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Sample records for eurasian badger meles

  1. Physiological stress in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles): effects of host, disease and environment.

    PubMed

    George, Sheila C; Smith, Tessa E; Mac Cana, Pól S S; Coleman, Robert; Montgomery, William I

    2014-05-01

    A method for monitoring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) to stressors was validated by measuring cortisol excretion in serum and faeces. Serum and faecal samples were collected under anaesthesia from live-captured, wild badgers and fresh faeces was collected from latrines at 15 social groups in County Down, Northern Ireland. Variation in levels of cortisol in wild badgers was investigated relative to disease status, season, age, sex, body mass, body condition and reproductive status and environmental factors that might influence stress. Faecal cortisol levels were significantly higher in animals testing culture-positive for Mycobacterium bovis. Prolonged elevation of cortisol can suppress immune function, which may have implications for disease transmission. There was a strong seasonal pattern in both serum cortisol, peaking in spring and faecal cortisol, peaking in summer. Cortisol levels were also higher in adults with poor body condition and low body mass. Faecal samples collected from latrines in grassland groups had significantly higher cortisol than those collected from woodland groups, possibly as a result of greater exposure to sources of environmental stress. This study is the first to investigate factors influencing physiological stress in badgers and indicates that serological and faecal excretion are valid indices of the HPA response to a range of stressors. PMID:24607571

  2. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Eurasian badgers.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Ali; Knaggs, Joanna; Service, Katrina M; McLaren, Graeme W; Riordan, Philip; Newman, Chris; Delahay, Richard J; Cheesman, Chris; Macdonald, David W

    2006-01-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in samples collected from 90 live-trapped adult Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) sampled at three sites (two agricultural and one woodland) in southern England. Serum was tested using a qualitative latex agglutination test procedure and 63 of 90 (70%) badgers tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Antibody prevalence varied between the sites; 67% and 77% of badgers from agricultural sites and 39% from a nonagricultural site tested positive. PMID:16699163

  3. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum in a badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Wragg, Peter N; Strugnell, Benjamin W; Whatmore, Adrian M; Foster, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    A 7.5-kg female European badger (Meles meles) was submitted under the United Kingdom Government's Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme to the Thirsk Regional Laboratory of the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency. Postmortem examination revealed a large, poorly encapsulated retropharyngeal abscess full of necrotic debris and pus. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum was isolated from the lymph node and confirmed by phenotypic profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA DNA sequencing. Workers should be aware of the potential for badgers to harbor zoonoses other than those more traditionally associated with the species. PMID:22362809

  4. Validation of the BrockTB Stat-Pak Assay for Detection of Tuberculosis in Eurasian Badgers (Meles meles) and Influence of Disease Severity on Diagnostic Accuracy?

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Mark A.; Crawshaw, Tim; Waterhouse, Sue; Delahay, Richard; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.

    2008-01-01

    A lateral-flow immunoassay (BrockTB Stat-Pak) for detecting tuberculosis in Eurasian badgers was 49% sensitive and 93% specific against culture for M. bovis (n = 1,464) at necropsy. However, the sensitivity was significantly higher (66 to 78%) in animals with more severe tuberculosis, indicating that the BrockTB Stat-Pak may be useful for the detection of badgers with the greatest risk of transmitting disease. PMID:18272706

  5. Social group size affects Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Wei, Gao; Cox, D R; Bourne, F John; Burke, Terry; Butlin, Roger K; Cheeseman, C L; Gettinby, George; Gilks, Peter; Hedges, Simon; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; McInerney, John P; Morrison, W Ivan; Pope, Lisa C

    2009-07-01

    1. In most social animals, the prevalence of directly transmitted pathogens increases in larger groups and at higher population densities. Such patterns are predicted by models of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles). 2. We investigated the relationship between badger abundance and M. bovis prevalence, using data on 2696 adult badgers in 10 populations sampled at the start of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial. 3. M. bovis prevalence was consistently higher at low badger densities and in small social groups. M. bovis prevalence was also higher among badgers whose genetic profiles suggested that they had immigrated into their assigned social groups. 4. The association between high M. bovis prevalence and small badger group size appeared not to have been caused by previous small-scale culling in study areas, which had been suspended, on average, 5 years before the start of the current study. 5. The observed pattern of prevalence might occur through badgers in smaller groups interacting more frequently with members of neighbouring groups; detailed behavioural data are needed to test this hypothesis. Likewise, longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the size of infected groups might be suppressed by disease-related mortality. 6. Although M. bovis prevalence was lower at high population densities, the absolute number of infected badgers was higher. However, this does not necessarily mean that the risk of M. bovis transmission to cattle is highest at high badger densities, since transmission risk depends on badger behaviour as well as on badger density. PMID:19486382

  6. Reproductive Biology Including Evidence for Superfetation in the European Badger Meles meles (Carnivora: Mustelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Corner, Leigh A. L.; Stuart, Lynsey J.; Kelly, David J.; Marples, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the European badger (Meles meles) is of wide interest because it is one of the few mammal species that show delayed implantation and one of only five which are suggested to show superfetation as a reproductive strategy. This study aimed to describe the reproductive biology of female Irish badgers with a view to increasing our understanding of the process of delayed implantation and superfetation. We carried out a detailed histological examination of the reproductive tract of 264 female badgers taken from sites across 20 of the 26 counties in the Republic of Ireland. The key results show evidence of multiple blastocysts at different stages of development present simultaneously in the same female, supporting the view that superfetation is relatively common in this population of badgers. In addition we present strong evidence that the breeding rate in Irish badgers is limited by failure to conceive, rather than failure at any other stages of the breeding cycle. We show few effects of age on breeding success, suggesting no breeding suppression by adult females in this population. The study sheds new light on this unusual breeding strategy of delayed implantation and superfetation, and highlights a number of significant differences between the reproductive biology of female Irish badgers and those of Great Britain and Swedish populations. PMID:26465324

  7. Detection and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum in a German badger (Meles meles) by ITS sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild badger (Meles meles) with a severe nodular dermatitis was presented for post mortem examination. Numerous cutaneous granulomas with superficial ulceration were present especially on head, dorsum, and forearms were found at necropsy. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed a severe ...

  8. Performance of a Noninvasive Test for Detecting Mycobacterium bovis Shedding in European Badger (Meles meles) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J.; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, in cattle herds in the United Kingdom is increasing, resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir and is the subject of control measures aimed at reducing the incidence of infection in cattle populations. Understanding the epidemiology of M. bovis in badger populations is essential for directing control interventions and understanding disease spread; however, accurate diagnosis in live animals is challenging and currently uses invasive methods. Here we present a noninvasive diagnostic procedure and sampling regimen using field sampling of latrines and detection of M. bovis with quantitative PCR tests, the results of which strongly correlate with the results of immunoassays in the field at the social group level. This method allows M. bovis infections in badger populations to be monitored without trapping and provides additional information on the quantities of bacterial DNA shed. Therefore, our approach may provide valuable insights into the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations and inform disease control interventions. PMID:26041891

  9. Trophic Enrichment Factors for Blood Serum in the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, David J.; Robertson, Andrew; Murphy, Denise; Fitzsimons, Tara; Costello, Eamon; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Marples, Nicola M.

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists undertaking stable isotopic analyses of animal diets require trophic enrichment factors (TEFs) for the specific animal tissues that they are studying. Such basic data are available for a small number of species, so values from trophically or phylogenetically similar species are often substituted for missing values. By feeding a controlled diet to captive European badgers (Meles meles) we determined TEFs for carbon and nitrogen in blood serum. TEFs for nitrogen and carbon in blood serum were +3.0±0.4‰ and +0.4±0.1‰ respectively. The TEFs for serum in badgers are notably different from those published for the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). There is currently no data for TEFs in the serum of other mustelid species. Our data show that species sharing similar niches (red fox) do not provide adequate proxy values for TEFs of badgers. Our findings emphasise the importance of having species-specific data when undertaking trophic studies using stable isotope analysis. PMID:23300863

  10. Winter Is Coming: Seasonal Variation in Resting Metabolic Rate of the European Badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    McClune, David W; Kostka, Berit; Delahay, Richard J; Montgomery, W Ian; Marks, Nikki J; Scantlebury, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a measure of the minimum energy requirements of an animal at rest, and can give an indication of the costs of somatic maintenance. We measured RMR of free-ranging European badgers (Meles meles) to determine whether differences were related to sex, age and season. Badgers were captured in live-traps and placed individually within a metabolic chamber maintained at 20 1C. Resting metabolic rate was determined using an open-circuit respirometry system. Season was significantly correlated with RMR, but no effects of age or sex were detected. Summer RMR values were significantly higher than winter values (mass-adjusted mean standard error: 2366 70 kJ?d(-1); 1845 109 kJ?d(-1), respectively), with the percentage difference being 24.7%. While under the influence of anaesthesia, RMR was estimated to be 25.5% lower than the combined average value before administration, and after recovery from anaesthesia. Resting metabolic rate during the autumn and winter was not significantly different to allometric predictions of basal metabolic rate for mustelid species weighing 1 kg or greater, but badgers measured in the summer had values that were higher than predicted. Results suggest that a seasonal reduction in RMR coincides with apparent reductions in physical activity and body temperature as part of the overwintering strategy ('winter lethargy') in badgers. This study contributes to an expanding dataset on the ecophysiology of medium-sized carnivores, and emphasises the importance of considering season when making predictions of metabolic rate. PMID:26352150

  11. Winter Is Coming: Seasonal Variation in Resting Metabolic Rate of the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    McClune, David W.; Kostka, Berit; Delahay, Richard J.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Marks, Nikki J.; Scantlebury, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a measure of the minimum energy requirements of an animal at rest, and can give an indication of the costs of somatic maintenance. We measured RMR of free-ranging European badgers (Meles meles) to determine whether differences were related to sex, age and season. Badgers were captured in live-traps and placed individually within a metabolic chamber maintained at 20 ± 1°C. Resting metabolic rate was determined using an open-circuit respirometry system. Season was significantly correlated with RMR, but no effects of age or sex were detected. Summer RMR values were significantly higher than winter values (mass-adjusted mean ± standard error: 2366 ± 70 kJ⋅d−1; 1845 ± 109 kJ⋅d−1, respectively), with the percentage difference being 24.7%. While under the influence of anaesthesia, RMR was estimated to be 25.5% lower than the combined average value before administration, and after recovery from anaesthesia. Resting metabolic rate during the autumn and winter was not significantly different to allometric predictions of basal metabolic rate for mustelid species weighing 1 kg or greater, but badgers measured in the summer had values that were higher than predicted. Results suggest that a seasonal reduction in RMR coincides with apparent reductions in physical activity and body temperature as part of the overwintering strategy (‘winter lethargy’) in badgers. This study contributes to an expanding dataset on the ecophysiology of medium-sized carnivores, and emphasises the importance of considering season when making predictions of metabolic rate. PMID:26352150

  12. Culling-induced changes in badger (Meles meles) behaviour, social organisation and the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Philip; Delahay, Richard John; Cheeseman, Chris; Johnson, Paul James; Macdonald, David Whyte

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, attempts since the 1970s to control the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle by culling a wildlife host, the European badger (Meles meles), have produced equivocal results. Culling-induced social perturbation of badger populations may lead to unexpected outcomes. We test predictions from the 'perturbation hypothesis', determining the impact of culling operations on badger populations, movement of surviving individuals and the influence on the epidemiology of bTB in badgers using data dervied from two study areas within the UK Government's Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). Culling operations did not remove all individuals from setts, with between 34-43% of badgers removed from targeted social groups. After culling, bTB prevalence increased in badger social groups neighbouring removals, particularly amongst cubs. Seventy individual adult badgers were fitted with radio-collars, yielding 8,311 locational fixes from both sites between November 2001 and December 2003. Home range areas of animals surviving within removed groups increased by 43.5% in response to culling. Overlap between summer ranges of individuals from Neighbouring social groups in the treatment population increased by 73.3% in response to culling. The movement rate of individuals between social groups was low, but increased after culling, in Removed and Neighbouring social groups. Increased bTB prevalence in Neighbouring groups was associated with badger movements both into and out of these groups, although none of the moving individuals themselves tested positive for bTB. Significant increases in both the frequency of individual badger movements between groups and the emergence of bTB were observed in response to culling. However, no direct evidence was found to link the two phenomena. We hypothesise that the social disruption caused by culling may not only increase direct contact and thus disease transmission between surviving badgers, but may also increase social stress within the surviving population, causing immunosuppression and enhancing the expression of disease. PMID:22194946

  13. Discovery of a polyomavirus in European badgers (Meles meles) and the evolution of host range in the family Polyomaviridae

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Sarah C.; Murphy, Aisling A.; Cotten, Matthew; Palser, Anne L.; Benson, Phillip; Lesellier, Sandrine; Gormley, Eamonn; Richomme, Céline; Grierson, Sylvia; Bhuachalla, Deirdre Ni; Chambers, Mark; Kellam, Paul; Boschiroli, María-Laura

    2015-01-01

    Polyomaviruses infect a diverse range of mammalian and avian hosts, and are associated with a variety of symptoms. However, it is unknown whether the viruses are found in all mammalian families and the evolutionary history of the polyomaviruses is still unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a novel polyomavirus in the European badger (Meles meles), which to our knowledge represents the first polyomavirus to be characterized in the family Mustelidae, and within a European carnivoran. Although the virus was discovered serendipitously in the supernatant of a cell culture inoculated with badger material, we subsequently confirmed its presence in wild badgers. The European badger polyomavirus was tentatively named Meles meles polyomavirus 1 (MmelPyV1). The genome is 5187 bp long and encodes proteins typical of polyomaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses including all known polyomavirus genomes consistently group MmelPyV1 with California sea lion polyomavirus 1 across all regions of the genome. Further evolutionary analyses revealed phylogenetic discordance amongst polyomavirus genome regions, possibly arising from evolutionary rate heterogeneity, and a complex association between polyomavirus phylogeny and host taxonomic groups. PMID:25626684

  14. Discovery of a polyomavirus in European badgers (Meles meles) and the evolution of host range in the family Polyomaviridae.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah C; Murphy, Aisling A; Cotten, Matthew; Palser, Anne L; Benson, Phillip; Lesellier, Sandrine; Gormley, Eamonn; Richomme, Cline; Grierson, Sylvia; Bhuachalla, Deirdre Ni; Chambers, Mark; Kellam, Paul; Boschiroli, Mara-Laura; Ehlers, Bernhard; Jarvis, Michael A; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-06-01

    Polyomaviruses infect a diverse range of mammalian and avian hosts, and are associated with a variety of symptoms. However, it is unknown whether the viruses are found in all mammalian families and the evolutionary history of the polyomaviruses is still unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a novel polyomavirus in the European badger (Meles meles), which to our knowledge represents the first polyomavirus to be characterized in the family Mustelidae, and within a European carnivoran. Although the virus was discovered serendipitously in the supernatant of a cell culture inoculated with badger material, we subsequently confirmed its presence in wild badgers. The European badger polyomavirus was tentatively named Meles meles polyomavirus 1 (MmelPyV1). The genome is 5187 bp long and encodes proteins typical of polyomaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses including all known polyomavirus genomes consistently group MmelPyV1 with California sea lion polyomavirus 1 across all regions of the genome. Further evolutionary analyses revealed phylogenetic discordance amongst polyomavirus genome regions, possibly arising from evolutionary rate heterogeneity, and a complex association between polyomavirus phylogeny and host taxonomic groups. PMID:25626684

  15. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bo?ena; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Bie?, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Grne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland. PMID:23129201

  16. Evolution of MHC class I genes in the European badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune system and provides a good model with which to understand the evolutionary processes underlying functional genes. Trans-species polymorphism and orthology are both commonly found in MHC genes; however, mammalian MHC class I genes tend to cluster by species. Concerted evolution has the potential to homogenize different loci, whereas birth-and-death evolution can lead to the loss of orthologs; both processes result in monophyletic groups within species. Studies investigating the evolution of MHC class I genes have been biased toward a few particular taxa and model species. We present the first study of MHC class I genes in a species from the superfamily Musteloidea. The European badger (Meles meles) exhibits moderate variation in MHC class I sequences when compared to other carnivores. We identified seven putatively functional sequences and nine pseudogenes from genomic (gDNA) and complementary (cDNA) DNA, signifying at least two functional class I loci. We found evidence for separate evolutionary histories of the ?1 and ?2/?3 domains. In the ?1 domain, several sequences from different species were more closely related to each other than to sequences from the same species, resembling orthology or trans-species polymorphism. Balancing selection and probable recombination maintain genetic diversity in the ?1 domain, evidenced by the detection of positive selection and a recombination event. By comparison, two recombination breakpoints indicate that the ?2/?3 domains have most likely undergone concerted evolution, where recombination has homogenized the ?2/?3 domains between genes, leading to species-specific clusters of sequences. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing MHC domains separately. PMID:22957169

  17. Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Burke, Terry; MacDonald, David W

    2014-10-01

    Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e. recognizing and binding a wider range of antigens than homozygotes) is expected to be more detectable when multiple pathogens are considered simultaneously. Here, we test whether MHC diversity in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles) is driven by pathogen-mediated selection. We examined individual prevalence (infected or not), infection intensity and co-infection of 13 pathogens from a range of taxa and examined their relationships with MHC class I and class II variability. This population has a variable, but relatively low, number of MHC alleles and is infected by a variety of naturally occurring pathogens, making it very suitable for the investigation of MHC-pathogen relationships. We found associations between pathogen infections and specific MHC haplotypes and alleles. Co-infection status was not correlated with MHC heterozygosity, but there was evidence of heterozygote advantage against individual pathogen infections. This suggests that rare-allele advantages and/or fluctuating selection, and heterozygote advantage are probably the selective forces shaping MHC diversity in this species. We show stronger evidence for MHC associations with infection intensity than for prevalence and conclude that examining both pathogen prevalence and infection intensity is important. Moreover, examination of a large number and diversity of pathogens, and both MHC class I and II genes (which have different functions), provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms driving MHC diversity. PMID:25211523

  18. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population. PMID:25913367

  19. Effect of culling and vaccination on bovine tuberculosis infection in a European badger (Meles meles) population by spatial simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Marwa; Frankena, Klaas; O'Keeffe, James; Byrne, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is partially hindered by spill-back infection from wild badgers (Meles meles). The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of interventions (combinations of culling and/or vaccination) on bTB dynamics in an Irish badger population. A spatial agent-based stochastic simulation model was developed to evaluate the effect of various control strategies for bovine tuberculosis in badgers: single control strategies (culling, selective culling, vaccination, and vaccine baits), and combined strategies (Test vaccinate/cull (TVC)), split area approaches using culling and vaccination, or selective culling and vaccination, and mixed scenarios where culling was conducted for five years and followed by vaccination or by a TVC strategy. The effect of each control strategy was evaluated over a 20-year period. Badger control was simulated in 25%, 50%, and 75% area (limited area strategy) or in the entire area (100%, wide area strategy). For endemic bTB, a culling strategy was successful in eradicating bTB from the population only if applied as an area-wide strategy. However, this was achieved only by risking the extinction of the badger population. Selective culling strategies (selective culling or TVC) mitigated this negative impact on the badger population's viability. Furthermore, both strategies (selective culling and TVC) allowed the badger population to recover gradually, in compensation for the population reduction following the initial use of removal strategies. The model predicted that vaccination can be effective in reducing bTB prevalence in badgers, when used in combination with culling strategies (i.e. TVC or other strategies). If fecundity was reduced below its natural levels (e.g. by using wildlife contraceptives), the effectiveness of vaccination strategies improved. Split-area simulations highlighted that interventions can have indirect effects (e.g. on population size) in non-treatment areas. Our model suggests that mixed control strategies could maintain infection prevalence to a low level for a considerable period even with a growing population. The model supported the hypothesis that culling strategies appeared to be the most effective method for the control of bTB in badgers using parameters, where available, from ROI, either singly or in combination with other strategies. In this model, the success of a vaccination strategy depended partially upon population density and the proportion of the population infected, therefore an initial culling program (to reduce density and/or remove infected badgers) followed by long-term vaccination may be effective in controlling bTB in badgers. PMID:26774448

  20. Climate and the Individual: Inter-Annual Variation in the Autumnal Activity of the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michael J.; Markham, Andrew; Newman, Chris; Trigoni, Niki; Buesching, Christina D.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Macdonald, David W.

