tectonics cause. Based on this analysis, we propose that the wide so-called Eurasian plate has undergone sinistral transpressive north-south relative movements between its western and eastern parts since the end of the Cretaceous. These Cenozoic relative movements might have been located along the Ural Mountain chain with also some components along the Tornquist-Tesseyre line in central Europe. Therefore, we conclude that the Eurasian plate is not a rigid plate as commonly considered, at least since the late Mesozoic.

  14. Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge

    PubMed Central

    Mazières, Stéphane; Myres, Natalie M.; Lin, Alice A.; Temori, Shah Aga; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Witzel, Michael; King, Roy J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Chiaroni, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci. PMID:24204668

  15. Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Wang, Zhiheng; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol 14C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3–6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic. PMID:23940354

  16. A study on the effect of Eurasian snow on the summer monsoon circulation and rainfall using a spectral GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S. K.; Parth Sarthi, P.; Panda, S. K.

    2006-06-01

    Many studies based on observed data indicate the inverse relationship between the Eurasian snow cover/depth and the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). The purpose of this study is to confirm the inverse snow-ISMR relationship by using the observed snow depth data as boundary conditions in the spectral general circulation model (GCM) of Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IITD), and to examine the influence of Eurasian snow depth on the monsoon circulation. The original model belonging to the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) at resolution T21 has been modified extensively to a higher resolution of T80L18 at IITD. A two-dimensional Lanczos digital filter has been used to represent the orography realistically.The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) version II data set has been used for conducting sensitivity experiments using the above model. Two sensitivity experiments have been designed, corresponding to two contrasting cases: one with high Eurasian snow depth in spring followed by deficient ISMR and the second with low snow depth followed by excess ISMR. The difference fields of mean monsoon circulation simulated in the above two experiments are examined in detail in order to confirm the influence of Eurasian snow depth on ISMR and to examine the Asian summer monsoon circulation and rainfall.

  17. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic Eurasian H5N8 avian influenza in two commercial poultry flocks in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In January 2015, a highly pathogenic Eurasian lineage H5N8 avian influenza (AI) virus was detected in a commercial meat turkey flock in Stanislaus County, California. Approximately 3 weeks later, a similar case was diagnosed in commercial chickens from a different company located in Kings County, C...

  18. Nonstationary impact of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and the response of mid-latitude Eurasian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tingting; Shi, Zhengguo; Wang, Hongli; An, Zhisheng

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), although a local atmospheric mode over the North Atlantic Ocean, plays an important remote role in the Eurasian climate. However, the link between the NAO and Eurasian climate might be unstable. Here, we present a study on the relationship between the winter NAO and mid-latitude Eurasian climate, especially the mid-latitude East Asian precipitation, mainly based on meteorological data and output from an 1155-year-long coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulation. The results show that the winter NAO exerts a remarkable effect on the changes in mid-latitude Eurasian climate; however, the impact of the NAO is nonstationary. According to the model output, the impact of the NAO varies synchronously with the NAO variance with a period of around 150 years. During the high NAO variance period, the NAO has significant correlation with mid-latitude East Asian precipitation; low NAO variance periods do not. The variation of the NAO-precipitation teleconnection may arise from the changing influence of NAO on the local temperature. The NAO signal moves eastward by a zonally oriented wave train, where it modulates the atmospheric circulation structure, and thus results in the nonstationary relationship between the NAO and mid-latitude East Asian precipitation.

  19. Operational control of Eurasian watermilfoil and impacts to the native submersed aquatic macrophyte community in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Pend Oreille is the largest (36,000 ha or 91,000 acres) freshwater lake in Idaho. Approximately 27% or 10,000 ha of the lake is littoral zone habitat supporting aquatic plant growth. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) has invaded large areas of this littoral zone habitat, with e...

  20. Genetic differentiation and admixture among Eurasian and North American Leymus (Triticeae) wildryes detected using chloroplast DNA sequences and AFLP profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leymus is a genomically defined group of allopolyploid Triticeae taxa that show homologous chromosome pairing when hybridized and contain the Ns and Xm subgenomes. Recent investigations showed that Leymus chloroplast DNA sequences are polyphyletic with most Eurasian taxa similar to the Psathyrostac...

  1. Potential impacts of northeastern Eurasian snow cover on generation of dust storms in northwestern China during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yun Gon; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Jinwon

    2013-08-01

    The effects of the northeastern Eurasian snow cover on the frequency of spring dust storms in northwestern China have been examined for the period 1979-2007. Averaged over all 43 stations in northwestern China, a statistically significant relationship has been found between dust-storm frequency (DSF) and Eurasian snow-water equivalent (SWE) during spring: mean DSF of 7.4 and 3.3 days for years of high- and low SWE, respectively. Further analyses reveal that positive SWE anomalies enhance the meridional gradients of the lower tropospheric temperatures and geopotential heights, thereby strengthening westerly jets and zonal wind shear over northwestern China and western Inner Mongolia of China, the regions of major dust sources. The anomalous atmospheric circulation corresponding to the Eurasian SWE anomalies either reinforces or weakens atmospheric baroclinicity and cyclogenesis, according to the sign of the anomaly, to affect the spring DSF. This study suggests that Eurasian SWE anomalies can be an influential factor of spring DSF in northwestern China and western Inner Mongolia of China.

  2. Linking geological evidence from the Eurasian suture zones to a regional Indian Ocean plate tectonic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, A.; Aitchison, J.; Müller, R.; Whittaker, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a revised regional plate tectonic model for the Indian Ocean from the Late Jurassic to present, which assimilates both marine geophysical data constraining the seafloor spreading history as well as a variety of geological observations from the Eurasian collision zone. This model includes relative motion between Greater India, Sri Lanka, West Australia, East Antarctica, East Madagascar, the Seychelles and Argoland, a continental sliver which began migrating towards Eurasia in the Late Jurassic, forming the northern margins of Greater India and western Australia. Recently collected data offshore northwest Australia suggest that the majority of Greater India reached only halfway along the West Australian margin in an Early Mesozoic reconstruction, bounded by the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. The revised geometries and relative motion histories redefine the timing and nature of collisional events, as well as the history of back-arc basins and intra-oceanic arcs, such as the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc in northwest India and Pakistan. Abundant ophiolites have been identified throughout the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone, between the Indian-Himalaya and Tibet, several have boninitic compositions and almost all date to either the Mid Jurassic or late Early Cretaceous. Further evidence suggests that an intra-oceanic arc collided with Greater India before colliding with Eurasia. Our model features a transform boundary running north of East Africa, which initiated an oceanic arc following short-lived compression between the western and central Mesotethys in the Late Jurassic, coinciding with the initial motion of Argoland. The arc developed through extension and ophiolite generation until at least the mid-Cretaceous and consumed a narrow thinned sliver of West Argoland between ~120-65 Ma. The arc remained active in the same position until its eventual collision with Greater India ~55 Ma. The eastern portion of the intra-oceanic arc accreted to eastern Eurasia (near Burma) causing anticlockwise rotation/retreat of the margin until collision between the main portion of Greater India and central Eurasian margin took place ~36 Ma. This relatively young collision between India and Eurasia is supported by subduction-related magmatism, which continued into the Late Eocene. The Upper Eocene Pengqu Formation also suggests that marine conditions prevailed south of the suture zone until that time, while the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene Gangrinboche conglomerates mark the initial mixing and deposition of both Eurasian and Indian-sourced sediments.

  3. Differences in satellite-derived NOx emission factors between Eurasian and North American boreal forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    Current fire emission inventories apply universal emission factors (EFs) for the calculation of NOx emissions over large biomes such as boreal forest. However, recent satellite-based studies over tropical and subtropical regions have indicated spatio-temporal variations in EFs within specific biomes. In this study, satellite measurements of tropospheric NO2 vertical columns (TVC NO2) from the GOME-2 instrument and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS are used for the estimation of fire emission rates (FERs) of NOx over Eurasian and North American boreal forests. The retrieval of TVC NO2 is based on a stratospheric correction using simulated stratospheric NO2 instead of applying the reference sector method, which was used in a previous study. The model approach is more suitable for boreal latitudes. TVC NO2 and FRP are spatially aggregated to a 1° × 1° horizontal resolution and temporally averaged to monthly values. The conversion of the satellite-derived tropospheric NO2 columns into production rates of NOx from fire (Pf) is based on the NO2/NOx ratio as obtained from the MACC reanalysis data set and an assumed lifetime of NOx. A global land cover map is used to define boreal forests across these two regions in order to evaluate the FERs of NOx for this biome. The FERs of NOx, which are derived from the gradients of the linear relationship between Pf and FRP, are more than 30% lower for North American than for Eurasian boreal forest fires. We speculate that these discrepancies are mainly related to the variable nitrogen content in plant tissues, which is higher in deciduous forests dominating large parts in Eurasia. In order to compare the obtained values with EFs found in the literature, the FERs are converted into EFs. The satellite-based EFs of NOx are estimated at 0.83 and 0.61 g kg-1 for Eurasian and North American boreal forests, respectively, which is in good agreement with the value found in a recent emission factor compilation. However, recent fire emission inventories are based on EFs of NOx that are 3-5 times larger, which indicates that there are still large uncertainties in estimates of NOx from biomass burning, especially on the regional scale.

  4. Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2012-06-01

    Mechanical equilibrium of tectonic plates implies that lithospheric edge and body forces are balanced by forces arising from interaction with the underlying mantle. We use this quantitative physical relation to integrate existing modelling approaches of lithosphere dynamics and mantle flow into a new combined approach applied to the Eurasian Plate. By combining a thorough analysis of lithospheric forces with the requirement of torque balance we constrain the orientation of the torque on Eurasia arising from mantle tractions. We use this constraint to evaluate convective mantle flow models driven by tomographic or subduction history model anomalies and observed plate motion. Mantle forcing is considered through both shear at the bottom of the plate and induced dynamic topography. We find that instantaneous semi-analytic flow models without lateral viscosity variations generate tractions that meet the constraint from Eurasian lithosphere dynamics, but only for specific ranges of mantle flow parameters. Of the explored set of mantle anomaly models, only mantle flow models based on S-wave tomography anomalies can balance Eurasia for realistic viscosity profiles and velocity-density scaling. Choices in mantle density forcing and viscosity are crucial in that they govern the relative magnitude of tractions due to convective mantle flow ('active tractions') and resistive tractions due to plate motion ('passive tractions'). We find mechanical balance is only achieved for similar torque magnitudes of active and passive shear. The two shear contributions do however in no case balance each other and a considerable, dominant, net torque from edge forces is required to balance total mantle tractions and lithospheric body forces (LBFs). Our analysis provides a range of mechanically consistent total force sets acting on the Eurasian Plate. Using this result we find that mantle buoyancy forces and LBFs acting on Eurasia itself are important driving forces but do not drive Eurasia in the observed direction. Continental collision at Eurasia's southern boundary significantly deviates Eurasia northwards. Our combined torque balance approach, in which mantle tractions from convective mantle flow modelling are combined with explicitly applied edge forces, thus emphasizes the role of plate interactions to the dynamics of tectonic plates.

  5. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2011-05-01

    We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:21104273

  6. Group Contagion: The Mailbox Melee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, William C.

    2010-01-01

    In a group situation, something goes wrong but no individual feels personal responsibility. This is called the "pie" phenomenon because everybody has a piece of the action, but all believe they are innocent. Each contributes to contagion and chaos but all say, "We didn't do nothing." In this article, the author, a pioneer in work with troubled…

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian siskin, Spinus spinus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae).

    PubMed

    Kan, Xianzhao; Ren, Qiongqiong; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Lan; Zhang, Liqin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Qin

    2014-10-16

    Abstract The Eurasian siskin (Spinus spinus), also called the European siskin, common siskin or just siskin, is found throughout Europe and Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. spinus was determined to be 16,828 bp. The size of protein-coding genes (PCGs) in the S. spinus mitochondrial genome was 11,400 bp. The longest PCG of S. spinus mtDNA was nad5 (1818 bp), whereas the shortest is atp8 (168 bp). The nad6 gene of S. spinus mitogenome had strong skews of T versus A (-0.54), and G versus C (0.64). According to the distribution of the conserved motifs in other avian CRs, the CR of S. spinus can be divided into three domains: ETAS domain I, central conserved domain II, and CSB domain III. PMID:25319308

  8. Ice Cover Of Eurasian Water Bodies And Rivers From Satellite And In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouraev, A. V.; Shimaraev, M. N.; Remy, F.; Naumenko, M. A.; Zakharova, E. A.; Suknev, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present studies of ice cover of continental water bodies and rivers using the synergy of more than 15 years-long simultaneous active (radar altimeter) and passive (radiometer) observations from radar altimetric satellites (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, ENVISAT and Geosat Follow-On) complemented by SSM/I passive microwave data. Five largest Eurasian continental water bodies - Caspian and Aral seas, Baikal, Ladoga and Onega lakes, and the Ob' river in the Western Siberia are selected as examples. We use an ice discrimination approach based on a combined use of the data, that has been validated using in situ and independent satellite data in the visible range. We then analyse evolution of ice conditions for the lakes and inland seas using historical data, recent satellite observations and our field studies on the lakes Ladoga and Baikal.

  9. Contraction along a previously extended plate boundary; analogue modelling of the Iberian - Eurasian suture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midtkandal, I.; Gabrielsen, R. H.; Brun, J.; Huismans, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Iberian - Eurasian plate boundary can be roughly subdivided into a continent-continent and a continent-ocean collision zone in the east and west, respectively. This is due to the extensional phase that predates the contraction that formed the present day mountains in the area. A narrow ocean seaway separated the Iberian and Eurasian plates, whereas a wider ocean opened up towards west, where the present day Bay of Biscay lies. The deep seismic structures under the eastern segment show a subduction of the Iberian plate under the Eurasian plate, whereas the western segment is less well constrained and leave room for discussion regarding deep geometries and the nature of the collision zone. An analogue experiment was designed to represent the tectonic setting at the boundary at the culmination of the extensional phase in the early Cretaceous and then contracted to explore how surface topography and deep structures are affected by changes in upper mantle strength and contraction rate. The model is composed of layers of silicone putty and sand, tailored to simulate the assumed lithospheric geometries and strength-viscosity profiles along the plate boundary zone, and comprises two 'continental' plates separated by a thinner 'oceanic' plate that represents the narrow seaway that separated the eastern areas, and opens up to a 30° angle in the west, representing the Bay of Biscay. The experiment floats on a substrate of sodium polytungstate, representing mantle. The experiment was run 24 times, varying the thickness (and thus strength) of the upper mantle lithosphere, and the contraction rate. Keeping all other parameters identical for each experiment, the models were shortened by a computer-controlled jackscrew while time-lapse images were recorded. After completion, the models were saturated with water and frozen, allowing for sectioning and profile inspection. Of the 19 successful iterations of the experiment, three shortening rates were tested, each value representing an order of magnitude higher than the previous, and three thickness values (and thus strength) were applied to the sand layer representing upper mantle lithosphere. The results show how upper mantle strength appears to be the most important factor in determining whether an inversion of subduction direction occurs. A weak upper mantle layer (weaker than the oceanic crust) leads to obduction of the oceanic crust in the western segment of the model, forcing a significantly different scenario compared to observations in NW Spain today. In model iterations where the upper mantle is stronger than the oceanic crust, most model outcomes show a reversal in subduction polarity from northerly in the east, to southerly in the west. The transition zone is located where the narrow, parallel 'seaway' opens up towards west, near the centre of the model. Surface inspection of the models also show consistent patterns of faults breaking the surface, and are comparable to the present day major fault patterns mapped along the Pyrenean and Cantabrian mountains. It is concluded that both deep and surface structures are at least in part a result of the inherent zone of weakness that developed along the Iberian - Eurasian plate boundary.

  10. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. PMID:25185866

  11. Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Forest Greening Response May Be Associated with Warmer and Drier Summers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buermann, Wolfgang; Parida, Bikash; Jung, Martin; MacDonald, Glen M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Reichstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high latitudes are currently experiencing drastic warming, and recent studies suggest that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual relationships in boreal forest greening and climate over the last three decades using newly available satellite vegetation data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation, a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted western central Eurasian boreal forests into a warmer and drier regime. This may be the leading cause for the emergence of large-scale negative correlations between summer temperatures and forest greenness. If such a regime shift would be sustained, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by heat and drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may proceed more rapidly than anticipated.

  12. Reintroduction of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in northeastern Spain: trapping, handling, and medical management.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Morn, Jesus; Saavedra, Deli; Manteca-Vilanova, Xavier

    2002-09-01

    In 1993 a reintroduction project for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) was initiated in northeastern Spain (Girona, Catalonia) to restore extirpated populations. Between 1996 and 2000, 43 otters were captured from southwestern and northern Spain and from Portugal with modified foot-hold traps and transported to Barcelona Zoo. Lesions produced by capture were classified into four categories of increasing severity. Thirty four (79%) animals had category I, three (7%) had category II, five (12%) had category III, and only one (2%) had category IV injuries. During captivity five (11%) animals died, including one from a precapture problem. Radiotransmitter devices were implanted i.p. into 36 otters to monitor postrelease movement and survival. At least three radio-implanted otters have bred successfully in Girona province, Catalonia, after release in that area. PMID:12462488

  13. A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dong; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr; Shih, ChungKun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Logan, M. Amelia V.; Hotton, Carol L.; Dilcher, David

    2010-01-01

    The head and mouthpart structures of 11 species of Eurasian scorpionflies represent three extinct and closely related families during a 62-million-year interval from the late Middle Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous. These taxa had elongate, siphonate (tubular) proboscides and fed on ovular secretions of extinct gymnosperms. Five potential ovulate host-plant taxa co-occur with these insects: a seed fern, conifer, ginkgoopsid, pentoxylalean, and gnetalean. The presence of scorpionfly taxa suggests that siphonate proboscides fed on gymnosperm pollination drops and likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms during the mid-Mesozoic, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding flies, moths, and beetles on angiosperms. All three scorpionfly families became extinct during the later Early Cretaceous, coincident with global gymnosperm-to-angiosperm turnover. PMID:19892981

  14. Recent shift in Eurasian boreal forest greening response may be associated with warmer and drier summers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buermann, Wolfgang; Parida, Bikash; Jung, Martin; MacDonald, Glen M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Reichstein, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high latitudes are currently experiencing drastic warming, and recent studies suggest that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual relationships in boreal forest greening and climate over the last three decades using newly available satellite vegetation data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation, a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted western central Eurasian boreal forests into a warmer and drier regime. This may be the leading cause for the emergence of large-scale negative correlations between summer temperatures and forest greenness. If such a regime shift would be sustained, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by heat and drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may proceed more rapidly than anticipated.

  15. Use of electric and bubble barriers to limit the movement of Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Heather A.; Reinhardt, Ulrich G.; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    2006-01-01

    Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) is an aquatic invasive species accidentally introduced via ballast water to the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s. Fish barrier technology is being studied to stop the spread of invasive fish species such as ruffe. Electrical barriers have been constructed, most notably in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, to prevent non-indigenous species such as ruffe from spreading into areas where they are currently absent. Information on the response of an invasive fish to barriers can help managers determine strategies to prevent the spread of these species via artificial waterways. In this laboratory study electrical barriers were set up to determine effectiveness of four electrical settings for repelling Eurasian ruffe measuring 10 cm or more in length. In separate tests, airbubble curtains with two bubble sizes and densities were created to test this type of barrier in blocking movement of ruffe less than 10 cm in length. The most effective electrical settings found (5 ms, 6 Hz) repelled only about half of the attempted passes. When ruffe were offered food or shelter on the opposite side of the electrical barrier, neither food-starved nor shelter-deprived ruffe made significantly more attempts to cross the barrier. Ruffe were significantly repelled by all air-bubble curtains, but a large proportion of passes (4.5 passes per fish on average in the treatments) were still observed. Electrical barrier settings and air-bubble curtains used in this study were found ineffective at completely blocking the movement, but somewhat effective at inhibiting the passage of ruffe.

  16. Tool-use and instrumental learning in the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Cheke, Lucy G; Bird, Christopher D; Clayton, Nicola S

    2011-05-01

    Recent research with Rooks has demonstrated impressive tool-using abilities in captivity despite this species' classification as a non-tool-user in the wild. Here, we explored whether another non-tool-using corvid, the Eurasian Jay, would be capable of similar feats and investigated the relative contributions of causal knowledge and instrumental conditioning to the birds' performance on the tasks. Five jays were tested on a variety of tasks involving water displacement. Two birds reliably interacted with the apparatuses. In these tasks, both birds showed a preference for inserting stones into a tube containing liquid over a tube containing a solid or a baited 'empty' tube and also for inserting sinkable items over non-sinkable items into a tube of water. To investigate the contribution of instrumental conditioning, subjects were then tested on a series of tasks in which different cues were made available. It was found that, in the absence of any apparent causal cues, these birds showed a clear preference for the rewarded tube when the food incrementally approached with every stone insertion, but not when it simply "appeared" after the correct number of stone insertions. However, it was found that subjects did not prefer to insert stones into a tube rewarded by the incremental approach of food if the available causal cues violated the expectations created by existing causal knowledge (i.e. were counter-intuitive). An analysis of the proportion of correct and incorrect stone insertions made in each trial across tasks offering different types of information revealed that subjects were substantially more successful in experiments in which causal cues were available, but that rate of learning was comparable in all experiments. We suggest that these results indicate that Eurasian jays use the incremental approach of the food reward as a conditioned reinforcer allowing them to solve tasks involving raising the water level and that this learning is facilitated by the presence of causal cues. PMID:21249510

  17. Differential replication properties among H9N2 avian influenza viruses of Eurasian origin.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Rokshana; Shehata, Awad A; Heenemann, Kristin; Gac, Malgorzata; Rueckner, Antje; Halami, Mohammad Y; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza H9N2 viruses have become panzootic in Eurasia causing respiratory manifestations, great economic losses and occasionally being transmitted to humans. To evaluate the replication properties and compare the different virus quantification methods, four Eurasian H9N2 viruses from different geographical origins were propagated in embryonated chicken egg (ECE) and Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cell systems. The ECE-grown and cell culture-grown viruses were monitored for replication kinetics based on tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), Hemagglutination (HA) test and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The cellular morphology was analyzed using immunofluorescence (IF) and cellular ELISA was used to screen the sensitivity of the viruses to amantadine. The Eurasian wild type-H9N2 virus produced lower titers compared to the three G1-H9N2 viruses at respective time points. Detectable titers were observed earliest at 16 h post inoculation (hpi), significant morphological changes on cells were first observed at 32 hpi. Few nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were noticed in the HA, NA and NS gene sequences but none of them are related to the known conserved region that can alter pathogenesis or virulence following a single passage in cell culture. All studied H9N2 viruses were sensitive to amantadine. The G1-H9N2 viruses have higher replication capabilities compared to the European wild bird-H9N2 probably due to their specific genetic constitutions which is prerequisite for a successful vaccine candidate. Both the ECE and MDCK cell system allowed efficient replication but the ECE system is considered as the better cultivation system for H9N2 viruses in order to get maximum amounts of virus within a short time period. PMID:26149130

  18. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    PubMed

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas. PMID:12650343

  19. Selection on the human bitter taste gene, TAS2R16, in Eurasian populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Pakstis, Andrew J; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2011-06-01

    Bitter taste is one of the most important senses alerting humans to noxious foods. In gatherer communities, sensitivity to bitterness is presumably advantageous because of various noxious plants. TAS2R16 is the gene coding the taste receptor molecules for some of the most common toxins in plants. A previous study of this gene indicated selection has increased the frequency of a derived allele in this gene that arose before the human expansion out of Africa. We have applied a different methodology for detecting selection, the Long Range Haplotype (LRH) analysis, to TAS2R16 in a larger sampling of populations from around the world. The haplotype with the derived alleles at both the functional polymorphism and a polymorphism in the regulatory region of TAS2R16 showed evidence for recent positive selection in most of the Eurasian populations, though the highest selection signal occurs in Mbuti Pygmies, an African hunter-gatherer group. In Eurasia, only populations of Mesopotamia and the southeast coast of China have no signals of selection. The evidence of recent selection found in most Eurasian populations differs from the geographic pattern seen in the earlier study of selection. One can speculate that the difference may result from a gathering lifestyle extending into the most recent 10,000 yrs and the need to recognize newly encountered bitter natural toxins as populations expanded into new environments and the biota changes with the ending of the most recent ice age. Alternatively, the promoter region variant may be a marker for altered function beyond what the derived amino acid allele conferred. PMID:21740153

  20. Asymmetry in the response of central Eurasian winter temperature to AMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xin; He, Shengping; Wang, Huijun

    2015-12-01

    The asymmetry in the teleconnection of the central Eurasian winter surface air temperature (SAT) with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) is discussed using observations and model simulations. Observations indicate that the winter SAT over central Eurasia (30°-70°E, 30°-50°N) shows significant positive anomalies during the warm AMO period but weak and insignificant anomalies in the cold AMO period. In general, the warm winters in central Eurasia are associated with large-scale negative sea level pressure anomalies in Europe, anomalous southwesterly winds at 850 hPa over Europe, the "+ - +" geopotential height anomalies at 500 hPa in the south of Greenland, northern Europe, western Asia, and the slant north-south "+ -" pattern jet stream anomalies at 200 hPa in the north and south of the Caspian Sea. Reverse patterns occur during cold winters. These statistically significant features are observed in the warm phase of AMO. Reversed circulation anomalies are observed during the cold phase of AMO; however, these anomalies are weak and not statistically significant. Furthermore, the asymmetry in the atmospheric response to AMO is well supported by simulations with a suite of GFDL atmospheric model idealized experiments and four CMIP5 models historical experiments. Both observations and simulations indicate that Rossby waves propagating from the North Atlantic eastward to Eurasia emerge in the warm AMO and disappear in the cold AMO. Thus, the different propagations of Rossby waves, induced by the different surface thermal conditions of the warm and cold AMO, are the potential connection between the North Atlantic Ocean and central Eurasian climate, and may explain the asymmetry.