    2014-01-01

    We establish intra-individual and inter-annual variability in European badger (Meles meles) autumnal nightly activity in relation to fine-scale climatic variables, using tri-axial accelerometry. This contributes further to understanding of causality in the established interaction between weather conditions and population dynamics in this species. Modelling found that measures of daylight, rain/humidity, and soil temperature were the most supported predictors of ACTIVITY, in both years studied. In 2010, the drier year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, RAIN, and30cmTEMP (w?=?0.557), while in 2012, a wetter year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, and the RAIN*10cmTEMP (w?=?0.999). ACTIVITY also differed significantly between individuals. In the 2012 autumn study period, badgers with the longest per noctem activity subsequently exhibited higher Body Condition Indices (BCI) when recaptured. In contrast, under drier 2010 conditions, badgers in good BCI engaged in less per noctem activity, while badgers with poor BCI were the most active. When compared on the same calendar dates, to control for night length, duration of mean badger nightly activity was longer (9.5 hrs 3.3 SE) in 2010 than in 2012 (8.3 hrs 1.9 SE). In the wetter year, increasing nightly activity was associated with net-positive energetic gains (from BCI), likely due to better foraging conditions. In a drier year, with greater potential for net-negative energy returns, individual nutritional state proved crucial in modifying activity regimes; thus we emphasise how a one size fits all approach should not be applied to ecological responses. PMID:24465376

  1. Social organization and movement influence the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in an undisturbed high-density badger Meles meles population.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J; Delahay, R J; Walker, N J; Cheeseman, C L

    2007-03-01

    1. The culling of European badgers Meles meles has been a central part of attempts to control bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle for many years. Recent results, however, indicate that this approach could in practice enhance disease spread. 2. This paper looks at the relationship between TB incidence and badger ecology in a high-density population in south-west England, which has been the subject of a long-term intensive study. The principal aims were to relate the probability of TB incidence, as detected by culture of clinical samples (i.e. excretion of bacilli), at the level of the individual and of the social group to demographic processes, movement, social organization and disease dynamics. 3. The probability of an individual being an incident case was greater in groups where TB was already present, although this was less influential in groups that were subject to some instability in numbers. Both individuals and groups were more likely to be incident cases where the social group was diminishing in size, although no relationship was observed with group size itself. This suggests that the process of group size reduction rather than group size per se has most influence on disease dynamics. The likelihood that either an individual or a group was an incident case was positively correlated with both individual and group-level movement. When the proportion of females in a social group was high, the positive association between movement and incidence was found to be more pronounced and there was a significantly higher probability of incident cases among males. 4. These relationships highlight the importance of social structure in driving TB transmission dynamics in this stable, high-density badger population. The results support the idea that a stable social structure mitigates against new incident cases of disease, and are consistent with the contention that badger culling may create the social circumstances for enhanced transmission of TB. PMID:17302842

  2. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the Japanese badgers, Meles meles anakuma.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Shindo, Junji; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2009-02-01

    We observed the three-dimensional structures of the external surface and connective tissue cores (CTCs), after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform and foliate papillae) of the Japanese badgers (Meles meles anakuma) using scanning electron microscopy and conventional light microscopy. Macroscopically, the tongue was elongated anterior-posteriorly and the apex rounded. Numerous filiform papillae and fungiform papillae were distributed all over the tongue except at the root. Seven vallate papillae were observed that had circumferential furrows and were arranged in V-shape. Numerous taste buds were observable in the furrows. Instead of foliate papillae, a lateral organ lacking taste buds was present on the lateral edge of the posterior tongue. Behind the vallate papillae, dome-like lingual tonsils that had globular tonsils were densely distributed in U-shaped arrangement. Rather long conical papillae were distributed around the vallate papillae. At the posterior end of the root of the tongue, lingual papillae were very much attenuated and only fold-like structure was seen. CTCs of filiform papillae had a main rod-like slender core and ovally arranged short accessory cores distributed around the main core. CTCs of fungiform papillae exhibited a columnar like appearance. The lingual papillae of Japanese badger's tongue fundamentally had morphological similarity with carnivore species, included the Pinnipedia. PMID:19408581

  3. Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations.

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Agren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Cirovi?, D; Sprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

    2014-11-01

    Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

  4. Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; gren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; ?irovi?, D; prem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

    2014-01-01

    Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

  5. Movement of badgers (Meles meles) in a high-density population: individual, population and disease effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, L M; Delahay, R; Cheeseman, C L; Langton, S; Smith, G C; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    1998-01-01

    The movement of 1763 badgers trapped between 36 social groups in Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, over 18 years was analysed to determine the frequency and duration of moves, the factors associated with a predisposition to move and the spatial pattern of movements. Of those badgers whose capture history could be categorized, nearly half had moved. Of these, 73.1% were classified as 'occasional movers', 22.1% as 'permanent movers' and 4.8% as 'frequent movers'. Most adult badgers that moved made occasional moves (78.8%, n = 67). Cubs made all types of move including permanent moves (29%, n = 10). Seventy per cent of females were non-movers compared with 37% of males. Badgers were significantly more likely to move to smaller groups, whereas male badgers were significantly more likely to move to groups with a greater proportion of females. The spatial pattern of movement differed from the distribution of groups with bovine tuberculosis in the study area. However, temporal changes in movement were significantly related to the incidence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the following year, indicating that as the movement of badgers between groups varies so does the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the population. This finding is of central importance in the formulation of badger control policy. PMID:9718736

  6. Population Estimation and Trappability of the European Badger (Meles meles): Implications for Tuberculosis Management

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Andrew W.; O’Keeffe, James; Green, Stuart; Sleeman, D. Paddy; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Gormley, Eamonn; Murphy, Denise; Martin, S. Wayne; Davenport, John

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of population size and trappability inform vaccine efficacy modelling and are required for adaptive management during prolonged wildlife vaccination campaigns. We present an analysis of mark-recapture data from a badger vaccine (Bacille Calmette–Guérin) study in Ireland. This study is the largest scale (755 km2) mark-recapture study ever undertaken with this species. The study area was divided into three approximately equal–sized zones, each with similar survey and capture effort. A mean badger population size of 671 (SD: 76) was estimated using a closed-subpopulation model (CSpM) based on data from capturing sessions of the entire area and was consistent with a separate multiplicative model. Minimum number alive estimates calculated from the same data were on average 49–51% smaller than the CSpM estimates, but these are considered severely negatively biased when trappability is low. Population densities derived from the CSpM estimates were 0.82–1.06 badgers km−2, and broadly consistent with previous reports for an adjacent area. Mean trappability was estimated to be 34–35% per session across the population. By the fifth capture session, 79% of the adult badgers caught had been marked previously. Multivariable modelling suggested significant differences in badger trappability depending on zone, season and age-class. There were more putatively trap-wary badgers identified in the population than trap-happy badgers, but wariness was not related to individual’s sex, zone or season of capture. Live-trapping efficacy can vary significantly amongst sites, seasons, age, or personality, hence monitoring of trappability is recommended as part of an adaptive management regime during large–scale wildlife vaccination programs to counter biases and to improve efficiencies. PMID:23227211

  7. Screening badgers (Meles meles) for Mycobacterium bovis infection by using multiple applications of an ELISA.

    PubMed

    Forrester, G J; Delahay, R J; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2001-08-11

    The current indirect ELISA used to evaluate whether live badgers are infected with Mycobacterium bovis has a low sensitivity (40.7 per cent), but a relatively high specificity (94.3 per cent). The low sensitivity of the test makes the diagnosis unreliable, but its sensitivity can be increased by using multiple tests. Two multiple testing procedures (involving up to three sequential tests) were investigated. A procedure in which two positive results were required from three tests before an animal was declared positive resulted in a lower sensitivity, but a higher specificity than the single test (38 and 98 per cent respectively). A more rigorous procedure, in which only one positive result was required from three tests, resulted in a marked increase in sensitivity but a slight reduction in specificity (79.5 and 83.1 per cent respectively) when compared to the single test. PMID:11530900

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Test for Tuberculosis in Live European Badgers (Meles meles) Based on Measurement of Gamma Interferon mRNA by Real-Time PCR?

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, J.; Mealing, D.; Dalley, D.; Dav, D.; Lesellier, S.; Palmer, S.; Bowen-Davies, J.; Crawshaw, T. R.; Chambers, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for the measurement of gamma interferon (IFN-?) mRNA in European badger (Meles meles) blood cultures was developed. The levels of IFN-? mRNA in blood cultures stimulated with either bovine or avian tuberculin or specific mycobacterial antigens were compared with those in a nonstimulated control blood culture as the basis for determining the tuberculosis (TB) status of live badgers. The assay was validated by testing 247 animals for which there were matching data from postmortem examination and culture of tissues. Relative changes in the levels of IFN-? mRNA in response to bovine tuberculin and specific antigens were found to be greater among badgers with tissues positive for TB on culture. The test was at its most accurate (87% of test results were correct) by using blood cultures containing bovine tuberculin as the antigen and when the response to avian tuberculin was taken into account by subtracting the avian tuberculin response from the bovine tuberculin response. At a specificity of 90.7%, the test was 70.6% sensitive. At the same specificity, the current serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TB in badgers was only 53% sensitive. This work demonstrates that measurement of IFN-? mRNA by real-time PCR is a valid method for the detection of TB in live badgers and may provide an alternative to the current serological methods of diagnosis, the Brock test. The testing procedure can be completed within 5 h of receipt of the blood culture samples. In addition, the use of a molecular biology-based test offers the potential to fully automate the testing procedure through the use of robotics. PMID:17537931

  9. Tuberculosis in cattle herds are sentinels for Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles): the Irish Greenfield Study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Gormley, E; Collins, D M; McGrath, G; Sovsic, E; Costello, E; Corner, L A L

    2011-07-01

    In Ireland badgers are removed in response to tuberculosis (TB) breakdowns in cattle herds (focal culling). Prevalence studies, conducted using a detailed post mortem and bacteriological examination, showed that 36-50% of badgers were infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Focal culling forms part of the medium term national strategy for the control of bovine TB in cattle and is based on the premise that badgers in areas with herd breakdowns have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger population at large. However, the hypothesis that cattle can be used as sentinels for infection in the badger population has never been formally tested. In this study we tested the hypothesis by determining the infection prevalence in badgers in areas where there had been historically, a consistently low prevalence of infection in cattle. Low cattle TB prevalence areas were defined as those herds with ≤ 2 standard reactors in the annual round of skin testing over the preceding 5 years (Greenfield sites). Using GIS, and adjusting for variation in land use, previous culling and cattle density, 198 Greenfield sites were identified and surveyed, and 138 areas with badger setts or signs of badger activity were identified. A single badger was removed from 87 sites and all were examined using detailed post mortem and bacteriological procedures. A prevalence of M. bovis infection of 14.9% was found in the Greenfield site badgers. This prevalence was significantly lower (P<0.001) than in badgers removed during focal culling (36.6%). The results validate the use of cattle as sentinels for TB in badgers and support the medium term national strategy for the control of bovine TB. The geographic variation in M. bovis infection prevalence in the Irish badger populations will be used when devising strategies for the incorporation of badger vaccination into the long term bovine TB control programme. PMID:21444162

  10. A Multi-Metric Approach to Investigate the Effects of Weather Conditions on the Demographic of a Terrestrial Mammal, the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Nouvellet, Pierre; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Macdonald, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Models capturing the full effects of weather conditions on animal populations are scarce. Here we decompose yearly temperature and rainfall into mean trends, yearly amplitude of change and residual variation, using daily records. We establish from multi-model inference procedures, based on 1125 life histories (from 1987 to 2008), that European badger (Meles meles) annual mortality and recruitment rates respond to changes in mean trends and to variability in proximate weather components. Variation in mean rainfall was by far the most influential predictor in our analysis. Juvenile survival and recruitment rates were highest at intermediate levels of mean rainfall, whereas low adult survival rates were associated with only the driest, and not the wettest, years. Both juvenile and adult survival rates also exhibited a range of tolerance for residual standard deviation around daily predicted temperature values, beyond which survival rates declined. Life-history parameters, annual routines and adaptive behavioural responses, which define the badgers climatic niche, thus appear to be predicated upon a bounded range of climatic conditions, which support optimal survival and recruitment dynamics. That variability in weather conditions is influential, in combination with mean climatic trends, on the vital rates of a generalist, wide ranging and K-selected medium-sized carnivore, has major implications for evolutionary ecology and conservation. PMID:23874517

  11. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-01-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

  12. Will Trespassers Be Prosecuted or Assessed According to Their Merits? A Consilient Interpretation of Territoriality in a Group-Living Carnivore, the European Badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Tinnesand, Helga V; Buesching, Christina D; Noonan, Michael J; Newman, Chris; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    Socio-spatial interactions of Carnivores have traditionally been described using the vocabulary of territoriality and aggression, with scent marks interpreted as 'scent fences'. Here, we investigate the role of olfactory signals in assumed territorial marking of group-living solitary foragers using European badgers Meles meles as a model. We presented anal gland secretions (n = 351) from known individuals to identifiable recipients (n = 187), to assess response-variation according to familiarity (own-group, neighbours, strangers) and spatial context (in-context: at a shared border; out-of-context: at an unshared border/ the main sett). Sniffing and over-marking (with subcaudal gland secretion) responses were strongest to anal gland secretions from strangers, intermediate to neighbouring-group and weakest to own-group members. Secretions from both, strangers and neighbours, were sniffed for longer than were own-group samples, although neighbour-secretion presented out-of-context evoked no greater interest than in-context. On an individual level, responses were further moderated by the relevance of individual-specific donor information encoded in the secretion, as it related to the physiological state of the responder. There was a trend bordering on significance for males to sniff for longer than did females, but without sex-related differences in the frequency of subcaudal over-marking responses, and males over-marked oestrous female secretions more than non-oestrous females. There were no age-class related differences in sniff-duration or in over-marking. Evaluating these results in the context of the Familiarity hypothesis, the Threat-level hypothesis, and the Individual advertisement hypothesis evidences that interpretations of territorial scent-marks depicting rigid and potentially agonistic discrimination between own- and foreign-group conspecifics are overly simplistic. We use our findings to advance conceptual understanding of badger socio-spatial ecology, and the general context of territoriality and group-range dynamics. PMID:26147753

  13. Will Trespassers Be Prosecuted or Assessed According to Their Merits? A Consilient Interpretation of Territoriality in a Group-Living Carnivore, the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michael J.; Newman, Chris; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-spatial interactions of Carnivores have traditionally been described using the vocabulary of territoriality and aggression, with scent marks interpreted as ‘scent fences’. Here, we investigate the role of olfactory signals in assumed territorial marking of group-living solitary foragers using European badgers Meles meles as a model. We presented anal gland secretions (n = 351) from known individuals to identifiable recipients (n = 187), to assess response-variation according to familiarity (own-group, neighbours, strangers) and spatial context (in-context: at a shared border; out-of-context: at an unshared border/ the main sett). Sniffing and over-marking (with subcaudal gland secretion) responses were strongest to anal gland secretions from strangers, intermediate to neighbouring-group and weakest to own-group members. Secretions from both, strangers and neighbours, were sniffed for longer than were own-group samples, although neighbour-secretion presented out-of-context evoked no greater interest than in-context. On an individual level, responses were further moderated by the relevance of individual-specific donor information encoded in the secretion, as it related to the physiological state of the responder. There was a trend bordering on significance for males to sniff for longer than did females, but without sex-related differences in the frequency of subcaudal over-marking responses, and males over-marked oestrous female secretions more than non-oestrous females. There were no age-class related differences in sniff-duration or in over-marking. Evaluating these results in the context of the Familiarity hypothesis, the Threat-level hypothesis, and the Individual advertisement hypothesis evidences that interpretations of territorial scent-marks depicting rigid and potentially agonistic discrimination between own- and foreign-group conspecifics are overly simplistic. We use our findings to advance conceptual understanding of badger socio-spatial ecology, and the general context of territoriality and group-range dynamics. PMID:26147753

  14. The haematological values of European badgers (Meles meles) in health and in the course of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, K. H.; Stanford, J. L.; Machin, S.; Watts, M.; Stuart, F. A.; Pritchard, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Captive, healthy, adult badgers have blood containing haemoglobin at 13.3 g/dl, and 8.4 x 10(12)/l red cells with an MCV of 46.2 fl and an MCH of 15.6 pg. They have 5.1 x 10(9) white cells/l of which 3.29 x 10(9) are polymorphs, 1.49 x 10(9) are lymphocytes, 0.26 x 10(9) are monocytes, 0.07 x 10(9) are eosinophils and 0.01 x 10(9) are basophils. These values are somewhat less in adult animals just trapped from the wild, and are lower still in wild cubs. Changes associated with tuberculosis are a rise, and then a fall in red blood count and white blood count, an increase in the proportion of polymorphs and monocytes and a fall in lymphocytes late in the disease. This picture is similar to that seen in widespread, disseminated, tuberculin negative, tuberculosis in humans, a type of disease similar to that occurring in many badgers. BCG vaccination of badgers did not produce any measurable change in the blood picture. PMID:3181308

  15. Evaluation of a Rapid Serological Test for the Determination of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers (Meles meles) Found Dead?

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Mark A.; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; James, Eurig; Barker, Leslie; Jones, Jeff; Watkins, Gavin; Rolfe, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Between October 2005 and May 2006, a total of 727 badgers found dead in Wales were reported, and 550 were delivered to the Regional Laboratories of the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA). Of the 459 carcasses suitable for examination, 55 were deemed to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis on the basis of culture, spoligotyping, and variable-number tandem repeat typing. Acid-fast bacteria were observed histologically in a further six badgers, but these bacteria were not confirmed as M. bovis by culture. A rapid serological test (BrockTB Stat-Pak) performed on thoracic blood showed a sensitivity of 35% and a specificity of 99%. Presence of M. bovis infection was 45 times more likely to be confirmed postmortem by culture in BrockTB Stat-Pak-reactive animals than in seronegative ones. Using visible carcass lesions as a marker of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection had a similar sensitivity (38%) but was significantly less specific (84%) than serology. The overall accuracy of the antibody detection was 93% (346 correct results from 374 tests), whereas the accuracy of regarding visible lesions as a marker for bTB infection was 78% (354 correct from 453 carcasses examined). Culture remains the gold standard method for detecting M. bovis infection in badgers. However, where resources are limited and/or an instant result is preferred, the BrockTB Stat-Pak could be used in field surveillance efforts to identify animals which should be examined further by only submitting test-negative animals to more detailed postmortem examination and culture. PMID:20042520

  16. Resource availability affects individual niche variation and its consequences in group-living European badgers Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Kelly, Simon D; Bearhop, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Although intra-population variation in niches is a widespread phenomenon with important implications for ecology, evolution and management of a range of animal species, the causes and consequences of this variation remain poorly understood. We used stable isotope analysis to characterise foraging niches and to investigate the causes and consequences of individual niche variation in the European badger, a mustelid mammal that lives in territorial social groups, but forages alone. We found that the degree of individual niche variation within social groups was negatively related to the availability of farmland habitats, which represent an important foraging habitat for badgers; and was positively related to territory size, supporting the idea that resource limitation and ecological opportunity lead to increased individual specialisation. We also found that the degree of individual specialisation related to an individual's body condition and that this effect varied with ecological context; such that specialisation had a stronger positive relationship with body condition in social groups with reduced availability of key farmland habitats. Body condition was also related to the utilisation of specific resources (woodland invertebrates), but again this relationship varied with the availability of farmland foraging habitats. This study supports the idea that resource availability plays an important role in determining patterns of individual niche variation, and identifies the potential adaptive consequences of specialised foraging strategies. PMID:25656581

  17. Bacillus Calmette-Gurin vaccination reduces the severity and progression of tuberculosis in badgers

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Mark A.; Rogers, Fiona; Delahay, Richard J.; Lesellier, Sandrine; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna; Gowtage, Sonya; Dav, Dipesh; Palmer, Si; Brewer, Jacky; Crawshaw, Timothy; Clifton-Hadley, Richard; Carter, Steve; Cheeseman, Chris; Hanks, Chris; Murray, Alistair; Palphramand, Kate; Pietravalle, Stphane; Smith, Graham C.; Tomlinson, Alexandra; Walker, Neil J.; Wilson, Gavin J.; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Gettinby, George; McDonald, Robbie A.; Hewinson, R. Glyn

    2011-01-01

    Control of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has proven particularly challenging where reservoirs of infection exist in wildlife populations. In Britain and Ireland, control is hampered by a reservoir of infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). Badger culling has positive and negative effects on bovine TB in cattle and is difficult, costly and controversial. Here we show that Bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) vaccination of captive badgers reduced the progression, severity and excretion of Mycobacterium bovis infection after experimental challenge. In a clinical field study, BCG vaccination of free-living badgers reduced the incidence of positive serological test results by 73.8 per cent. In common with other species, BCG did not appear to prevent infection of badgers subjected to experimental challenge, but did significantly reduce the overall disease burden. BCG vaccination of badgers could comprise an important component of a comprehensive programme of measures to control bovine TB in cattle. PMID:21123260

  18. A DNA vaccine encoding MPB83 from Mycobacterium bovis reduces M. bovis dissemination to the kidneys of mice and is expressed in primary cell cultures of the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Chambers, M A; Stagg, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Lowrie, D; Newell, D; Hewinson, R G

    2001-10-01

    Nucleic acid (DNA) vaccination against tuberculosis in the European badger (Meles meles) is one approach to addressing the escalating problem of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain. The aim of vaccination is to reduce the burden of tuberculosis within the badger population and the shedding of Mycobacterium bovis to levels that would break the transmission of infection to cattle. To this end, the vaccine would be required to limit the amount of disseminated tuberculosis in the badger, especially dissemination to the kidney from where M. bovis can be shed in the urine. A promising candidate DNA vaccine encoding a 26 kDa major antigen (MPB83) of M. bovis was evaluated in a mouse model of disseminated M. bovis infection. Using the DNA vaccine, protection against infection of the kidney was found to be greater than that achieved with the current live vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Kidney tissue and skeletal muscle from the badger was used to derive primary cell cultures in which to examine the expression of MPB83 following transfection with the DNA vaccine. Kidney cortex gave rise to a monotypic culture of epithelial cells whilst the muscle gave rise to a mixed culture of fibroblasts and myoblasts. During culture the myoblasts differentiated into multinucleated myotubes, verified by immunofluorescent detection of mammalian desmin. Successful expression of MPB83 by transfected epithelial and myotube cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody specific to the protein. These observations fulfil the early requirements for the development of a DNA vaccine for badger tuberculosis. PMID:11883890

  19. In situ adaptive response to climate and habitat quality variation: spatial and temporal variation in European badger (Meles meles) body weight.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; Fogarty, Ursula; O'Keeffe, James; Newman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Variation in climatic and habitat conditions can affect populations through a variety of mechanisms, and these relationships can act at different temporal and spatial scales. Using post-mortem badger body weight records from 15 878 individuals captured across the Republic of Ireland (7224 setts across ca. 15 000 km(2) ; 2009-2012), we employed a hierarchical multilevel mixed model to evaluate the effects of climate (rainfall and temperature) and habitat quality (landscape suitability), while controlling for local abundance (unique badgers caught/sett/year). Body weight was affected strongly by temperature across a number of temporal scales (preceding month or season), with badgers being heavier if preceding temperatures (particularly during winter/spring) were warmer than the long-term seasonal mean. There was less support for rainfall across different temporal scales, although badgers did exhibit heavier weights when greater rainfall occurred one or 2 months prior to capture. Badgers were also heavier in areas with higher landscape habitat quality, modulated by the number of individuals captured per sett, consistent with density-dependent effects reducing weights. Overall, the mean badger body weight of culled individuals rose during the study period (2009-2012), more so for males than for females. With predicted increases in temperature, and rainfall, augmented by ongoing agricultural land conversion in this region, we project heavier individual badger body weights in the future. Increased body weight has been associated with higher fecundity, recruitment and survival rates in badgers, due to improved food availability and energetic budgets. We thus predict that climate change could increase the badger population across the Republic of Ireland. Nevertheless, we emphasize that, locally, populations could still be vulnerable to extreme weather variability coupled with detrimental agricultural practice, including population management. PMID:25846328

  20. Spatial and temporal analyses of metrics of tuberculosis infection in badgers (Meles meles) from the Republic of Ireland: Trends in apparent prevalence.

    PubMed

    Byrne, A W; Kenny, K; Fogarty, U; O'Keeffe, J J; More, S J; McGrath, G; Teeling, M; Martin, S W; Dohoo, I R

    2015-12-01

    Badgers are a wildlife host of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and an important contributor to the epidemiology of bTB in cattle in Ireland and Britain. Repeated culling of badgers in high prevalence cattle bTB areas has been used in the Republic of Ireland as one tool to reduce intra- and interspecific transmission of M. bovis. We assessed factors that influenced infection prevalence of culled badgers from 2009 to 2012 (n=4948) where spatial, temporal and intrinsic factor data were available using multivariable modelling. Prevalence appeared higher in western areas than eastern areas of Ireland and badgers were more likely to be test-positive if caught at a sett (burrow system) which was close to other infected setts (spatial clustering of infection). There was a significant positive association between badger test-status and cattle prevalence of M. bovis infection at a spatial scale of 1km around setts. Badgers were more likely to be deemed test positive if they were male (OR: 1.9) or a parous female (OR: 1.7), compared to a female who had never conceived. Our results are consistent with different groups within badger populations having differential exposures and therefore infection risk (for example, parous vs. non-parous females). Furthermore, bTB clusters within the badger population, with greater risk to badgers in setts that are closest to other infected setts. The effective scale of the association of bTB risk between badger and cattle populations may be relatively large in Ireland. Our data indicate that the overall trend in prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers has decreased in Ireland (P<0.001) while controlling for significant confounders over the study period, and follows a longer temporal trend from 2007 to 2013, where unadjusted apparent prevalence declined from 26% to 11% during 2007 to mid-2011, followed by a stable trend between 9 and 11% thereafter (n=10,267). PMID:26556049

  1. Effects of photoperiod, melatonin implants and castration on molting and on plasma thyroxine, testosterone and prolactin levels in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Maurel, D; Coutant, C; Boissin, J

    1989-01-01

    1. The seasonal molt, which lasts six months in the badger, begins in mid-July and ends at the beginning of winter. It occurs under natural long-day conditions, following the seasonal drop in plasma testosterone levels, concomitant with high levels of thyroxine and prolactin. 2. To examine the role of the different factors involved (day length, prolactin, thyroxine, testosterone), different groups of badgers, divided into subgroups of castrated or intact animals, were subjected to the influence of long days (20L: 4D), short days (4L:20D) or the effect of subcutaneous melatonin implants. 3. In all cases, castration resulted in a significantly earlier onset of molting 1-3 months, depending on the group, regardless of the experimental conditions (20L:4D, 4L:20D, melatonin). 4. However, molting started earliest in animals subjected to long days, irrespective of whether they were castrated or intact. 5. In the melatonin-implanted badgers, molting started either early (castrated animals), or late or not at all (intact animals). 6. Lastly, in castrated badgers subjected to experimental photoperiods (short days or long days) or melatonin implants, the period of molting was shortened from 6 months (intact outdoor animals) to 4 months. 7. The advance in shedding was always related to an early drop in testosterone (or an absence of testosterone in the castrated animals) and to a higher or earlier increase in thyroxine levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2570666

  2. Avoiding verisimilitude when modelling ecological responses to climate change: the influence of weather conditions on trapping efficiency in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Noonan, Michael J; Rahman, M Abidur; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W

    2015-10-01

    The signal for climate change effects can be abstruse; consequently, interpretations of evidence must avoid verisimilitude, or else misattribution of causality could compromise policy decisions. Examining climatic effects on wild animal population dynamics requires ability to trap, observe or photograph and to recapture study individuals consistently. In this regard, we use 19 years of data (1994-2012), detailing the life histories on 1179 individual European badgers over 3288 (re-) trapping events, to test whether trapping efficiency was associated with season, weather variables (both contemporaneous and time lagged), body-condition index (BCI) and trapping efficiency (TE). PCA factor loadings demonstrated that TE was affected significantly by temperature and precipitation, as well as time lags in these variables. From multi-model inference, BCI was the principal driver of TE, where badgers in good condition were less likely to be trapped. Our analyses exposed that this was enacted mechanistically via weather variables driving BCI, affecting TE. Notably, the very conditions that militated for poor trapping success have been associated with actual survival and population abundance benefits in badgers. Using these findings to parameterize simulations, projecting best-/worst-case scenario weather conditions and BCI resulted in 8.6% ± 4.9 SD difference in seasonal TE, leading to a potential 55.0% population abundance under-estimation under the worst-case scenario; 38.6% over-estimation under the best case. Interestingly, simulations revealed that while any single trapping session might prove misrepresentative of the true population abundance, due to weather effects, prolonging capture-mark-recapture studies under sub-optimal conditions decreased the accuracy of population estimates significantly. We also use these projection scenarios to explore how weather could impact government-led trapping of badgers in the UK, in relation to TB management. We conclude that population monitoring must be calibrated against the likelihood that weather conditions could be altering trap success directly, and therefore biasing model design. PMID:25857625

  3. Modelling the impact of vaccination on tuberculosis in badgers.

    PubMed

    Hardstaff, J L; Bulling, M T; Marion, G; Hutchings, M R; White, P C L

    2013-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in livestock, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, persists in many countries. In Britain, efforts to control TB through the culling of badgers (Meles meles), the principal wildlife host, have so far been unsuccessful, and there is significant interest in vaccination of badgers as an alternative or complementary strategy [corrected]. Using a simulation model, we show that where TB is self-contained within the badger population and there are no external sources of infection, limited-duration vaccination at a high level of efficacy can reduce or even eradicate TB from the badger population. However, where sources of external infection persist, benefits in TB reduction in badgers can only be achieved by ongoing, annual vaccination. Vaccination is likely to be most effective as part of an integrated disease management strategy incorporating a number of different approaches across the entire host community. PMID:23570613

  4. Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers in localized culling areas.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Cox, D R; Gilks, Peter; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; Le Fevre, Andrea M; Bourne, F John; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Gettinby, George; Hewinson, R Glyn; McInerney, John P; Mitchell, A P; Morrison, W Ivan; Watkins, Gavin H

    2009-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease that can have serious consequences for cattle farming and, potentially, for public health. In Britain, failure to control bovine TB has been linked to persistent infection of European badger (Meles meles) populations. However, culling of badgers in the vicinity of recent TB outbreaks in cattle has failed to reduce the overall incidence of cattle TB. Using data from a large-scale study conducted in 1998-2005, we show that badgers collected on such localized culls had elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine TB, suggesting that infections in cattle and badgers were indeed associated. Moreover, there was a high degree of similarity in the M. bovis strain types isolated from cattle and associated badgers. This similarity between strain types appeared to be unaffected by time lags between the detection of infection in cattle and culling of badgers, or by the presence of purchased cattle that might have acquired infection elsewhere. However, localized culling appeared to prompt an increase in the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers, probably by disrupting ranging and territorial behavior and hence increasing intraspecific transmission rates. This elevated prevalence among badgers could offset the benefits, for cattle, of reduced badger densities and may help to explain the failure of localized culling to reduce cattle TB incidence. PMID:19204342

  5. Bovine tuberculosis and badgers in Britain: relevance of the past.

    PubMed

    Atkins, P J; Robinson, P A

    2013-07-01

    The European badger (Meles meles) has been identified as a wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis and a source of transmission to cattle in Britain and Ireland. Both behavioural ecology and statistical ecological modelling have indicated the long-term persistence of the disease in some badger communities, and this is postulated to account for the high incidence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle across large tracts of England and Wales. This paper questions this consensus by using historical cartographic evidence to show that tuberculosis in cattle had a very different spatial distribution before 1960 to the present day. Since few of the badgers collected in road traffic accidents between 1972 and 1990 had tuberculosis in counties such as Cheshire, where the disease had until shortly before that been rife in the cattle population, the role of badgers as reservoirs in spreading disease in similar counties outside the south-west of England has to be questioned. PMID:23347609

  6. Impacts of removing badgers on localised counts of hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Trewby, Iain D; Young, Richard; McDonald, Robbie A; Wilson, Gavin J; Davison, John; Walker, Neil; Robertson, Andrew; Doncaster, C Patrick; Delahay, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the interactions among mammalian predators that eat or compete with one another is rare, due to the ethical and logistical challenges of managing wild populations in a controlled and replicated way. Here, we report on the opportunistic use of a replicated and controlled culling experiment (the Randomised Badger Culling Trial) to investigate the relationship between two sympatric predators: European badgers Meles meles and western European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus. In areas of preferred habitat (amenity grassland), counts of hedgehogs more than doubled over a 5-year period from the start of badger culling (from 0.9 ha-1 pre-cull to 2.4 ha-1 post-cull), whereas hedgehog counts did not change where there was no badger culling (0.3-0.3 hedgehogs ha-1). This trial provides experimental evidence for mesopredator release as an outcome of management of a top predator. PMID:24736454

  7. BCG Vaccination Reduces Risk of Tuberculosis Infection in Vaccinated Badgers and Unvaccinated Badger Cubs

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stephen P.; Chambers, Mark A.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Schuchert, Pia; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Murray, Alistair; Rogers, Fiona; Gettinby, George; Smith, Graham C.; Delahay, Richard J.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles). Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.52) the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.88) in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.76; P = 0.03). When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.81; P = 0.02). PMID:23251352

  8. Badger responses to small-scale culling may compromise targeted control of bovine tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bielby, Jon; Donnelly, Christl A.; Pope, Lisa C.; Burke, Terry; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2014-01-01

    Where wildlife disease requires management, culling is frequently considered but not always effective. In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by infection in wild badger (Meles meles) populations. Large-scale badger culling can reduce the incidence of confirmed cattle TB, but these benefits are undermined by culling-induced changes in badger behavior (termed perturbation), which can increase transmission among badgers and from badgers to cattle. Testvaccinate/remove (TVR) is a novel approach that entails testing individual badgers for infection, vaccinating test-negative animals, and killing test-positive animals. Imperfect capture success, diagnostic sensitivity, and vaccine effectiveness mean that TVR would be expected to leave some infected and some susceptible badgers in the population. Existing simulation models predict that TVR could reduce cattle TB if such small-scale culling causes no perturbation, but could increase cattle TB if considerable perturbation occurs. Using data from a long-term study, we show that past small-scale culling was significantly associated with four metrics of perturbation in badgers: expanded ranging, more frequent immigration, lower genetic relatedness, and elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of TB. Though we could not reject the hypothesis that culling up to three badgers per social group might avoid perturbation, we also could not reject the hypothesis that killing a single badger prompted detectable perturbation. When considered alongside existing model predictions, our findings suggest that implementation of TVR, scheduled for 2014, risks exacerbating the TB problem rather than controlling it. Ongoing illegal badger culling is likewise expected to increase cattle TB risks. PMID:24927589

  9. Badger responses to small-scale culling may compromise targeted control of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bielby, Jon; Donnelly, Christl A; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry; Woodroffe, Rosie

    2014-06-24

    Where wildlife disease requires management, culling is frequently considered but not always effective. In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by infection in wild badger (Meles meles) populations. Large-scale badger culling can reduce the incidence of confirmed cattle TB, but these benefits are undermined by culling-induced changes in badger behavior (termed perturbation), which can increase transmission among badgers and from badgers to cattle. Test-vaccinate/remove (TVR) is a novel approach that entails testing individual badgers for infection, vaccinating test-negative animals, and killing test-positive animals. Imperfect capture success, diagnostic sensitivity, and vaccine effectiveness mean that TVR would be expected to leave some infected and some susceptible badgers in the population. Existing simulation models predict that TVR could reduce cattle TB if such small-scale culling causes no perturbation, but could increase cattle TB if considerable perturbation occurs. Using data from a long-term study, we show that past small-scale culling was significantly associated with four metrics of perturbation in badgers: expanded ranging, more frequent immigration, lower genetic relatedness, and elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of TB. Though we could not reject the hypothesis that culling up to three badgers per social group might avoid perturbation, we also could not reject the hypothesis that killing a single badger prompted detectable perturbation. When considered alongside existing model predictions, our findings suggest that implementation of TVR, scheduled for 2014, risks exacerbating the TB problem rather than controlling it. Ongoing illegal badger culling is likewise expected to increase cattle TB risks. PMID:24927589

  10. Estimating the extent of spatial association of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G E; McGrath, G E; More, S J

    2010-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infects the wildlife species badgers Meles meles who are linked with the spread of the associated disease tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. Control of livestock infections depends in part on the spatial and social structure of the wildlife host. Here we describe spatial association of M. bovis infection in a badger population using data from the first year of the Four Area Project in Ireland. Using second-order intensity functions, we show there is strong evidence of clustering of TB cases in each the four areas, i.e. a global tendency for infected cases to occur near other infected cases. Using estimated intensity functions, we identify locations where particular strains of TB cluster. Generalized linear geostatistical models are used to assess the practical range at which spatial correlation occurs and is found to exceed 6 in all areas. The study is of relevance concerning the scale of localized badger culling in the control of the disease in cattle. PMID:19653926

  11. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; MacArthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km-2 (95% confidence interval 0.449-0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400-76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985-88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2-2.9%), equating to an 88% (70-105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83-123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (-25 to +49%).

  12. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 20112013

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; Macarthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1?km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485?km?2 (95% confidence interval 0.4490.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,40076,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 198588, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.22.9%), equating to an 88% (70105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (?25 to +49%). PMID:24457532

  13. The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers

    PubMed Central

    King, Hayley C.; Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Hung, Yu-Jiun; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J.; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs. Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 103 − 4 × 105 M. bovis cells g−1 of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir. Our findings highlight the potential importance of monitoring environmental reservoirs of M. bovis which may constitute a component of disease spread that is currently overlooked and yet may be responsible for a proportion of transmission amongst badgers and onwards to cattle. PMID:26247348

  14. The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers.

    PubMed

    King, Hayley C; Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Hung, Yu-Jiun; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs. Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1??10(3)-?4??10(5) M. bovis cells g(-1) of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir. Our findings highlight the potential importance of monitoring environmental reservoirs of M. bovis which may constitute a component of disease spread that is currently overlooked and yet may be responsible for a proportion of transmission amongst badgers and onwards to cattle. PMID:26247348

  15. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C A; Bento, A I; Goodchild, A V; Downs, S H

    2015-10-24

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  16. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, C. A.; Bento, A. I.; Goodchild, A. V.; Downs, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  17. Spatial Targeting for Bovine Tuberculosis Control: Can the Locations of Infected Cattle Be Used to Find Infected Badgers?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine M.; Downs, Sara H.; Mitchell, Andy; Hayward, Andrew C.; Fry, Hannah; Le Comber, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a disease of historical importance to human health in the UK that remains a major animal health and economic issue. Control of the disease in cattle is complicated by the presence of a reservoir species, the Eurasian badger. In spite of uncertainty in the degree to which cattle disease results from transmission from badgers, and opposition from environmental groups, culling of badgers has been licenced in two large areas in England. Methods to limit culls to smaller areas that target badgers infected with TB whilst minimising the number of uninfected badgers culled is therefore of considerable interest. Here, we use historical data from a large-scale field trial of badger culling to assess two alternative hypothetical methods of targeting TB-infected badgers based on the distribution of cattle TB incidents: (i) a simple circular ‘ring cull’; and (ii) geographic profiling, a novel technique for spatial targeting of infectious disease control that predicts the locations of sources of infection based on the distribution of linked cases. Our results showed that both methods required coverage of very large areas to ensure a substantial proportion of infected badgers were removed, and would result in many uninfected badgers being culled. Geographic profiling, which accounts for clustering of infections in badger and cattle populations, produced a small but non-significant increase in the proportion of setts with TB-infected compared to uninfected badgers included in a cull. It also provided no overall improvement at targeting setts with infected badgers compared to the ring cull. Cattle TB incidents in this study were therefore insufficiently clustered around TB-infected badger setts to design an efficient spatially targeted cull; and this analysis provided no evidence to support a move towards spatially targeted badger culling policies for bovine TB control. PMID:26565626

  18. Spatial Targeting for Bovine Tuberculosis Control: Can the Locations of Infected Cattle Be Used to Find Infected Badgers?