  1. Can the Tibetan Plateau snow cover influence the interannual variations of Eurasian heat wave frequency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hua; Li, Yun

    2015-07-01

    The Eurasian continent has experienced significant year-to-year variations of summer heat waves during the past decades. Several possible factors, such as ocean temperature, soil moisture, and changes in land use and greenhouse gases, have been identified in previous studies, but the mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, it is found that the Tibetan Plateau snow cover (TPSC) is closely linked to the interannual variations of summer heat waves over Eurasia. The TPSC variability explains more than 30 % of the total variances of heat wave variability in the southern Europe and northeastern Asia (SENA) region. A set of numerical experiments reveal that the reduced TPSC may induce a distinct teleconnection pattern across the Eurasian continent, with two anomalous high pressure centers in the upper troposphere over the SENA region, which may lead to a reduction of the cloud formation near the surface. The less cloud cover tends to increase the net shortwave radiation and favor a stronger surface sensible heat flux in the dry surface condition over the SENA region, resulting in a deeper, warmer and drier atmospheric boundary layer that would further inhibit the local cloud formation. Such a positive land-atmosphere feedback may dry the surface even further, heat the near-surface atmosphere and thereby intensify the local heat waves. The above dynamical processes also operate on interdecadal time scales. Given the reduction of the TPSC could become more pronounced with increasing levels of greenhouse gases in a warming climate, we infer that the TPSC may play an increasingly important role in shaping the summer heat waves over the SENA region in next decades.

  2. Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

  3. The dynamics of the Eurasian plate and the intraplate stress field in the Middle-Late Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Burgt, Janneke; Govers, Rob; Webb, Peter; Stampfli, Gérard; Vérard, Christian; Hochard, Cyril; Davies, J. Huw; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    The forces driving and resisting plate motion together with the resulting intraplate stresses are analyzed for the Eurasian plate at 40 Ma with the aim to obtain a force model for which the stresses give the best fit to stress observations. Forces acting on a lithospheric plate can be categorized into three groups: i) edge forces due to interaction with neighboring plates; ii) lithospheric body forces and iii) mantle tractions. The direction of the edge forces is based on the boundary types of the Eurasian plate taken from the Lausanne Plate Tectonic Reconstruction (LPTR) from Stampfli and colleagues. Lithospheric body forces include ridge push, slab pull and topographic body forces and for these forces both the direction and magnitude can be computed. Since the uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas is only incompletely constrained, the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the topography (and thus the topographic body forces) at 40 Ma is investigated. Mantle tractions acting on the bottom of a lithospheric plate consist of (i) 'passive' tractions due to the relative motion of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle and ii) 'active' tractions due to the actively convecting mantle. Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2012) found that for the present-day Eurasian plate both passive and active tractions are relevant. This suggests that these tractions were also important in the past. Here we use tractions for the Eurasian plate from the global mantle circulation model by Webb (2012), which is based on mantle convection code TERRA, driven by a 300 Myr integration of the LPTR. The Eurasian plate is assumed to be in mechanical equilibrium. The modeled intraplate stress field resulting from different force sets is compared to paleostress observations to select the force model that best fits the data. We find that in models with small active tractions and lithospheric body forces, the magnitude of collision forces at the boundary between India and Eurasia is small. Warners-Ruckstuhl, K. N., R. Govers, and M. J. R. Wortel (2012), Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian plate, Geophys. J. Int., 189: 1253-1276. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05427. P. J. Webb (2012), Mantle circulation models: constraining mantle dynamics, testing plate motion history and calculating dynamic topography, Ph.D. Thesis Cardiff University, UK, Promotor: J. Huw Davies.

  4. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR. PMID:22673688

  5. Incorporation of mantle effects in lithospheric stress modeling: the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckstuhl, K.; Wortel, M. J. R.; Govers, R.; Meijer, P.

    2009-04-01

    The intraplate stress field is the result of forces acting on the lithosphere and as such contains valuable information on the dynamics of plate tectonics. Studies modeling the intraplate stress field have followed two different approaches, with the emphasis either on the lithosphere itself or the underlying convecting mantle. For most tectonic plates on earth one or both methods have been quiet successful in reproducing the large scale stress field. The Eurasian plate however has remained a challenge. A probable cause is that due to the complexity of the plate successful models require both an active mantle and well defined boundary forces. We therefore construct a model for the Eurasian plate in which we combine both modeling approaches by incorporating the effects of an active mantle in a model based on a lithospheric approach, where boundary forces are modeled explicitly. The assumption that the whole plate is in dynamical equilibrium allows for imposing a torque balance on the plate, which provides extra constraints on the forces that cannot be calculated a priori. Mantle interaction is modeled as a shear at the base of the plate obtained from global mantle flow models from literature. A first order approximation of the increased excess pressure of the anomalous ridge near the Iceland hotspot is incorporated. Results are evaluated by comparison with World Stress Map data. Direct incorporation of the sublithospheric stresses from mantle flow modeling in our force model is not possible, due to a discrepancy in the magnitude of the integrated mantle shear and lithospheric forces of around one order of magnitude, prohibiting balance of the torques. This magnitude discrepancy is a well known fundamental problem in geodynamics and we choose to close the gap between the two different approaches by scaling down the absolute magnitude of the sublithospheric stresses. Becker and O'Connell (G3,2,2001) showed that various mantle flow models show a considerable spread in integrated shear torque orientations. They found that mantle flow models obtained from subduction derived density fields produce best fit to global plate velocities.Torque balance applied on the Eurasian plate links mantle shear torque orientations to the magnitudes of the different boundary forces. We find that force models including mantle shear based on subduction history density fields only attain equilibrium if the overriding plate effect of the subduction zones in the Sunda arc is pulling, as in a back arc basin setting. This creates great tension in South-East Asia, in disagreement with observations. Mantle shear models produced by P-wave tomographic models have an integrated effect that form a torque balance solution that produces a more realistic force set (and accompanied stress field) in south-east Asia and therefore have our preference.

  6. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

  7. Tethyan collision forces and the stress field of the Eurasian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-10-01

    Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In previous studies of the Eurasian Plate, we have analysed the balance of plate boundary forces, tractions resulting from lithosphere-mantle coupling, and intraplate variations in topography and density structure. This yielded a range of acceptable force distributions. In this study, we investigate to which extent the observed present-day stress field provides further constraints on the distribution of forces. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate all forces as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Intraplate stress observations used are from the World Stress Map project. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be particularly sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a much lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and tractions from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.0-10.5 TN m-1 and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3-2.7 TN m-1. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0-2.5 and 0-1.3 TN m-1, respectively. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. For both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateaus, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, we find that the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force.

  8. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Hybrid watermilfoil lineages are more invasive and less sensitive to a commonly used herbicide than their exotic parent (Eurasian watermilfoil)

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Elizabeth A; Zuellig, Matthew P; Netherland, Michael D; Heilman, Mark A; Thum, Ryan A

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization may stimulate the evolution of invasiveness in human-impacted habitats if unique hybrid genotypes have higher fitness than parental genotypes. Human efforts to control invasive taxa frequently involve the intentional alteration of habitats, but few studies have considered whether hybridization can result in decreased sensitivity to control measures. Here, we investigate whether interspecific hybrids between introduced Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum) are more invasive than parental Eurasian watermilfoil, especially in regard to their relative responses to an herbicide commonly applied for their control (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D). In two separate laboratory experiments, hybrids on average grew faster and were less sensitive to 2,4-D compared with parental Eurasian watermilfoil. These two invasive traits appear to be common in hybrid watermilfoils, as opposed to being restricted to a few unique lineages, because they were found in a diversity of hybrid genotypes from several independent hybridization events. In addition, we found that hybrids occurred more frequently than parental species in natural lakes previously treated with 2,4-D. Our results provide compelling empirical evidence that hybridization is associated with the evolution of increased invasiveness in watermilfoils, and have important implications for their management. PMID:23745138

  10. Summer precipitation anomalies in Asia and North America induced by Eurasian non-monsoon land heating versus ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Zhou, Xiuji; Chen, Junming; Nan, Sulan; Liu, Ge; Xiao, Dong

    2016-02-01

    When floods ravage Asian monsoon regions in summer, megadroughts often attack extratropical North America, which feature an intercontinental contrasting precipitation anomaly between Asia and North America. However, the characteristics of the contrasting Asian-North American (CANA) precipitation anomalies and associated mechanisms have not been investigated specifically. In this article, we firmly establish this summer CANA pattern, providing evidence for a significant effect of the land surface thermal forcing over Eurasian non-monsoon regions on the CANA precipitation anomalies by observations and numerical experiments. We show that the origin of the CANA precipitation anomalies and associated anomalous anticyclones over the subtropical North Pacific and Atlantic has a deeper root in Eurasian non-monsoon land surface heating than in North American land surface heating. The ocean forcing from the ENSO is secondary and tends to be confined in the tropics. Our results have strong implications to interpretation of the feedback of global warming on hydrological cycle over Asia and North America. Under the projected global warming due to the anthropogenic forcing, the prominent surface warming over Eurasian non-monsoon regions is a robust feature which, through the mechanism discussed here, would favor a precipitation increase over Asian monsoon regions and a precipitation decrease over extratropical North America.

  11. Summer precipitation anomalies in Asia and North America induced by Eurasian non-monsoon land heating versus ENSO

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Zhou, Xiuji; Chen, Junming; Nan, Sulan; Liu, Ge; Xiao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    When floods ravage Asian monsoon regions in summer, megadroughts often attack extratropical North America, which feature an intercontinental contrasting precipitation anomaly between Asia and North America. However, the characteristics of the contrasting Asian-North American (CANA) precipitation anomalies and associated mechanisms have not been investigated specifically. In this article, we firmly establish this summer CANA pattern, providing evidence for a significant effect of the land surface thermal forcing over Eurasian non-monsoon regions on the CANA precipitation anomalies by observations and numerical experiments. We show that the origin of the CANA precipitation anomalies and associated anomalous anticyclones over the subtropical North Pacific and Atlantic has a deeper root in Eurasian non-monsoon land surface heating than in North American land surface heating. The ocean forcing from the ENSO is secondary and tends to be confined in the tropics. Our results have strong implications to interpretation of the feedback of global warming on hydrological cycle over Asia and North America. Under the projected global warming due to the anthropogenic forcing, the prominent surface warming over Eurasian non-monsoon regions is a robust feature which, through the mechanism discussed here, would favor a precipitation increase over Asian monsoon regions and a precipitation decrease over extratropical North America. PMID:26916258

  12. Summer precipitation anomalies in Asia and North America induced by Eurasian non-monsoon land heating versus ENSO.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Zhou, Xiuji; Chen, Junming; Nan, Sulan; Liu, Ge; Xiao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    When floods ravage Asian monsoon regions in summer, megadroughts often attack extratropical North America, which feature an intercontinental contrasting precipitation anomaly between Asia and North America. However, the characteristics of the contrasting Asian-North American (CANA) precipitation anomalies and associated mechanisms have not been investigated specifically. In this article, we firmly establish this summer CANA pattern, providing evidence for a significant effect of the land surface thermal forcing over Eurasian non-monsoon regions on the CANA precipitation anomalies by observations and numerical experiments. We show that the origin of the CANA precipitation anomalies and associated anomalous anticyclones over the subtropical North Pacific and Atlantic has a deeper root in Eurasian non-monsoon land surface heating than in North American land surface heating. The ocean forcing from the ENSO is secondary and tends to be confined in the tropics. Our results have strong implications to interpretation of the feedback of global warming on hydrological cycle over Asia and North America. Under the projected global warming due to the anthropogenic forcing, the prominent surface warming over Eurasian non-monsoon regions is a robust feature which, through the mechanism discussed here, would favor a precipitation increase over Asian monsoon regions and a precipitation decrease over extratropical North America. PMID:26916258

  13. Role of Eurasian snow cover in wintertime circulation: Decadal simulations forced with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsolini, Yvan J.; Kvamstø, Nils G.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the impact of the Eurasian snow cover extent on the Northern Hemisphere winter circulation by performing a suite of ensemble simulations with the Météo-France "Arpege Climat" atmospheric general circulation model, spanning 2 decades (1979-2000). Observed snow cover derived from satellite infrared and visible imagery has been forced weekly into the model. Variability in autumn-early winter snow cover extent over eastern Eurasia is linked to circulation anomalies over the North Pacific that are influencing the North Atlantic sector in late winter through the development of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw teleconnection. The forcing of realistic snow cover in the model augments potential predictability over eastern Eurasia and the North Pacific and improves the hindcast skill score of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw teleconnection. Enhanced eastern Eurasia snow cover is associated with an anomalous upper-tropospheric wave train across Eurasia, anomalously high upward wave activity flux, and a displaced stratospheric polar vortex.

  14. AON observations in the Eurasian and Makarov Basins target changes in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, I.; Ivanov, V.; Rember, R.; Pnyushkov, A.; Alexeev, V. A.; Alkire, M. B.; Morison, J.; Ashik, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    The pan-Arctic boundary current provides the largest input of water, heat, and salt into the Arctic Ocean. Recent observations captured strong changes in the Eurasian and Makarov basins (EMB); understanding the transition requires tracing the intensity of this major subsurface transport system. Responding to urgent needs for a long-term observation system for understanding rapid high-latitude climate change, an EMB observational network is implemented as an element of the Arctic Observing Network (AON). The overarching goal of this AON program is to compile a cohesive picture of the state and transformations of water masses (particularly, Atlantic Water, AW) in the EMB. NABOS (=Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System) was the predecessor of this AON program. Observations provided by the program were critical for understanding the large-scale structure and temporal variability of an oceanic boundary current. Fourteen years long observations were instrumental for documenting all stages of the AW warming providing evidence for the anomalous state of the ocean in the 2000s. For example, the prevailing anticyclonic circulation in 2008-10 over the central Laptev Sea slope was documented — a deviation from the classical shallow-to-right circulation paradigm. This program naturally complements the existing AON infrastructure in a synergistic way working hand-in-hand with other elements of the AON, which is vital for interpreting and assessing polar climate change.

  15. Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

  16. Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2013-03-01

    State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one's own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others' actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female's current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males' sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate's behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males' own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates. PMID:23382187

  17. Careful cachers and prying pilferers: Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) limit auditory information available to competitors

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Rachael C.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Food-storing corvids use many cache-protection and pilfering strategies. We tested whether Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) reduce the transfer of auditory information to a competitor when caching and pilfering. We gave jays a noisy and a quiet substrate to cache in. Compared with when alone, birds cached less in the noisy substrate when with a conspecific that could hear but could not see them caching. By contrast, jays did not change the amount cached in the noisy substrate when they were with a competitor that could see and hear them caching compared with when they were alone. Together, these results suggest that jays reduce auditory information during caching as a cache-protection strategy. By contrast, as pilferers, jays did not attempt to conceal their presence from a cacher and did not prefer a silent viewing perch over a noisy one when observing caching. However, birds vocalized less when watching caching compared with when they were alone, when they were watching a non-caching conspecific or when they were watching their own caches being pilfered. Pilfering jays may therefore attempt to suppress some types of auditory information. Our results raise the possibility that jays both understand and can attribute auditory perception to another individual. PMID:23222444

  18. New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

  19. Comparison of two different methods in the cryopreservation of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm.

    PubMed

    Bernáth, G; Bokor, Z; Kása, E; Várkonyi, L; Hegyi, Á; Kollár, T; Urbányi, B; Żarski, D; Radóczi Ifj, J; Horváth, Á

    2015-02-01

    Two different cryopreservation methods were compared and an optimal dilution ratio for the use of controlled-rate freezer (CRF) was established for Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm. Progressive motility (72 ± 15%) and curvilinear velocity (VCL, 146 ± 11 μm/s) of sperm cryopreserved with CRF did not reduce significantly compared to fresh sperm [progressive motility (90 ± 4%), VCL (173 ± 24 μm/s)]. On the other hand, progressive motility (62 ± 15%) and VCL (120 ± 21 μm/s) of sperm cryopreserved with the conventional floating frame technique were significantly lower when compared to the fresh control. Sperm in both cryopreserved groups showed significantly higher straightness [STR, CRF (84 ± 4%), frame (84 ± 2%)] than in the fresh control group (68 ± 4%). Perch sperm cryopreserved with CRF at a dilution ratio of 1:20 showed significantly higher progressive motility (49 ± 6%) than at a ratio of 1:5 (39 ± 6%) and showed significantly higher VCL (129 ± 11 μm/s) than at dilution ratios of 1:10 (112 ± 17 μm/s) and 1:5 (115 ± 9 μm/s). PMID:25533132

  20. Cross-amplification and sequence variation of microsatellite loci in Eurasian hard pines.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, S C; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Collada, C; Díaz, A; Williams, C G; Alía, R; Cervera, M T

    2004-06-01

    Microsatellite transfer across coniferous species is a valued methodology because de novo development for each species is costly and there are many species with only a limited commodity value. Cross-species amplification of orthologous microsatellite regions provides valuable information on mutational and evolutionary processes affecting these loci. We tested 19 nuclear microsatellite markers from Pinus taeda L. (subsection Australes) and three from P. sylvestris L. (subsection Pinus) on seven Eurasian hard pine species ( P. uncinata Ram., P. sylvestris L., P. nigra Arn., P. pinaster Ait., P. halepensis Mill., P. pinea L. and P. canariensis Sm.). Transfer rates to species in subsection Pinus (36-59%) were slightly higher than those to subsections Pineae and Pinaster (32-45%). Half of the trans-specific microsatellites were found to be polymorphic over evolutionary times of approximately 100 million years (ten million generations). Sequencing of three trans-specific microsatellites showed conserved repeat and flanking regions. Both a decrease in the number of perfect repeats in the non-focal species and a polarity for mutation, the latter defined as a higher substitution rate in the flanking sequence regions close to the repeat motifs, were observed in the trans-specific microsatellites. The transfer of microsatellites among hard pine species proved to be useful for obtaining highly polymorphic markers in a wide range of species, thereby providing new tools for population and quantitative genetic studies. PMID:14985972

  1. Immunity and fitness in a wild population of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parejo, Deseada; Silva, Nadia

    2009-10-01

    The immune system of vertebrates consists of several components that partly interact and complement each other. Therefore, the assessment of the overall effectiveness of immune defence requires the simultaneous measurement of different immune components. In this study, we investigated intraspecific variability of innate [i.e. natural antibodies (NAb) and complement] and acquired (i.e. leucocyte profiles) immunity and its relationship with fitness correlates (i.e. blood parasite load and reproductive success in adults and body mass and survival until fledging in nestlings) in the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Immunity differed between nestlings and adults and also between adult males and females. Adult kestrels with higher levels of complement were less parasitised by Haemoproteus, and males with higher values of NAbs showed a higher reproductive success. In nestlings, the H/L ratio was negatively related to body mass. Survival until fledging was predicted by all measured immunological variables of nestlings as well as by their fathers' level of complement. This is the first time that innate immunity is linked to survival in a wild bird. Thus, intraspecific variation in different components of immunity predicts variation in fitness prospects in kestrels, which highlights the importance of measuring innate immune components together with components of the acquired immunity in studies assessing the effectiveness of the immune system in wild animals.

  2. A VLBI baseline post-adjustment approach for station velocity estimation in Eurasian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibin; Liu, Xiang

    2014-10-01

    Baseline lengths and their time-derivatives among 58 geodetic VLBI stations were fitted by using 4439 observing sessions from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). First, the velocities of eight stations in Eurasian continent were set as unknown quantities. Then, two standard global solutions from 3523 IVS sessions and 1110 sessions from database code XA, respectively, were applied prior to all-station coordinates and the non-estimated station velocities. Finally, from the relations among the coordinates, velocities, baseline length and its time-derivative, two types of baseline post-adjustment (BPA) were used to estimate the velocities of the eight stations. We discuss the data processing details, including the effect of different prior values for the stations and the optimal solution. The results suggest that the precision of the station velocities based on the proposed approach is comparable to that of the global solution of the XA sessions. The baseline structure and the prior values of the stations affect the velocity estimates. Compared to the standard method of velocity estimation, there are no external constrains and conditions used in the proposed method.

  3. Water Transparency Drives Intra-Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Pia; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Svanbäck, Richard; Eklöv, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization. PMID:22912895

  4. Effects of culling Eurasian wild boar on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis and Aujeszky's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Boadella, M; Vicente, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; de la Fuente, J; Gortázar, C

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, failure to eradicate a disease in livestock has sometimes been related to wildlife reservoirs of infection. We describe the effects of Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) abundance reduction through increased culling on the prevalence of two chronic infectious diseases, tuberculosis (TB) and Aujeszky's disease (AD), in a region of South-central Spain (SCS). The two infections studied responded differently to an approximately 50% reduction of wild boar abundance. Wild boar TB prevalence remained stable in control sites, whereas it decreased by 21-48% in treatment sites. In one treatment site, the annual wild boar abundance was positively correlated with the annual percentage of skin test reactor cattle. In another treatment site, red deer (Cervus elaphus) M. bovis infection prevalence decreased after culling wild boar. No significant effect of wild boar culling on wild boar ADV seroprevalence was found. The reduction in wild boar TB was achieved despite no alternative M. bovis host being included in the culling strategy. We advocate that culling could become a part of integrated control strategies including habitat and game management changes and vaccination, contributing to increase their success likelihood, or reducing the total expenses. PMID:22743215

  5. The SE sector of the Middle Weichselian Eurasian Ice Sheet was much smaller than assumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Matti E.; Huitti, Janne V.; Bhattarai, Saroj; Harvey, Jerry; Huttunen, Sanna

    2015-08-01

    Quaternary climatic and glacial history must be known in order to understand future environments. Reconstructions of the last Weichselian glacial cycle 117,000-11,700 years (kyr) ago propose that S Finland, adjacent Russia and the Baltic countries in the SE sector of the Eurasian Ice Sheet (EIS), were glaciated during the Middle Weichselian time [marine isotope stage (MIS) 4, 71-57 kyr ago] and that this glaciation was preceded in S Finland by an Early Weichselian interstadial (MIS 5c, 105-93 kyr ago) with pine forest. We apply glacial sequence stratigraphy to isolated Late Pleistocene onshore outcrop sections and show, that these events did not take place. The one Late Weichselian glaciation (MIS 2, 29-11 kyr ago) was preceded in S Finland by a nearly 90 kyr non-glacial period, featuring tundra with permafrost and probably birch forest. Our new Middle Weichselian paleoenvironmental scenario revises the configuration and hydrology of the S part of EIS and gives new setting for the evolution of Scandinavian biota. If future development during the coming glacial cycle proves to be similar, the high-level nuclear waste stored in the bedrock of SW Finland should be located deeper than currently planned, i.e. below any possible future permafrost.