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine M; Downs, Sara H; Mitchell, Andy; Hayward, Andrew C; Fry, Hannah; Le Comber, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a disease of historical importance to human health in the UK that remains a major animal health and economic issue. Control of the disease in cattle is complicated by the presence of a reservoir species, the Eurasian badger. In spite of uncertainty in the degree to which cattle disease results from transmission from badgers, and opposition from environmental groups, culling of badgers has been licenced in two large areas in England. Methods to limit culls to smaller areas that target badgers infected with TB whilst minimising the number of uninfected badgers culled is therefore of considerable interest. Here, we use historical data from a large-scale field trial of badger culling to assess two alternative hypothetical methods of targeting TB-infected badgers based on the distribution of cattle TB incidents: (i) a simple circular 'ring cull'; and (ii) geographic profiling, a novel technique for spatial targeting of infectious disease control that predicts the locations of sources of infection based on the distribution of linked cases. Our results showed that both methods required coverage of very large areas to ensure a substantial proportion of infected badgers were removed, and would result in many uninfected badgers being culled. Geographic profiling, which accounts for clustering of infections in badger and cattle populations, produced a small but non-significant increase in the proportion of setts with TB-infected compared to uninfected badgers included in a cull. It also provided no overall improvement at targeting setts with infected badgers compared to the ring cull. Cattle TB incidents in this study were therefore insufficiently clustered around TB-infected badger setts to design an efficient spatially targeted cull; and this analysis provided no evidence to support a move towards spatially targeted badger culling policies for bovine TB control. PMID:26565626

  19. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB) in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles). The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to reduce bTB in badgers include efforts to minimise such external sources of infection. PMID:22738118

  20. Badgers gasohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-29

    It is reported that Badger Energy is to participate in a gasohol project that will utilize the Tate and Lyle fermentation process at the proposed plant at Thibodaux, La., to produce 20 million gal/year of ethanol. The facility will be able to process alternative feedstocks such as grain, sorghum and sugar cane. The Dept. of Energy is funding the first phase of the project, which includes a feasibility study, by a grant of $1.9 million.

  1. A Badger Teaches in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a visit to the principal's office to see his family heirloom (a quilted Hawaiian flag), and reading the book "Badger's Parting Gifts," created powerful and ongoing lessons for the author's second graders, imparting an eternal way of thinking about gifts, family, friends, and human values. (SR)

  2. 10. VIEW OF THE BADGER STATE MINEYARD, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE BADGER STATE MINEYARD, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE HOIST HOUSE ON THE LEFT, THE IDLER TOWER, AND A LEG OF THE HEADFRAME ON THE RIGHT - Butte Mineyards, Badger State Mine, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  4. Phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenadler, M.; Parisen Toldin, F.; Herbut, I. F.; Assaad, F. F.

    2014-08-01

    We determine the phase diagram of the Kane-Mele model with a long-range Coulomb interaction using an exact quantum Monte Carlo method. Long-range interactions are expected to play a role in honeycomb materials because the vanishing density of states in the semimetallic weak-coupling phase suppresses screening. According to our results, the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model supports the same phases as the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The nonlocal part of the interaction promotes short-range sublattice charge fluctuations, which compete with antiferromagnetic order driven by the onsite repulsion. Consequently, the critical interaction for the magnetic transition is significantly larger than for the purely local Hubbard repulsion. Our numerical data are consistent with SU (2) Gross-Neveu universality for the semimetal to antiferromagnet transition, and with 3D XY universality for the quantum spin Hall to antiferromagnet transition.

  5. Antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from Doana National Park (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martn-Atance, P; Len-Vizcano, L; Palomares, F; Revilla, E; Gonzlez-Candela, M; Calzada, J; Cubero-Pablo, M J; Delibes, M

    2006-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective serologic survey for antibodies against the MPB70 protein of Mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from Doana National Park (southwestern Spain). Serum samples from 118 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 39 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 31 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), five Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), four European genet (Genetta genetta), and one Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Antibodies against the MPB70 protein of M. bovis were detected in seven badgers, five foxes, and one lynx. The frequency of positive animals was significantly higher in badger (23%) than in lynx (3%) and fox (4%). Antibodies were not detected in other species. Annual antibody frequency peaked at 38% in badgers and 11% for red fox. These species may contribute to persistence of bovine tuberculosis in Doana. PMID:17092907

  6. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae in United Kingdom Badgers: Prevalence and Spatial Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. Sian; Hazel, Sarah M.; Williams, Nicola J.; Phiri, Amos; French, Nigel P.; Hart, C. Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen (72%) of 25 badger social groups were found to excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Ried, S. enterica serovar Binza, S. enterica serovar Agama, or S. enterica serovar Lomita. Each serovar was susceptible to a panel of antimicrobials. Based on results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the S. enterica serovar Agama and S. enterica serovar Binza isolates were very similar, but two clones each of S. enterica serovar Lomita and S. enterica serovar Ried were found. Badgers excreting S. enterica serovar Agama were spatially clustered. PMID:12839821

  7. Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on the ?-flux honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercx, Martin; Hohenadler, Martin; Assaad, Fakher F.

    2014-08-01

    We consider the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with a magnetic ? flux threading each honeycomb plaquette. The resulting model has remarkably rich physical properties. In each spin sector, the noninteracting band structure is characterized by a total Chern number C =2. Fine-tuning of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling ? leads to a quadratic band crossing point associated with a topological phase transition. At this point, quantum Monte Carlo simulations reveal a magnetically ordered phase that extends to weak coupling. Although the spinful model has two Kramers doublets at each edge and is explicitly shown to be a Z2 trivial insulator, the helical edge states are protected at the single-particle level by translation symmetry. Drawing on the bosonized low-energy Hamiltonian, we predict a correlation-induced gap as a result of umklapp scattering for half-filled bands. For strong interactions, this prediction is confirmed by quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Mobil/Badger to market zeolite-based cumene technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1993-02-24

    Badger (Cambridge, MA) and Mobil (Fairfax, VA) are ready to jointly license a new cumene technology that they say achieves higher yields and product purity than existing processes. The zeolite-based technology is scheduled to be introduced at next month's DeWitt Petrochemical Review in Houston. The Mobil/Badger technology aims to challenge the dominant position of UOP's (Des Plaines, IL) solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst process - which accounts for 80%-90% of the world's cumene production. In addition, Monsanto/Kellogg's aluminum chloride-based technology has gained significant momentum since its introduction in the 1980s. And late last year, ABB Lummus Crest (Bloomfield, NJ) also began marketing a zeolite-based cumene technology. While all the technologies make cumene via the alkylation of benzene with propylene, the Mobil/Badger process uses a zeolite-containing catalyst designed by Mobil to selectively catalyze the benzene/propylene reaction, avoiding unwanted propylene oligomerization. Because the olefin reactions are so fast, says Frank A. Demers, Badger's v.p./technology development and marketing, other zeolite technologies are forced to use complex reactor arrangements to stop the propylene-propylene reactions. However, he says, Mobil has designed a catalyst that wants to react benzene with propylene to make cumene.'

  9. Quantifying badger exposure and the risk of bovine tuberculosis for cattle herds in county Kilkenny, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Olea-Popelka, F J; Phelan, J; White, P W; McGrath, G; Collins, J D; O'keeffe, J; Duggan, M; Collins, D M; Kelton, D F; Berke, O; More, S J; Martin, S W

    2006-07-17

    The objectives of the study were to quantify the levels of badger exposure for cattle and to test the hypothesis that increased badger exposure does not increase the risk of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in a herd. Information that became available from the targeted removal of badgers over the study period, and from a badger-removal project in county Kilkenny, during 1996-1999 was used. The specific location of cattle within each farm, and the length of time that cattle spent in each farm field during the grazing season, and in the barnyard during winter, was used to build an exposure coefficient to quantify the amount of badger exposure that cattle encountered either on pasture or in the barn. The study design was a matched case-control study in which the control herds were selected using incidence density sampling. During the 4-year study period, 543 badgers were removed and of these 96 badgers were classified as tuberculosis positive; 96 BTB herd breakdowns occurred. There was a significant association between case herds and having a higher badger sett exposure coefficient during 1996-1998. No significant association between case herds and having a higher exposure coefficient based on the number of badgers, or the number of tuberculous badgers, during September 1997-December 1999 was found. PMID:16488029

  10. Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandi?, Nina; De?ek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Doki?, Maja; Simi?, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

    2012-01-01

    The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2)>brown bear (12.1)>pine marten (10.3)>Eurasian lynx (8.43)>grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

  11. 77 FR 51800 - Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10339, Badger State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... CORPORATION Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10339, Badger State... Receiver for Badger State Bank, Cassville, Wisconsin (``the Receiver'') intends to terminate its receivership for said institution. The FDIC was appointed receiver of Badger State Bank. The liquidation of...

  12. Rabies Virus Infection in Ferret Badgers (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) in Taiwan: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jen-Chieh; Tsai, Kuo-Jung; Hsu, Wei-Cheng; Tu, Yang-Chang; Chuang, Wei-Chieh; Chang, Chia-Yi; Chang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Te-En; Fang, Kuo-Yun; Chang, Yung-Fu; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Lee, Shu-Hwae

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen ferret badgers (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca), collected 2010-13 and stored frozen, were submitted for rabies diagnosis by direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcription PCR. We detected seven positive animal samples, including some from 2010, which indicated that the ferret badger population in Taiwan had been affected by rabies prior to 2010. PMID:26267459

  13. 78 FR 2988 - Badger Creek Limited; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Badger Creek Limited; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice..., as amended, 18 CFR 292.205(c) (2012), Badger Creek Limited filed a petition for declaratory...

  14. Badger (Taxidea taxus) disturbances increase soil heterogeneity in a degraded shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western United States, overgrazing, weed invasion and wildfire have resulted in the conversion of shrub-steppe to annual grasslands, with substantial effects on ecosystem function. In these landscapes, badgers disturb large areas of soil while foraging for prey. Mounds created by badgers cont...

  15. Novel calicivirus from a ferret badger (Melogale moschata) in China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fa-Ming; Li, Yue-Hong; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Miao, Fu-Chun; Zhao, Jing-Hui; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2015-07-01

    We describe the isolation and complete genome sequence of a new calicivirus, FBCV-JX12, isolated from a ferret badger (Melogale moschata). Comparison of FBCV-JX12 with other vesiviruses revealed that it shared the highest amino acid sequence identities of 71.6, 60.5, and 59.3% in the nonstructural protein, VP1, and VP2, respectively, with MCV-DL2007 (mink calicivirus). Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genomic sequence showed that it clustered most closely with MCV-DL2007 of the genus Vesivirus, but with low nucleotide similarity in the three open reading frames (62.1-68.5%). PMID:25976558

  16. Trial design to estimate the effect of vaccination on tuberculosis incidence in badgers.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Inma; McGrath, Guy; Murphy, Denise; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J; Martin, Wayne; O'Keeffe, James; De Jong, Mart C M

    2011-07-01

    The principal wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in Ireland is the European badger. Studies in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) have shown that badgers culled in association with cattle herd tuberculosis breakdowns (focal culling) have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger population at large. This observation is one rationale for the medium term national strategy of focal badger culling. A vaccination strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in badgers is a preferred long-term option. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been shown to decrease disease severity in captive badgers under controlled conditions. As the vaccine has been tested in a controlled environment with precise information on infection pressure, it cannot be assumed a priori that the effects of vaccination are similar in the wild, where other environmental and/or ecological factors prevail. For this reason we have designed a vaccine field trial to assess the impact of vaccination on the incidence of TB infection in a wild badger population. The selected study area for the vaccine trial (approximately 755 square kilometers) is divided into three zones each of which has similar characteristics in terms of size, number of main badger setts, cattle herds, cattle and land classification type. Three vaccination levels (100%, 50% and 0%) will be allocated to the three zones in a way that a gradient of vaccination coverage North to South is achieved. The middle zone (zone B) will be vaccinated at a 50% coverage but zone A and C will be randomly allocated with 100% or 0% vaccination coverage. Vaccination within zone B will be done randomly at individual badger level. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a field tuberculosis vaccination trial for badgers, the epidemiological methods that were used to design the trial and the subsequent data analysis. The analysis will enable us to quantify the magnitude of the observed vaccination effect on M. bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions and to improve our knowledge of the biological effects of vaccination on susceptibility and infectiousness. PMID:21450420

  17. Environmental silica in badger lungs: a possible association with susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, D.A.; Kung, I.T.; Or, R.S.

    1985-04-01

    Badger lungs contain dark granular foci (0.2 to 2.0 mm) comprising aggregates of enlarged macrophages containing birefringent crystalline particles. Particles were examined from the lungs of three badgers; many were silicates and a significant number were pure silica (SiO/sub 2/). The particles and the accompanying pathology resembled mixed dust fibrosis and silicosis in humans, diseases associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis.

  18. Bovine tuberculosis in a free ranging red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Doana National Park (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martn-Atance, P; Palomares, F; Gonzlez-Candela, M; Revilla, E; Cubero, M J; Calzada, J; Len-Vizcano, L

    2005-04-01

    During 1997 and 1998, a survey of Iberian carnivores was conducted to study the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in the Doana National Park and surrounding areas in southwestern Spain. Post-mortem examinations were done on seven red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), one weasel (Mustela nivalis), two genets (Genetta genetta), one Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one Eurasian badger (Meles meles), and two polecats (Mustela putorius). Lesions suggestive of bovine tuberculosis were not detected but, in culture, Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes of one adult male red fox. This is the first report of M. bovis infection in red fox in Spain. PMID:16107680

  19. Eliminating bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: insight from a dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Wood, James L N

    2015-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a multi-species infection that commonly affects cattle and badgers in Great Britain. Despite years of study, the impact of badgers on BTB incidence in cattle is poorly understood. Using a two-host transmission model of BTB in cattle and badgers, we find that published data and parameter estimates are most consistent with a system at the threshold of control. The most consistent explanation for data obtained from cattle and badger populations includes within-host reproduction numbers close to 1 and between-host reproduction numbers of approximately 0.05. In terms of controlling infection in cattle, reducing cattle-to-cattle transmission is essential. In some regions, even large reductions in badger prevalence can have a modest impact on cattle infection and a multi-stranded approach is necessary that also targets badger-to-cattle transmission directly. The new perspective highlighted by this two-host approach provides insight into the control of BTB in Great Britain. PMID:25972466

  20. Eliminating bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: insight from a dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Wood, James L. N.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a multi-species infection that commonly affects cattle and badgers in Great Britain. Despite years of study, the impact of badgers on BTB incidence in cattle is poorly understood. Using a two-host transmission model of BTB in cattle and badgers, we find that published data and parameter estimates are most consistent with a system at the threshold of control. The most consistent explanation for data obtained from cattle and badger populations includes within-host reproduction numbers close to 1 and between-host reproduction numbers of approximately 0.05. In terms of controlling infection in cattle, reducing cattle-to-cattle transmission is essential. In some regions, even large reductions in badger prevalence can have a modest impact on cattle infection and a multi-stranded approach is necessary that also targets badger-to-cattle transmission directly. The new perspective highlighted by this two-host approach provides insight into the control of BTB in Great Britain. PMID:25972466

  1. Farmer attitudes to vaccination and culling of badgers in controlling bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Warren, M; Lobley, M; Winter, M

    2013-07-13

    Controversy persists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland concerning methods of controlling the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between badgers and cattle. The National Trust, a major land-owning heritage organisation, in 2011, began a programme of vaccinating badgers against bTB on its Killerton Estate in Devon. Most of the estate is farmed by 18 tenant farmers, who thus have a strong interest in the Trust's approach, particularly as all have felt the effects of the disease. This article reports on a study of the attitudes to vaccination of badgers and to the alternative of a culling programme, using face-to-face interviews with 14 of the tenants. The results indicated first that the views of the respondents were more nuanced than the contemporary public debate about badger control would suggest. Secondly, the attitude of the interviewees to vaccination of badgers against bTB was generally one of resigned acceptance. Thirdly, most respondents would prefer a combination of an effective vaccination programme with an effective culling programme, the latter reducing population of density sufficiently (and preferably targeting the badgers most likely to be diseased) for vaccination to have a reasonable chance of success. While based on a small sample, these results will contribute to the vigorous debate concerning contrasting policy approaches to bTB control in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. PMID:23775132

  2. Pathogen and rodenticide exposure in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in California.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jessica H; Girard, Yvette A; Gilardi, Kirsten; Hernandez, Yvette; Poppenga, Robert; Chomel, Bruno B; Foley, Janet E; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-04-01

    Urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. American badgers (Taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in California, USA, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. As such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to control nuisance wildlife on agricultural lands. We evaluated free-ranging badgers in California for exposure to pathogens and anticoagulant rodenticides that pose a risk to wildlife, domestic animals, or public health. We found serologic evidence of badger exposure to Francisella tularensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, canine distemper virus, and three Bartonella species: B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Badger tissues contained anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum and bromadiolone, commonly used to control periurban rodent pests. These data provide a preliminary investigation of pathogen and toxicant exposure in the wild badger population. PMID:22493124

  3. 'Big science' in the field: experimenting with badgers and bovine TB, 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Since wild badgers were first connected with outbreaks of bovine TB (bTB) in UK cattle herds in the early 1970s, the question of whether to cull them to control infections in cattle has been the subject of a protracted public and policy controversy. Following the recommendation of Prof. John Krebs that a "scientifically based experimental trial" be carried out to test the effectiveness of badger culling, the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) was commissioned by Government in 1998. One of the largest field experiments ever conducted in the UK, the RBCT sought to recreate the conditions of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) across approximately 3000km(2) of the South West of England. Despite widespread expectations that the RBCT would provide the necessary evidence to resolve the controversy, its findings have instead been widely contested and reinterpreted, while arguments over badger culling have become increasingly polarised. This paper will investigate the complexities of field experimental knowledge by following the story of the RBCT from this initial proposal, through processes of research design, implementation, analysis, interpretation and reinterpretation of the findings by multiple actors. It asks what kind of experiment the RBCT actually was, and examines how it has contributed to the protracted controversy over whether to cull badgers in order to control bTB in cattle. Finally, it will explore the wider implications of this case for contemporary debates over the contribution that RCTs can make to formulating public policy. PMID:26141169

  4. Localized reactive badger culling increases risk of bovine tuberculosis in nearby cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Vial, Flavie; Donnelly, Christl A

    2012-02-23

    Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle is complicated by the maintenance of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bTB) in badgers, acting as reservoirs of infection. Although over 20 000 badgers were culled to control bTB between 1975 and 1997, the incidence of bTB in cattle has substantially increased in parts of Great Britain in recent decades. Our case-control study, involving 1208 cattle herds, provides further evidence of the detrimental effect of localized reactive badger culling in response to the disclosure of a confirmed bTB herd breakdown in cattle. The presence of any reactive badger culling activity and increased numbers of badgers culled in the vicinity of a herd were associated with significantly increased bTB risk, even after adjusting for other important local risk factors. Such findings may partly explain why some earlier localized approaches to bTB control were ineffective. PMID:21752812

  5. Efficacy of trapping during the initial proactive culls in the randomised badger culling trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C; Cheeseman, C L

    2007-05-26

    The randomised badger culling trial (RBCT) has shown that widespread badger culling in predefined areas of approximately 100 km2 led to a reduction in the number of cattle herds testing positive for bovine tuberculosis (TB) ('herd breakdowns'), but was associated with an increase in cattle tb in surrounding areas. This study has tried to estimate the trapping efficacy and the level of reduction of the badger population during the initial proactive culls in the RBCT. For seven triplets trapping efficacy was estimated between 71 per cent and 85 per cent, and for three triplets between 35 per cent and 46 per cent. Two of the latter triplets had trapping coinciding with harsh climatic conditions. Badger population removal was estimated at 64 per cent to 77 per cent in the former and 32 per cent to 39 per cent in the latter triplets. In most of the treatment areas there was therefore a consistent and substantial reduction in the number of badgers at the end of the initial cull. All the proactive treatment areas were subjected to further culls, and it is therefore likely that greater reductions would have occurred by the end of 2005, when the analysis of cattle herd breakdowns took place. PMID:17526893

  6. 77 FR 71587 - Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Badger Creek Limited's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 75 FR 43556 - Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Sourcepoint Staffing, Seek, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30070). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Sourcepoint... Adjustment Assistance on April 28, 2010, applicable to workers of Badger Meter, Inc., including...