  6. Histological Evaluation of Selected Organs of the Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Inhabiting Poland.

    PubMed

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kluciński, W; Kołodziejska, J

    2015-10-01

    There is a general scarcity of data on the histological structure of major organs in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber). This study presents the histological characteristics of beaver organs such as the liver, spleen, cardiac muscle, lungs and kidneys. Tissue samples were collected from 21 beavers and analysed. Selected samples of tail tissue were additionally examined. Tissue samples were placed in neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. 4-μm-thick sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and other staining techniques were also used. Scant amounts of inter-lobular connective tissue were found in the liver. Ion or copper deposition was not observed, but scattered cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were present in hepatocytes. Our results suggest that beavers have defensive rather than storage spleens. Interestingly, the presence of melanin in splenic red pulp was noted. The histological structure of the examined organs closely resembled that of other rodent species. According to our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the histological structure of beaver organs. Nevertheless, precise characterization of the evaluated organs requires further work with the involvement of accurate and reliable techniques, such as molecular biology or electron microscopy methods. PMID:25255694

  7. Organic carbon remobilized from thawing permafrost is resequestered by reactive iron on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Andersson, August; Ingri, Johan; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-10-01

    Given the potential for permafrost carbon (PF/C)-climate feedbacks in the Siberian-Arctic land-ocean system, there is a need for understanding the fate of thawed-out PF/C. Here we show that the sequestration of OC by reactive iron (OC-Fe) ranges between 0.5 and 22% on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf, with higher values in the Kara Sea (KS) (18 ± 6%) and the Laptev Sea (LS) (14 ± 4%). The Δ14C/δ13C signatures of the OC-Fe are substantially older and more terrestrial than the bulk sediment OC in the LS but younger and more dominated by marine plankton sources in the East Siberian Sea (ESS). Statistical source apportionment modeling reveal that reactive iron phases resequestered 15 ± 5% of thawing PF/C in the LS and 6.4 ± 5% in the ESS, derived from both coastal erosion of ice complex deposit and thawing topsoil. This Fe-associated trap of PF/C constitutes a reduction of the degradation/outgassing and thus also an attenuation of the PF/C-climate feedback.

  8. Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Vegetation Growth Response Associated with Increasing Drought Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buermann, W.; Parida, B.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Reichstein, M.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high-latitudes are currently experiencing drastic climatic changes. Initial findings suggested that in response to warming these regions increase productivity as low temperature constraints on plant growth are diminished. Recently, however, multiple lines of evidence have shown that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here, we analyzed interannual variations in boreal forest growth pattern and relationships with abiotic drivers in the period 1982-2008 using satellite vegetation and freeze-thaw records in conjunction with climate and upscaled ecosystem flux data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming and shifts to earlier spring onsets in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted portions of the western central Eurasian boreal forests into a more water-limited regime despite increasing CO2 and related water use efficiency. This has resulted in large-scale and spatially pervasive negative year-to-year relationships between summer temperatures and plant growth. If this regime shift is sustained into the future, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may start earlier and proceeds more rapidly than anticipated.

  9. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin in Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) after intraosseous administration.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Montijano, Marino; Waxman, Samanta; Lucas, J Julio de; Luaces, Inés; Zalba, Javier; González, Fernando; Andrés, Manuel I San; Rodríguez, Casilda

    2006-05-01

    This study reports on the administration of a single dose of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg) to five adult Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) by the intraosseous (IO) route, which has been proposed as a rapid and efficient means for the parenteral delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The drug was rapidly absorbed. Peak marbofloxacin concentration (C(max)) in plasma and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 1.92+/-0.78 microg/mL and 8.53+/-2.73 microg h/mL, respectively. The time marbofloxacin remained in the plasma after IO administration was relatively short (elimination half-life, t(1/2beta)=4.91+/-0.65 h; mean residence time (MRT)=5.38+/-0.57 h). Single dose marbofloxacin gave values for C(max)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 19.2 and an AUC/MIC value of 85.3h after IO administration. The IO route appears to be practical and effective for the rapid delivery of marbofloxacin to buzzards. PMID:16624724

  10. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin in Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) after intraosseous administration.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Garcia-Montijano M; Waxman S; Lucas JJ; Luaces I; Zalba J; González F; Andrés MI; Rodríguez C

    2006-05-01

    This study reports on the administration of a single dose of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg) to five adult Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) by the intraosseous (IO) route, which has been proposed as a rapid and efficient means for the parenteral delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The drug was rapidly absorbed. Peak marbofloxacin concentration (C(max)) in plasma and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 1.92+/-0.78 microg/mL and 8.53+/-2.73 microg h/mL, respectively. The time marbofloxacin remained in the plasma after IO administration was relatively short (elimination half-life, t(1/2beta)=4.91+/-0.65 h; mean residence time (MRT)=5.38+/-0.57 h). Single dose marbofloxacin gave values for C(max)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 19.2 and an AUC/MIC value of 85.3h after IO administration. The IO route appears to be practical and effective for the rapid delivery of marbofloxacin to buzzards.

  11. Implications of Hybridization, NUMTs, and Overlooked Diversity for DNA Barcoding of Eurasian Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Oleg A.; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergey V.; Brandler, Oleg V.; Ivanova, Natalia V.; Borisenko, Alex V.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of DNA Barcoding for species identification and discovery has catalyzed a concerted effort to build the global reference library; however, many animal groups of economical or conservational importance remain poorly represented. This study aims to contribute DNA barcode records for all ground squirrel species (Xerinae, Sciuridae, Rodentia) inhabiting Eurasia and to test efficiency of this approach for species discrimination. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences were obtained for 97 individuals representing 16 ground squirrel species of which 12 were correctly identified. Taxonomic allocation of some specimens within four species was complicated by geographically restricted mtDNA introgression. Exclusion of individuals with introgressed mtDNA allowed reaching a 91.6% identification success rate. Significant COI divergence (3.5–4.4%) was observed within the most widespread ground squirrel species (Spermophilus erythrogenys, S. pygmaeus, S. suslicus, Urocitellus undulatus), suggesting the presence of cryptic species. A single putative NUMT (nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene) sequence was recovered during molecular analysis; mitochondrial COI from this sample was amplified following re-extraction of DNA. Our data show high discrimination ability of 100 bp COI fragments for Eurasian ground squirrels (84.3%) with no incorrect assessments, underscoring the potential utility of the existing reference librariy for the development of diagnostic ‘mini-barcodes’. PMID:25617768

  12. Seismotectonic Properties and Zonation of the Far-Eastern Eurasian Plate Around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Park, Seongjun; Houng, Soung Eil

    2016-04-01

    Regional seismotectonics provides crucial information for seismic hazard analysis, which is difficult to address with short-term earthquake records. The far-eastern Eurasian plate around the Korean Peninsula presents a stable intraplate environment with diffuse seismicity, of which responsible tectonics and active faults are difficult to identify. Combined analysis of instrumental and historical earthquake records is required for assessment of long-term seismicity properties. Seismotectonic provinces are identified from the spatial distribution of seismicity properties controlled by the medium properties and stress field. The boundaries of the seismotectonic provinces are defined considering the medium properties that can be inferred from geological, geophysical and tectonic features. The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationships and maximum magnitudes for the seismotectonic provinces are determined using instrumental and historical earthquake records. The validity of maximum magnitude estimation is tested with synthetic data. A parametric method, the Tate-Pisarenko method, produces more accurate estimates than non-parametric methods. A modified Tate-Pisarenko method is proposed for estimation of maximum magnitudes for incomplete short-term earthquake catalogs. The maximum magnitude of events for the whole region is approximately the same as the average of the maximum magnitudes of events for subdivided provinces, causing apparent variation in maximum magnitudes depending on the number of seismotectonic provinces. Consideration of a reasonable number of seismotectonic provinces may be needed for proper assessment of seismic hazard potentials is recommended. The combined analysis of historical and instrumental earthquake records suggests maximum magnitudes greater than 7 around the peninsula.

  13. Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays

    PubMed Central

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one’s own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others’ actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female’s current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males’ sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate’s behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males’ own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates. PMID:23382187

  14. EVALUATION OF CARDIOLOGIC FUNCTIONS IN CAPTIVE EURASIAN BROWN BEARS (URSUS ARCTOS ARCTOS) IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Huseyin; Yilmaz, Zeki; Aytug, Nilufer

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac functions in healthy Eurasian brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) living in a seminatural area during their active season. Twelve clinically healthy brown bears were selected based on their normal physical examination, hematologic, and serum biochemistry results. These bears were divided into two groups based on age; subadult (<5 yr, n = 4) and adult (≥5 yr, n = 8). After the chemical immobilization (ketamine and xylazine), routine clinical and laboratory examinations were performed. Also, cardiologic examinations were performed using electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. There were no significant differences for the clinical parameters between the two groups including for body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, capillary refilling time, and oxygen saturation. The Q, R, and S wave (QRS) complexes and T wave amplitude were higher (P < 0.05) in the subadult group when compared to those of adult bears. Notching of QRS complexes and peaked T wave were also observed in both groups. Left ventricular diameter at systole and diastole in adult bears was wider (P < 0.05) than that of subadult bears. Subadult bears had reduced aortic diameter compared to adult bears (P < 0.05). Doppler variables of mitral, tricuspid, and aortic inflows between groups were similar; however, pulmonary artery variables such as flow velocity integral, mean velocity, and gradient were higher (P < 0.05) in the subadult group. These results suggest that electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters should be evaluated based on the age of brown bears. PMID:27010272

  15. Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?

    PubMed

    Rosell, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant. PMID:12371821

  16. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

  17. Radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Kalas, J.A. ); Bretten, S.; Njastad, O. ); Byrkjedal, I. )

    1994-01-01

    To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m[sup 2][1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Methionine supplementation influences melanin-based plumage colouration in Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, nestlings.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Deseada; Silva, Nadia

    2009-11-01

    The extent to which the expression of melanin-based plumage colouration in birds is genetically or environmentally determined is controversial. Here, we performed a between-nest design supplementation with either the sulphur amino acid dl-methionine or with water to investigate the importance of the non-genetic component of melanin-based plumage colouration in the Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus. Methionine affects growth and immunity, thus we aimed to modify nestling growth and immunity before feather development. Then, we measured the effect of the experiment on colouration of two melanin-based plumage patches of nestling kestrels. We found that methionine slowed down nestling growth through treatment administration and that nestlings compensated by speeding up their growth later. We did not find any effects of methionine on nestling immunity (i.e. lymphocyte counts, natural antibody levels or complement-mediated immunity). Effects on growth seemed to be mirrored by changes in nestling colouration in the two sexes: methionine-nestlings showed less intense brown plumage on their backs compared with control nestlings. These results provide support for a non-genetic determination of a melanin-based plumage patch in the two sexes of nestling kestrels. PMID:19837899

  19. How do colonial Eurasian Griffon Vultures prevent extra-pair mating?

    PubMed Central

    Bertran, Joan; Macià, Francesc Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In colonial breeding species, preventive measures to reduce the risks of extra-pair copulations (EPCs) should reflect the actual risk perceived by males (e.g., proximity of neighbors, intrusions into the nest) mainly during the fertile period. In colonial vultures, specific studies examining the preventive measures that minimize the risks of EPCs occurring within the competitive context of colonial breeding have not been conducted. Here we tested at Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) nesting sites the intensity of paternity assurance behavior, shown as frequency and duration of within-pair copulations (WPCs), potential mate vigilance or nest attendance, and levels of aggressivity. This was measured according to the frequency of territorial intrusions and comparison of the fertile vs. the non-fertile period. Our findings suggest that the frequency of WPCs and their duration increased significantly during the presumed fertile period, regarded as the period when Griffon pairs spent significantly more time together at their nests. In addition, low levels of territorial intrusions were observed, an aggressive response of pairs towards intruders, and a relatively high presence of pairs at the nests during the fertile period. Thus, although nesting sites are subject to low exposure to EPC attempts, the increased frequency and duration of copulations during the fertile period suggests that, under pressure from the colonial breeding system, a higher rate of copulations is the most effective preventive mechanism against relative uncertainty of paternity. PMID:26966674

  20. Forests synchronize their growth in contrasting Eurasian regions in response to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Tatiana A; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Génova, Mar; Knorre, Anastasia A; Linares, Juan Carlos; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Voltas, Jordi

    2016-01-19

    Forests play a key role in the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems. One of the main uncertainties in global change predictions lies in how the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest productivity will be affected by climate warming. Here we show an increasing influence of climate on the spatial variability of tree growth during the last 120 y, ultimately leading to unprecedented temporal coherence in ring-width records over wide geographical scales (spatial synchrony). Synchrony in growth patterns across cold-constrained (central Siberia) and drought-constrained (Spain) Eurasian conifer forests have peaked in the early 21st century at subcontinental scales (∼1,000 km). Such enhanced synchrony is similar to that observed in trees co-occurring within a stand. In boreal forests, the combined effects of recent warming and increasing intensity of climate extremes are enhancing synchrony through an earlier start of wood formation and a stronger impact of year-to-year fluctuations of growing-season temperatures on growth. In Mediterranean forests, the impact of warming on synchrony is related mainly to an advanced onset of growth and the strengthening of drought-induced growth limitations. Spatial patterns of enhanced synchrony represent early warning signals of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems at subcontinental scales. PMID:26729860

  1. Long Term Seasonality Changes and Short Term Climate Variability Recorded in Eurasian Loess: Examples from Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Haam, E.; Lai, Z. P.; Endlicher, W.

    2012-04-01

    Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent are well studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of considerable debate. While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are modified and transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmosphere and ocean processes and regulate teleconnection patterns of the Northern Hemisphere. The distribution of Eurasian loess deposits allows interregional palaeoclimatic investigations along a west-east transect across the entire Eurasian loess belt of the Northern Hemisphere, offering the potential to reconstruct Pleistocene atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust dynamics on a wide spatial scale. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from several loess sequences across Eurasia (Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China) that provide a detailed signal of glacial-interglacial atmospheric dynamics and long term, semi-continuous trends in the aeolian dust record since marine isotope stage 10. In consideration of the modern synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust transport across the Eurasian landmass, we propose that the observed data reflect oscillations superimposed on a long term signal of seasonality, triggered by changes in duration and permanency of the seasonal shift of the Eurasian polar front during the middle to late Pleistocene. As the activity of the polar front jet is intimately connected with the high level planetary frontal zone (HPFZ), the Eurasian loess archives may also serve as a recorder of intra-hemispheric climate connections in past atmospheric circulation. Although there are large scale similarities in the dust transport record from numerous sites across Eurasia, the data reveal distinct differences in short-term climate variability along the studied transect from SE Europe over Central Asia to China. In Central and East Asia the observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror δ18O and fine dust variations seen in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, the presented data represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to verify hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing theories, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker of suborbital global climate changes and an initiator of abrupt climate oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  2. Successes and Failures in Combating Desertification in the Eastern Edge of Eurasian Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.-Y.; Huang, Gang; Huang, Ying-Xin; Wang, Shao-Kun; Luo, Ya-Yong; Qu, Hao; Lian, Jie

    2009-04-01

    Eurasian Grassland is one of the important biomes in the world. However, this biome is severely desertified since the middle of last century, particularly in the northeastern Inner-Mongolia of China. The Eastern Edge of Eurasian Grassland in Inner Mongolia covers 740.0th km² and the desertified grassland is approximately 225.98th km² in 2005, about 30.5% desertified. The desertified land in Horqin Sand Land is 43,200 km² in 1959, 56,571 km² in 1975, and 61,008 km² in 1987, and since then decreased to 50,197 in 2000 and 50,167km² in 2005. Reversion of desertification in Horqin Sand Land is mainly attributed to the successes in combating desertification, including large scale of tree planting, increase of irrigated cropland for reduction of rain-fed cropland to meet the need of growing expectation for capital income and grain production, and later combination of planting bushes and grasses with natural restoration. Large scale of tree planting is only effective in a short term but more fragile to drought. As a result, about 1.66m trees, equal to 830m hm² of planted woodland, died of water depletion. And the grassland productivity is reduced from 520g/m² in the middle of 1930 to 360 g/m² in 1982 and 220 g/m²in 2005. Rapid increase of irrigated cropland resulted in reduction of water availability, which is characterized with drying-up of lakes and wetland, stop-running of rivers, and reduction of underground water table. Observation found that the averaged reduction of water table is about 2-3m in this area, with a maximum of 16m in last ten years. The Xiliao River, one of the largest river in northeastern China, is dried up in 1999. These failures still put severe impacts on combating desertification in this region and even in the whole northern China, driven by improper land use, which is identified as one of the immediate causes of desertification in this region. Concerning these failures, in-depth researches have been launched since 2000 to reveal the mechanism of consistent restoration of desertified grassland in relation to sustainable water use. Keyword: Horqin Sand Land, Desertification, Water availability, Success, Failure Acknowledgement: the authors give gratitude to the staff in Naiman Desertification Research Station, Chinese Ecosystems Research network. This research is funded by the projects 2009CB421303 and KZCX2-YW-431. Reference 1 Tao Wang, Xian Xue and Guangting Chen, 2005. Map of Desert and Desertified Land in China. China Map Press. Beijing. 2 Zhao Xueyong, Zhao Halin, Zuo Xiaoan, Luo Yayong, Wang Shaokun, Kou Zhiqiang, Qu Hao. Restoration of desertified grassland and challenges in northern China-for the possibility of sustained desertification reversion. Multifunctional Grasslands in a Changing World Volume I, P:720-724. 3 Comprehensive Investigating Team on Natural Resources in Inner-Mongolia and Ningxia, 19885. Vegetation in Inner-Mongolian. P:467. China Academic Press. Beijing.

  3. Living on the edge: Space use of Eurasian red squirrels in marginal high-elevation habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Preatoni, Damiano; Tosi, Guido; Martinoli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    In marginal habitats located at the edge of a species' range, environmental conditions are frequently extreme and individuals may be subject to different selective pressures compared to central populations. These so-called edge or marginal populations tend to have lower densities and reproductive rates than populations located in more suitable habitats, but little is known about local adaptations in spacing behavior. We studied space use and social organization in a population of Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) in a high-elevation marginal habitat of dwarf mountain pine ( Pinus mugo) and compared it with spacing patterns in high-quality Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest at lower-elevation. Home ranges and core areas were larger in the marginal habitat. In both habitats, males used larger home ranges than females, but sex differences in core area size were significant only in the edge population. Patterns of core area overlap were similar in both habitats with intra-sexual territoriality among adult females and higher degrees of inter-sexual overlap, typical for the species throughout its range. However, low densities in the edge population resulted in higher female by males overlap in spring-summer, suggesting males increased home ranges and core areas during mating season to augment access to estrus females. Thus, in the marginal habitat, with low food abundance and low population densities, linked with extreme winter conditions, squirrels, especially males, used large home ranges. Finally, squirrels responded more strongly to variation in food availability (inverse relation between home range size and seed abundance), and even to fluctuations in density (inverse relation between core area size and density of animals of the same sex), in the marginal than in the high-quality habitat, suggesting high behavioral plasticity to respond to the ecological constraints in marginal habitats.

  4. Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2008-05-01

    Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

  5. Neogene climatic oscillations shape the biogeography and evolutionary history of the Eurasian blindsnake.

    PubMed

    Kornilios, P; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumlutaş, Y; Lymberakis, P; Moravec, J; Sindaco, R; Rastegar-Pouyani, N; Afroosheh, M; Giokas, S; Fraguedakis-Tsolis, S; Chondropoulos, B

    2012-03-01

    Typhlops vermicularis is the only extant scolecophidian representative occurring in Europe. Its main distribution area, the eastern Mediterranean, has a complicated geological and climatic history that has left an imprint on the phylogenies and biogeography of many taxa, especially amphibians and reptiles. Since reptiles are sensitive indicators of palaeogeographical and palaeoclimatic events, we investigated the intraspecific genealogy of T. vermicularis in a phylogeographical framework. A total of 130 specimens were analyzed, while the use of formalin and ethanol as preservatives called for a special treatment of the samples. Partial sequences of two mitochondrial (12S and ND2) and one nuclear (PRLR) marker were targeted and the results of the phylogenetic analyses (NJ, ML and BI) and the parsimony-network revealed the existence of 10 evolutionary significant units within this species. In combination with the results of the dispersal-vicariance analysis, we may conclude that the Eurasian blindsnake has encountered a sequence of extinction events, followed by secondary expansion from refugia. Estimation of divergence times showed that severe climatic changes between significantly wetter and drier conditions in the Late Neogene have played a key role on the evolutionary and biogeographical history of T. vermicularis. Additionally, both markers (mtDNA and nDNA) distinguished a largely-differentiated evolutionary lineage (Jordan and south Syria), which could even be reckoned as a full species. Our study reveals the existence of cryptic evolutionary lineages within T. vermicularis, which calls for further attention both on the protection of intraspecific varieties and the respective geographic areas that hold them. PMID:22182993

  6. Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Spencer N.; Hurlbert, Allen H.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35–48% and 41–46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models. PMID:25354270

  7. Spatial correlation between the Earth's gravity field and glacier change signals in the Eurasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieser, Daniel; Heuberger, Florian; Gisinger, Christoph; Pail, Roland; Sharov, Aleksey

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of the research project ICEAGE is to determine, interprete and map the present state of snow and ice cover as well as its variations in the Eurasian Arctic Sector about 31° to 81° East and 73° to 82° North. The investigations are based on terrestrial, space-borne interferometric, altimetric, and gravity field data. Special emphasis is given to the impact of ESA's satellite gravity gradiometry mission GOCE, launched on March 17th 2009, on regional gravity field maps for cryospheric studies. This project is jointly performed by the Institute of Navigation and Satellite Geodesy (INAS), Graz University of Technology and the Institute of Digital Image Processing, Remote Sensing Group, Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (JR). In order to produce cryogravic models, regional gravity field solutions for the study area are calculated by Least Squares Collocation (LSC) which is capable of combining long wavelength constituents from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, medium wavelength information from gravity gradients observed by GOCE, and high-frequency gravity anomaly data derived from the most recent EGM2008-WGS84 version. In order to use GOCE gravity gradients, which are affected by coloured noise and thus prominent long-wavelength errors, within LSC adequate filtering steps have to be applied to the observation data. In particular, a suitable methodology is developed to cope with the issue of covariance propagation between various reference frames, in which the input and output data, respectively, are given. Results show the potential of improvement when including GOCE gradients in the gravity field solution products. Furthermore the outcome of remote sensing based (INSAR, altimetry) determination of detailed geometric and rheological models will be presented for particular regions in the arctic. Finally, a recent glacier change model resulting from the comparison with former geometric and rheological models will be opposed to the geopotential maps in order to detect correlations between gravity and ice mass variations.

  8. Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values

    PubMed Central

    Olden, Julian D.; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995–2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  9. Impact and implications of the Afro-Eurasian collision south of Cyprus from reflection seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimke, Jennifer; Ehrhardt, Axel

    2014-06-01

    The Cyprus Arc in the Eastern Mediterranean represents the active collision front between the African and Eurasian (Anatolian) Plates. Along the Cyprus Arc, the Eratosthenes Seamount is believed to have been blocking the northward motion of the African Plate since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Based on a dense grid of 2D reflection seismic profiles covering the Eratosthenes Seamount and western Levant Basin offshore Cyprus, new observations regarding the Cyprus Arc collision front at the triple transition zone Eratosthenes Seamount-Levant Basin-Hecataeus Rise are presented. The data show that the Levant Basin is filled with ~ 10 km of sediments of Early Mesozoic (probably Jurassic) to Plio-Quaternary age with only a localized deformation affecting the Miocene-Oligocene rock units. The sediments onlap directly against the steep eastern flank of the Eratosthenes Seamount to the west and the southern flank of the Hecataeus Rise to the north. The sediments show no deformation that could be associated with collision and are undeformed even very close to the two prominent structures. Pinching out of the Base Miocene reflector in the Levant Basin due to onlapping of the Middle Miocene reflector indicates uplift of the Eratosthenes Seamount and the Hecataeus Rise. In contrast to the Messinian Evaporites north of the Eratosthenes Seamount, the salt in the Levant Basin, even close to the Hecataeus Rise, is tectonically undeformed. It is proposed that the Eratosthenes Seamount, the western Levant Basin and the Hecataeus Rise act as one tectonic unit. This implies that the collision front is located north of this unit and that the Hecataeus Rise shields the sediments south of it from deformation associated with collision of the African and Anatolian Plates.

  10. Scent-marking behaviour and social dynamics in a wild population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kristina; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Kölliker, Mathias; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2014-07-01

    Scent-marking is widespread among mammals and has been observed in many felid species. Although the behaviour is well-described, little is known about its function in wild felid populations. We investigated patterns of scent-marking and its role in intra- and intersexual communication among resident and non-resident Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx by observing interactions among wild lynx at natural marking sites by means of infrared camera traps. Marking activity of resident animals showed a peak during the mating season and was lowest during the time when females gave birth and lactated. Both sexes scent-marked, but male lynx visited marking sites much more often than females and marked relatively more often when visiting a site. Most visits to marking sites were by residents but we also observed scent-marking by non-residents. Juveniles were never observed marking. We found no evidence of lynx regularly renewing scent-marks after a certain 'expiry date' but the presence of a strange scent-mark triggered over-marking. Males responded similarly to the presence of another individual's scent-mark, irrespective of whether it was the top- or the underlying scent-mark in a mixture of scent-marks they encountered. Our results suggest that marking sites could serve as 'chemical bulletin boards', where male lynx advertise their presence and gain information on ownership relationships in a given area. Females placed their urine marks on top of the ones left by resident males, but further studies are needed to explain the functions of over-marking in females. PMID:24814909

  11. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    PubMed

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  12. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; González-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Díez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortázar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account. PMID:26051843

  13. Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotic residues in the plasma of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Cristòfol, Carles; Cuenca, Rafaela; Agustí, Susana; Carneiro, Manuela; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    Due to the possible toxicological impact, the accumulation of pharmaceuticals in wildlife as a consequence of human practices is of growing concern. The consumption of carrion at feeding stations - the so-called 'vulture restaurants' - with no management of the veterinary drugs it contains may expose scavengers to pharmaceuticals. To demonstrate this, we analyzed plasma from Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) originating from two different areas of Spain for antibiotics such as enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, its primary metabolite. Quinolone residues were detected in about 65% (n=106) of birds, of which 15.1% (16/106) had quantifiable amounts of enrofloxacin (0.049±0.102μg/mL) and 5.7% (6/106) of ciprofloxacin (0.009±0.007μg/mL). The differences in exposure between the two sampled areas are attributable to different types of carrion management: the vultures that fed in areas with a high density of dead livestock (supplied directly to feeding stations) were more prone to exposure than those that sought food in areas where carcass availability is more unpredictable. Our findings are evidence that vultures have access to medicated livestock and that there are quantifiable levels of livestock antibiotics in vulture plasma. However, the vultures analyzed in this study had maximum antibiotic concentrations of only 0.4μg/mL, much less than the concentrations used in the clinical treatment of scavengers and a level that is probably too small to cause intoxication. PMID:27037883

  14. Piagetian object permanence and its development in Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Zucca, Paolo; Milos, Nadia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2007-04-01

    Object permanence in Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) was investigated using a complete version of the Uzgiris and Hunt scale 1. Nine hand-raised jays were studied, divided into two groups according to their different developmental stages (experiment 1, older jays: 2-3 months old, n = 4; experiment 2, younger jays: 15 days old, n = 5). In the first experiment, we investigated whether older jays could achieve piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. Tasks were administered in a fixed sequence (1-15) according to the protocols used in other avian species. The aim of the second experiment was to check whether testing very young jays before their development of "neophobia" could influence the achievement times of piagetian stages. Furthermore, in this experiment tasks were administered randomly to investigate whether the jays' achievement of stage 6 follows a fixed sequence related to the development of specific cognitive abilities. All jays tested in experiments 1 and 2 fully achieved piagetian stage 6 and no "A not B" errors were observed. Performance on visible displacement tasks was better than performance on invisible ones. The results of experiment 2 show that "neophobia" affected the response of jays in terms of achievement times; the older jays in experiment 1 took longer to pass all the tasks when compared with the younger, less neophobic, jays in experiment 2. With regard to the achieving order, jays followed a fixed sequence of acquisition in experiment 2, even if tasks were administered randomly, with the exception of one subject. The results of these experiments support the idea that piagetian stages of cognitive development exist in avian species and that they progress through relatively fixed sequences. PMID:17242935

  15. Towards modelling the evolution of intra plate stress: the Eurasian plate 20 Ma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéré, Sandrine; Ruckstuhl, Karin; Wortel, Rinus; Govers, Rob; Hochard, Cyril; Stampfli, Gérard

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investige the evolution of the intra plate stress field. We use the classical characterisation of forces acting regionally on a plate such as 'slab pull/suction', 'ridge push' and 'mantle drag' as used by Forsyth & Uyeda (1975), Chapple & Tullis (1977) and later by Wortel et al. (1991) and Govers & Meijer (2001). So far, the interaction between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle flow was oversimplified and implemented via a coupling cœfficient in the direction of the plate motion and we propose improving this specific interaction. As the shear stress field at the base of the plates is unknown in the past, we propose using a mantle flow simulation induced by the imposition of past plate motions on top of a 3D spherical mantle convective code. To that purpose, we employ the new plate motion reconstruction developed by Stampfli et al. (2008) and a 3D convective code where plates are dynamically coupled to the mantle (Quéré & Forte, 2006). The first plate on which we apply this method is the Eurasian plate as Eurasia is a large plate with a small velocity (not attached to its own subduction zone) and the debate on the main driving forces acting on Eurasia is still going on. The stress field 20 Ma resulting from all plate tectonic forces is calculated by assuming mechanical equilibrium in an homogeneous elastic shell using the plane stress approximation. As direct stress indicators for the past are rare, the predicted paleo-stress field is compared to pertinent data from orogens and extensional basins which will provide new clues to oil exploration teams.

  16. Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Nave and Vaccinated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Pablo R.; Hughes, Joseph; Battista, Patrizia; Lloyd, Lucy; Baillie, Gregory J.; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H.; Ormond, Doug; Oliver, Karen; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Caccamo, Mario; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wood, James L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in nave and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies. PMID:22693449

  17. Estimation of cultivable bacterial diversity in the cloacae and pharynx in Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus).

    PubMed

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Serrano, Emmanuel; Agustí, Susana; Porrero, María C; Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we describe the biodiversity of cloacal and pharynx culture-based bacteria (commensal and pathogenic), in 75 Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two geographic areas. We address the question of whether the cultivable microbiota of vultures is organised into assemblages occurring by chance. In addition, we assess bacterial diversity in both anatomic regions and geographic areas. Bacterial diversity was represented by 26 Gram-negative and 20 Gram-positive genera. The most common genera were Escherichia, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Lactococcus. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common species in cloacal and pharyngeal samples. Staphylococcus and Erysipelothrix were isolated from the pharynx and Salmonella and Corynebacterium from the cloacae, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the cloacal swabs. Ten cloacal swabs were positive for Salmonella, of which five isolates were Salmonella enterica serotype 4,(5),12:i:-, one isolate was S. enterica serotype Derby, three isolates were S. enterica serotype 61:k:1,5,7 and one isolate was S. enterica serotype Infantis. The null modelling approach revealed that the commensal bacteria of vultures are not structured in assemblages. On the other hand, differences in bacterial genus and species richness between cloacal and pharyngeal samples or between geographic areas were clear, with the pharynx in vultures from both geographic areas being richer. The results of this study indicate also that vultures can serve as a reservoir of certain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria. The dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens in wildlife could be prevented by periodic sanitary surveys. PMID:25388757

  18. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Background Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. Results The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. Conclusions This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species. PMID:23861841

  19. Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Toni; Negro, Juan J.; Lyytinen, Sami; Valkama, Jari; Ots, Indrek; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Background Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. Methodology To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Principal Findings Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal) on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. Significance These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood. PMID:18545646

  20. Three Eurasian teleconnection patterns: spatial structures, temporal variability, and associated winter climate anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuyun; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

    2014-06-01

    The Eurasian (EU) pattern is a distinct teleconnection pattern observed in boreal winter. Since the EU pattern was first identified, three types have been reported in the literature: the conventional EU pattern; the type 1 EU pattern, or Scandinavian (SCAND) pattern; and the type 2 EU pattern, or East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) pattern. Based on several reanalysis and observational datasets, the three EU patterns are extracted using the rotated empirical orthogonal function method. In order to provide a further distinction and understanding of the three EU patterns, a comprehensive side-by-side comparison is performed among them including their temporal variability, horizontal and vertical structure, related stationary Rossby wave activity, impact on climate, and possible driving factors associated with external forcing. The results reveal that all three EU patterns are characterised by a clear quasi-barotropic wave-train structure, but each has a distinct source and centre of action. Accordingly, their impacts on the precipitation and surface air temperature also differ from one other. Further evidence suggests that the conventional EU pattern is likely driven by anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic, in which process the transient eddies are actively involved. The SCAND pattern is partly maintained by the vorticity source over Western Europe, which arises from the anomalous convergence/divergence over the Mediterranean and is efficiently driven by the tropical and southern Indian Ocean SST via divergent circulation. The EATL/WRUS pattern shows some linkage to the North American snow cover, and the involved process remains unclear and needs further investigation.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yang, Xiaohan; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  2. Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae) from Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan; Vorel, Aleš

    2015-08-01

    Between March 2012 and April 2014, we performed post-mortem parasitological examinations of 11 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) from the basins of four main rivers (Dyje, Labe, Morava, Vltava) in the Czech Republic. The cause of death of five adult animals was unknown, three adult animals died after being hit by cars, while one young and one adult as a result of serious injuries and one juvenile male drowned. The trematode Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Rudolphi, 1814) Lühe, 1909 was only found in the caecum body and caecum apex of nine beavers (82%), with no significant differences in parasite intensity among beavers. The highest number of trematodes (271) occurred in an adult female in July 2013; while a range of 1-57 individuals were found in other positive beavers. S. subtriquetrus size in both parts of the caecum was 11.0-17.0 × 5.5-8.0 mm (mean 14.3 × 6.9 mm). Results demonstrated that for the optimal detection of eggs, it was necessary to examine at least 10 g of faeces with a new modified method of sedimentation. The size range of 30 eggs was 157.1-182.5 × 99.3-109.8 μm (mean 168.0 × 104.4 μm). There were no differences in prevalence and seasonal occurrence of S. subtriquetrus between male and female beavers. We did not find any other intestinal endoparasites or tissue parasites (Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp.). PMID:25916466

  3. Protection against Tuberculosis in Eurasian Wild Boar Vaccinated with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C.; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramón A.; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines. PMID:21935486

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of Δ6 fatty acid desaturase (FADS2) in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Tinti, E; Mellery, J; Michaux, C; Larondelle, Y; Perpète, E; Kestemont, P

    2016-01-01

    The Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a freshwater carnivorous species of high interest to diversify inland aquaculture. However, little is known about its ability to bioconvert polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from plant oils into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). In this study, special attention has been given to the fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) which is commonly described to be a rate-limiting enzyme of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. This work reports on the cloning, tissue expression and functional characterization of the Eurasian perch fads2, but also on the cloning of two alternative splicing transcripts named fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2. The fads2 cDNA cloned is composed of an open reading frame (ORF) of 1338 nucleotides (nt) and encodes a protein of 445 amino acids. This deduced amino acid sequence displays the typical structure of microsomal FADS2 including two transmembrane domains and an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain with the "HPGG" motif. Quantitative real-time PCR assay of fads2, fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2 expressions revealed that the fads2 transcript was mainly expressed in the liver and intestine and exhibited a typical gene expression pattern of freshwater species while fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2 genes were highly expressed in the brain, followed by the liver and intestine. Functional characterization of Eurasian perch FADS2 in transgenic yeast showed a fully functional Δ6 desaturation activity toward C18 PUFA substrates, without residual Δ5 and Δ8 desaturase activities. PMID:26478265

  5. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    PubMed

    Axnér, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Söderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P < 0.001) and were largest in the follicular and luteal phases. The number of endometrial glands evaluated blindly coded on a subjective scale was significantly associated with the reproductive stage (P < 0.0001) and was significantly higher in the luteal phase than that in any other reproductive stages (P < 0.05). Cornification of the vaginal epithelium was only observed in females in the follicular stage or in females with signs of a recent ovulation. In conclusion, both macroscopic and histologic measurements are useful for a correct classification of the reproductive stage when evaluating reproductive organs in the Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. PMID:26050610

  6. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) overcome their current desires to anticipate two distinct future needs and plan for them appropriately.

    PubMed

    Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2012-04-23

    Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present satiety to cache food they will desire in the future. Here, we show that another corvid, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), can distinguish between two distinct future desires and plan for each appropriately, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms of previous work, and suggest a way in which associative learning processes and future-oriented cognition may combine to allow prospective behaviour. PMID:22048890

  7. The impact of the North American ice sheet on the evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet during the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakka, J.; Löfverström, M.; Colleoni, F.

    2015-11-01

    Modeling studies show that the massive ice sheet expanding over the North American and Eurasian continents in the last glacial cycle has a large impact on the atmospheric stationary waves and thus yielded a glacial climate distinctly different from the present. However, to what extent the two ice sheets influenced each others growth trajectories remains largely unexplored. In this study we investigate how ice sheets in North America influence the downstream evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet, using a thermomechanical ice-sheet model forced by climate data from snapshot simulations of three distinctly different phases of the last glacial cycle: the Marine Isotope Stages 5b, 4 and 2 (LGM). Our results suggest that changes in the North American paleo-topography may have had a large influence on evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet. In the MIS4 and LGM experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet migrates westward towards the Atlantic sector - largely consistent with geological data and contemporary ice-sheet reconstructions - due to a low wavenumber stationary wave response, which yields a cooling in Europe and a warming in northeastern Siberia. The expansion of the North American ice sheet between MIS4 and LGM amplifies the Siberian warm anomaly, which limits the glaciation there and may therefore help to explain the progressive westward migration of the Eurasian ice sheet over this time period. While the Eurasian ice sheet in the MIS4 and LGM experiments appears to be in equilibrium with the simulated climate conditions, the MIS5b climate forcing is too warm to grow an ice sheet. First-order sensitivity experiments suggest that most of the MIS5b ice sheet was established during preceding colder stages.

  8. Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-01

    Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can improve the characterization of emission locations, magnitudes and trends over sparsely monitored areas such as seas or oceans.

  9. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

  10. Structure and variability of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew C.; Janout, Markus; Rabe, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) transports a vast amount of mass and heat around cyclonic gyres of the deep basins, acting as a narrow, topographically-controlled flow, confined to the continental margins. Current observations during 2002-2011 at seven moorings along the major Atlantic Water (AW) pathway, complemented by an extensive collection of measured temperatures and salinities as well as results of state-of-the-art numerical modeling, have been used to examine the spatial structure and temporal variability of the ACBC within the Eurasian Basin (EB). These observations and modeling results suggest a gradual, six-fold decrease of boundary current speed (from 24 to 4 cm/s) on the route between Fram Strait and the Lomonosov Ridge, accompanied by a transformation of the vertical flow structure from mainly barotropic in Fram Strait to baroclinic between the area north of Spitsbergen and the central Laptev Sea continental slope. The relative role of density-driven currents in maintaining AW circulation increases with the progression of the ACBC eastward from Fram Strait, so that baroclinic ACBC forcing dominates over the barotropic in the eastern EB. Mooring records have revealed that waters within the AW and the cold halocline layers circulate in roughly the same direction in the eastern EB. The seasonal signal, meanwhile, is the most powerful mode of variability in the EB, contributing up to ~70% of the total variability in currents (resolved by moorings records) within the eastern EB. Seasonal signal amplitudes for current speed and AW temperature both decrease with the eastward progression of AW flow from source regions, and demonstrate strong interannual modulation. In the 2000s, the state of the EB (e.g., circulation pattern, thermohaline conditions, and freshwater balance) experienced remarkable changes. Results showing anomalous circulation patterns for an extended period of 30 months in 2008-2010 for the eastern EB, and a two-core AW temperature structure that emerged in this region of the Arctic Ocean in the most recent decade, suggest a shift of the EB toward a new, more dynamic state. This also likely suggests that the EB interior will become more susceptible to future climate change. Evaluating properties of the ACBC, its temporal variability at time scales from a season to several years, and possible governing mechanisms, this study contributes to a better understanding of Arctic Ocean circulation.

  11. Large Impact of Eurasian Lynx Predation on Roe Deer Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

  12. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire events. Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and in contrast, a normal fire season burned in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the fire season (April - September) for 1999, 2002, and 2004. We assess these data sets for evidence of relationships between the net radiative fluxes and fire onset as well as evidence for residual influence of the fires upon the radiative budgets.

  13. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in wild and domestic carnivores and their ticks at the human-wildlife interface.

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; Proboste, Tatiana; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Chirife, Andrea D; de la Fuente, José; Altet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and Rickettsia conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although carnivores may not be reservoir hosts for zoonotic Rickettsia, they can have an important role as mechanical dispersers of infected ticks. PMID:26643497

  14. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  15. Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  16. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

  17. Snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of Egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida D; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox's as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten's as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

  18. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    PubMed

    Graf, Patricia M; Wilson, Rory P; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  19. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Patricia M.; Wilson, Rory P.; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  20. Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) – Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam

    PubMed Central

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  1. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research and capacity-building initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Sorvari, S.; Bäck, J.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-11-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked, global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change; air quality; biodiversity loss; urbanization; chemicalization; food and freshwater availability; energy production; and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructure and related capacity-building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure and summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  2. Improvement in Simulation of Eurasian Winter Climate Variability with a Realistic Arctic Sea Ice Condition in an Atmospheric GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to approx. 0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

  3. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    PubMed

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  4. Role for Eurasian Arctic shelf sea ice in a secularly varying hemispheric climate signal during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Marcia Glaze; Curry, Judith A.

    2014-05-01

    A hypothesized low-frequency climate signal propagating across the Northern Hemisphere through a network of synchronized climate indices was identified in previous analyses of instrumental and proxy data. The tempo of signal propagation is rationalized in terms of the multidecadal component of Atlantic Ocean variabilitythe Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Through multivariate statistical analysis of an expanded database, we further investigate this hypothesized signal to elucidate propagation dynamics. The Eurasian Arctic Shelf-Sea Region, where sea ice is uniquely exposed to open ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as a strong contender for generating and sustaining propagation of the hemispheric signal. Ocean-ice-atmosphere coupling spawns a sequence of positive and negative feedbacks that convey persistence and quasi-oscillatory features to the signal. Further stabilizing the system are anomalies of co-varying Pacific-centered atmospheric circulations. Indirectly related to dynamics in the Eurasian Arctic, these anomalies appear to negatively feed back onto the Atlantic`s freshwater balance. Earth's rotational rate and other proxies encode traces of this signal as it makes its way across the Northern Hemisphere.

  5. Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Green, David E.; Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J.; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Ip, Hon S.

    2012-01-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Fortmann, R.G.

    1994-01-14

    The goals during this period included the following objectives from the Statement of Work: in Phase 2A, completion of Subtask 2.1.4 -- Interpret data, of Task 2.1 -- Acquire 3-D seismic data; and, in Phase 2B, completion of Subtask 2.2.1 -- Solicit bids and award, and initiation of Subtask 2.2.2 -- Acquire cores, of Task 2.2 -- Drill slant hole. Subtask 2.1.4 -- Interpret data: Interpretation of the 3- D seismic survey was completed on a Sun Sparcstation10 workstation (UNIX based), using Landmark Graphics latest version of Seisworks 3D software. Subtask 2.2.2 -- Acquire cores: Sierra had picked a location and prepared a drilling plan for the slant/horizontal wellbores. Sierra was ready to submit an Application for Permit to Drill. However, due to the fact that Sierra entered into an agreement to sell the Badger Basin property, the drilling phase was put on hold.

  7. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced EWM invasions have negative impacts on native biodiversity, recreational boating, fishing, and other types of aquatic tourism (e.g., Eiswerth et al. 2000). On a broader scale, EWM can also be harmful to man-made aquatic infrastructure, such as hydroelectric dams. If an EWM invasion can be detected in an early stage where eradication is still a possibility, many of these negative consequences can be limited or prevented altogether (e.g., Madsen et al. 2002). The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of pure and hybridized EWM DNA using both laboratory and field experiments. We performed a pilot experiment in outdoor tanks to determine the basic functionality and sensitivity of the assay. Following this initial test, we collected field samples from Michigan and Montana lakes with and without known EWM populations. Taken together, our findings suggest that eDNA techniques have potential to be a useful strategy for the early detection of EWM.

  8. Entrapment of ancient and modern organic carbon by iron on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvado, Joan A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-04-01

    Given the potential for climate-carbon feedbacks in the Siberian-Arctic land-ocean system, there is a need for improved understanding of carbon cycle processes (Vonk et al., 2012). The entrapment of organic carbon in sediments is a key factor to attenuate the outgassing of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In this context, there is a pressing need to understand the mechanisms that control preservation and accumulations of organic carbon in marine sediments. Recently, the role of iron oxides in the preservation of organic matter globally has been outlined (Lalonde et al., 2012). In the present study, the composition of organic carbon associated to reactive iron (OC-Fe) on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf is evaluated. For this purpose, sediment cores and grab samples were collected in the shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea from 9 to 69 m water depth. Experiments were conducted to extract the OC-Fe from the sediments by applying a citrate-dithionite iron reduction method -accurately control corrected- and analyze the δ13C, % OC and Δ14C of the bulk and iron-associated fractions. The results show that 11.0 ± 5.5% of organic carbon in surface-sediments of the Siberian Arctic Shelf is attached to reactive iron. The Δ14C and δ13C signatures presented sharply contrasting offsets between the sedimentary bulk and the OC-Fe. The OC-Fe is much younger than the OC-bulk in the eastern East Siberian Sea and older in the Laptev Sea. The same offsets were observed using a dual-carbon endmember mixing model showing that the iron fraction is mainly composed by young marine plankton organic carbon in the eastern East Siberian Sea and pre-aged thawing permafrost in the Laptev Sea. Overall, it seems that (i) some of this pre-aged organic carbon still remains bound to iron oxides after permafrost thawing and (ii) the iron oxides are transferring dissolved organic carbon to the sediment. This study presents the first analyses of Δ14C ever done in the OC-Fe fraction to start progressing on what organic matter components are prone to entrapment by iron oxides. References Vonk, J.E., Sánchez-García L., van Dongen B.E., Alling V., Kosmach D., Charkin A., Semiletov I.P., Dudarev O.V., Shakhova N., Roos P., Eglinton T.I., Andersson A., Gustafsson Ö. Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia. Nature 489, 137-140 (2012). Lalonde K., Mucci A., Ouellet A., Gélinas Y. Preservation of organic matter in sediments promoted by iron. Nature 483, 198-200 (2012).