  8. American badgers selectively excavate burrows in areas used by black-footed ferrets: implications for predator avoidance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated how American badgers (Taxidea taxus) might exert selective pressure on black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) to develop antipredator defenses. In a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in South Dakota, badgers concentrated their activities where burrow openings and prairie dogs were abundant, a selective behavior that was exhibited by ferrets in the same colony. Badgers excavated burrows more often when in areas recently used by a ferret, suggesting that badgers hunt ferrets or steal prey from ferrets, or both. We also conducted an analysis of survival studies for ferrets and Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii) released onto prairie dog colonies. This polecat is the ferret's ecological equivalent but evolved without a digging predator. Badgers accounted for 30.0% of predation on polecats and 5.5% of predation on ferrets. In contrast, both polecats and ferrets have evolutionary experience with canids, providing a plausible explanation for the similar relative impact of coyotes (Canis latrans) on them (65.0% and 67.1% of predation, respectively). We hypothesize that ferrets and badgers coexist because ferrets are superior at exploitation competition and are efficient at avoiding badgers, and badgers are superior at interference competition.

  9. 75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS, and Service First, Menomonee Falls, WI; Amended Certification Regarding..., including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee Falls... Maysteel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS,...

  10. Valence bond phases in S = 1/2 Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Mohammad H.; Mosadeq, Hamid; Shahbazi, Farhad; Jafari, S. A.

    2014-11-01

    The phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model in a classical limit [47] contains disordered regions in the coupling space, as the result of competition between different terms in the Hamiltonian, leading to frustration in finding a unique ground state. In this work we explore the nature of these phases in the quantum limit, for a S = 1/2. Employing exact diagonalization in Sz and nearest neighbour valence bond bases, and bond and plaquette valence bond mean field theories, we show that the disordered regions are divided into ordered quantum states in the form of plaquette valence bond crystals and staggered dimerized phases.

  11. Coexistence of magnetic and topological phases in the asymmetric Kane-Mele-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakoshi, Shohei; Ohta, Yukinori

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices, we investigate the mass imbalance effects on the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. Using the variational cluster approach, we show that the mass imbalance introduces the spin anisotropy in the magnetic structure and induces the topological phase transition between the topological phases with helical edge state and chiral edge state. We also show that the intermediate state with coexistence of magnetic and topological phases can be realized as the integer quantum Hall effect.

  12. Aboveground predation by an American badger (Taxidea taxus) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    During research on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), we repeatedly observed a female American badger (Taxidea taxus) hunting prairie dogs on a colony in southern Phillips County, Montana. During 1-14 June 2006, we observed 7 aboveground attacks (2 successful) and 3 successful excavations of prairie dogs. The locations and circumstances of aboveground attacks suggested that the badger improved her probability of capturing prairie dogs by planning the aboveground attacks based on perceptions of speeds, angles, distances, and predicted escape responses of prey. Our observations add to previous reports on the complex and varied predatory methods and cognitive capacities of badgers. These observations also underscore the individuality of predators and support the concept that predators are active participants in predator-prey interactions.

  13. Tuberculosis in East Sussex. IV. A systematic examination of wild mammals other than badgers for tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilesmith, J. W.; Sayers, P. E.; Little, T. W.; Brewer, J. I.; Bode, R.; Hillman, G. D.; Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the possible role of wild mammals, other than badgers, in the maintenance of Mycobacterium bovis in an area on the South Downs of East Sussex was carried out over 3 years. Estimates of population sizes were made where possible and minimum sample sizes were selected to be 95% certain of including at least one infected animal if the prevalence was at least 5%. Samples of wild mammals were taken from populations which had the highest potential direct or indirect contact rate with known infected badgers. M. bovis was not isolated from any of the 15 species of wild mammals. It was concluded that badgers are able to maintain M. bovis in an area independently of other species, and that in the area studied other species were not a source of infection for the cattle herds. PMID:3525673

  14. Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Hue-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chan, Fang-Tse; Wang, Hurng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 20122013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the RABV affecting the Taiwan ferret badgers (RABV-TWFB) is a distinct lineage within the group of lineages from Asia and that it has been differentiated from its closest lineages, China I (including isolates from Chinese ferret badgers) and the Philippines, 158210 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of RABV-TWFB originated 91113 years ago. Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host. PMID:24751120

  15. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual Neandertal features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

  16. Tuberculosis in East Sussex. III. Comparison of post-mortem and clinical methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in badgers.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.; Wilesmith, J. W.; Cheeseman, C. L.; Brewer, J. I.; Bode, R.; Sayers, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Following epidemiological and ecological studies of a defined badger population in an area of East Sussex, removal of all badgers by cage trapping was attempted. Trapping was incomplete due to the activities of protesters. Forty-seven badgers were caught from the eight social groups. All badgers were examined clinically and samples of faeces, urine and tracheal aspirate were taken, together with swabs from any bite wounds, for bacteriological examinations. Forty-five animals were skin tested using whole killed cells of Mycobacterium bovis strain AN5, bovine PPD Weybridge and new human tuberculin. Skin test results were recorded after 24 and 72 h. All badgers were killed and subjected to a post-mortem and bacteriological examination. M. bovis was detected in 10 (21.3%) badgers at post-mortem and in 2 badgers from clinical samples. Four social groups were infected. Positive skin test results were recorded at 72 h with bovine PPD (2 micrograms and 20 micrograms/ml), strain AN5 (1 mg/ml) and human tuberculin (2 micrograms/ml), but not with human tuberculin at 20 micrograms/ml. Histological sections of the skin test reactions showed the cellular types typical of delayed-type hypersensitivity. The skin test reactions observed were neither sensitive nor specific enough to be of practical value. PMID:3525672

  17. Performing Arts Program, Badger High School: Justification, Proposal, Implementation, Stage One Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Dan

    This document presents a justification, proposal, and implementation plan for a comprehensive theatre arts program at Badger High School, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin that would offer a full schedule of amateur and professional arts programs involving the students and the community. The brief Justification section notes that every elementary and

  18. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Local Transmission Patterns of Mycobacterium bovis in Sympatric Cattle and Badger Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David; Mallon, Tom; McCormick, Carl; Orton, Richard J.; McDowell, Stanley; Trewby, Hannah; Skuce, Robin A.; Kao, Rowland R.

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) technology holds great promise as a tool for the forensic epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. It is likely to be particularly useful for studying the transmission dynamics of an observed epidemic involving a largely unsampled reservoir host, as for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British and Irish cattle and badgers. BTB is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex that also includes the aetiological agent for human TB. In this study, we identified a spatio-temporally linked group of 26 cattle and 4 badgers infected with the same Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) type of M. bovis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between sequences identified differences that were consistent with bacterial lineages being persistent on or near farms for several years, despite multiple clear whole herd tests in the interim. Comparing WGS data to mathematical models showed good correlations between genetic divergence and spatial distance, but poor correspondence to the network of cattle movements or within-herd contacts. Badger isolates showed between zero and four SNP differences from the nearest cattle isolate, providing evidence for recent transmissions between the two hosts. This is the first direct genetic evidence of M. bovis persistence on farms over multiple outbreaks with a continued, ongoing interaction with local badgers. However, despite unprecedented resolution, directionality of transmission cannot be inferred at this stage. Despite the often notoriously long timescales between time of infection and time of sampling for TB, our results suggest that WGS data alone can provide insights into TB epidemiology even where detailed contact data are not available, and that more extensive sampling and analysis will allow for quantification of the extent and direction of transmission between cattle and badgers. PMID:23209404

  19. Whole genome sequencing reveals local transmission patterns of Mycobacterium bovis in sympatric cattle and badger populations.

    PubMed

    Biek, Roman; O'Hare, Anthony; Wright, David; Mallon, Tom; McCormick, Carl; Orton, Richard J; McDowell, Stanley; Trewby, Hannah; Skuce, Robin A; Kao, Rowland R

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) technology holds great promise as a tool for the forensic epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. It is likely to be particularly useful for studying the transmission dynamics of an observed epidemic involving a largely unsampled 'reservoir' host, as for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British and Irish cattle and badgers. BTB is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex that also includes the aetiological agent for human TB. In this study, we identified a spatio-temporally linked group of 26 cattle and 4 badgers infected with the same Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) type of M. bovis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between sequences identified differences that were consistent with bacterial lineages being persistent on or near farms for several years, despite multiple clear whole herd tests in the interim. Comparing WGS data to mathematical models showed good correlations between genetic divergence and spatial distance, but poor correspondence to the network of cattle movements or within-herd contacts. Badger isolates showed between zero and four SNP differences from the nearest cattle isolate, providing evidence for recent transmissions between the two hosts. This is the first direct genetic evidence of M. bovis persistence on farms over multiple outbreaks with a continued, ongoing interaction with local badgers. However, despite unprecedented resolution, directionality of transmission cannot be inferred at this stage. Despite the often notoriously long timescales between time of infection and time of sampling for TB, our results suggest that WGS data alone can provide insights into TB epidemiology even where detailed contact data are not available, and that more extensive sampling and analysis will allow for quantification of the extent and direction of transmission between cattle and badgers. PMID:23209404

  20. Electric and geometric controlling of the magnetic coupling in Kane-Mele nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Weicheng; Zou, Liang-Jian; Lin, H.-Q.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we show that indirect spin interaction J between two magnetic impurities located on honeycomb Kane-Mele zigzag/armchair ribbons (KMZR/KMAR) is easily controlled by staggered potential and geometry. We demonstrate that J in periodic-boundary KMZR reaches maximum at the edges, and oscillates between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic couplings when tuning the sublattice staggered potential ?. The odd-even length effect of J in KMZR and the width dependence of J in KMAR are also presented. These results clearly demonstrate the unique role of topological edge states and finite-size effect in magnetic coupling of quantum spin Hall (QSH) ribbons, and the controllability of the edge magnetism, hence favoring the fabrication of the spintronic devices in two-dimensional buckled honeycomb materials, e.g., silicene and germanene.

  1. Electric and geometric controlling of the magnetic coupling in Kane-Mele nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Weicheng; Zou, Liang-Jian; Lin, H.-Q.

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, we show that indirect spin interaction J between two magnetic impurities located on honeycomb Kane-Mele zigzag/armchair ribbons (KMZR/KMAR) is easily controlled by staggered potential and geometry. We demonstrate that J in periodic-boundary KMZR reaches maximum at the edges, and oscillates between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic couplings when tuning the sublattice staggered potential Δ. The odd-even length effect of J in KMZR and the width dependence of J in KMAR are also presented. These results clearly demonstrate the unique role of topological edge states and finite-size effect in magnetic coupling of quantum spin Hall (QSH) ribbons, and the controllability of the edge magnetism, hence favoring the fabrication of the spintronic devices in two-dimensional buckled honeycomb materials, e.g., silicene and germanene.

  2. Anomalous band inversion protected by symmetry in a topological insulator of the Kane-Mele model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie-Xiang; Che, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing Au on a graphene derivative, which involves substituting four C atoms with three N atoms in a 3 3 cell graphene, we realized a topological insulator of the Kane-Mele model with a gap of 50 meV surrounding the Dirac point of graphene. In this material, we observed an anomalous band inversion (BI) protected by the symmetry with character e of group C3 V. The symmetry constrains two e bands with mirror-symmetry combination and mirror-antisymmetry combination (MAC) of Au and N orbitals degenerate at ? , whereas the interaction of ?* of graphene on the e -MAC band tends to lift this degenerate, resulting in that the ?* and e -MAC band exchange their orbital components near ? , causing thus a discontinued BI.

  3. Topological quantum phase transition in Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yin; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Han-Tao; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2013-12-01

    We systematically explore the ground-state phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model on the honeycomb lattice; particularly, we focus on its magnetic properties, which are ubiquitous and important in many realistic heavy-fermion materials but have not been clearly studied in the previous publication [X. Y. Feng, J. Dai, C. H. Chung, and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.016402 111, 016402 (2013)]. Besides the Kondo insulator found in that paper, two kinds of antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave phases are discovered. One is the normal antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave state and the other is a nontrivial topological antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave state, which shows the unexpected Z2 topological order with a quantized spin Hall conductance and a helical edge state similar to the hotly studied topological insulators. The quantum spin Hall insulator in the work of Feng is found to be absent since it is always unstable to antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave states at least at the mean-field level in our model. Interestingly, the transition between the two spin-density-wave phases is an exotic topological quantum phase transition, whose critical behavior is described by an emergent three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics, in which conduction electrons contribute to the low-energy Dirac fermions while the spin-wave fluctuation of local spins gives rise to an effective dynamic U(1) gauge field. Such nontrivial transition shows radical critical thermodynamic, transport, and single-particle behaviors, which provide a fingerprint for this transition. Additionally, the transition of antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave states to the Kondo insulator is found to be first order. The introduction of two novel magnetic phases and their topological quantum phase transition show rich and intrinsic physics involved in the Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model.

  4. Eurasian Heat Waves: Mechanisms and Predictability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hailan; Schubert, Siegfried; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the NASA MERRA reanalysis and GEOS 5 model simulations to examine the causes of Eurasian heat waves including the recent extreme events that occurred in Europe during 2003 and in Russia during 2010. The focus is on the warm season and the part of the Eurasian continent that extends north of about 40oN, or roughly to the north of the mean upper tropospheric jet stream. The results show that such extreme events are an amplification of natural patterns of atmospheric variability that develop over the Eurasian continent as a result of internal atmospheric forcing. The amplification occurs when the wave occasionally becomes locked in place for several weeks to months resulting in extreme heat and drying with the location depending on the phase of the upper atmospheric wave. An ensemble of very long GEOS-S model simulations (spanning the 20th century) forced with observed SST and greenhouse gases show that the model is capable of generating very similar heat waves, and that they have become more intense in the last thirty years as a result of the overall warming of the Asian continent. Sensitivity experiments with perturbed initial conditions indicate that these events have limited predictability.

  5. Herd-level bovine tuberculosis risk factors: assessing the role of low-level badger population disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wright, David M; Reid, Neil; Ian Montgomery, W; Allen, Adrian R; Skuce, Robin A; Kao, Rowland R

    2015-01-01

    Bovine TB (bTB) is endemic in Irish cattle and has eluded eradication despite considerable expenditure, amid debate over the relative roles of badgers and cattle in disease transmission. Using a comprehensive dataset from Northern Ireland (>10,000?km(2); 29,513 cattle herds), we investigated interactions between host populations in one of the first large-scale risk factor analyses for new herd breakdowns to combine data on both species. Cattle risk factors (movements, international imports, bTB history, neighbours with bTB) were more strongly associated with herd risk than area-level measures of badger social group density, habitat suitability or persecution (sett disturbance). Highest risks were in areas of high badger social group density and high rates of persecution, potentially representing both responsive persecution of badgers in high cattle risk areas and effects of persecution on cattle bTB risk through badger social group disruption. Average badger persecution was associated with reduced cattle bTB risk (compared with high persecution areas), so persecution may contribute towards sustaining bTB hotspots; findings with important implications for existing and planned disease control programmes. PMID:26279310

  6. Herd-level bovine tuberculosis risk factors: assessing the role of low-level badger population disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David M.; Reid, Neil; Ian Montgomery, W.; Allen, Adrian R.; Skuce, Robin A.; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine TB (bTB) is endemic in Irish cattle and has eluded eradication despite considerable expenditure, amid debate over the relative roles of badgers and cattle in disease transmission. Using a comprehensive dataset from Northern Ireland (>10,000?km2; 29,513 cattle herds), we investigated interactions between host populations in one of the first large-scale risk factor analyses for new herd breakdowns to combine data on both species. Cattle risk factors (movements, international imports, bTB history, neighbours with bTB) were more strongly associated with herd risk than area-level measures of badger social group density, habitat suitability or persecution (sett disturbance). Highest risks were in areas of high badger social group density and high rates of persecution, potentially representing both responsive persecution of badgers in high cattle risk areas and effects of persecution on cattle bTB risk through badger social group disruption. Average badger persecution was associated with reduced cattle bTB risk (compared with high persecution areas), so persecution may contribute towards sustaining bTB hotspots; findings with important implications for existing and planned disease control programmes. PMID:26279310

  7. Foods of American badgers in west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during the duck nesting season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roaldson, J.M.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Although the American badger (Taxidea taxus) is common in grasslands and preys on a wide diversity of foods including birds, little is known about badger diet in areas where nesting ducks are common. Small mammals, primarily Muridae and Geomyidae, were the most common food items in the diet of badgers collected from west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during April-July 1987 through 1990, based on analysis of gastrointestinal tracts of 47 adult ( 1/4 -y-old) and 5 juvenile (<6-mo-old) badgers. Remains of mammals occurred in 98% of samples from adult badgers. Small quantities of insects were found in 40% of adult samples. Bird remains were in 32% of adult samples, most birds identified as Anatidae; ducks or ducklings occurred in 27% and duck eggs in 60% of those samples. Remains of reptiles, amphibians and mollusks were present, but were less common than other foods. Insects and bird eggs were more common during spring (April-May) than summer (June-July). Birds were more frequent in diets of adults than juvenile badgers.

  8. Optimising and Evaluating the Characteristics of a Multiple Antigen ELISA for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Badger Vaccine Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Inma; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J.; Whelan, Clare; Martin, Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Murphy, Denise; De Jong, Mart C. M.

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU) obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%), while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation. PMID:24983473

  9. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petj, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrj; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing stations networks in the Northern Pan-Eurasian region.

  10. Targeted badger removal and the subsequent risk of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in county Laois, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Olea-Popelka, F J; Fitzgerald, P; White, P; McGrath, G; Collins, J D; O'Keeffe, J; Kelton, D F; Berke, O; More, S; Martin, S W

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the impact of targeted removal of badgers on the subsequent bovine tuberculosis (BTB) risk in cattle herds in county Laois, Ireland. The study period was 1989-2005. For each of 122 targeted badger-removal licenses (permit to remove badgers in the proximity of cattle herds undergoing a serious BTB episode), the herd number (index herd) for which the license was given was obtained. The herds in the proximity of the index herd were identified from another database. The main "exposure" in our study was the geographical location of herds relative to the area in which targeted badger removal was conducted. We categorized herds into five different exposure groups: herds were classified as non-exposed and denoted as group 0 (reference group) if they were located 500 m or more from the edge of any parcel of land of the index herd; group 1, was the index herds, group 2 the immediate (contiguous) neighbors of the index herd, group 3 herds were not immediate neighbors but within 150 m and group 4 herds were between 150 m and 500 m distance from the edge of any parcel of land of the index herd, respectively. We conducted a survival analysis (allowing multiple failures per herd) to compare the hazard of having a BTB episode in any of the four groups of exposed herds vs. the hazard in herds in the reference group. We controlled for other known risk factors as well taking into account a temporal component. Our analysis showed that the hazard ratio for the index herds (group 1) were non-significantly increased, indicating that there was no difference in the hazard of failing a BTB test (after the targeted badger removal was conducted) between index herds and reference herds. For the rest of the herds farther away from badger removal activities the hazards were lower than herds in areas not under badger removal. The hazard in the reference group decreased over the study period. PMID:18945503

  11. European Transmission Interconnection; Eurasian power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Systems and philosophies perceived on a grand scale, encompassing new ideas, are often characterized as a dream. But in fact, such dreams often lead to the first step to fruitful development. This article is based on a preliminary study of the existing electrical high-tension networks of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union - which, as explained herein, may be merged into a multinational energy supply system. Such a system would constitute a completely interconnected Eurasian Power Grid. The idea of a Eurasian super grid, spanning from the Atlantic to the Ural and Siberia, is not new. Various studies have been conducted by both western Europe and the Soviet Union on this topic. Our world is currently in an era of extra high voltage (EHV) and ultra high voltage (UHV) electrical systems. This translates into existing UHV lines of 1150 kV which have already been proven in successful operation. Such UHV systems are capable of transmitting thousands of megawatts over a distance of a 1000 miles. Furthermore, national boundaries are not more a hindrance than the challenge of interconnecting complete networks into an overall synchronized working system with load exchange capabilities in all directions.