  9. Contribution of agricultural and forest fires in Ukraine to impact of Eurasian burnings on Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibtsev, S.; Goldammer, J. G.; Gilitukha, D.

    2012-04-01

    Burning potentially can occur on major part of lands of Ukraine (total 57.93 million ha) and, first of all, on agricultural ones - that occupy 71% of total area of the country. Forests occupy 17.6% of the area of country, where from 2 to 4 thousands fires happens annually. Good wildfire statistics, as well as proper fire management system only for part of forest lands of Ukraine - 68% is established, in particularly, for forests that managed by State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. While other 2 million ha of forests that managed by other Ministries are out of regular fire management action, detection and protection. There are no reliable detection and accounting of wildfires, outdated or absent fire engines, lack of fire crews and facilities on most part of agricultural, grass, abandoned lands, pastures. During emergency wildfires situation in Ukraine in August 2010 only full mobilization of forest personal together with forces of internal affairs (police) for patrolling of wildfire situation nationwide allows to avoid catastrophic scenario in spite of general low preparedness and unsatisfactory technical provision of fire management on agricultural lands. That year in forest lands totally 3065 cases of fires were registered with total area burned 8916 ha (fire season 2010) and 3145 cases of wildfires on agricultural lands (August 2010). There are no reliable statistics and effective fire management system on grass and agricultural lands in Ukraine even agricultural fires burned much larger area of lands then forest fires and produce significant amount of black carbon both during spring and summer fire events. Results of analysis of wildfire cases in Ukraine at 1x1 km spatial resolution for the period 2006-2008 based on active detection of thermals anomaly by MODIS shows that annually, during the period nearly 20,000 cases of wildfires were detected. In extreme years like 2008, amount of fires doubled. Wildfires in Ukraine make important input in total Eurasian impact of biomass burning on Arctic. In particularly, the fire hazard period, characterized by highest fire activity - 30% of the total cases of detected active ignitions, occurs in the spring (March, April, May) and 55% in summer (July, August and September). Analysis of land use type of burnings shows that 93% of fires for the period occur on agricultural land and other 7% - on forest lands. Near 23% of forest fires could be ignited as a result of transfer of fires from nearest agricultural lands. Comparing of remote sensing data with official forest fire statistics of State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine shows that only 15% of the total official amount of forest fires was detected by MODIS. This is because the accordingly to statistics, average area of forest fires in Ukraine is near 1.1 ha, and large part of fires do not exceed 0.5 ha and less, while this area is lowest threshold of detection by MODIS.

  10. PanEurasian Experiment (PEEX): Modelling Platform for Earth System Observations and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Mahura, Alexander; Penenko, Vladimir; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    As the part of the PEEX initiative, for the purpose of supporting the PEEX observational system and answering on the PEEX scientific questions, a hierarchy/ framework of modern multi-scale models for different elements of the Earth System integrated with the observation system is needed. One of the acute topics in the international debate on land-atmosphere interactions in relation to global change is the Earth System Modeling (ESM). The question is whether the ESM components actually represent how the Earth is functioning. The ESMs consist of equations describing the processes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, terrestrial and marine biosphere. ESMs are the best tools for analyzing the effect of different environmental changes on future climate or for studying the role of whole processes in the Earth System. These types of analysis and prediction of the future change are especially important in the Arctic latitudes, where climate change is proceeding fastest and where near-surface warming has been about twice the global average during the recent decades. The processes, and hence parameterization, in ESMs are still based on insufficient knowledge of physical, chemical and biological mechanisms involved in the climate system and the resolution of known processes is insufficient. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere-ocean interactions using ESMs provides a way to explore the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of land system and on climate. There is a lack, however, ways to forward a necessary process understanding effectively to ESMs and to link all this to the decision-making process. Arctic-boreal geographical domain plays significant role in terms of green-house gases and anthropogenic emissions and as an aerosol source area in the Earth System. The PEEX Modelling Platform (PEEX-MP) is characterized by: • An ensemble approach with the integration of modelling results from different models/ countries etc.; • A hierarchy of models, analysing scenarios, inverse modelling, modelling based on measurement needs and processes; • Model validation by remote sensing data and assimilation of satellite observations to constrain models to better understand processes, e.g., emissions and fluxes with top-down modelling; • Geophysical/ chemical model validation with experiments at various spatial and temporal scales. Added value of the comprehensive multi-platform observations and modeling; network of monitoring stations with the capacity to quantify those interactions between neighboring areas ranging from the Arctic and the Mediterranean to the Chinese industrial areas and the Asian steppes is needed. For example, apart from development of Russian stations in the PEEX area a strong co-operation with surrounding research infrastructures in the model of ACTRIS network needs to be established in order to obtain a global perspective of the emissions transport, transformation and ageing of pollutants incoming and exiting the PEEX area. The PEEX-MP aims to simulate and predict the physical aspects of the Earth system and to improve understanding of the bio-geochemical cycles in the PEEX domain, and beyond. The environmental change in this region implies that, from the point-of-view of atmospheric flow, the lower boundary conditions are changing. This is important for applications with immediate relevance for society, such as numerical weather prediction. The PEEX infrastructure will provide a unique view to the physical properties of the Earth surface, which can be used to improve assessment and prediction models. This will directly benefit citizens of the North in terms of better early warning of hazardous events, for instance. On longer time-scales, models of the bio-geochemical cycles in the PEEX domain absolutely need support from the new monitoring infra-structure to better measure and quantify soil and vegetation properties. In the most basic setup, the atmospheric and oceanic Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are connected to each other, sharing e.g. fluxes of momentum, water vapour and CO2. Traditionally, the land compartment has been an integral part of the atmospheric model, but in most modern ESMs the land model has been clearly separated. In most cases, the GCMs are complemented by other additional sub models covering, for example, atmospheric chemistry and aerosols, biogeochemistry or dynamic vegetation. Although the models can communicate also directly with each other, usually a separate coupler is used as an interface between different sub models. One of the main PEEX modelling activities is to evaluate process-models of chemistry-biota-atmosphere interactions in Pan Eurasian region and to improve GCM parameterizations. PEEX scientific plan is designed to serve a research chain that aims to advance our understanding of climate and air quality through a series of connected activities beginning at the molecular scale and extending to the regional and global scales. Past variations in climate in Pan Eurasian regions and corresponding forcing agents would be revealed by analysis of firn and ice cores in glaciers and ice sheets. A combination of direct and inverse modelling will be applied to diagnosing, designing, monitoring, and forecasting of air pollution in Siberia and Eurasia. Regional models coupled with the global one by means of orthogonal decomposition methods allow one to correctly introduce data about the global processes onto the regional level where environmental quality control strategies are typically implemented. Proceeding from the above mentioned limitations, a new concept and methodology considering the concept of 'one-atmosphere' as two-way interacted meteorological and chemical processes is suggested. The atmospheric chemistry transport models should include not only health-effecting pollutants (air quality components), but also green-house gases and aerosols effecting climate, meteorological processes, etc. Such concept requests a strategy of new generation integrated chemistry-climate modelling systems for predicting atmospheric composition, meteorology and climate change. The on-line integration of meteorological/ climate models and atmospheric aerosol and chemical transport models gives a possibility to utilise all meteorological 3D fields at each time step and to consider feedbacks of air pollution (e.g. aerosols) on meteorological processes and climate forcing, and further on the chemical composition (as a chain of dependent processes). This promising way for future atmospheric simulation systems (as a part of and a step to ESMs) will be considered in PEEX. It will lead to a new generation of models for climatic, meteorological, environmental and chemical weather forecasting.

  11. Global Trends in Higher Education and Their Impact on the Region. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, June 12-13, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education presents conference proceedings of the annual Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held June 12-13, 2013, at Nazarbayev University. The theme of this year's Forum is "Global Trends in Higher Education and their Impact on the Region". Many internationally-recognized higher…

  12. Rapid detection of Eurasian and American H7 subtype influenza A viruses using a single TaqManMGB real-time RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) was developed for the detection of all H7 subtype avian influenza viruses. A TaqmanMGB probe targeting a highly conserved HA2 H7 region was developed and either combined with primers targeting Eurasian isolates (primer mix EA), North American isolates...

  13. Eurasian Tree Sparrows, Risk for H5N1 Virus Spread and Human Contamination through Buddhist Ritual: An Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Sorn, San; Nicholls, John M.; Buchy, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 virus has dramatically spread throughout Southeast Asia since its first detection in 1997. Merit Release Birds, such as the Eurasian Tree Sparrow, are believed to increase one's positive karma when kissed and released during Buddhist rituals. Since these birds are often in close contact with both poultry and humans, we investigated their potential role in the spread of H5N1 virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven series of experiments were conducted in order to investigate the possible interactions between inoculated and exposed birds, including sparrow/sparrow, sparrow/chicken, duck/sparrow. Daily and post-mortem samples collected were tested for H5N1 virus by real-time RT-PCR and egg inoculation. When directly inoculated, Eurasian Tree Sparrows were highly susceptible to the H5N1 virus, with a fatality rate approaching 100% within 5 days post-inoculation. Although transmission of fatal infection between sparrows did not occur, seroconversion of the exposed birds was observed. Up to 100% chickens exposed to inoculated sparrows died of H5N1 infection, depending on the caging conditions of the birds, while a fatality rate of 50% was observed on sparrows exposed to infected ducks. Large quantities of H5N1 virus were detected in the sparrows, particularly in their feathers, from which infectious particles were recovered. Conclusions/Significance Our study indicates that under experimental conditions, Eurasian Tree Sparrows are susceptible to H5N1 infection, either by direct inoculation or by contact with infected poultry. Their ability to transmit H5N1 infection to other birds is also demonstrated, suggesting that the sparrows may play a role in the dissemination of the virus. Finally, the presence of significant quantities of H5N1 virus on sparrows' feathers, including infectious particles, would suggest that Merit Release Birds represent a risk for human contamination in countries where avian influenza virus is circulating and where this religious ritual is practiced. PMID:22164310

  14. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Gritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p < 0.0001) showing a postpartum increase both in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females. The results from the Eurasian lynx revealed that the measurement of faecal progesterone metabolites led to profiles dissimilar to profiles shown in other felid species, but similar to those from faecal gestagen metabolite analysis in the Iberian lynx. To identify faecal gestagen and oestrogen metabolites a radio-metabolism study was performed. Using the progesterone immunoassay two major progesterone metabolites were detected demonstrating that the assay indeed tracks the relevant metabolites. The oestrogen assay measured authentic 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone, and their conjugates. The analysis of the faecal metabolite composition in samples from early and late pregnancy and lactation particularly revealed a distinct shift in the relation between 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone that changed in favour of oestrone. This might indicate different hormone sources during and after pregnancy (corpus luteum, placenta). We hypothesize, that placental steroid analysis in combination with other highly sophisticated analytical techniques, like liquid chromatography mass spectrometry or urinary relaxin analysis may led to analytical options to confirm pregnancy and to differentiate this from pseudo-pregnancy in lynx species. PMID:18638107

  15. Mapping the indentation between the Iberian and Eurasian plates beneath the Western Pyrenees/Eastern Cantabrian Mountains from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Ruiz, M.; Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.

    2012-10-01

    In the last decades, active seismic profiling in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula has evidenced that the Alpine collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates resulted in a complex crustal structure, with the Iberian crust underthrusting the Eurasian crust and reaching depths of at least 45-50 km beneath the Pyrenean chain and the Cantabrian Mountains. In the transition between these two zones the situation is particularly complex, as evidenced in previous wide-angle and passive seismic studies. This contribution focuses in getting new clues on the crustal structure of this transitional zone through receiver function (RF) analysis of teleseismic data recorded at permanent and temporary stations located in both the Spanish and French sides of the Western Pyrenees. Different techniques (H-κ stacking, pseudo-migration, synthetic 2D modeling) have been considered in the analysis. Passive seismic data from previous temporary deployments in the zone have been reworked and added to the discussion. A first order result is that passive seismic data are broadly consistent with the indentation of the Iberian and Eurasian crusts inferred from active seismic profiling, thus providing a completely independent confirmation of this feature. For the first time, an Iberian Moho underlying the Eurasian crust is documented from RF beneath the stations located at the Northern side of the Pyrenean range. Moreover, clear indications of dipping interfaces are observed at some stations. The new RF results suggest that in the crustal indentation beneath the Basque Massifs area, the Eurasian crust extends farther south with respect to the image inferred from active seismic data. This new geometry implies that the Pamplona transfer zone has played a major role in the regional geodynamic history.

  16. Structure of intrusions and fronts in the deep layer of the Eurasian basin and Makarov basin (Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, N. P.; Rudels, B.; Zhurbas, N. V.

    2013-07-01

    Numerous CTD data obtained in the Eurasian and Makarov basins in the Arctic during the Polarstern (1996), Oden, and Louis S. St. Laurent (1994) international polar expeditions are analysed to describe fronts and intrusions observed in the deep layer (600-1300 m). The hydrological parameters were estimated from available CTD data, which made it possible to identify different types of fronts (baroclinic, thermohaline, and compound types of fronts) and analyze intrusive layering taking into account the peculiarities of the thermohaline structure of fronts. The field data are interpreted using an interleaving model describing the formation of intrusions on the baroclinic and pure thermohaline fronts under conditions of absolutely stable stratification. It is assumed that differential mixing is the main instability mechanism. Estimates of the vertical and lateral diffusivities in the frontal zones of the deep Arctic layer are presented.

  17. Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?

    PubMed Central

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W.; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans. PMID:24671829

  18. Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W; Shaw, Rachael C; Cheke, Lucy G; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-03-01

    Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans. PMID:24671829

  19. Fluctuating feather asymmetry in relation to corticosterone levels is sex-dependent in Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) nestlings

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Samuli; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been widely used as a stress-related phenotypic marker of developmental instability. However, previous studies relating FA to various stressful conditions have produced inconsistent results and we still lack quantitative individual-level evidence that high FA is related to stress in wild vertebrate species. We studied how baseline plasma levels of corticosterone predicted FA of wing and tail feathers in free-living Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) nestlings. We found a sex-specific association between corticosterone levels and FA: high corticosterone levels were related to an increased FA in male but not in female nestlings. These results suggest that in treecreepers, FA may correlate with individual stress hormone levels, male developmental trajectory being potentially more sensitive to stress than that of the female. PMID:20129951

  20. Rapid courtship evolution in grouse (Tetraonidae): contrasting patterns of acceleration between the Eurasian and North American polygynous clades

    PubMed Central

    Spaulding, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is thought to be a powerful diversifying force, based on large ornamental differences between sexually dimorphic species. This assumes that unornamented phenotypes represent evolution without sexual selection. If sexual selection is more powerful than other forms of selection, then two effects would be: rapid divergence of sexually selected traits and a correlation between these divergence rates and variance in mating success in the ornamented sex. I tested for these effects in grouse (Tetraonidae). For three species pairs, within and among polygynous clades, male courtship characters had significantly greater divergence than other characters. This was most pronounced for two species in Tympanuchus. In the Eurasian polygynous clade, relative courtship divergence gradually increased with nucleotide divergence, suggesting a less dramatic acceleration. Increase in relative courtship divergence was associated with mating systems having higher variance in male mating success. These results suggest that sexual selection has accelerated courtship evolution among grouse, although the microevolutionary details appear to vary among clades. PMID:17284413

  1. Summer Arctic Atmospheric Circulation Response to Spring Eurasian Snow Cover and its Possible Linkage to Accelerated Sea Ice Decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, S.; Zhang, X.; Yamazaki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Anticyclonic circulation has intensified over the Arctic Ocean in summer during recent decades. However, the underlying mechanism is, as yet, not well understood. Here we show that earlier spring Eurasian snowmelt leads to anomalously negative sea level pressure (SLP) over Eurasia and positive SLP over the Arctic, which has strong projection on the negative phase of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) in summer through the wave-mean flow interaction. Specifically, earlier spring snowmelt over Eurasia leads to a warmer land surface, due to reduced surface albedo. The warmed surface amplifies stationary Rossby waves, leading to a deceleration of the subpolar jet. As a consequence, rising motion is enhanced over the land, and compensating subsidence and adiabatic heating occur in the Arctic troposphere, forming the negative NAM. The intensified anticyclonic circulation has played a contributing role in accelerating the sea ice decline observed during the last two decades. The results here provide important information for improving seasonal prediction of summer sea ice cover.

  2. Molecular signals for late Tertiary/early Quaternary range splits of an Eurasian steppe plant: Clausia aprica (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Franzke, A; Hurka, H; Janssen, D; Neuffer, B; Friesen, N; Markov, M; Mummenhoff, K

    2004-09-01

    Several vegetation belts stretch continuously from Europe to Asia, taiga and steppe being most prominent. Numerous plant species within these belts share a conspicuous distribution area, which is longitudinally contracted or disrupted approximately along longitude 70 degrees E. To date no hypothesis for this intriguing distribution pattern has been put forward. We detected molecular footprints in the contemporary genetic composition in nuclear DNA (ITS1, ITS2) and chloroplast DNA (trnL-trnF spacer region) of the steppe element Clausia aprica (Brassicaceae) providing evidence for a severe longitudinal range split and genetic differentiation east of the Ural Mountains about 1 million years ago caused by Quaternary climatic oscillations. Clausia aprica provides the first phylogeographical analysis on the intraspecific evolution of an Eurasian steppe plant. PMID:15315689

  3. The Effects of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the Foraging Success of Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Axel; Mörtl, Martin; Eckmann, Reiner

    2004-07-01

    Complex habitat structures can influence the foraging success of fish. Competition for food between fish species can therefore depend on the competitors' abilities to cope with structural complexity. In laboratory experiments, we comparatively assessed effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) on the foraging success of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)). In single-species and mixed-species experiments, the fish were fed caddisfly larvae (Tinodes waeneri (L.)) over complex (mussel-covered stones) and less-complex (bare stones) substrates. With intraspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe decreased significantly when the complex substrate was used. With interspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe did not change with substrate complexity, but perch clearly out-competed ruffe on both substrates. Zebra mussel beds provide a refuge for macrozoobenthos against predation by ruffe and probably also by perch. (

  4. Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, Miguel; Muñoz, Joaquin; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) hosts the most polymorphic genes ever described in vertebrates. The MHC triggers the adaptive branch of the immune response, and its extraordinary variability is considered an evolutionary consequence of pathogen pressure. The last few years have witnessed the characterization of the MHC multigene family in a large diversity of bird species, unraveling important differences in its polymorphism, complexity, and evolution. Here, we characterize the first MHC class II B sequences isolated from a Rallidae species, the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. A next-generation sequencing approach revealed up to 265 alleles that translated into 251 different amino acid sequences (β chain, exon 2) in 902 individuals. Bayesian inference identified up to 19 codons within the presumptive peptide-binding region showing pervasive evidence of positive, diversifying selection. Our analyses also detected a significant excess of high-frequency segregating sites (average Tajima's D = 2.36, P < 0.05), indicative of balancing selection. We found one to six different alleles per individual, consistent with the occurrence of at least three MHC class II B gene duplicates. However, the genotypes comprised of three alleles were by far the most abundant in the population investigated (49.4%), followed by those with two (29.6%) and four (17.5%) alleles. We suggest that these proportions are in agreement with the segregation of MHC haplotypes differing in gene copy number. The most widespread segregating haplotypes, according to our findings, would contain one single gene or two genes. The MHC class II of the Eurasian Coot is a valuable system to investigate the evolutionary implications of gene copy variation and extensive variability, the greatest ever found, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a non-passerine bird. PMID:24683452

  5. The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current along the Eurasian slope and the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge: Water mass properties, transports and transformations from moored instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodgate, Rebecca A.; Aagaard, Knut; Muench, Robin D.; Gunn, John; Bjrk, Gran; Rudels, Bert; Roach, A. T.; Schauer, Ursula

    2001-08-01

    Year-long (summer 1995 to 1996) time series of temperature, salinity and current velocity from three slope sites spanning the junction of the Lomonosov Ridge with the Eurasian continent are used to quantify the water properties, transformations and transport of the boundary current of the Arctic Ocean. The mean flow is cyclonic, weak (1 to 5 cm s -1), predominantly aligned along isobaths and has an equivalent barotropic structure in the vertical. We estimate the transport of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin to be 51 Sv. About half of this flow is diverted north along the Eurasian Basin side of the Lomonosov Ridge. The warm waters (>1.4C) of the Atlantic layer are also found on the Canadian Basin side of the ridge south of 86.5N, but not north of this latitude. This suggests that the Atlantic layer crosses the ridge at various latitudes south of 86.5N and flows southward along the Canadian Basin side of the ridge. Temperature and salinity records indicate a small (0.02 Sv), episodic flow of Canadian Basin deep water into the Eurasian Basin at 1700 m, providing a possible source for an anomalous eddy observed in the Amundsen Basin in 1996. There is also a similar flow of Eurasian Basin deep water into the Canadian Basin. Both flows probably pass through a gap in the Lomonosov Ridge at 80.4N. A cooling and freshening of the Atlantic layer, observed at all three moorings, is attributed to changes (in temperature and salinity and/or volume) in the outflow from the Barents Sea the previous winter, possibly caused by an observed increased flow of ice from the Arctic Ocean into the Barents Sea. The change in water properties, which advects at 5 cm s -1 along the southern edge of the Eurasian Basin, also strengthens the cold halocline layer and increases the stability of the upper ocean. This suggests a feedback in which ice exported from the Arctic Ocean into the Barents Sea promotes ice growth elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean. The strongest currents recorded at the moorings (up to 40 cm s -1) are related to eddy features which are predominantly anticyclonic and, with a few exceptions, are of two main types: cold core eddies, confined to the upper 100-300 m, probably formed on the shelf, and warm core eddies of greater vertical extent, probably related to instabilities of an upstream front.

  6. Timing of Indian-Eurasian collision from the Indus Basin in Ladakh, northwestern Indian Himalaya: An interdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, A.; Hodges, K.; Edwards, C. S.; Gordon, G. W.; Wartho, J.

    2012-12-01

    The early Cenozoic Indus Basin of northwest India straddles the Indus suture zone and has long been regarded as having the potential to yield important constraints on the timing of collision between India and Eurasia and final closure of the intervening Neo-Tethys ocean basin. Unfortunately, three issues have frustrated previous attempts to capitalize on that potential. First, outcrops in the Indus Basin are deformed, making accurate reconstructions of basin stratigraphy difficult. As a consequence, published maps of the basin are discrepant - in some cases significantly so. Second, previously published detrital zircon U-Pb data for Pre-Oligocene sandstone units point to a distinctive Eurasian source, with scant evidence for Indian detritus, leaving open the possibility that deposition could have been prior to the docking of India. Finally, much of the succession does not contain age-diagnostic fossils and datable volcanic units (e.g., tuffs) have not been found. We report here the results of an interdisciplinary study that has permitted us to overcome these obstacles and better constrain the timing of collision at this sector of the orogen. Detailed photogeologic analysis of most of the Indus Basin using all bands (visible to thermal infrared) of ASTER satellite imagery, coupled with topical ground-truthing in the field, has allowed for both improved mapping of the macroscopic structure and improved resolution of key stratigraphic characteristics. Based upon our map, we present both isotopic and trace element geochemical data from various, carefully selected samples. First, the distribution of U-Pb dates for detrital zircons from quartzite cobbles within the oldest Indus Basin unit are comparable to those found in Indian passive margin units. Trace element geochemistry of mafic pebbles from throughout the older Indus Basin units appear to demonstrate derivation from the Shyok suture zone, situated north of the local Eurasian source area. However, several clasts are geochemically similar to ophiolitic material found within the Indus suture zone, implying sourcing from fragments of the Neo-Tethys ocean basin caught up in the suture or obducted onto the Indian passive margin prior to collision. 40Ar/39Ar cooling dates for detrital biotite from a sandstone unit intercalated with an upper Ypresian marine limestone (the youngest marine unit in the Indus Basin) are more consistent with an Indian plate source region than a Eurasian provenance. These results collectively point to an Early Eocene (upper Ypresian) minimum age for India-Eurasia collision in this sector of the orogenic system, consistent with conventional wisdom but seemingly inconsistent with suggestions of Oligocene-aged collision (e.g., Aitchison et al., 2007). Aitchison, J. C., J. R. Ali, and A. M. Davis (2007), When and where did India and Asia collide?, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B05423, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004706.

  7. Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: The eurasian collared-dove streptopelia decaocto in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bled, F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the spread direction consistent with empirical observations. Site persistence probability exhibits a quadratic response to density. We also succeeded at detecting differences in the relationship between density and initial colonization vs. recolonization probabilities. We provide a map of sites that may be colonized in the future as an example of possible practical application of our work. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Structure of the mitochondrial control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ketmaier, V; Bernardini, C

    2005-01-01

    In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven other species have a single location with tandem repeats in the right domain, while the spotted hyena (Hyaenidae) and the tiger (Felidae) have repeated sequences in both the right and left domains. To assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity of the Eurasian otter in Italy we sequenced two fragments of the gene and analyzed length polymorphisms of repeated sequences and heteroplasmy in 32 specimens. The study includes 23 museum specimens collected in northern, central, and southern Italy; most of these specimens are from extinct populations, while the southern Italian samples belong to the sole extant Italian population of the Eurasian otter. The study also includes all the captive-reared animals living in the colony "Centro Lontra, Caramanico Terme" (Pescara, central Italy). The colony is maintained for reintroduction of the species. We found a low level of genetic polymorphism; a single haplotype is dominant, but our data indicate the presence in central and southern Italy of two slightly divergent haplotypes. One haplotype belongs to an extinct population, the other is present in the single extant Italian population. Analyses of length polymorphisms and heteroplasmy indicate that the autochthonous Italian samples are characterized by a distinct array of repeated sequences from captive-reared animals. PMID:15731216

  9. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

    2014-09-15

    Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. PMID:25066418

  10. Eurasian-Origin Gene Segments Contribute to the Transmissibility, Aerosol Release, and Morphology of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawala, Seema S.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Wang, Weijia; Santos, Celia P.; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindsley, William G.; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiological success of pandemic and epidemic influenza A viruses relies on the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplet (RD) transmission of influenza viruses requires efficient replication and release of infectious influenza particles into the air. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus originated by reassortment of a North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) virus with a Eurasian swine virus that contributed the neuraminidase (NA) and M gene segments. Both the TRS and Eurasian swine viruses caused sporadic infections in humans, but failed to spread from person-to-person, unlike the pH1N1 virus. We evaluated the pH1N1 and its precursor viruses in a ferret model to determine the contribution of different viral gene segments on the release of influenza virus particles into the air and on the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. We found that the Eurasian-origin gene segments contributed to efficient RD transmission of the pH1N1 virus likely by modulating the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air. All viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of infected ferrets, suggesting that factors other than viral replication are important for the release of influenza virus particles and transmission. Our studies demonstrate that the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air correlates with increased NA activity. Additionally, the pleomorphic phenotype of the pH1N1 virus is dependent upon the Eurasian-origin gene segments, suggesting a link between transmission and virus morphology. We have demonstrated that the viruses are released into exhaled air to varying degrees and a constellation of genes influences the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. PMID:22241979

  11. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian wild birds: a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nicola S.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Russell, Colin A.; Lexmond, Pascal; Westgeest, Kim B.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Ransier, Amy; Fedorova, Nadia B.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Olsen, Björn; Smith, Gavin; Bahl, Justin; Wentworth, David E.; Waldenström, Jonas; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences collected as part of an intensive long-term Eurasian wild bird surveillance study, and combined this genetic data with temporal and spatial information to explore the virus evolutionary dynamics. Frequent reassortment and co-circulating lineages were observed for all eight genomic RNA segments over time. There was no apparent species-specific effect on the diversity of the avian IAVs. There was a spatial and temporal relationship between the Eurasian sequences and significant viral migration of avian IAVs from West Eurasia towards Central Eurasia. The observed viral migration patterns differed between segments. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges faced when analysing these surveillance and sequence data, and the caveats to be borne in mind when drawing conclusions from the apparent results of such analyses. PMID:25904147

  12. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian wild birds: a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nicola S; Verhagen, Josanne H; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Russell, Colin A; Lexmond, Pascal; Westgeest, Kim B; Bestebroer, Theo M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Ransier, Amy; Fedorova, Nadia B; Stockwell, Timothy B; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Olsen, Bjrn; Smith, Gavin; Bahl, Justin; Wentworth, David E; Waldenstrm, Jonas; Fouchier, Ron A M; de Graaf, Miranda

    2015-08-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences collected as part of an intensive long-term Eurasian wild bird surveillance study, and combined this genetic data with temporal and spatial information to explore the virus evolutionary dynamics. Frequent reassortment and co-circulating lineages were observed for all eight genomic RNA segments over time. There was no apparent species-specific effect on the diversity of the avian IAVs. There was a spatial and temporal relationship between the Eurasian sequences and significant viral migration of avian IAVs from West Eurasia towards Central Eurasia. The observed viral migration patterns differed between segments. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges faced when analysing these surveillance and sequence data, and the caveats to be borne in mind when drawing conclusions from the apparent results of such analyses. PMID:25904147

  13. The Eurasian genes of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus: an integrative perspective on their conveyance to and assimilation in America.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Dany

    2016-03-01

    The formation of pandemic influenza genotypes varied phylogeographically and ecophylogenetically throughout their fully recognized recent 100-years natural history, involving consistently avian plus human genes, and at times swine genes. The last four traceable pandemic strains (PSs) included two American H1N1 viruses with genomes predominantly containing swine genes, of which at least one genome originated from both America and Eurasia; and two non-H1N1 Asian viruses with genomes entirely originating from Asia, and having no swine genes. This study explores whether there is a particular interhemispheric system underlying such divergence, and its properties. Unlike the assumption that transport of live pigs from Eurasia to America facilitated the formation of the 2009 H1N1 PS in America, it is suggested that conveyance of Eurasian swine genes to America, and their assimilation therein, took place through a distinct, perfectly natural ecophylogenetic machinery. The latter conjunctively involves, foremost, a native Asian duck-swine-man interface, a Holarctic chain of certain migratory Anas ducks, a native American turkey-swine-man interface, and two specific clades of American influenza A viruses. Likewise, the described machinery could have readily given rise to the 1918 H1N1, and, presumably, earlier American PSs, altogether constituting private cases of a much broader, self-sustained, permanent phylogeographic system. PMID:25058514

  14. Socio-ecological features other than sex affect habitat selection in the socially obligate monogamous Eurasian beaver.

    PubMed

    Steyaert, Sam M J G; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Habitat selection is a context-dependent mechanism, in which both the internal state as well as external factors affect the behavior and decisions of an individual. This is well known for polygamous mammals, which are typically sexually dimorphic, and often express great variability in behavior and habitat selection between individuals as well between the sexes. Among monogamous mammals, however, variability in habitat selection should be explained by group characteristics and the presence of offspring rather than by sex. We evaluated this hypothesis in a socially monogamous rodent, the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), in a saturated Norwegian population. For the first time in this species we applied GPS tracking devices (N = 22 adult beavers, in 15 territories, 2009-2013), and used resource selection functions (i) to document population-wide habitat selection and the importance of 'territory' therein, and (ii) to evaluate which socio-ecological factors explained potential individual differences in habitat selection. We found that variation in habitat selection was stronger between territories than between years or individuals nested by territory. We identified that family size and the presence of kits, but not sex, explained individual variation in habitat selection. Adults with kits and/or larger families tended to exhibit low risk-taking behavior (avoiding human-related variables such as roads, buildings, and agricultural land), and stayed close to their main lodge (parental care). Our results show that habitat selection is a context-dependent mechanism even in a species which expresses very little behavioral and morphological dimorphism. PMID:26260166

  15. Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species

    PubMed Central

    Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in resident Eurasian Tree Sparrow from Shanghai: geographical distribution and implication for potential sources.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei-biao; Huang, Kai; Zhao, Jian-hua; Zhang, Zheng; Liang, Si; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuang-fei

    2015-05-01

    An investigation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) samples (n=37) collected from different land use areas in Shanghai provided information about the levels, compositional patterns, geographical distribution, potential sources of PBDEs and the evaluation of contamination status in Shanghai. The concentrations of BDE 209 and Sum-PBDEs were within the range of 8.20-292.0 ng g(-1) lw (median: 47.0 ng g(-1) lw) and 33.16-375.63 ng g(-1) lw (median: 78.7 ng g(-1) lw), respectively. As the predominant individual congener, BDE 209 was detected in all samples with a mean percentage of 62.8%, followed by BDE 47, 99 and 100 sequentially. The geographical distribution of PBDEs in ETS muscles followed the order below: landfill>urban>industrial parks>suburban>rural>remote, indicating that Shanghai Laogang Municipal Landfill was an important emission source of PBDEs in Shanghai, and also the PBDE levels were in association with urbanization and industrialization. Compared with other regions, contamination status in Shanghai was relatively good with the exception of these high concentration areas. There was significant correlation (r(2)=0.89, P<0.01) between PBDEs concentrations in soil and ETS, indicating ETS could be used as a useful biomonitoring tool for PBDEs in Shanghai. PMID:25665899

  17. Effect of Incubation on Bacterial Communities of Eggshells in a Temperate Bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Young; Kim, Mincheol; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Choe, Jae Chun; Lee, Sang-im

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica). We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent) bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce. PMID:25089821

  18. Predicting average wintertime wind and wave conditions in the North Atlantic sector from Eurasian snow cover in October

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, Swen

    2014-04-01

    The present study assesses the lead-lag teleconnection between Eurasian snow cover in October and the December-to-February mean boreal winter climate with respect to the predictability of 10 m wind speed and significant wave heights in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. Lead-lag correlations exceeding a magnitude of 0.8 are found for the short time period of 1997/98-2012/13 (n = 16) for which daily satellite-sensed snow cover data is available to date. The respective cross-validated hindcast skill obtained from using linear regression as a statistical forecasting technique is similarly large in magnitude. When using a longer but degraded time series of weekly snow cover data for calculating the predictor variable (1979/80-2011/12, n = 34), hindcast skill decreases but yet remains significant over a large fraction of the study area. In addition, Monte-Carlo field significance tests reveal that the patterns of skill are globally significant. The proposed method might be used to make forecast decisions for wind and wave energy generation, seafaring, fishery and offshore drilling. To exemplify its potential suitability for the latter sector, it is additionally applied to DJF frequencies of significant wave heights exceeding 2 m, a threshold value above which mooring conditions at oil platforms are no longer optimal.

  19. DUPAL anomaly in the Sea of Japan: Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic variations at the eastern Eurasian continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic rocks from the eastern Eurasian plate margin (southwestern Japan, the Sea of Japan, and northeastern China) show enriched (EMI) component signatures. Volcanic rocks from the Ulreung and Dog Islands in the Sea of Japan show typical DUPAL anomaly characteristics with extremely high ??208/204 Pb (up to 143) and enriched Nd and Sr isotopic compositions (??{lunate}Nd = -3 to -5, 87Sr 86Sr = ~0.705). The ??208/204 Pb values are similar to those associated with the DUPAL anomaly (up to 140) in the southern hemisphere. Because the EMI characteristics of basalts from the Sea of Japan are more extreme than those of southwestern Japan and inland China basalts, we propose that old mantle lithosphere was metasomatized early (prior to the Proterozoic) with subduction-related fluids (not present subduction system) so that it has been slightly enriched in incompatible elements and has had a high Th/U for a long time. The results of this study support the idea that the old subcontinental mantle lithosphere is the source for EMI of oceanic basalts, and that EMI does not need to be stored at the core/ mantle boundary layer for a long time. Dredged samples from seamounts and knolls from the Yamato Basin Ridge in the Sea of Japan show similar isotopic characteristics to basalts from the Mariana arc, supporting the idea that the Yamato Basin Ridge is a spreading center causing separation of the northeast Japan Arc from Eurasia. ?? 1991.

  20. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  1. The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.

    PubMed

    Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2009-09-01

    Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

  2. Impacts of snow and organic soils parameterization on northern Eurasian soil temperature profiles simulated by the ISBA land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decharme, Bertrand; Brun, Eric; Boone, Aaron; Delire, Christine; Le Moigne, Patrick; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyzed how an improved representation of snowpack processes and soil properties in the multilayer snow and soil schemes of the Interaction Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model impacts the simulation of soil temperature profiles over northern Eurasian regions. For this purpose, we refine ISBA's snow layering algorithm and propose a parameterization of snow albedo and snow compaction/densification adapted from the detailed Crocus snowpack model. We also include a dependency on soil organic carbon content for ISBA's hydraulic and thermal soil properties. First, changes in the snowpack parameterization are evaluated against snow depth, snow water equivalent, surface albedo, and soil temperature at a 10 cm depth observed at the Col de Porte field site in the French Alps. Next, the new model version including all of the changes is used over northern Eurasia to evaluate the model's ability to simulate the snow depth, the soil temperature profile, and the permafrost characteristics. The results confirm that an adequate simulation of snow layering and snow compaction/densification significantly impacts the snowpack characteristics and the soil temperature profile during winter, while the impact of the more accurate snow albedo computation is dominant during the spring. In summer, the accounting for the effect of soil organic carbon on hydraulic and thermal soil properties improves the simulation of the soil temperature profile. Finally, the results confirm that this last process strongly influences the simulation of the permafrost active layer thickness and its spatial distribution.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian flying squirrel Pteromys volans (Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae) and revision of rodent phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian flying squirrel Pteromys volans (Rodentia, Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae) was sequenced and characterized in detail. The entire mitochondrial genome of P. volans consisted of 16,513 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and two non-coding regions. Its gene arrangement pattern was consistent with the mammalian ground pattern. The overall base composition and AT contents were similar to those of other rodent mitochondrial genomes. The light-strand origin generally identified between tRNA ( Asn ) and tRNA ( Cys ) consisted of a secondary structure with an 11-bp stem and an 11-bp loop. The large control region was constructed of three characteristic domains, ETAS, CD, and CSB without any repeat sequences. Each domain contained ETAS1, subsequences A, B, and C, and CSB1, respectively. In order to examine phylogenetic contentious issues of the monophyly of rodents and phylogenetic relationships among five rodent suborders, here, phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequence data of the 35 rodent and 3 lagomorph mitochondrial genomes were performed using the Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood method. The result strongly supported the rodent monophyly with high node confidence values (BP 100 % in ML and BPP 1.00 in BI) and also monophylies of four rodent suborders (BP 85-100 % in ML and BPP 1.00 in BI), except for Anomalumorpha in which only one species was examined here. Also, phylogenetic relationships among the five rodent suborders were suggested and discussed in detail. PMID:23114915

  4. Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37–0.47 and 0.14–0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

  5. Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R.; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7′N in central Europe to 70°00′N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day–night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

  6. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  7. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® Treatment – Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601

  8. Evolution of an Eurasian avian-like influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Pablo R; Hughes, Joseph; Battista, Patrizia; Lloyd, Lucy; Baillie, Gregory J; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H; Ormond, Doug; Oliver, Karen; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Caccamo, Mario; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N

    2012-01-01

    Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies. PMID:22693449

  9. Complete mitochondrial DNA analysis of eastern Eurasian haplogroups rarely found in populations of northern Asia and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin. PMID:22363811

  10. Prevalence, genetics, and transmissibility in ferrets of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Qiao, Chuanling; He, Xijun; Zhou, Hong; Sun, Yu; Yin, Hang; Meng, Shasha; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Qianyi; Kong, Huihui; Gu, Chunyang; Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-12

    Pigs are important intermediate hosts for generating novel influenza viruses. The Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have circulated in pigs since 1979, and human cases associated with EAH1N1 SIVs have been reported in several countries. However, the biologic properties of EAH1N1 SIVs are largely unknown. Here, we performed extensive influenza surveillance in pigs in China and isolated 228 influenza viruses from 36,417 pigs. We found that 139 of the 228 strains from pigs in 10 provinces in China belong to the EAH1N1 lineage. These viruses formed five genotypes, with two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 and A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013, both of which are antigenically and genetically distinct from the current human H1N1 viruses. Importantly, the EAH1N1 SIVs preferentially bound to human-type receptors, and 9 of the 10 tested viruses transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. We found that 3.6% of children (≤10 y old), 0% of adults, and 13.4% of elderly adults (≥60 y old) had neutralization antibodies (titers ≥40 in children and ≥80 in adults) against the EAH1N1 A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus, but none of them had such neutralization antibodies against the EAH1N1 A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013 virus. Our study shows the potential of EAH1N1 SIVs to transmit efficiently in humans and suggests that immediate action is needed to prevent the efficient transmission of EAH1N1 SIVs to humans. PMID:26711995

  11. Color Tells a Story: Evidence of Megafloods into the Black Sea when the Alpine/Eurasian Ice Sheets Collapsed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamoros, E. P.; Yanchilina, A. G.; Ryan, W. B.; Kenna, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Core KN134-GC01 was extracted from the floor of the Black Sea. Discrete intervals of the core can be classified by their color. Dark gray belongs to the late glacial stage of the Pleistocene, red to the interval of rapid melting of the Eurasian and Alpine Ice Sheets, jet black to the Older Dryas, light gray to the Bolling/Allerod warm interstadials, and finely laminated olive green to dark green to the Holocene after the entry of salt water from the Mediterranean. X-Ray Fluorescence scanning revealed the elemental composition and allowed for correlation between color, bulk density, carbonate and lithology. Titanium identifies the detrital components that are abundant in red clays and immediately below the transition from fresh to marine. Bromide and Molybdenum identified the salt water green sediments. Calcium is high in the light gray layers and Manganese is more abundant in the dark gray glacial sediments. Many layers appear to have been deposited in pulses. Such layers begin with a thin sand/silt base and fine upwards into homogeneous clay. The base has the highest bulk density. CaCO3 is abundant only in the light gray clay with values exceeding 60%, the dark gray averages 12%, the red clays 8%, and the green <1%. There are nine discrete pulses of the red, each forming a layer of about 10cm in thickness. From the examination of other Black Sea cores, the red clay is found in an area of approximately 60,000km2. These pulses are interpreted as deposits from Megafloods. The detrital layers at the transition of the Mediterranean flooding into the Black Sea can be interpreted as earthquakes triggered by the rapid 75m change in water level.

  12. Genomic analyses detect Eurasian-lineage H10 and additional H14 influenza A viruses recovered from waterfowl in the Central United States

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Anthony C; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Bowman, Andrew S; Killian, Mary L; Wentworth, David E; Slemons, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    The accurate and timely characterization of influenza A viruses (IAV) from natural reservoirs is essential for responses to animal and public health threats. Differences between antigenic and genetic subtyping results for 161 IAV isolates recovered from migratory birds in the central United States during 2010–2011 delayed the recognition of four isolates of interest. Genomic sequencing identified the first reported Eurasian-origin H10 subtype in North America and three additional H14 isolates showing divergence from previously reported H14 isolates. Genomic analyses revealed additional diversity among IAV isolates not detected by antigenic subtyping and provided further insight into interhemispheric spread of avian-origin IAVs. PMID:24698181

  13. Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores.

  14. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with specificity being 100% (95%CI 79.2–100%). For laparoscopy alone sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 34.2–100%), with specificity also being 100% (95% CI 77.2–100%). Further immunoblotting, PCR and histopathological examination revealed one individual positive for E. multilocularis, whilst the other individual was positive for Taenia martis. PMID:26167927

  15. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Del Pozo, Jorge; Gottstein, Bruno; Girling, Simon; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank; Pizzi, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5-90.6%), with specificity being 100% (95%CI 79.2-100%). For laparoscopy alone sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 34.2-100%), with specificity also being 100% (95% CI 77.2-100%). Further immunoblotting, PCR and histopathological examination revealed one individual positive for E. multilocularis, whilst the other individual was positive for Taenia martis. PMID:26167927

  16. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  17. Application of a west Eurasian-specific filter for quasi-median network analysis: Sharpening the blade for mtDNA error detection

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Bettina; Rck, Alexander; Huber, Gabriela; Krmer, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M.; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    The application of quasi-median networks provides an effective tool to check the quality of mtDNA data. Filtering of highly recurrent mutations prior to network analysis is required to simplify the data set and reduce the complexity of the network. The phylogenetic background determines those mutations that need to be filtered. While the traditional EMPOPspeedy filter was based on the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny, haplogroup-specific filters can more effectively highlight potential errors in data of the respective (sub)-continental region. In this study we demonstrate the performance of a new, west Eurasian filter EMPOPspeedyWE for the fine-tuned examination of data sets belonging to macrohaplogroup N that constitutes the main portion of mtDNA lineages in Europe. The effects on the resulting network of different database sizes, high-quality and flawed data, as well as the examination of a phylogenetically distant data set, are presented by examples. The analyses are based on a west Eurasian etalon data set that was carefully compiled from more than 3500 control region sequences for network purposes. Both, etalon data and the new filter file, are provided through the EMPOP database (www.empop.org). PMID:21067984

  18. Influence of the Eurasian snow on the negative North Atlantic Oscillation in subseasonal forecasts of the cold winter 2009/2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsolini, Y. J.; Senan, R.; Vitart, F.; Balsamo, G.; Weisheimer, A.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.

    2015-11-01

    The winter 2009/2010 was remarkably cold and snowy over North America and across Eurasia, from Europe to the Far East, coinciding with a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While previous studies have investigated the origin and persistence of this anomalously negative NAO phase, we have re-assessed the role that the Eurasian snowpack could have played in contributing to its maintenance. Many observational and model studies have indicated that the autumn Eurasian snow cover influences circulation patterns over high northern latitudes. To investigate that role, we have performed a suite of forecasts with the coupled ocean-atmosphere ensemble prediction system from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Pairs of 2-month ensemble forecasts with either realistic or else randomized snow initial conditions are used to demonstrate how an anomalously thick snowpack leads to an initial cooling over the continental land masses of Eurasia and, within 2 weeks, to the anomalies that are characteristic of a negative NAO. It is also associated with enhanced vertical wave propagation into the stratosphere and deceleration of the polar night jet. The latter then exerts a downward influence into the troposphere maximizing in the North Atlantic region, which establishes itself within 2 weeks. We compare the forecasted NAO index in our simulations with those from several operational forecasts of the winter 2009/2010 made at the ECWMF, and highlight the importance of relatively high horizontal resolution.