  12. Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, Manuel; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    Spin-orbit (SO) coupling is the crucial parameter to drive topological-insulating phases in electronic band models. In particular, the generic emergence of SO coupling involves the Rashba term which fully breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry. As soon as interactions are taken into account, however, many theoretical studies have to content themselves with the analysis of a simplified U(1)-conserving SO term without Rashba coupling. We intend to fill this gap by studying the Kane-Mele-Hubbard (KMH) model in the presence of Rashba SO coupling and present the first systematic analysis of the effect of Rashba SO coupling in a correlated two-dimensional topological insulator. We apply the variational cluster approach (VCA) to determine the interacting phase diagram by computing local density of states, magnetization, single particle spectral function, and edge states. Preceded by a detailed VCA analysis of the KMH model in the presence of U(1)-conserving SO coupling, we find that the additional Rashba SO coupling drives new electronic phases such as a metallic regime and a weak topological-semiconductor phase which persist in the presence of interactions.

  13. "My Business Was Not with Lost Souls and the Underprivileged": The Contribution of Colin Badger (1906-1993) to Adult Education in Victoria, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushbrook, Peter

    Colin Badger was an adult educator who contributed to Victorian adult education in Australia. After graduating from the University of Adelaide in 1936, Badger became a tutor for the South Australian Workers Education Association (WEA), where he became aware of the possibilities of adult education. After study in London, he returned to Australia to…

  14. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hrd; Mrner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

  15. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hrd; Mrner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

  16. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  17. Risk of tuberculosis cattle herd breakdowns in Ireland: effects of badger culling effort, density and historic large-scale interventions.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; White, Paul W; McGrath, Guy; O'Keeffe, James; Martin, S Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) continues to be a problem in cattle herds in Ireland and Britain. It has been suggested that failure to eradicate this disease is related to the presence of a wildlife reservoir (the badger). A large-scale project was undertaken in the Republic of Ireland during 1997-2002 to assess whether badger removal could contribute to reducing risk of cattle herd breakdowns in four areas. During the period of that "four area" study, there was a significant decrease in risk in intensively culled (removal) areas relative to reference areas. In the present study, we revisit these areas to assess if there were any residual area effects of this former intervention a decade on (2007-2012). Over the study period there was an overall declining trend in bTB breakdown risk to cattle herds. Cattle herds within former removal areas experienced significantly reduced risk of breakdown relative to herds within former reference areas or herds within non-treatment areas (OR: 0.53; P < 0.001). Increased herd breakdown risk was associated with increasing herd size (OR: 1.92-2.03; P < 0.001) and herd bTB history (OR: 2.25-2.40; P < 0.001). There was increased risk of herd breakdowns in areas with higher badger densities, but this association was only significant early in the study (PD*YEAR interaction; P < 0.001). Badgers were culled in areas with higher cattle bTB risk (targeted culling). Risk tended to decline with cumulative culling effort only in three counties, but increased in the fourth (Donegal). Culling badgers is not seen as a viable long-term strategy. However, mixed policy options with biosecurity and badger vaccination, may help in managing cattle breakdown risk. PMID:25344430

  18. Contrasting Eurasian spring and summer climate anomalies associated with western and eastern Eurasian spring snow cover changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Liu, Ge; Ping, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Spring snow cover variations over Eurasia consist of a same-sign component and a west-east dipole component. The same-sign component is dominant during late 1970s through 1980s, and the two components are equally important during 1990s and 2000s. Present study contrasted Eurasian spring and summer climate anomalies associated with western and eastern Eurasian spring snow cover variations and between 1975-1989 and 1993-2007 and found notable differences and obvious interdecadal changes in Eurasian climate anomalies. After 1990, spring surface temperature anomalies display an obvious west-east contrast pattern, consistent with a prominent atmospheric wave pattern over Eurasia. The temperature anomalies are larger corresponding to western than eastern Eurasian snow cover change. Snow-albedo effect plays a main role in temperature change during 1975-1989, whereas atmospheric processes also contribute largely to temperature change during 1993-2007. Large soil moisture anomalies occur corresponding to western Eurasian snow cover and during 1975-1989. The snow-hydrological effect on summer precipitation is mainly detected over the West Siberian Plain where soil moisture anomalies persist over 3 months. Over most of other Eurasian regions, atmospheric circulation pattern plays a dominant role in summer surface temperature and precipitation variations. The relationship of Indian summer rainfall to western Eurasian spring snow cover was weakened since the mid-1990s, and the correlation of Northeast China summer rainfall with local spring snow cover changed from positive to negative around 1990.

  19. Hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks Artificial-Recharge Project : Morgan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Alan W.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks artificial-recharge project in Morgan County, Colo., was made with the aid of three digital computer models: A canal-distribution model, a ground-water flow model, and a stream-aquifer model. Statistical summaries of probable diversions from the South Platte River based on a 27-year period of historical flows indicate that an average-annual diversion of 96,000 acre-feet and a median-annual diversion of 43,000 acre-feet would be available. Diversions would sustain water in ponds for waterfowl habitat for an average of about five months per year, with a miximum pond surface area of about 300 acres with the median diversions and a maximum pond surface area of about 1,250 acres at least one-half of the years with the historic diversions. If the annual diversion were 43,000 acre-feet, recharge to the two alluvial aquifers would raise water levels sufficiently to create flowing streams in the channels of Beaver and Badger Creeks while allowing an increase in current ground-water pumping. The only area of significant waterlogging would be along the proposed delivery canal on the west edge of Badger Creek valley. If the total water available were diverted, the aquifer system could not transmit the water fast enough to the irrigation areas to avoid considerable waterlogging in the recharge areas. The impact of the proposed project on the South Platte River basin would be minimal once the ground-water system attained steady-state conditions, but that may take decades with a uniform diversion of the 43,000 acre-feet annually. (USGS)

  20. The association between the bovine tuberculosis status of herds in the East Offaly Project Area, and the distance to badger setts, 1988-1993.

    PubMed

    Martin, S W; Eves, J A; Dolan, L A; Hammond, R F; Griffin, J M; Collins, J D; Shoukri, M M

    1997-07-01

    The proximity of farms to badger setts was compared between farms that had experienced a tuberculosis breakdown and those that had not, over the 6 year period from 1988 to 1993. The data were derived from a badger removal study conducted in East Offaly County in the Republic of Ireland. Badger removal began in 1989 and continued through 1993; by the end of 1990, approximately 80% of all badgers caught in the 6 year period had been removed. All badgers were examined, grossly, for evidence of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis status of the approximately 900 study herds was based on the results of the single intradermal comparative skin test and/or lesions of bovine tuberculosis. All herds were tested at least once annually. The number of herds experiencing bovine tuberculosis declined over the period, particularly in the years 1992 and 1993. The data on farm and badger sett location were stored and analysed, initially, in a geographical information system. Owing to the badger removal programme, the distance between the barn yard of a typical farm and the nearest occupied badger sett increased, by about 300 m year-1, and by about 600 m year-1 to the closest infected sett. In bivariate analyses, in the years 1988 and 1989, the risk of tuberculosis declined with increasing distance to a badger sett containing one or more tuberculous badgers. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, year and the average number of cattle tested per farm per year were controlled. A second identical analysis was conducted to control for the repeated observations on the same herds using generalised estimating equations. In both analyses, the risk of a multiple reactor tuberculosis breakdown decreased for herds at least 1000 m away from an infected badger sett, and increased as the number of infected badgers per infected sett increased. Despite the significantly reduced risk of a breakdown with increasing distance to infected badger setts, the relationship was not strong (sensitivity and specificity of the model in the low 70% range) and explained only 9-19% of tuberculosis breakdowns. PMID:9234430

  1. Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), a definitive host for Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kiku; Baek, Byeong-Kirl; Lim, Chae-Woong

    2003-06-01

    A mature male and a mature female Dirofilaria immitis were found in the right ventricle of the heart of a naturally infected 2-yr-old male Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) that had died of severe lung congestion at a zoo in South Korea. Both developing embryos and microfilariae were present in the uterus of the female D. immitis. Although circulating microfilariae were not detected in blood or tissue, the Eurasian otter may serve as a definitive host for D. immitis. PMID:12885140

  2. Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, Joseph K; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Reich, David

    2014-02-18

    The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter-gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter-gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger-Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ?900-1,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe-Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ?2,700-3,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. PMID:24550290

  3. Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Joseph K.; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous huntergatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African huntergatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to NigerCongo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ?9001,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak KhoeKwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ?2,7003,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. PMID:24550290

  4. Public attitudes towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    White, P C; Whiting, S J

    2000-08-12

    In 1999, a questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate public preferences towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Three alternative treatments were considered: (1) widespread culling, (2) the current experimental trials, and (3) no culling. One hundred residents from Glastonbury and York were interviewed in person and asked to give preference ratings to each of the three treatments. The single most preferred treatment was no culling, and the least preferred was the widespread cull. Respondents who favoured either the widespread cull or the experimental trials tended to be more knowledgeable about the problem and cited the level of tuberculosis in cattle as the primary factor guiding their preferences. Respondents who favoured the no culling option tended to be less knowledgeable, and cited the conservation and welfare impacts on badger populations as the most important factors. Analysis of the distribution of preference scores suggested that although it was not necessarily the most preferred treatment the experimental trial may be a relatively acceptable alternative. PMID:10985460

  5. Topological phase transition in a generalized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model: A combined quantum Monte Carlo and Green's function study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Wang, Lei; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2013-03-01

    We study a generalized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with third-neighbor hopping, an interacting two-dimensional model with a topological phase transition as a function of third-neighbor hopping, by means of the determinant projector quantum Monte Carlo method. This technique is essentially numerically exact on models without a fermion sign problem, such as the one we consider. We determine the interaction dependence of the Z2 topological insulator/trivial insulator phase boundary by calculating the Z2 invariants directly from the single-particle Green's function. The interactions push the phase boundary to larger values of third-neighbor hopping, thus, stabilizing the topological phase. The observation of boundary shifting entirely stems from quantum fluctuations. We also identify qualitative features of the single-particle Green's function which are computationally useful in numerical searches for topological phase transitions without the need to compute the full topological invariant.

  6. Triplet p + ip pairing correlations in the doped Kane-Mele-Hubbard model: A quantum Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianxing; Lin, Hai-Qing; Gubernatis, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    By using the constrained-phase quantum Monte Carlo method, we performed a systematic study of the pairing correlations in the ground state of the doped Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice. We find that pairing correlations with d + id symmetry dominate close to half-filling, but pairing correlations with p + ip symmetry dominate as hole doping moves the system below three-quarters filling. We correlate these behaviors of the pairing correlations with the topology of the Fermi surfaces of the non-interacting problem. We also find that the effective pairing correlation is enhanced greatly as the interaction increases, and these superconducting correlations are robust against varying the spin-orbit coupling strength. Our numerical results suggest a possible way to realize spin triplet superconductivity in doped honeycomb-like materials or ultracold atoms in optical traps.

  7. BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heltemes, T. A.; Moses, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The BADGER equation of state library was developed to enable inertial confinement fusion plasma codes to more accurately model plasmas in the high-density, low-temperature regime. The code had the capability to calculate 1- and 2-T plasmas using the Thomas-Fermi model and an individual electron accounting model. Ion equation of state data can be calculated using an ideal gas model or via a quotidian equation of state with scaled binding energies. Electron equation of state data can be calculated via the ideal gas model or with an adaptation of the screened hydrogenic model with ?-splitting. The ionization and equation of state calculations can be done in local thermodynamic equilibrium or in a non-LTE mode using a variant of the Busquet equivalent temperature method. The code was written as a stand-alone Fortran library for ease of implementation by external codes. EOS results for aluminum are presented that show good agreement with the SESAME library and ionization calculations show good agreement with the FLYCHK code. Program summaryProgram title: BADGERLIB v1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEND_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEND_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 41 480 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 904 451 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90. Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, or Mac. Operating system: Windows, Linux, MacOS X. RAM: 249.496 kB plus 195.630 kB per isotope record in memory Classification: 19.1, 19.7. Nature of problem: Equation of State (EOS) calculations are necessary for the accurate simulation of high energy density plasmas. Historically, most EOS codes used in these simulations have relied on an ideal gas model. This model is inadequate for low-temperature, high-density plasma conditions; the gaseous and liquid phases; and the solid phase. The BADGER code was developed to give more realistic EOS data in these regimes. Solution method: BADGER has multiple, user-selectable models to treat the ions, average-atom ionization state and electrons. Ion models are ideal gas and quotidian equation of state (QEOS), ionization models are Thomas-Fermi and individual accounting method (IEM) formulation of the screened hydrogenic model (SHM) with l-splitting, electron ionization models are ideal gas and a Helmholtz free energy minimization method derived from the SHM. The default equation of state and ionization models are appropriate for plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The code can calculate non-LTE equation of state (EOS) and ionization data using a simplified form of the Busquet equivalent-temperature method. Restrictions: Physical data are only provided for elements Z=1 to Z=86. Multiple solid phases are not currently supported. Liquid, gas and plasma phases are combined into a generalized "fluid" phase. Unusual features: BADGER divorces the calculation of average-atom ionization from the electron equation of state model, allowing the user to select ionization and electron EOS models that are most appropriate to the simulation. The included ion ideal gas model uses ground-state nuclear spin data to differentiate between isotopes of a given element. Running time: Example provided only takes a few seconds to run.

  8. Effects of Arctic warming on Eurasian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uotila, Petteri; Vihma, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The rapid warming in the Arctic has been one of the most dramatic signs of the climate change during the last decades. Arctic warming has been at least twice as fast as the global mean. Simultaneously with the strong warming in the central Arctic, an increased occurrence of extreme weather events, often of unprecedented strength and duration, has already been observed in the northern hemisphere. In this study we address the effects of Arctic warming patterns on climate extremes in Eurasia, and on the atmospheric circulation linking the Arctic with the mid-latitudes. Our objective is to enhance the understanding of the regional differences in the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages, which is an issue that has received a little attention in previous studies. We focus on the period since 1979, when high quality atmospheric reanalysis data are available. We apply the Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) to extract the geographical patterns of Arctic surface temperature and relate these patterns with composites of atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices. The extreme indices data are derived from the observational HadEX2 data set. We recognise the fact that the remote effects of Arctic warming may occur with a time lag of several weeks. Therefore we compare Arctic surface temperature patterns and temporally lagged composites of atmospheric circulation and climate extreme data. We compute the frequencies of occurrence of Arctic surface temperature patterns and decompose changes in relevant quantities, such as precipitation, into two components. The first component represents quantity changes associated with changes in frequencies of occurrence of temperature patterns, whilst the second component describes quantity changes due to the local temperature change within each surface temperature pattern. Our preliminary results demonstrate fundamental differences in the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages between the western and central parts of the Eurasian continent. For example, in autumn and early winter, the sea ice cover and air temperatures have a different relationship in the western and central Eurasia, but in late winter their statistical relationships turn similar. Furthermore, frequencies of occurrence of Arctic temperature change significantly from the 1980s until the latest decade. These frequency changes are associated with a particularly distinct reorganisation of the atmospheric circulation over Eurasia, while elsewhere the largest contribution to the atmospheric circulation change in the Northern Hemisphere is associated with local changes in Arctic surface temperatures. We are carrying out more analysis with the SOM technique to different seasons and variables that can provide further insights on the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages.

  9. Understanding Higher Education Admissions Reforms in the Eurasian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Todd W.; Gabrscek, Sergij

    2012-01-01

    In the twenty years since independence, new Eurasian nation-states of the former Soviet Union have introduced major changes to the way students are admitted to institutions of higher education. Azerbaijan (1992), Uzbekistan (1993), Kazakhstan (1999), Russia (2001), Kyrgyzstan (2002), Ukraine (2004), and Georgia (2005) have all created new state or

  10. Winter Eurasian Climate Variability: Role of Cyclone and Anticyclone Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Zhang, X.; Guan, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates variability of extratropical Eurasian cyclone and anticyclone activity by using a modified automated cyclone and anticyclone identification and tracking algorithm. The cyclone and anticyclone activities are quantified by their regionally integrated intensity (CI and ACI) during 1978/79-2011/2012 winter seasons. We found that the time evolutions of the CI and ACI exhibit a general negative correlation of -0.7 between them at a significant level of 99.99%. This anticyclone (cyclone) variability contributes to the substantially large-scale sea level pressure variability over extratropical Eurasian continent, and explains the interannual fluctuation of surface air temperature over mid latitude Eurasia as well as the adjacent continents. The ACI swings from one phase to another, also producing large changes in snow cover extend, snow equivalent water as well as frequency of extreme cold events over the Eurasian continent. The strengthening of anticyclone intensity is preceded by retreated of the October sea-ice extent over Barents-Kara Sea, which associates tightly with an increasing stability at lower troposphere around the Ural Mountains and induces strengthening Eurasian anticyclones activity in the subsequent winter.

  11. PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RABIES VIRUS IN FERRET BADGERS ASSOCIATED WITH A RABIES OUTBREAK IN TAIWAN.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hue-Ying; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Inoue, Satoshi; Chan, Fang-Tse; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Pang, Victor Fei

    2016-01-01

    Until Rabies virus (RABV) infection in Taiwan ferret badgers (TWFB; Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) was diagnosed in mid-June 2013, Taiwan had been considered rabies free for >50 yr. Although rabies has also been reported in ferret badgers in China, the pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigens of ferret badger-associated rabies have not been described. We performed a comprehensive pathologic study and molecular detection of rabies virus in three necropsied rabid TWFBs and evaluated archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of six other TWFBs necropsied during 2004 and 2012. As in other RABV-infected species, the characteristic pathologic changes in TWFBs were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, and the formation of typical intracytoplasmic Negri bodies, with the brain stem most affected. There was also variable spongiform degeneration, primarily in the perikaryon of neurons and neuropil, in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brain stem. In nonnervous system tissues, representative lesions included adrenal necrosis and lymphocytic interstitial sialadenitis. Immunohistochemical staining and fluorescent antibody test demonstrated viral antigens in the perikaryon of the neurons and axonal or dendritic processes throughout the nervous tissue and in the macrophages in various tissues. Similar to raccoons (Procyon lotor) and skunks (Mephitidae), the nervous tissue of rabid TWFBs displayed widely dispersed lesions, RABV antigens, and large numbers of Negri bodies. We traced the earliest rabid TWFB case back to 2004. PMID:26560756

  12. Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

    2010-11-24

    A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:20728995

  13. Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or comparable procedures. It will prove a basis for the long-term continuation of advanced measurements on aerosols, clouds, GHGs and trace gases in Northern Pan- Eurasian area to be operated by PEEX educated technical staff.