  19. Helena, the hidden beauty: Resolving the most common West Eurasian mtDNA control region haplotype by massively parallel sequencing an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Iuvaro, Alessandra; Strobl, Christina; Nagl, Simone; Huber, Gabriela; Pelotti, Susi; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Parson, Walther

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial (mt)DNA is a powerful tool in forensic genetics when nuclear markers fail to give results or maternal relatedness is investigated. The mtDNA control region (CR) contains highly condensed variation and is therefore routinely typed. Some samples exhibit an identical haplotype in this restricted range. Thus, they convey only weak evidence in forensic queries and limited phylogenetic information. However, a CR match does not imply that also the mtDNA coding regions are identical or samples belong to the same phylogenetic lineage. This is especially the case for the most frequent West Eurasian CR haplotype 263G 315.1C 16519C, which is observed in various clades within haplogroup H and occurs at a frequency of 3-4% in many European populations. In this study, we investigated the power of massively parallel complete mtGenome sequencing in 29 Italian samples displaying the most common West Eurasian CR haplotype - and found an unexpected high diversity. Twenty-eight different haplotypes falling into 19 described sub-clades of haplogroup H were revealed in the samples with identical CR sequences. This study demonstrates the benefit of complete mtGenome sequencing for forensic applications to enforce maximum discrimination, more comprehensive heteroplasmy detection, as well as highest phylogenetic resolution. PMID:25303789

  20. A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain†

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H. Charles J.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Kao, Rowland R.; Macdonald, David W.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L. N.; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B.; McLean, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material. PMID:23926157

  1. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition. PMID:24954928

  2. Combined Analysis of Land Cover Change and NDVI Trends in the Northern Eurasian Grain Belt and the Aral Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. K.; Henebry, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Regional environmental change can be assessed using remote sensing in two ways: by looking for trends in image time series in terms of spectral indices, like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), or through post-classification change analysis to identify land cover change (LCC). Here we demonstrate the efficacy of combined trend-LCC analysis using the Northern Eurasian grain belt (NEGB) and Aral Basin (AB) as examples. NDVI time series from 2001-2008 were derived from 500m MODIS NBAR 8-d composites spanning the growing season from March to October of each year. LCC analysis was based on the 500m MODIS Global Land Cover product for the years 2001 and 2008. Seasonal Kendall trend tests showed, on a per-pixel basis, that statistically significant (p<0.05) NDVI trends were largely negative, with declining seasonal NDVI covering 57% of the NEGBs land area and 15% of the AB. Among pixels exhibiting negative NDVI trends, we found elevated LCC rates (relative to pixels exhibiting no trend) from: (1) cropland mosaic to pure cropland in the northern portion of the NEGB, largely in Russia (RU); (2) cropland to grassland in the southern portion of the NEGB, largely in Kazakhstan (KZ); (3) cropland to grassland, and shrub to grassland, in the AB. Statistically significant (p<0.05) positive NDVI trends were rare, covering less than 1% of the NEGB and AB. Among pixels exhibiting positive NDVI trends, we found elevated LCC rates from: (1) cropland to cropland mosaic in relatively small clusters of pixels in the northern NEGB, mostly in RU; (2) grassland to cropland in the southern NEGB, largely in KZ, and also in small clusters; (3) grassland to cropland (largely along the Amu Darya river), in addition to more widespread conversion of grassland and barren classes to shrub, in the AB. In the NEGB, the overall direction of regional change was toward agricultural de-intensification in KZ, likely reflecting persistent drought, in contrast with agricultural intensification in RU - perhaps due to overriding effects of socioeconomic forces, relative to climatic drivers, on land use decisions in RU. In the AB, we find agricultural intensification (grassland to cropland conversion) associated with positive NDVI trends; concentration of positive trends along the Amu Darya in Karakalpakstan suggests an expansion of irrigation. We also find both shrub decline and shrub encroachment in the AB, with likely effects on ecosystem function reflected in negative NDVI trends (declining GPP) where shrubs are declining and positive NDVI trends (increasing GPP) where shrubs are increasing. In sum, LCC analysis complements NDVI trend analyses. LCC analysis focuses on discrete, abrupt, and principally human-caused change. NDVI trend analysis is better suited to identifying continuous, gradual change, primarily driven by climatic conditions. However, land surface changes are both discrete and continuous, depending on perspective, and can be mutually reinforcing. Here we find that LCC results inform our interpretation of NDVI trends and vice versa. Each analysis, alone, provides an incomplete picture of the complexities of land surface change.

  3. Radioactive contamination of nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus due to the Fukushima nuclear accident: The significance in the first year.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Morimoto, Gen; Mikami, Osamu K; Watanabe, Mamoru; Ueda, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident contaminated large areas of eastern and northeastern Japan, releasing vast amounts of radiation. Here we investigated radioactive contamination of the nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus from the breeding season of 2011 directly after the accident to the next breeding season of 2012 at two sites. In Tokyo (222 km southwest of the plant), ambient dose rates in the nestboxes were lower than those in Ibaraki (175 km southwest of the plant), where the levels of 2011 were higher than those of 2012. Further, the amount of radioactive Cs in each nest increased with the increase in nest weight, with a higher increment at Ibaraki than at Tokyo. These data suggested higher nest contamination levels in the breeding season directly after a nuclear accident than in later seasons, and an increment of nest contamination levels via nest materials of birds. PMID:26162335

  4. Long-Range Gene Flow and the Effects of Climatic and Ecological Factors on Genetic Structuring in a Large, Solitary Carnivore: The Eurasian Lynx

    PubMed Central

    Ratkiewicz, Mirosław; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P.; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Schmidt, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

  5. Effects of dietary linseed oil on innate immune system of Eurasian perch and disease resistance after exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida achromogen.

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Douxfils, J; Larondelle, Y; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designated to investigate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO diet) replacement by linseed oil (LO diet) on regulation of immune response and disease resistance in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). A control diet containing fish oil (FO = cod liver oil) and characterized by high levels of n-3 high LC-PUFA (6% EPA, 7.5% of total fatty acids (FAs)) was compared to linseed oil diet (LO diet) composed of low LC-PUFA contents (1% EPA, 2.3% DHA of total FAs) but high C18 fatty acids levels. The experiment was conducted in quadruplicate groups of 80 fish each. After 10 weeks of feeding, the innate immune status was evaluated in various organs (liver, spleen, and head-kidney) (feeding condition). Two days later, a bacterial challenge was performed on fish from 2 rearing conditions: fish infected with Aeromonas salmonicida (bacteria condition) and fish injected with sterile medium but maintained in the same flow system that fish challenged with bacteria (sentinel condition). Three days after injection of bacteria, a significant decrease of lymphocyte, thrombocyte and basophil populations was observed while neutrophils were not affected. In addition, plasma lysozyme activity and reactive oxygen species production in kidney significantly increased in fish challenged with A. salmonicida while the plasma alternative complement pathway activity was not affected. Increase of plasma lysozyme activity as well as reactive oxygen species production in spleen and kidney of sentinel fish suggest that these immune defenses can also be activated, but at lower bacteria concentration than infected fish. No differences in leucocyte populations, plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activities were observed between dietary treatments. Similarly, expression of genes related to eicosanoid synthesis in liver were not affected by the dietary oil source but were strongly stimulated in fish challenged with A. salmonicida. These findings demonstrated that the use of linseed oil does not deplete the innate immune system of Eurasian perch juveniles. PMID:26497094

  6. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Mirosław; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Schmidt, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

  7. Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

    2013-07-01

    Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum, their ability to serve as vectors of M. bovis, and their propensity to ingest contaminated sources of M. bovis requires additional research in Michigan, USA. PMID:23531427

  8. Demographic buffering and compensatory recruitment promotes the persistence of disease in a wildlife population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jenni L; Bailey, Trevor; Delahay, Richard J; McDonald, Robbie A; Smith, Graham C; Hodgson, Dave J

    2016-04-01

    Demographic buffering allows populations to persist by compensating for fluctuations in vital rates, including disease-induced mortality. Using long-term data on a badger (Meles meles Linnaeus, 1758) population naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, we built an integrated population model to quantify impacts of disease, density and environmental drivers on survival and recruitment. Badgers exhibit a slow life-history strategy, having high rates of adult survival with low variance, and low but variable rates of recruitment. Recruitment exhibited strong negative density-dependence, but was not influenced by disease, while adult survival was density independent but declined with increasing prevalence of diseased individuals. Given that reproductive success is not depressed by disease prevalence, density-dependent recruitment of cubs is likely to compensate for disease-induced mortality. This combination of slow life history and compensatory recruitment promotes the persistence of a naturally infected badger population and helps to explain the badger's role as a persistent reservoir of M. bovis. PMID:26868206

  9. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata Hungarica, 21: 63-67. Gao K.-Q., Shubin N.H. 2003. Earliest known crown-group Salamanders. Nature, 422: 424-428. Westphal F. 1958. Die Tertiären und rezenten Eurasiatischen Riesensalamander. Palaeontolographica Abt. A, 110: 20-92.

  10. Residue 41 of the Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A Virus Matrix Protein Modulates Virion Filament Length and Efficiency of Contact Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Patricia J.; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Marshall, Nicolle; Suppiah, Suganthi; Seladi-Schulman, Jill; Danzy, Shamika; Lowen, Anice C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Position 41 of the influenza A virus matrix protein encodes a highly conserved alanine in human and avian lineages. Nonetheless, strains of the Eurasian avian-like swine (Easw) lineage contain a change at this position: position 41 of A/swine/Spain/53207/04 (H1N1) (SPN04) encodes a proline. To assess the impact of this naturally occurring polymorphism on viral fitness, we utilized reverse genetics to produce recombinant viruses encoding wild-type M1 41P (rSPN04-P) and consensus 41A (rSPN04-A) residues. Relative to rSPN04-A, rSPN04-P virus displayed reduced growth in vitro. In the guinea pig model, rSPN04-P was transmitted to fewer contact animals than rSPN04-A and failed to infect guinea pigs that received a low-dose inoculum. Moreover, the P41A change altered virion morphology, reducing the number and length of filamentous virions, as well as reducing the neuraminidase activity of virions. The lab-adapted human isolate, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8), is nontransmissible in the guinea pig model, making it a useful background in which to identify certain viral factors that enhance transmissibility. We assessed transmission in the context of single-, double-, and triple-reassortant viruses between PR8 and SPN04; PR8/SPN04 M, PR8/SPN04 M+NA, and PR8/SPN04 M+NA+HA, encoding either matrix 41 A or P, were generated. In each case, the virus possessing 41P transmitted less well than the corresponding 41A-encoding virus. In summary, we have identified a naturally occurring mutation in the influenza A virus matrix protein that impacts transmission efficiency and can alter virion morphology and neuraminidase activity. IMPORTANCE We have developed a practical model for examining the genetics underlying transmissibility of the Eurasian avian-like swine lineage viruses, which contributed M and NA segments to the 2009 pandemic strain. Here, we use our system to investigate the impact on viral fitness of a naturally occurring polymorphism at matrix (M1) position 41 in an Easw isolate. Position 41 has been implicated previously in adaptation to laboratory substrates and to mice. Here we show that the polymorphism at M1 41 has a limited effect on growth in vitro but changes the morphology of the virus and impacts growth and transmission in the guinea pig model. PMID:24760887

  11. Seasonal changes in adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) on the Tibetan Plateau: comparison with house sparrow (P. domesticus) in North America and with the migratory P. domesticus in Qinghai Province.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongming; Wang, Gang; Wingfield, John C; Zhang, Zhi; Ding, Changqing; Lei, Fumin

    2008-08-01

    Seasonal modulation of the adrenocortical response to stress appears to be ubiquitous in arctic-breeding and temperate-zone-breeding birds, but has not been well investigated in alpine-breeding species at mid-latitude. We examined the adrenocortical response to acute stress (capture, handling and restraint) in populations of Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) among seasons and migratory house sparrow (P. domesticus bactrianus) in pre-breeding on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (the Tibetan Plateau). A population of house sparrow (Passer domesticus domesticus) was also sampled in lowland Phoenix, Arizona during breeding and wintering stages. In Eurasian tree sparrows, baseline corticosterone (CORT) does not differ among life history stages, but stress-induced CORT level (maximal CORT, total and corrected integrated CORT) is significantly higher in late breeding stage than those in early breeding and prebasic molt stages. In house sparrows, stress-induced CORT level does not differ between sites and life history stages, but baseline CORT is significantly lower in pre-breeding from Qinghai compared with those in breeding and wintering stages from Phoenix. Interestingly, both baseline CORT and maximal CORT do not differ between the populations of Eurasian tree sparrow and house sparrow in early/pre-breeding stage although tree sparrow is resident species whereas house sparrow is migratory in Qinghai. Our results suggest that the extreme environment of the Tibetan Plateau does not have significant effects on adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrows and house sparrows, which may be a result of masking by human activities. These invasive human commensals may have a unique HPA axis response to different environments because they can take advantage of human food sources and shelter (i.e. buildings). PMID:18588892

  12. Erratum for the Report "Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa" (previously titled "Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture throughout the African continent") by M. Gallego Llorente, E. R. Jones, A. Eriksson, V. Siska, K. W. Arthur, J. W. Arthur, M. C. Curtis, J. T. Stock, M. Coltorti, P. Pieruccini, S. Stretton, F. Brock, T. Higham, Y. Park, M. Hofreiter, D. G. Bradley, J. Bhak, R. Pinhasi, A. Manica.

    PubMed

    2016-02-19

    In the Report “Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa,” the results were affected by a bioinformatics error. A script necessary to convert the input produced by samtools v0.1.19 to be compatible with PLINK was not run when merging the ancient genome, Mota, with the contemporary populations SNP panel, leading to homozygote positions to the human reference genome being dropped as missing data (the analysis of admixture with Neandertals and Denisovans was not affected). When those positions were included, 255,922 SNP out of 256,540 from the contemporary reference panel could be called in Mota. These changes are reflected in the corrected Fig. 2B, fig. S6, and table S5. Tables S6 and S7 have been removed from the corrected Supplementary Material, because there is no detectable Western Eurasian component in Yoruba and Mbuti. The conclusion of a migration into East Africa from Western Eurasia, and more precisely from a source genetically close to the early Neolithic farmers, is not affected. However, the geographic extent of the genetic impact of this migration was overestimated: The Western Eurasian backflow mostly affected East Africa and only a few Sub-Saharan populations; the Yoruba and Mbuti do not show higher levels of Western Eurasian ancestry compared to Mota. Hence, the title and abstract of the published paper did not accurately represent the geographical extent of the admixture, and both have been corrected accordingly. The authors acknowledge Pontus Skoglund and David Reich for detecting these problems. PMID:26912899

  13. Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

    2006-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18%per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently 74 million UK pounds. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is < or =2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur. PMID:16543179

  14. Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G. Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

    2005-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18% per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently £74 million. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10 397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is ≤2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur. PMID:16543179

  15. 115 year ice-core data from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya: high-resolution record of Eurasian Arctic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opel, Thomas; Fritzsche, Diedrich; Meyer, Hanno; Schütt, Rainer; Weiler, Karin; Ruth, Urs; Wilhelms, Frank; Fischer, Hubertus

    From 1999 to 2001 a 724 m deep ice core was drilled on Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, to gain high-resolution proxy data from the central Russian Arctic. Despite strong summertime meltwater percolation, this ice core provides valuable information on the regional climate and environmental history. We present data of stable water isotopes, melt-layer content and major ions from the uppermost 57 m of this core, covering the period 1883-1998. Dating was achieved by counting seasonal isotopic cycles and using reference horizons. Multi-annual δ18O values reflect Eurasian sub-Arctic and Arctic surface air-temperature variations. We found strong correlations to instrumental temperature data from some stations (e.g. r = 0.62 for Vardø, northern Norway). The δ18O values show pronounced 20th-century temperature changes, with a strong rise about 1920 and the absolute temperature maximum in the 1930s. A recent decrease in the deuterium-excess time series indicates an increasing role of the Kara Sea as a regional moisture source. From the multi-annual ion variations we deduced decreasing sea-salt aerosol trends in the 20th century, as reflected by sodium and chloride, whereas sulphate and nitrate are strongly affected by anthropogenic pollution.

  16. A thiazepino[4,5-a]benzimidazole derivative hampers the RNA replication of Eurasian serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, David J; De Vleeschauwer, Annebel R; Goris, Nesya; Van Borm, Steven; Chimirri, Alba; Monforte, Anna Maria; Valdazo-Gonzalez, Begona; King, Donald P; Neyts, Johan; De Clercq, Kris

    2014-12-12

    The stamping-out policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in countries that are free from FMD without vaccination has a dramatic socio-economic impact, huge animal welfare issues and may result in the loss of farm animal genetic resources. As an alternative to pre-emptive culling or emergency vaccination we further explore the possibility to use antiviral drugs in the event of an FMD outbreak. In the present study, we tested the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-FMDV activity of 1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-[1,4]thiazepino[4,5-a]benzimidazole. The molecule was shown to inhibit the replication of reference strains of the Eurasian FMDV serotypes O, A, C and Asia but not the FMDV serotypes from the South African Territories (SAT) neither a related picornavirus, i.e. swine vesicular disease virus. The molecule can be added until 2h post inoculation in a 'single replication cycle experiment' without losing its antiviral activity. The genetic characterization of progressively selected resistant FMD viruses shows that the molecule presumably interacts with the non-structural 2C protein of FMDV. Further studies are required on the use of this molecule in vivo. PMID:25446115

  17. Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - do people want to keep the doors open?

    PubMed

    Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jrgen

    2013-11-15

    This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation. PMID:23811031

  18. Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Heynen, Martina; Fick, Jerker; Jonsson, Micael; Klaminder, Jonatan; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:930-937. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26762222

  19. Oral re-vaccination of Eurasian wild boar with Mycobacterium bovis BCG yields a strong protective response against challenge with a field strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Field vaccination trials with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, an attenuated mutant of M. bovis, are ongoing in Spain, where the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is regarded as the main driver of animal tuberculosis (TB). The oral baiting strategy consists in deploying vaccine baits twice each summer, in order to gain access to a high proportion of wild boar piglets. The aim of this study was to assess the response of wild boar to re-vaccination with BCG and to subsequent challenge with an M. bovis field strain. Results BCG re-vaccinated wild boar showed reductions of 75.8% in lesion score and 66.9% in culture score, as compared to unvaccinated controls. Only one of nine vaccinated wild boar had a culture-confirmed lung infection, as compared to seven of eight controls. Serum antibody levels were highly variable and did not differ significantly between BCG re-vaccinated wild boar and controls. Gamma IFN levels differed significantly between BCG re-vaccinated wild boar and controls. The mRNA levels for IL-1b, C3 and MUT were significantly higher in vaccinated wild boar when compared to controls after vaccination and decreased after mycobacterial challenge. Conclusions Oral re-vaccination of wild boar with BCG yields a strong protective response against challenge with a field strain. Moreover, re-vaccination of wild boar with BCG is not counterproductive. These findings are relevant given that re-vaccination is likely to happen under real (field) conditions. PMID:24766746

  20. Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world's most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora).

    PubMed

    Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bolte, Sören; Sparwel, Maximiliane; Moss, Anthony G; Javidpour, Jamileh

    2010-07-01

    Marine invasions are taking place at an increasing rate. When occurring in blooms, zooplanktivorous comb jellies of the genus Mnemiopsis are able to cause pelagic regime shifts in coastal areas and may cause the collapse of commercially important fish populations. Using microsatellites, developed for the first time in the phylum Ctenophora, we show that Mnemiopsis leidyi has colonized Eurasia from two source regions. Our preliminary data set included four sites within the putative source region (US East Coast and Gulf of Mexico) and 10 invaded locations in Eurasian waters. Bayesian clustering and phylogeographic approaches revealed the origin of earlier invasions of the Black and Caspian Sea in the 1980s/1990s within or close to the Gulf of Mexico, while the 2006 invasion of the North and Baltic Seas can be directly traced to New England (pairwise F(ST) = 0). We found no evidence for mixing among both gene pools in the invaded areas. While the genetic diversity (allelic richness) remained similar in the Baltic Sea compared to the source region New England, it was reduced in the North Sea, supporting the view of an initial invasion of Northern Europe to a Baltic Sea port. In Black and Caspian Sea samples, we found a gradual decline in allelic richness compared to the Gulf of Mexico region, supporting a stepping-stone model of colonization with two sequential genetic founder events. Our data also suggest that current practices of ballast water treatment are insufficient to prevent repeated invasions of gelatinous zooplankton. PMID:20561193

  1. Impacts of snow and organic soils parameterization on North-Eurasian soil temperature profiles simulated by the ISBA land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decharme, B.; Brun, E.; Boone, A.; Delire, C.; Le Moigne, P.; Morin, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we analysed how an improved representation of snowpack processes and soil properties in the multi-layer snow and soil schemes of the ISBA land surface model impacts the simulation of soil temperature profiles over North-Eurasian regions. For this purpose, we refine ISBA's snow layering algorithm and propose a parameterization of snow albedo and snow compaction/densification adapted from the detailed Crocus snowpack model. We also include a dependency on soil organic carbon content for ISBA's hydraulic and thermal soil properties. First, changes in the snowpack parameterization are evaluated against snow depth, snow water equivalent, surface albedo, and soil temperature at a 10 cm depth observed at the Col de Porte field site in the French Alps. Next, the new model version including all of the changes is used over Northern-Eurasia to evaluate the model's ability to simulate the snow depth, the soil temperature profile and the permafrost characteristics. The results confirm that an adequate simulation of snow layering and snow compaction/densification significantly impacts the snowpack characteristics and the soil temperature profile during winter, while the impact of the more accurate snow albedo computation is dominant during the spring. In summer, the accounting for the effect of soil organic carbon on hydraulic and thermal soil properties improves the simulation of the soil temperature profile. Finally, the results confirm that this last process strongly influences the simulation of the permafrost active layer thickness and its spatial distribution.

  2. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Luísa; Černý, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vašíková, Alžběta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdička, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than ∼9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening ∼10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at ∼6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area. PMID:20234393

  3. Non-Invasive Genetic Mark-Recapture as a Means to Study Population Sizes and Marking Behaviour of the Elusive Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra).

    PubMed

    Lampa, Simone; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Gruber, Bernd; Klenke, Reinhard; Henle, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying population status is a key objective in many ecological studies, but is often difficult to achieve for cryptic or elusive species. Here, non-invasive genetic capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods have become a very important tool to estimate population parameters, such as population size and sex ratio. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is such an elusive species of management concern and is increasingly studied using faecal-based genetic sampling. For unbiased sex ratios or population size estimates, the marking behaviour of otters has to be taken into account. Using 2132 otter faeces of a wild otter population in Upper Lusatia (Saxony, Germany) collected over six years (2006-2012), we studied the marking behaviour and applied closed population CMR models accounting for genetic misidentification to estimate population sizes and sex ratios. We detected a sex difference in the marking behaviour of otters with jelly samples being more often defecated by males and placed actively exposed on frequently used marking sites. Since jelly samples are of higher DNA quality, it is important to not only concentrate on this kind of samples or marking sites and to invest in sufficiently high numbers of repetitions of non-jelly samples to ensure an unbiased sex ratio. Furthermore, otters seemed to increase marking intensity due to the handling of their spraints, hence accounting for this behavioural response could be important. We provided the first precise population size estimate with confidence intervals for Upper Lusatia (for 2012: N = 20 ± 2.1, 95% CI = 16-25) and showed that spraint densities are not a reliable index for abundances. We further demonstrated that when minks live in sympatry with otters and have comparably high densities, a non-negligible number of supposed otter samples are actually of mink origin. This could severely bias results of otter monitoring if samples are not genetically identified. PMID:25973884

  4. Non-Invasive Genetic Mark-Recapture as a Means to Study Population Sizes and Marking Behaviour of the Elusive Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra)

    PubMed Central

    Lampa, Simone; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Gruber, Bernd; Klenke, Reinhard; Henle, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying population status is a key objective in many ecological studies, but is often difficult to achieve for cryptic or elusive species. Here, non-invasive genetic capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods have become a very important tool to estimate population parameters, such as population size and sex ratio. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is such an elusive species of management concern and is increasingly studied using faecal-based genetic sampling. For unbiased sex ratios or population size estimates, the marking behaviour of otters has to be taken into account. Using 2132 otter faeces of a wild otter population in Upper Lusatia (Saxony, Germany) collected over six years (2006–2012), we studied the marking behaviour and applied closed population CMR models accounting for genetic misidentification to estimate population sizes and sex ratios. We detected a sex difference in the marking behaviour of otters with jelly samples being more often defecated by males and placed actively exposed on frequently used marking sites. Since jelly samples are of higher DNA quality, it is important to not only concentrate on this kind of samples or marking sites and to invest in sufficiently high numbers of repetitions of non-jelly samples to ensure an unbiased sex ratio. Furthermore, otters seemed to increase marking intensity due to the handling of their spraints, hence accounting for this behavioural response could be important. We provided the first precise population size estimate with confidence intervals for Upper Lusatia (for 2012: N^ = 20 ± 2.1, 95% CI = 16–25) and showed that spraint densities are not a reliable index for abundances. We further demonstrated that when minks live in sympatry with otters and have comparably high densities, a non-negligible number of supposed otter samples are actually of mink origin. This could severely bias results of otter monitoring if samples are not genetically identified. PMID:25973884

  5. Genetic Signatures of Demographic Changes in an Avian Top Predator during the Last Century: Bottlenecks and Expansions of the Eurasian Eagle Owl in the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Graciá, Eva; Ortego, Joaquín; Godoy, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Blanco, Guillermo; del Mar Delgado, María; Penteriani, Vincenzo; Almodóvar, Irene; Botella, Francisco; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The study of the demographic history of species can help to understand the negative impact of recent population declines in organisms of conservation concern. Here, we use neutral molecular markers to explore the genetic consequences of the recent population decline and posterior recovery of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last century, the species was the object of extermination programs, suffering direct persecution by hunters until the 70’s. Moreover, during the last decades the eagle owl was severely impacted by increased mortality due to electrocution and the decline of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In recent times, the decrease of direct persecution and the implementation of some conservation schemes have allowed the species’ demographic recovery. Yet, it remains unknown to which extent the past population decline and the later expansion have influenced the current species’ pattern of genetic diversity. We used eight microsatellite markers to genotype 235 eagle owls from ten Spanish subpopulations and analyse the presence of genetic signatures attributable to the recent population fluctuations experienced by the species. We found moderate levels of differentiation among the studied subpopulations and Bayesian analyses revealed the existence of three genetic clusters that grouped subpopulations from central, south-western and south-eastern Spain. The observed genetic structure could have resulted from recent human-induced population fragmentation, a patchy distribution of prey populations and/or the philopatric behaviour and habitat selection of the species. We detected an old population bottleneck, which occurred approximately 10,000 years ago, and significant signatures of recent demographic expansions. However, we did not find genetic signatures for a recent bottleneck, which may indicate that population declines were not severe enough to leave detectable signals on the species genetic makeup or that such signals have been eroded by the rapid demographic recovery experienced by the species in recent years. PMID:26230922

  6. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions. PMID:26953950

  7. Land-bridge calibration of molecular clocks and the post-glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian field vole Microtus agrestis.