  14. Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (?(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae. PMID:26198549

  15. Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Jia, Z.; Gao, R.; Fu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of small-scale convection in the upper mantle for the Eurasian region (20°E~170°E,15°N~75°N), using the anomaly of isostatic gravity. The results show that the regional lithospheric tectonics is strongly correlated with the upper mantle flow in the Eurasian region. Two intensive convective belts against the weak background convection can be recognized from convection patterns in this region: Alpine-Himalayan collision belt and West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt. Alpine-Himalayan belt is caused by the collision between the northern plate (Eurasian plate) and the southern plates (African plate and Indian plate). West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Both of them are also seismotectonic belts. The collision and the subduction are two important geological events occurred since Mesozoic era and Cenozoic era in the Eurasian region. Therefore, the mantle flows may be one of the main driving forces of two events. In addition, most plate boundaries in this region can be recognized and the characteristics of upper mantle convection are different completely between the Eurasian plate and the plates around it (African plate, Arabian plate, Indian plate, Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate). Main structures and geodynamic characteristics of the Eurasian can also be explained by our model results. The Tibet plateau is located in the intensive convective belt. Around the belt, the upwelling materials push the lithosphere to lift unitarily and form the plateau. Towards the north of the Tibet plateau, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains, Zungarian Basin and Altai Mountains correspond successively to the downward flow, the upward flow, the downward flow and the upward flow in the mantle. It shows that the basic tectonic pattern of the interphase basin-and-range structure corresponds to the convective pattern of the interphase downward-and-upward flows. In China-Mongolian Continent, the convective pattern in the eastern area of 105°E structural zone is entirely different from the western area, weak in the East and intensive in the West. West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is located in the intensive convective areas and along this northeastern belt, there exist a series of interphase downward-and-upward flows. In summary, our results suggest that small-scale mantle convection in the upper mantle is one of the main driving forces of lithospheric dynamics of the Eurasian region. This work was supported by the Sinoprobe-02 project, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40874067) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20070491520)

  16. Characterization of a rabies virus isolate from a ferret badger (Melogale moschata) with unique molecular differences in glycoprotein antigenic site III.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Fooks, Anthony R; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2010-05-01

    Rabies virus was isolated from the brain of a Chinese ferret badger (Melogale moschata) and identified as having an R333Q substitution within its glycoprotein antigenic site III. Additionally, compared with vaccine strains and other rabies virus isolates from dogs and ferret badgers in China, the isolate had five other amino acid substitutions in its glycoprotein: P(-17)L in the signal peptide, R88H, L225M, and D422E in the ectoplasmic region, and G478E in the cytoplasmic region. This isolate possessed high virulence in suckling, weanling and adult mice. These data indicate that this is a unique rabies virus with a molecular signature that differentiates it from other strains circulating in terrestrial mammals in China. We propose that rabies virus circulates in some ferret badgers in an independent epidemiological cycle unique to China following spillover from domestic dogs or other hosts infected with rabies. PMID:20109507

  17. The phylogeography of Eurasian Fraxinus species reveals ancient transcontinental reticulation.

    PubMed

    Hinsinger, Damien D; Gaudeul, Myriam; Couloux, Arnaud; Bousquet, Jean; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the biogeographical history of ashes species of the Eurasian section Fraxinus and to test the hypothesis of ancient reticulations, we sequenced nuclear DNA (nETS and nITS, 1075 bp) for 533 samples and scored AFLP for 63 samples of Eurasian ashes within the section Fraxinus. The nITS phylogeny retrieved the classical view of the evolution of the section, whereas nETS phylogeny indicated an unexpected separation of F. angustifolia in two paraphyletic groups, respectively found in southeastern Europe and in the other parts of the Mediterranean basin. In the nETS phylogeny, the former group was closely related to F. excelsior, whereas the later was closely related to F. mandshurica, a species which is restricted nowadays to northeastern Asia. This topological incongruence between the two loci indicated the occurrence of an ancient reticulation between European and Asian ash species. Several other ancient reticulation events between the two European species and the other species of the section were supported by the posterior predictive checking method. Some of these reticulation events would have occurred during the Miocene, when climatic variations may have lead these species to expand their distribution range and come into contact. The recurrent reticulations observed among Eurasian ash species indicate that they should be considered as conspecific taxa, with subspecific status for some groups. Altogether, the results of the present study provide a rare documented evidence for the occurrence of multiple ancient reticulations within a group of temperate tree taxa with modern disjunct distributions in Eurasia. These ancient reticulation events indicate that the speciation process is slow in ashes, necessitating long periods of geographical isolation. The implications for speciation processes in temperate trees with similar life history and reproductive biology are discussed. PMID:24795215

  18. Severe mortality of a population of threatened Agassizs desert tortoises: the American badger as a potential predator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emblidge, Patrick G.; Nussear, Ken E.; Esque, Todd; Aiello, Christina M.; Walde, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States, adult Agassizs desert tortoises Gopherus agassizii typically experience high survival, but population declines associated with anthropogenic impacts led to their listing as a threatened Species under the US Endangered Species Act in 1990. Predation of adult tortoises is not often considered a significant threat as they are adapted to deter most predation attempts. Despite these adaptations, some populations have experienced elevated mortality attributed to predators, suggesting that predation pressure may occasionally increase. During the tortoise activity seasons of 2012 and 2013, we observed unsustainably high mortality in 1 of 4 populations of adult desert tortoises (22 and 84%, respectively) in the western Mojave Desert in the vicinity of Barstow, CA. Photographic evidence from trail cameras and examination of carcass condition suggest that American badgers Taxidea taxus a sometimes cited but unconfirmed predator of adult tortoises may have been responsible for some of the mortality observed. We discuss the American badger as a plausible predator of a local tortoise population, but recommend further investigation into these events and the impacts such mortality can have on tortoise persistence.

  19. Predicting Eurasian watermilfoil's (Myriophylum spicatum L.) distribution and response to biological control in Fall River, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), was first observed in Fall River, California in approximately 2001. Its presence has had impacts on the river. During 2009 and 2010 we determined Eurasian watermilfoil abundance and distribution. We also determined water temperature and total P conce...

  20. Eurasian reed warblers compensate for virtual magnetic displacement.

    PubMed

    Kishkinev, Dmitry; Chernetsov, Nikita; Pakhomov, Alexander; Heyers, Dominik; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Displacement studies have shown that long-distance, night-migrating songbirds are able to perform true navigation from their first spring migration onwards [1,2]. True navigation requires both a map and a compass. Whereas birds are known to have sun, star, and magnetic compasses, the nature of the map cues used has remained highly controversial. There is quite strong experimental evidence for the involvement of olfactory map cues in pigeon and seabird homing [3]. In contrast, the evidence for the use of magnetic map cues has remained weak and very little is known about the map cues used by long-distance migratory songbirds. In earlier experiments [2,4], we have shown that Eurasian reed warblers physically displaced 1,000 km eastward from Rybachy to Zvenigorod (Figure 1) re-orient towards their breeding destinations by changing their orientation in Emlen funnels from the NE to the NW. We have also previously shown that this re-orientation cannot be explained by a 'jetlag effect' [5]. We have now used this model system to show that Eurasian reed warblers use geomagnetic map cues to determine their position. PMID:26439333

  1. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber L.

    PubMed

    Durka, Walter; Babik, Wieslaw; Ducroz, Jean-Francois; Heidecke, Dietrich; Rosell, Frank; Samjaa, Ravcigijn; Saveljev, Alexander P; Stubbe, Annegret; Ulevicius, Alius; Stubbe, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Nucleotide variation in an approximately 490 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) was used to describe the genetic variation and phylogeographical pattern in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) over its entire range. The sampling effort was focused on the relict populations that survived a drastic population bottleneck, caused by overhunting, at the end of the 19th century. A total of 152 individuals grouped into eight populations representing all currently recognized subspecies were studied. Sixteen haplotypes were detected, none of them shared among populations. Intrapopulation sequence variation was very low, most likely a result of the severe bottleneck. Extreme genetic structure could result from human-mediated extinction of intermediate populations, but it could also be an effect of prior substantial structuring of the beaver populations with watersheds of major Eurasian rivers acting as barriers to gene flow. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of two mtDNA lineages: eastern (Poland, Lithuania, Russia and Mongolia) and western (Germany, Norway and France), the former comprising more divergent haplotypes. The low level of sequence divergence of the entire cytochrome b gene among six individuals representing six subspecies suggests differentiation during the last glacial period and existence of multiple glacial refugia. At least two evolutionary significant units (ESU) can be identified, the western and the eastern haplogroup. The individual relict populations should be regarded as management units, the eastern subspecies possibly also as ESUs. Guidelines for future translocations and reintroductions are proposed. PMID:16202100

  2. Eurasian permafrost instability constrained by reduced sea-ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, J.; Renssen, H.; Roche, D. M.; Goosse, H.; Velichko, A. A.; Gorbunov, A.; Levavasseur, G.

    2012-02-01

    In order to specify potentially causal relationships between climate, permafrost extent and sea-ice cover we apply a twofold research strategy: (1) we cover a large range of climate conditions varying from full glacial to the relatively warm climate projected for the end of the 21st Century, (2) we combine new proxy-based reconstructions of Eurasian permafrost extent during the LGM and climate model simulations. We find that that there is a linear relationship between the winter sea-ice extent in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and the latitude of the southernmost permafrost limit in Eurasia. During the LGM, extensive sea-ice cover caused a zonal permafrost distribution with the southern margin extending W-E and reaching 47N, contrasting with the present-day NW-SE trending margin (66-52N). We infer that under global warming scenarios projected by climate models for the 21st Century the Arctic sea-ice cover decline will cause widespread instability of, mainly discontinuous, permafrost in Eurasian lowlands.

  3. Denisovan Ancestry in East Eurasian and Native American Populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengfei; Stoneking, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Although initial studies suggested that Denisovan ancestry was found only in modern human populations from island Southeast Asia and Oceania, more recent studies have suggested that Denisovan ancestry may be more widespread. However, the geographic extent of Denisovan ancestry has not been determined, and moreover the relationship between the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania and that elsewhere has not been studied. Here we analyze genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 2,493 individuals from 221 worldwide populations, and show that there is a widespread signal of a very low level of Denisovan ancestry across Eastern Eurasian and Native American (EE/NA) populations. We also verify a higher level of Denisovan ancestry in Oceania than that in EE/NA; the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania is correlated with the amount of New Guinea ancestry, but not the amount of Australian ancestry, indicating that recent gene flow from New Guinea likely accounts for signals of Denisovan ancestry across Oceania. However, Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA populations is equally correlated with their New Guinea or their Australian ancestry, suggesting a common source for the Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA and Oceanian populations. Our results suggest that Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA is derived either from common ancestry with, or gene flow from, the common ancestor of New Guineans and Australians, indicating a more complex history involving East Eurasians and Oceanians than previously suspected. PMID:26104010

  4. Arctic sea ice and Eurasian climate: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Li, Fei; He, Shengping; Sandven, Stein; Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Lohmann, Katja; Keenlyside, Noel; Furevik, Tore; Suo, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and has shown significant climate change in recent decades, including the Arctic warming and decline of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness. In contrast to the Arctic warming and reduction of Arctic sea ice, Europe, East Asia and North America have experienced anomalously cold conditions, with record snowfall during recent years. In this paper, we review current understanding of the sea-ice impacts on the Eurasian climate. Paleo, observational and modelling studies are covered to summarize several major themes, including: the variability of Arctic sea ice and its controls; the likely causes and apparent impacts of the Arctic sea-ice decline during the satellite era, as well as past and projected future impacts and trends; the links and feedback mechanisms between the Arctic sea ice and the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation, the recent Eurasian cooling, winter atmospheric circulation, summer precipitation in East Asia, spring snowfall over Eurasia, East Asian winter monsoon, and midlatitude extreme weather; and the remote climate response (e.g., atmospheric circulation, air temperature) to changes in Arctic sea ice. We conclude with a brief summary and suggestions for future research.

  5. The effect of eurasian snow cover on global climate.

    PubMed

    Barnett, T P; Dümenil, L; Schlese, U; Roeckner, E

    1988-01-29

    Numerical simulations with a global atmospheric circulation model suggest that largescale variations in the amount of snowfall over Eurasia in the springtime are linked to the subsequent strength of the Asian summer monsoon. Large-scale changes in Eurasian snow cover are coupled to larger scale changes in the global climate system. There is a large, strong teleconnection to the atmospheric field over North America. The model results also show snow cover effects to subsequently alter other climatic fields known to be intimately associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Thus the model results seem to challenge the current dogma that the ENSO phenomenon is solely the result of close coupling between the atmosphere and ocean by suggesting that processes over continental land masses may also have to be considered. PMID:17838886

  6. Otodectic otoacariasis in free-ranging Eurasian lynx in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Degiorgis, M P; Segerstad, C H; Christensson, B; Mrner, T

    2001-07-01

    An infestation with Otodectes cynotis, the ear mite of cats and dogs, was observed in three free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden. The ear canals were obstructed by waxy secretions and exfoliated epithelium. Histologically, there were hyperkeratosis and acanthosis, and the epithelial surface was overlained by hyperkeratotic and parakeratotic crusts with mites, mite detritus and cerumen. In the subcutis there was a slight to moderate infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages. The ceruminous glands were bypertrophic and hyperplastic, and there was also an hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands. The lesions seemed to correlate with the degree of infestation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of otoacariasis in free-ranging lynx. PMID:11504239

  7. Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils: Russia and contiguous countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, E. D.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Sabodina, E. P.

    2014-03-01

    The development of the Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils is a challenge necessitated by the intensive and exhaustive use of soil resources. The long-term strategy of interaction between humans and the environment should be directed towards the creation of favorable conditions for the development of society and saving of nature via application of new legislative norms aimed at preservation of pedodiversity and especially valuable soils. It is important to develop pedology as a fundamental science and to harmonize the relation-ships between humans and nature. The 30-year-long experience of Russia in the development of the Red Data Books of Soils is analyzed, and several conclusions aimed at improving the efficiency of special protection of soils in Russia and contiguous countries are made.

  8. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia. PMID:15362842

  9. Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    We address the connection between forces on the Eurasian plate, the plate's motion and the intraplate stress field. Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In this study we analyse the forces along the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate, presently the most prominent suture zone on Earth, resulting from the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate the force distribution along the Tethyan boundary as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We evaluate force distributions obeying this mechanical law on the basis of their ability to reproduce observed stress orientations. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Our investigation is structured according to two research objectives, pursued in a corresponding step-wise approach: (1) a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of Eurasia's stress field to the distribution of all acting forces; and (2) a quantification of collision-related forces along the southern boundary of Eurasia, including their relation to observed plate boundary structure, in particular plateau height. Intraplate stress observations as compiled in the World Stress Map project are used to constrain the distribution of forces acting on Eurasia. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and normal pressure from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.2 - 10.5 T N/m and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3 - 2.3 T N/m. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0 - 2.1 and 0 - 0.8 T N/m, respectively. The inferred collision forces are part of the best-fitting overall set of forces acting on the Eurasian plate, satisfying constraints from basic mechanics, absolute plate motion and stress field. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. We find that for both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateau, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force, thus confirming the hypothesis of balanced topography.

  10. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Iain; Lazaridis, Iosif; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fernandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Sirak, Kendra; Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R; Llamas, Bastien; Dryomov, Stanislav; Pickrell, Joseph; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Gerritsen, Fokke; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Lozano, Marina; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Guerra, Manuel A Rojo; Roodenberg, Jacob; Vergès, Josep Maria; Krause, Johannes; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt W; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Haak, Wolfgang; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2015-12-24

    Ancient DNA makes it possible to observe natural selection directly by analysing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report a genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide ancient DNA from Anatolian Neolithic farmers, whose genetic material we obtained by extracting from petrous bones, and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europe's first farmers. We also report a transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5600 and 300 bc, which allows us to identify admixture into the steppe from at least two external sources. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height. PMID:26595274

  11. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez, Marta; Gimeno, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Bulygina, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Eurasian fall snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea-ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea-ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis is based on snow observations from 820 Russian land stations, moisture transport using a Lagrangian approach derived from meteorological re-analyses. We show that declining sea-ice in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS) acts as moisture source for the enhanced Western Siberian snow depth as a result of changed tropospheric moisture transport. Transient disturbances enter the continent from the BKS region related to anomalies in the planetary wave pattern and move southward along the Ural mountains where they merge into the extension of the Mediterranean storm track.

  12. Surface-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling in Eurasian Frozen Ground Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfeld, O. W.; Ford, T.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost represents an impermeable barrier to moisture, resulting in a saturated or near-saturated surface layer during the warm season in many continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. These surface conditions could lead to enhanced convection and precipitation during the warm season, and significant local recycling of moisture. In areas underlain by sporadic or isolated permafrost, or in seasonally frozen areas, the moisture can drain away more readily, resulting in much drier soil conditions. As climate change causes frozen ground degradation, this will thus also alter the patterns of atmospheric convection, moisture recycling, and the hydrologic cycle in high-latitude land areas. In this study, we analyze evaporative fraction (EF) as a proxy for evapotranspiration, and precipitation from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-land) reanalysis dataset. We focus on 1979-2012 and document patterns and changes in EF over the Eurasian high latitudes. We find strong, positive April EF trends over the study period, particularly in the Lena River Basin, 80% of which is underlain by continuous permafrost. In fact, these significant positive trends in spring EF are strongest over continuous permafrost across the Eurasian high latitudes, but negative for sporadic and isolated permafrost. In addition, we find a strong, statistically significant relationship between EF anomalies and the probability of subsequent precipitation over the Lena Basin during April. This association therefore suggests a potential land-atmosphere coupling between frozen ground and precipitation. As the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground distribution changes in the future, this will likely have repercussions for the Arctic hydrologic cycle.

  13. An Updated Eurasian Crustal Model Using Multiple Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.; McDonald, S.

    2006-12-01

    An updated 2 by 2 degree crustal model for greater Eurasia is being completed from (1) synthesizing existing models, such as WENA 1.0, the new Barents Sea model, and WINPAK; (2) Pn/Sn tomography data; (3) our ongoing compilation of published seismic models for the crust, based on active- and passive-source seismology; and (4) observed and calculated seismic surface wave group and phase velocity maps. In particular, three controlled source studies from China and India completed by the U.S. Geological Survey and colleagues in the past year are contributing to this updated Eurasian crustal model. These include: (1) three short (20-35 km) seismic reflection profiles from the immediate region of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj (western India) earthquake that yielded a crustal thickening from 35 to 45 km over a distance of about 50 km from the northern margin of the Gulf of Kutch to the epicentral zone of the earthquake; (2) a compilation of over 90 seismic refraction/wide angle reflection profiles, with a cumulative length of more than sixty thousand kilometers, across mainland China that have shown a mid-crustal low velocity layer in unstable regions; and (3) a 1000- km-long geophysical profile from Darlag-Lanzhou-Jingbian extending from the Songpan-Ganzi terrane to the Ordos basin in the NE margin of the Tibetan plateau that yielded a 2-D seismic velocity profile from which crustal composition and continental dynamics of the Tibetan plateau are inferred. New crustal depth and velocity maps for greater Eurasia have been compiled, which incorporate the results from the above three studies and other relevant controlled source experiments. This updated compilation of Eurasian Pn and Sn data in CRUST 2.2 will yield more detailed models of the Earth's structure and subsequently more accurate seismic monitoring. Well-resolved crustal models are critical for determining event locations and size estimations.

  14. Relative abundance of American badger (Taxidea taxus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in landscapes with high and low rodenticide poisoning levels.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Gilbert; MacKenzie, Neil

    2012-03-01

    Over the past decade, extensive poisoning campaigns have been conducted in southern Saskatchewan to control Richardson's ground squirrel Spermophilus richardsonii (Sabine, 1822) populations. Such campaigns might impact on predator abundance by decreasing prey levels, and also through secondary poisoning. Using spotlighting, we investigated the relative abundance of American badgers Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) and red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) in 2 study areas with road access and crops, but with different levels of poisoning. In the study area with relatively low poisoning (19.6% of the area traversed by roads), there were 2.2 times more American badgers per km of road and 6.4 times more red foxes per km than in the study area with high poisoning (89.7% of the area). It is recommended that an Integrated Pest Management program be developed to conserve natural predators across landscapes. PMID:22405447

  15. Why the honey badger don't care: Convergent evolution of venom-targeted nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mammals that survive venomous snake bites.

    PubMed

    Drabeck, Danielle H; Dean, Antony M; Jansa, Sharon A

    2015-06-01

    Honey badgers (Mellivora capensis) prey upon and survive bites from venomous snakes (Family: Elapidae), but the molecular basis of their venom resistance is unknown. The muscular nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR), targeted by snake ?-neurotoxins, has evolved in some venom-resistant mammals to no longer bind these toxins. Through phylogenetic analysis of mammalian nAChR sequences, we show that honey badgers, hedgehogs, and pigs have independently acquired functionally equivalent amino acid replacements in the toxin-binding site of this receptor. These convergent amino acid changes impede toxin binding by introducing a positively charged amino acid in place of an uncharged aromatic residue. In venom-resistant mongooses, different replacements at these same sites are glycosylated, which is thought to disrupt binding through steric effects. Thus, it appears that resistance to snake venom ?-neurotoxin has evolved at least four times among mammals through two distinct biochemical mechanisms operating at the same sites on the same receptor. PMID:25796346

  16. Aspects of the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in badgers and cattle. II. The development and use of a typing system for Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    A relatively simple method for the detection of intra-specific variation of Mycobacterium bovis is described, based on the ability of strains to utilize or remove amino acids from solution. Using the method, 31 strains of M. bovis, isolated badgers and cattle, have been divided in to four major groups with some additional sub-groups and intermediate strains. Preliminary results suggest that the biotypes observed are relatively stable. The method was used in the investigation of an outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Gloucestershire where badgers were implicated as a source of infection. The results suggested that transmission of infection had occurred on at least two or three separate occasions. It is suggested that the method could be used in studying the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in wild animals, cattle and man. PMID:7016986

  17. Eurasian winter cooling in the warming hiatus of 1998-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Stevens, Bjorn; Marotzke, Jochem

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the relative magnitudes of the contributions of surface temperature trends from different latitude bands to the recent warming hiatus. We confirm from five different global data sets that the global-mean surface temperature trend in the period 1998-2012 is strongly influenced by a pronounced Eurasian winter cooling trend. To understand the drivers of this winter cooling trend, we perform three 20-member ensembles of simulations with different prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice in the atmospheric model ECHAM6. Our experimental results suggest that the Arctic sea ice loss does not drive systematic changes in the Northern Hemisphere large-scale circulation in the past decades. The observed Eurasian winter cooling trend over 1998-2012 arises essentially from atmospheric internal variability and constitutes an extreme climate event. However, the observed reduction in Arctic sea ice enhances the variability of Eurasian winter climate and thus increases the probability of an extreme Eurasian winter cooling trend.