    PubMed

    Herman, Jeremy S; McDevitt, Allan D; Kawałko, Agata; Jaarola, Maarit; Wójcik, Jan M; Searle, Jeremy B

    2014-01-01

    Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole (Microtus agrestis) mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient) DNA (including that of a congeneric species) suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration. PMID:25111840

  8. The annual cycle of a trans-equatorial Eurasian-African passerine migrant: different spatio-temporal strategies for autumn and spring migration.

    PubMed

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Thorup, Kasper; Kristensen, Mikkel Willemoes; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Fox, James; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Rahbek, Carsten; Alerstam, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The small size of the billions of migrating songbirds commuting between temperate breeding sites and the tropics has long prevented the study of the largest part of their annual cycle outside the breeding grounds. Using light-level loggers (geolocators), we recorded the entire annual migratory cycle of the red-backed shrike Lanius collurio, a trans-equatorial Eurasian-African passerine migrant. We tested differences between autumn and spring migration for nine individuals. Duration of migration between breeding and winter sites was significantly longer in autumn (average 96 days) when compared with spring (63 days). This difference was explained by much longer staging periods during autumn (71 days) than spring (9 days). Between staging periods, the birds travelled faster during autumn (356 km d(-1)) than during spring (233 km d(-1)). All birds made a protracted stop (53 days) in Sahelian sub-Sahara on southbound migration. The birds performed a distinct loop migration (22 000 km) where spring distance, including a detour across the Arabian Peninsula, exceeded the autumn distance by 22 per cent. Geographical scatter between routes was particularly narrow in spring, with navigational convergence towards the crossing point from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula. Temporal variation between individuals was relatively constant, while different individuals tended to be consistently early or late at different departure/arrival occasions during the annual cycle. These results demonstrate the existence of fundamentally different spatio-temporal migration strategies used by the birds during autumn and spring migration, and that songbirds may rely on distinct staging areas for completion of their annual cycle, suggesting more sophisticated endogenous control mechanisms than merely clock-and-compass guidance among terrestrial solitary migrants. After a century with metal-ringing, year-round tracking of long-distance migratory songbirds promises further insights into bird migration. PMID:21900322

  9. Comparison of the impact of the Arctic Oscillation and Eurasian teleconnection on interannual variation in East Asian winter temperatures and monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the Eurasian teleconnection (EU) on the East Asian winter climate are compared for the past 34 winters, focusing on (1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, (2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and (3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and cooling by EU over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa (i.e., warm phase: +AO, -EU; cold phase: -AO, +EU). The EU impact was found to be comparable to the AO impact. For example, warm (cold) months during the warm (cold) AO phase are found clearly when the AO is in the same warm (cold) EU phase. No significant correlation was found between East Asian temperature and the AO when the warm (cold) AO coincided with the cold (warm) EU. The well-known relationship of strong (weak) SH during the cold (warm) AO phase was observed significantly more often when the AO was in the same cold (warm) EU phase. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH were more highly correlated with the EU than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EU, influencing the East Asian climate. These results suggest that the impact of EU should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  10. Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5 ± 2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6 ± 25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8 ± 12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

  11. Dietary Linseed Oil Reduces Growth While Differentially Impacting LC-PUFA Synthesis and Accretion into Tissues in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Wenon, D; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Mandiki, S N M; Tocher, D R; Debier, C; Larondelle, Y; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of replacing dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, fatty acid composition and regulation of lipid metabolism in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles. Fish (17.5 g initial body weight) were fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets containing 116 g/kg of lipid for 10 weeks. Fish fed the LO diet displayed lower growth rates and lower levels of DHA in the liver and muscle than fish fed the FO diet, while mortality was not affected by dietary treatment. However, DHA content recorded in the liver and muscle of fish fed the LO diet remained relatively high, despite a weight gain of 134 % and a reduced dietary level of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), suggesting endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis. This was supported by the higher amounts of pathway intermediates, including 18:4n-3, 20:3n-3, 20:4n-3, 18:3n-6 and 20:3n-6, recorded in the liver of fish fed the LO diet in comparison with those fed the FO diet. However, fads2 and elovl5 gene expression and FADS2 enzyme activity were comparable between the two groups. Similarly, the expression of genes involved in eicosanoid synthesis was not modulated by dietary LO. Thus, the present study demonstrated that in fish fed LO for 10 weeks, growth was reduced but DHA levels in tissues were largely maintained compared to fish fed FO, suggesting a physiologically relevant rate of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis capacity. PMID:26439838

  12. Trends in Land Surface Phenologies Across Central Asia and the Central Eurasian Grain Belt as Viewed From MODIS Collection 5 NBAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. R.; Henebry, G. M.; Kovalskyy, V.; de Beurs, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 precipitated a multitude of institutional changes, including the disestablishment of a centrally-planned agricultural sector. Our previous work with AVHRR data has shown that among the environmental consequences were significant shifts in land surface phenologies (LSPs) across Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Here we explored trends in LSPs across Central Asia and the central Eurasian Grain Belt that stretches westward across northern Kazakhstan and southern Russia into eastern Ukraine. We used the recently released of MODIS Collection 5 Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) product and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4, a monthly 0.5 degree product. We characterized trends from 2000-2007 using the nonparametric seasonal Mann- Kendall trend test on a per-pixel basis, thereby generating surfaces of per-pixel trend estimates with corresponding estimates of model uncertainty at each pixel. In the Pontic Steppe ecoregion of northwestern Kazakhstan, a region characterized by temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, we found spatially coherent, highly significant (p<0.01) negative trends in MODIS NDVI. This appears to be driven by regional drought, and visual inspection of Landsat TM imagery from the study area indicates drying of relatively abundant depressional wetlands accompanied by a number of large fires over the period of interest. In the neighboring Kazakh Steppe ecoregion, a landscape dominated by small-grain production, we find similar, but noisier negative trends (typically p<0.05), likely reflecting a combination of drought and highly heterogeneous land use practices. By contrast, in the Central Asian Southern Desert ecoregion of Uzbekistan, we find highly significant (p<0.01) positive trends in NDVI from 2000-2007. These xeric shrublands are nearly entirely dependent on winter and spring precipitation for water inputs. GPCC trends indicate in some regions that changes in precipitation may be partly responsible for observed changes in LSPs, but it is clear that land use change is also a factor.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains unresolved, and the systematic position of some segregates of EA Aster requires further study. PMID:22517812

  14. Animal-side Serologic Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Multiple Species of Free-ranging Wildlife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of wild mammals are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis, a cause of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Eurasian badgers, white-tailed deer, brushtail possums, and wild boar are implicated in the maintenance of wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis infection in different countries, fueling bovine TB...

  15. HP and UHT metamorphic associations in the Day Nui Con Voi,northwestern Vietnam: The consequence of convergence between the Indian and the Eurasian plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tran, M. D.; Nguyen, Q. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Red River shear zone (RRSZ) is the most significant geologic discontinuity in Southeast Asia. The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) massif at the southernmost part of the shear zone bears records of Cenozoic RRSZ activity. The DNCV in northwestern Vietnam predominantly consists of HP granulite facies metapelites, and lenticular enclaves of HP mafic granulites, calc-silicate granulites and UHT aluminum-rich rocks in the metapelites. HP granulites are characterized by the key associations of garnet-kyanite-ternary feldspar (in metapelites) and garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz (in mafic granulites). In the latter case, rocks are typically orthopyroxene-free. The peak assemblage of the HP metapelites includes garnet + kyanite + ternary feldspar + quartz + rutile. The peak assemblage of the HP mafic granulites is garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz. Meanwhile, the peak assemblage of the calc-silicate granulites is high-Ca garnet (Grs>50) + diopside + scapolite + quartz. On the other hand, characteristic UHT metamorphic assemblage occur as the coexistence of spinel and quartz which indicates the metamorphic temperature is higher than 900℃. The peak assemblage of the UHT rocks in DNCV is corundum + spinel + garnet + sillimanite + quartz. P-T conditions of peak metamorphism within HP granulite facies are: T = 750~850℃, P = 12.5~14kbar. The temperature of UHT metamorphism is higher than 900℃, the pressure is higher than 9~9.4 kbar. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from the HP mafic granulites and UHT rocks gave minimum ages of ca. 59 Ma and 40 Ma, respectively. HP metapelites gave ca. 60~50Ma and 30Ma. The above facts suggest the DNCV massif experienced HP granulite facies at its peak metamorphism at ˜59 Ma. Thermal disturbance on the local scale to UHT metamorphism occurred at ˜40 Ma. Then isothermal decompression to medium-pressure granulite facies occurred at ˜30Ma, which may reflect a rapid exhumation. The HP rocks are interpreted to be resulted from crustal thickening due to far-field compression during Indian-Eurasian convergence. However the high heat flow for UHT metamorphism was possibly attributed to upwelling of asthenosphere triggered by delamination of the thickened crust. The delamination may also be responsible for subsequent generation of high potassic magmas along the RRSZ belt.

  16. Reduction of salinity and temperature observed in the Atlantic layer in the eastern Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean in summer 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, M.; Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Pisarev, S.; Rabe, B.; Wisotzki, A.

    2012-04-01

    The heat carried northward by the Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean and the heat stored in the sub-surface warm Atlantic layer have since the end of 18th century been advanced as factors that could influence the ice cover and perhaps even create an ice free Arctic Ocean. This question has again been brought into focus in the last 20 years with the observations of several warm Atlantic water pulses entering and circulating along different loops in the Arctic Ocean. This interest has been further accentuated by the reduction of the minimum ice extent observed during the last 5 years. Fram Strait is the main passage for warm Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean and the Fram Strait inflow branch follows the continental slope toward Laptev Sea. The properties of the Atlantic water core remain almost unaffected as far east as Severnaya Zemlya, where the second, cold Barents Sea inflow branch that enters the Arctic Ocean via St. Anna Trough leaves the upper part of the slope. North of the Laptev Sea considerable changes occur in the water column. The temperature and salinity of the Atlantic water core are reduced and strong indications of lateral mixing are present. The strength of these changes has varied throughout the years and on the ARKXXVI-3 expedition with RV Polarstern in 2011 a very strong reduction of especially the Atlantic layer salinity but also temperature was observed and the temperature and salinity maxima were displaced far from the continental slope compared with previous years. The cooling and freshening extended deep into the water column and heat loss and input of melt water from the surface are unlikely causes for the reduction. Here it is examined, if mixing between the two inflow branches can led to the observed lowering of the salinity, and if also the possibility that the major part of the Fram Strait branch recirculates in the Nansen Basin and mainly the Barents Sea branch supplies the Atlantic layer beyond the Gakkel Ridge could also contribute to the reduction. This explains the lower temperatures and salinities of the "Arctic" Atlantic water as due to mixing with colder, less saline water, not because of a large heat loss to ice melt and atmosphere, and its two mode structure by the "Arctic" Atlantic water being supplied by two different sources returning from the Eurasian and Amerasian basin respectively.

  17. Spatio-temporal trends in tree and tall shrub cover in the Eurasian Low Arctic: evidence from 1960s and contemporary satellite imagery and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H.; Walker, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of tree and tall shrub occurrence form conspicuous and dynamic ecological boundaries across arctic regions. Expansion of trees and shrubs into tundra-dominated areas is one of the principal changes to arctic land cover expected with climatic warming, and there is evidence that ecological state-shifts are already occurring in ecotones of the North American Low Arctic. The ubiquity of these state-shifts across the circumpolar Low Arctic is unclear, however, because few data exist for the vast Eurasian continent. Large-scale, synchronous expansions have occurred in the past (e.g., mid-Holocene) and associated changes to land surface-atmosphere interactions could have far-reaching effects on atmospheric circulation and global climate. This study is quantifying state-level vegetation change in geographic and altitudinal tundra ecotones at ~25 sites in northern Eurasia and Alaska using comparisons of circa 1965 Corona and contemporary high-resolution satellite photography. Corona was the world’s first operational satellite surveillance system and offers a readily available data source for land-surface change studies over a ~40 year temporal interval. Remote sensing and ground-based data indicate that mean annual temperatures have increased over the last ~50 years at all study sites, although the magnitude of warming varies (~1.5 - 4 °C). The degree to which patterns of vegetation change are shared among sites will indicate the ubiquity of ecological state-shifts in the Low Arctic, as well as the relative influence of large-scale forcing mechanisms (e.g., climate change) and local environmental controls (e.g., disturbance regime, geomorphology) on tree and tall shrub expansion. Preliminary findings indicate that tall shrublands have expanded at several sites in northwestern and far eastern Siberia. Recent expansion is most apparent on floodplains, uplands, and drained lake basins. Ground data indicate that dramatic expansion of alder shrubs at a tree-line site near Kharp, northwest Siberia has occurred in areas affected by an antecedent high-intensity wildfire that removed the surface organic layer. Additionally, alder recruitment both inside and outside of the burn is concentrated on disturbed mineral soils associated with cryogenic patterned-ground features. On the southern Yamal Peninsula, Russia, comparison of 1968 Corona and 2009 aerial photographs indicate that alders have colonized retransported sands derived from barren uplands near Ozero Yaroto. Additionally, alders and willows have rapidly colonized fluvial terraces and point bars on the Tanlova River that were barren in 1968. These findings indicate that local-scale disturbance events that create mineral-dominated edaphic conditions have promoted recent shrubification and enhanced productivity in parts of the Low Arctic.

  18. Haku Mele O Hawaii (Poet of Hawaii), Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Caroline, Ed.

    Proving the efficacy of Hawaii's Poets-in-the-Schools program, this collection of descriptive statements by some of Hawaii's leading poets and teachers of poetry, and accompanied by illustrative poems produced by classroom pupils, describes the theories that were generally accepted as a working basis and the related methods each writer used in the…

  19. H9N2 avian influenza virus-derived natural reassortant H5N2 virus in swan containing the hemagglutinin segment from Eurasian H5 avian influenza virus with an in-frame deletion of four basic residues in the polybasic hemagglutinin cleavage site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youling; Yuan, Xiaoyuan; Qi, Lihong; Zhang, Yuxia; Xu, Huaiying; Yang, Jinxing; Ai, Wu; Qi, Wenbao; Liao, Ming; Wang, Dan; Song, Minxun; Li, Feng

    2016-06-01

    We isolated a novel H5N2 avian influenza virus from swans in China. The virus was derived from a widespread H9N2 avian influenza virus but acquired the hemagglutinin gene from Eurasian H5 subtype with a naturally occurring in-frame deletion of four basic residues in the polybasic hemagglutinin cleavage site. PMID:26910357

  20. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  1. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-07-22

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  2. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the Western Mediterranean and especially on Morocco. Exploiting parameters of positions and dispersions of these stations within the 1997-2003 period, the motion and the interaction types of interaction between African and Eurasian tectonic plates can be estimated. Similarly, the crustal dynamic parameters of tension of these sites will be computed. The time occupation on repeated observations sites is at least 72 hours. The measurements are continuous on permanent stations. The precise ephemerides are used in GPS computations. The post-treatments are done using commercial and scientific softwares. The coordinates obtained for two consecutive periods to and t within a period of 8 years will be used by programs established for this purpose to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension as well as to evaluate the appropriate movements. Even crustal dynamic parameters will be determined on each sites of the GPS-Geodynamics network, whose interest of seismic investigations is very important. This will allow best knowledge of substantial seismic activities of the surrounding zones. It can be deduced by measuring the motions and their parameter tensions using GPS. These estimations will contribute on the earthquake prediction by supervising the strain accumulation and its release in the active areas. For the geodetically aspect the GPS-Geodynamics sites computed in the ITRF frame can be used with other similar ounces' of Africa country and some well selected and convenient IGS, EUREF stations..to determine first the NAFREF and the AFRER frames.

  3. Histopathologic and Molecular Characterization of Sarcocystis calchasi Encephalitis in White-winged Doves ( Zenaida asiatica ) and Eurasian Collared Doves ( Streptopelia decaocto ), East-central Texas, USA, 2010-13.

    PubMed

    Hodo, Carolyn L; Whitley, Derick B; Hamer, Sarah A; Corapi, Wayne V; Snowden, Karen; Heatley, J Jill; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues

    2016-04-28

    Sarcocystis calchasi is a recently described apicomplexan parasite that causes encephalitis in avian hosts. We diagnosed one White-winged Dove ( Zenaida asiatica ) and two Eurasian Collared Doves ( Streptopelia decaocto ) in Texas, US, with a history of neurologic signs with protozoal encephalitis. On histologic examination, all three doves had moderate to severe meningoencephalitis characterized by large numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages with gliosis and astrocytosis. Brain sections from two doves also contained numerous Mott cells. Protozoal schizonts with rosettes or clusters of individual merozoites consistent with Sarcocystis spp. were seen within areas of inflammation. Sarcocysts were also identified in the skeletal muscle of one dove. The PCR and sequencing of brain and skeletal muscle from two doves revealed 99% identity with S. calchasi. The presence of S. calchasi in fatal cases of encephalitis in doves in Texas suggests that the geographic and host ranges of S. calchasi are broader than previously reported. PMID:27124332

  4. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-28

    The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

  5. Lack of chicken adaptation of newly emergent Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in the U.S. is consistent with restricted poultry outbreaks in the Pacific flyway during 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L

    2016-07-01

    In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, initially affecting mainly wild birds and few backyard and commercial poultry premises. To better model the outbreak, the pathogenesis and transmission dynamics of representative Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses detected early in the North American outbreak were investigated in chickens. High mean chicken infectious doses and lack of seroconversion in survivors indicated the viruses were poorly chicken adapted. Pathobiological features were consistent with HPAI virus infection, although the delayed appearance of lesions, longer mean death times, and reduced replication in endothelial cells differed from features of most other Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses. Although these initial U.S. H5 HPAI viruses had reduced adaptation and transmissibility in chickens, multi-generational passage in poultry could generate poultry adapted viruses with higher infectivity and transmissibility. PMID:27110710

  6. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population. PMID:23490145

  7. Badger History, Vol. 29, No. 3, January 1976. Wisconsin Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanetzke, Howard W., Ed.

    This document focuses on the physical environment of Wisconsin and describes how movement of glaciers during the Ice Ages formed Wisconsin's present topography. The journal contains short reading selections, stories, word lists, and activities designed to help elementary school students understand the causes and effects of glacial drift. Nine…

  8. Mortality trajectory analysis reveals the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology in natural wildlife–disease interactions

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L.; Smith, Graham C.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Delahay, Richard J.; Hodgson, Dave

    2014-01-01

    In animal populations, males are commonly more susceptible to disease-induced mortality than females. However, three competing mechanisms can cause this sex bias: weak males may simultaneously be more prone to exposure to infection and mortality; being ‘male’ may be an imperfect proxy for the underlying driver of disease-induced mortality; or males may experience increased severity of disease-induced effects compared with females. Here, we infer the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology by decomposing fixed mortality rates into mortality trajectories and comparing their parameters. We applied Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to a 22-year longitudinal study of a population of badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). At the point of infection, infected male and female badgers had equal mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that acquisition of infection occurs in males with coincidentally high mortality. Males and females exhibited similar levels of heterogeneity in mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that maleness is only a proxy for disease susceptibility. Instead, sex differences were caused by a more rapid increase in male mortality rates following infection. Males are indeed more susceptible to bTB, probably due to immunological differences between the sexes. We recommend this mortality trajectory approach for the study of infection in animal populations. PMID:25056621

  9. Mortality trajectory analysis reveals the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology in natural wildlife-disease interactions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Smith, Graham C; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Hodgson, Dave

    2014-09-01

    In animal populations, males are commonly more susceptible to disease-induced mortality than females. However, three competing mechanisms can cause this sex bias: weak males may simultaneously be more prone to exposure to infection and mortality; being 'male' may be an imperfect proxy for the underlying driver of disease-induced mortality; or males may experience increased severity of disease-induced effects compared with females. Here, we infer the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology by decomposing fixed mortality rates into mortality trajectories and comparing their parameters. We applied Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to a 22-year longitudinal study of a population of badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). At the point of infection, infected male and female badgers had equal mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that acquisition of infection occurs in males with coincidentally high mortality. Males and females exhibited similar levels of heterogeneity in mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that maleness is only a proxy for disease susceptibility. Instead, sex differences were caused by a more rapid increase in male mortality rates following infection. Males are indeed more susceptible to bTB, probably due to immunological differences between the sexes. We recommend this mortality trajectory approach for the study of infection in animal populations. PMID:25056621

  10. LA ICP MS and Ion Probe U-Pb dating of igneous and metasedimentary units in the NE Pontides, NE Turkey: evidence of Peri-Gondwanan terrane accretion, Late Palaeozoic magmatism/metamorphism and Early Mesozoic extension along the S Eurasian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Ayda Ustaömer, P.

    2010-05-01

    The Artvin area is critical to an understanding of the tectonic development of the S margin of Eurasia and Tethys to the south. We have supplemented recent MTA mapping with 1/25,000-scale mapping of a critical area, combined with integrated stratigraphical, sedimentary, geochemical and geochronological studies. Here, we focus on U-Pb zircon dating of igneous and detrital zircons derived from basement units of the Pontide Autocthon and from overlying slice complexes, carried out by LA ICP MS at Frankfurt University and by Ion Probe at Edinburgh University. The Eastern Pontide Autocthon is overlain by north-vergent thrust sheets, mostly of continental margin origin, whereas Mesozoic (Neotethyan) ophiolites form the uppermost thrust sheet. The Autochton basement (Çamlıkaya pluton) is mainly tonalite, cut by granitic dykes. Both intrusions are of within-plate type, without a chemically identifiable subduction influence. The pluton yielded a concordant age of 330.4 ± 4.2 Ma (Visean), while crosscutting dykes gave an age of 156.3 ± 2.0 Ma (Oxfordian). The overlying lower slice complex (Slice 1) begins with a low-grade meta-clastic basement unit, intruded by coarse-grained granite. Detrital zircons from the meta-clastics yielded late Neoproterozoic (579-700), early Neoproterozoic (0.9 Ga) and Kibaran/Grenvillian (1.1-1.3 Ga) zircon populations. The oldest known zircon has an age of 2719 Ma. Slice 2 above this (Demirkent Intrusiv