  18. Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta D?utowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews. PMID:23693084

  19. A long-term observational study of the impact of badger removal on herd restrictions due to bovine TB in the Irish midlands during 1989--2004.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G E; Condon, J; More, S J; Dolan, L; Higgins, I; Eves, J

    2008-10-01

    An observational study was carried out, using data collected from four areas in the Irish midlands, between 1989 and 2004, to critically evaluate the long-term effects of proactive badger culling and to provide insights into reactive badger culling tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in cattle. Confirmed cattle herd TB incidence is the outcome measure used throughout. Relative to reactive culling, proactive badger culling was associated with a decrease in incidence in each of the 16 years of observation, which encompassed periods of both intensive and less-intensive badger removal. By 2004, we observed a decrease of 22% [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-29, P<0.001] in the entire proactive and 37% (95% CI 25-47, P<0.001), in the inner proactive removal areas. The size of the decrease increased with time (P=0.055). There was a decrease (constant over time) of at least 14% (95% CI 76-97, P=0.013) in incidence in the inner compared to the outer control area (herds < or = 2 km, >2 km, from proactive removal area boundaries, respectively). Incidence in the outer proactive removal area (herds < 1.6 km from the proactive removal boundary) was similar to the inner control area (P=0.890). Incidence in the outer control area and total control area, compared to a neighbouring area some distance away, increased over the course of the study. Differences with the total control area were not statistically significant but the outer control area was 11% higher than the neighbouring area by 2004 (borderline significance P=0.057). PMID:18081948

  20. Genotyping success of historical Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) samples.

    PubMed

    Polanc, Primo; Sindi?i?, Magda; Jelen?i?, Maja; Gomer?i?, Tomislav; Kos, Ivan; Huber, Duro

    2012-03-01

    Historical samples, like tanned hides and trophy skulls, can be extremely important for genetic studies of endangered or elusive species. Selection of a sampling protocol that is likely to provide sufficient amount and quality of DNA with a minimum damage to the original specimen is often critical for a success of the study. We investigated microsatellite genotyping success of DNA isolated from three different types of Eurasian lynx historical samples. We analysed a total of 20 microsatellite loci in 106 historical samples from the endangered Dinaric lynx population, established from re-introduction of three pairs of lynx in 1973 from Slovakian Carpathians. Of the three tested sample types, turbinal bone and septum from the nasal cavity of the trophy skulls had the lowest percentage of samples successfully genotyped for all 20 microsatellite loci. Footpad samples, collected using a cork drill, exhibited better results in polymerase chain reaction amplification and genotyping than samples of footpad epidermis cut with a scalpel. We report simple and efficient sampling protocols, which could be widely applied for future studies utilizing historical samples. PMID:22040140

  1. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  2. Results from the LADCP measurements conducted in the Eurasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goszczko, Ilona; Pnyushkov, Andrey; Polyakov, Igor; Rember, Robert; Thurnherr, Andreas M.

    2015-04-01

    Preliminary results from 114 dual headed LADCP (Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurements performed during the NABOS (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) 2013 cruise in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean are discussed. Calculated horizontal magnetic field strength for that specific study area and cruise time span equals to 1500-4200 nT which is a critically low value. This affected the heading usability of instruments' compasses, thereby making the obtained ocean currents velocities and directions difficult to assess. Additional data post-processing performed with the LDEO Software (Version IX_9) and dedicated Matlab routines have so far allowed to obtain reasonable velocity profiles only in several cases (with additional information from the SeaBird 911plus CTD, GPS and bottom tracking). Thus, doubts concerning the feasibility of compasses, confirmed by difficulties encountered previously in similar polar locations, rise the necessity of providing an additional heading source which should be mounted together with the Teledyne RDI instruments to gain an unquestionable velocity field.

  3. [Sequencing and analysis of complete genome of rabies viruses isolated from Chinese Ferret-Badger and dog in Zhejiang province].

    PubMed

    Lei, Yong-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Meng, Sheng-Li; Chen, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Fu-Ming; Ye, Bi-Feng; Tang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Based on sequencing the full-length genomes of four Chinese Ferret-Badger and dog, we analyze the properties of rabies viruses genetic variation in molecular level, get the information about rabies viruses prevalence and variation in Zhejiang, and enrich the genome database of rabies viruses street strains isolated from China. Rabies viruses in suckling mice were isolated, overlapped fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and full-length genomes were assembled to analyze the nucleotide and deduced protein similarities and phylogenetic analyses from Chinese Ferret-Badger, dog, sika deer, vole, used vaccine strain were determined. The four full-length genomes were sequenced completely and had the same genetic structure with the length of 11, 923 nts or 11, 925 nts including 58 nts-Leader, 1353 nts-NP, 894 nts-PP, 609 nts-MP, 1575 nts-GP, 6386 nts-LP, and 2, 5, 5 nts- intergenic regions(IGRs), 423 nts-Pseudogene-like sequence (psi), 70 nts-Trailer. The four full-length genomes were in accordance with the properties of Rhabdoviridae Lyssa virus by BLAST and multi-sequence alignment. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences among Chinese strains had the highest similarity, especially among animals of the same species. Of the four full-length genomes, the similarity in amino acid level was dramatically higher than that in nucleotide level, so the nucleotide mutations happened in these four genomes were most synonymous mutations. Compared with the reference rabies viruses, the lengths of the five protein coding regions had no change, no recombination, only with a few point mutations. It was evident that the five proteins appeared to be stable. The variation sites and types of the four genomes were similar to the reference vaccine or street strains. And the four strains were genotype 1 according to the multi-sequence and phylogenetic analyses, which possessed the distinct district characteristics of China. Therefore, these four rabies viruses are likely to be street viruses already existing in the natural world. PMID:20329558

  4. Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic cattle, sheep and goat and other wildlife Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe. PMID:24010539

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Cabezn, O; Milln, J; Pabn, M; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortzar, C; Dubey, J P; Almeria, S

    2007-09-30

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (Canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (Martes foina), 4 of 4 pine martens (Martes martes), 6 of 6 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 4 of 4 polecats (Mustela putorius), 1 of 1 ferret (Mustela putorius furo), 13 of 21 (61.9%) European genets (Genetta genetta), and 13 of 22 (59.1%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon). Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among wild carnivores in Spain. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in Iberian lynx and the European wildcat reported here may be of epidemiologic significance because seropositive cats might have shed oocysts. PMID:17689869

  6. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Origgi, F C; Plattet, P; Sattler, U; Robert, N; Casaubon, J; Mavrot, F; Pewsner, M; Wu, N; Giovannini, S; Oevermann, A; Stoffel, M H; Gaschen, V; Segner, H; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2012-11-01

    An ongoing canine distemper epidemic was first detected in Switzerland in the spring of 2009. Compared to previous local canine distemper outbreaks, it was characterized by unusually high morbidity and mortality, rapid spread over the country, and susceptibility of several wild carnivore species. Here, the authors describe the associated pathologic changes and phylogenetic and biological features of a multiple highly virulent canine distemper virus (CDV) strain detected in and/or isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), stone (Martes foina) and pine (Martes martes) martens, from a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a domestic dog. The main lesions included interstitial to bronchointerstitial pneumonia and meningopolioencephalitis, whereas demyelination--the classic presentation of CDV infection--was observed in few cases only. In the brain lesions, viral inclusions were mainly in the nuclei of the neurons. Some significant differences in brain and lung lesions were observed between foxes and mustelids. Swiss CDV isolates shared together with a Hungarian CDV strain detected in 2004. In vitro analysis of the hemagglutinin protein from one of the Swiss CDV strains revealed functional and structural differences from that of the reference strain A75/17, with the Swiss strain showing increased surface expression and binding efficiency to the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). These features might be part of a novel molecular signature, which might have contributed to an increase in virus pathogenicity, partially explaining the high morbidity and mortality, the rapid spread, and the large host spectrum observed in this outbreak. PMID:22362965

  7. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores. PMID:24886057

  8. A brief review of Badger-Bauer rule and its validation from a first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Ram S.; Iyer, Prasad P.; Dhinojwala, Ali; Tsige, Mesfin

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the acid-base interactions is important in chemistry, biology and material science as it helps to rationalize materials properties such as interfacial properties, wetting, adhesion and adsorption. Quantitative relation between changes in enthalpy (?H) and frequency shift (??) during the acid-base complexation is particularly important. We investigate ?H and ?? of twenty-five complexes of acids (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and phenol) with bases (benzene, pyridine, DMSO, Et2O and THF) in CCl4 using intermolecular perturbation theory calculations. ?H and ?? of complexes of all alcohols with bases except benzene fall in the range from -14 kJ mol-1 to -30 kJ mol-1 and 215 cm-1 to 523 cm-1, respectively. Smaller values of ?H (-2 kJ mol-1 to -6 kJ mol-1) and ?? (23 cm-1 to 70 cm-1) are estimated for benzene. Linear correlations are found between theoretical and experimental values of ?H as well as ??. For all the studied complexes, ?H varies linearly (R2 ? 0.97) with ?? concurrent with the Badger-Bauer rule yielding the average slope and intercept of 0.053( 0.002) kJ mol-1 cm and 2.15( 0.56) kJ mol-1, respectively.

  9. Traces of Early Eurasians in the Mansi of Northwest Siberia Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Derbeneva, Olga A.; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Sukernik, Rem I.

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as Vogul) of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragmentlength polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups. PMID:11845409

  10. Traces of early Eurasians in the Mansi of northwest Siberia revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Derbeneva, Olga A; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Wallace, Douglas C; Sukernik, Rem I

    2002-04-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as "Vogul") of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragment--length polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups. PMID:11845409

  11. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  12. The behaviors of optimal precursors during wintertime Eurasian blocking onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhina; Wang, Donghai

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the optimal precursors for wintertime Eurasian blocking onset are acquired by solving a nonlinear optimization problem whose objective function is constructed based on a blocking index with a triangular T21, three-level, quasi-geostrophic global spectral model. The winter climatological state is chosen as the reference basic state. Numerical results show that the optimal precursors are characterized by a baroclinic pattern with a westward tilt with height, which are mainly located upstream of the blocking region. For an optimization time of 5 days, these perturbations are mainly localized over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and continental Europe. With the extension of the optimization time to 8 days, these perturbations are distributed more upstream and extensively in the zonal direction. Wave spectrum analysis reveals that the optimal precursors are composed of not only synoptic-scale (wave numbers 5-18) waves, but planetary-scale (wave numbers 0-4) waves as well. The synoptic-scale optimal precursors are mainly located in the mid-latitude area, while the planetary-scale optimal precursors focus primarily on the high-latitude region. The formation of a strong planetary-scale positive blocking anomaly is accompanied by the reinforcement of synoptic-scale perturbations and further fragmentation into two branches, in which the northern branch is generally stronger than the southern one. The eddy forcing arising from the self-interaction of synoptic-scale disturbances is shown to be crucial in triggering the dipole blocking anomaly, and the planetary-scale optimal precursor provides the initial favorable background conditions for blocking onset.

  13. Seismic Anisotropy Along the Eurasian-Arabian Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvol, E. A.; Skobeltsyn, G.; Turkelli, N.; Polat, G.; Yetirmishli, G.; Godoladze, T.; Mellors, R. J.; Gok, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Anatolian plateau and Caucasus are part of the orogenic belt that formed as the result of the closure of the Neo Tethys Ocean and the ensuing continental collision of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Multiple tomographic studies of both P and S wave velocities all show a broad low velocity zone beneath East Anatolian and North Iranian plateaus. The low velocity zone appears to range from the Moho to a depth 150 km, which suggests asthenospheric material underlying a very thin lithosphere of eastern Anatolia. This low velocity zone coincides with widespread Late Miocene - Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanic products of mantle origin. This very shallow asthenosphere strongly implies that any present day anisotropy is likely to reflect very recent mantle deformation. In order to image seismic anisotropy and improve understanding of the nature of mantle deformation in young continental collision zone we analyzed data from the IRIS station KIV and the regional seismic networks of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia to determine shear wave splitting fast polarization directions and delay times in the region. Our results show that the fast polarization directions are quite uniformly parallel to NE-SW across the East Anatolian Plateau and the westernmost part of the Greater Caucasus. The observed delay times decrease northward with the shortest located in the western Greater Caucasus. However, to the east, the fast polarization direction rotates clockwise until it becomes parallel to the EW topographic? trend in the Lesser Caucasus where the delay times are the largest in the region. The situation becomes more complex north of the Lesser Caucasus, in the central and eastern parts of the Greater Caucasus, where the fast polarization directions shift abruptly to the NNE-SSW. Furthemore, we find relatively strong evidence of layered anisotropy using a new method we have developed to image multi-layered polarization anisotropy from teleseismic core phases such as SKS.

  14. Leptospirosis in wild and domestic carnivores in natural areas in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Milln, Javier; Candela, Mnica G; Lpez-Bao, Jos Vicente; Pereira, Marian; Jimnez, Mara Angeles; Len-Vizcano, Luis

    2009-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Carnivores are at the top of the feeding chain, thus being exposed to pathogens through their preys. From June 2004 to April 2007, we analyzed for evidences of contact with 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans Sensu Lato serum (analyzed by indirect Microscopic Agglutination Test) and urine or kidney samples (analyzed by microscopic observation, immunostaining and culture) collected from 201 wild and domestic carnivores, including 26 free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 33 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 25 common genets (Genetta genetta), two Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and one Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), and 53 free-roaming cats and 28 rural dogs in protected areas in Andalusia (southern Spain). Twenty-three percent of the animals presented evidences of contact, being the prevalence similar among wild (23.5%) and domestic species (22.2%). Contact with Lesptospira was detected in all the species but the otter. Prevalence was: lynx (11% by bacteriological detection, 32% by serology), fox (0%, 47%), mongoose (5%, 20%), genet (0%, 12%), badger (0%, 50%), cat (20%, 14%), dog (only serology: 36%). Serovar Icterohemorragiae accounted for 2/3 of the cases. Serovar Canicola was detected in half of the positive dogs and one lynx. Other serovars detected were Ballum, Sejro, and Australis. No macroscopic lesions were observed in necropsied animals that showed evidence of contact with the agent, although histopathologic lesions (chiefly chronic interstitial nephritis) were observed in 7 out of the 11 microscopically analyzed individuals. Thus, L. interrogans may cause previously unrecorded disease in wild carnivores in Spain. Wild and free-roaming carnivores may not act as reservoir of L. interrogans but as a dead-end hosts, though the dog may act as reservoir of serovar Canicola. Carnivores are apparently good sentinels for the epidemiological monitorization of leptospirosis. PMID:18973450

  15. The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wells, R. Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Underhill, Peter A.; Evseeva, Irina; Blue-Smith, Jason; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Shanmugalakshmi, Sadagopal; Balakrishnan, Karuppiah; Read, Mark; Pearson, Nathaniel M.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Webster, Matthew T.; Zholoshvili, Irakli; Jamarjashvili, Elena; Gambarov, Spartak; Nikbin, Behrouz; Dostiev, Ashur; Aknazarov, Ogonazar; Zalloua, Pierre; Tsoy, Igor; Kitaev, Mikhail; Mirrakhimov, Mirsaid; Chariev, Ashir; Bodmer, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    The nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of population history. The maintenance of extended haplotypes characteristic of particular geographic regions, despite extensive admixture, allows complex demographic events to be deconstructed. In this study we report the frequencies of 23 Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphism haplotypes in 1,935 men from 49 Eurasian populations, with a particular focus on Central Asia. These haplotypes reveal traces of historical migrations, and provide an insight into the earliest patterns of settlement of anatomically modern humans on the Eurasian continent. Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three major waves of migration leading into Europe, the Americas, and India. The genetic results are interpreted in the context of Eurasian linguistic patterns. PMID:11526236

  16. Hematological and biochemical reference intervals for wild caught Eurasian otter from Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Morn, J; Molina, L; Flamme, G; Saavedra, D; Manteca-Vilanova, X

    2001-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals were determined from 33 wild caught Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra lutra) between November 1995 and May 1998 during a reintroduction project. Blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture after administration of ketamine and medetomidine. The mean, standard deviation, and range for 19 hematology parameters and 28 serum chemistry values are presented. There were no significant differences between sexes in most analytes. The results are in agreement with those reported previously for Eurasian otters with the exception of higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, lower eosinophil and lymphocyte counts and higher activities for aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. The Eurasian otters have lower erythrocyte counts but higher mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin values than the river otter (Lutra canadensis) in North America. PMID:11272491

  17. The Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) is apparently not a host to blood parasites in Norway.

    PubMed

    Cross, Hannah B; Campbell-Palmer, Risn; Girling, Simon; Rosell, Frank

    2012-11-23

    Parasites can alter the physiology and behaviour of host species and negatively impact on their fitness thus affecting population densities. This is the first investigation into the presence of blood parasites in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber); a species that has been the subject of many translocation and reintroduction programmes. Two hundred and seventy blood slides prepared from the blood of 27 beavers from southern Norway were microscopically analysed for the presence of blood parasites. This study reports an absence of blood parasites in the Norwegian Eurasian beavers sampled. PMID:22770707

  18. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas, steered in October by a Scandinavia block and a low to the East, extending to Central Russia land areas. The disturbances transport moisture southward where their tracks merge with the eastward extension of the Mediterranean storm track. Maxima in storm activity trigger increasing uplift, often accompanied by positive snowfall and snow depth anomalies. We show that declining sea ice in the Barents and Kara Seas acts as moisture source for enhanced Siberian snow cover as a result of changed tropospheric moisture transport. Transient disturbances enter the continent from the Barents and Kara Seas region related to anomalies in the planetary wave pattern and move southward along the Ural mountains.

  19. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Hon S.; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues. PMID:25898265

  20. First nearctic records for Orius (Dimorphella) sibiricus Wagner (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), a Eurasian steppe inhabitant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius sibiricus Wagner, a dark-colored minute pirate bug widespread in the Eurasian Steppe, is recorded from sites near the Yukon River in Yukon, Canada. This species is distinguished from the melanic phenotype of Orius diespeter Herring by the more deeply and uniformly punctured dorsum, the subangu...

  1. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, Jun 11-12, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This collection of papers introduces the proceedings of the Third Annual Conference--Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held 11-12 June, 2014 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. More than 350 speakers, delegates and participants from more 15 countries attended the Forum. The title of this year's Forum is "Successful…

  2. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, August 20-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Timothy, Ed.; Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents a diverse collection written by a well-respected group of speakers and authors which includes government leaders, policy makers, education experts and administrators from all over the higher education world. The papers collected hereunder represent the conference proceedings of the Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum

  3. 76 FR 537 - Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Gas Well Development; 2. Field Operation; 3. Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration/Exploitation Equipment...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing an industry-specific Oil & Gas...

  4. Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and the Extinction of European Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place. PMID:24848272

  5. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ip, Hon S.; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pederson, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  6. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the permafrost areas. Overall, Russia should expect a disproportionate escalation of fire regimes compared to increasing climatic fire danger. Thus, development and implementation of an efficient adaptation strategy is a pressing problem of current forest management of the country. An appropriate system of forest fire protection which would be able to meet challenges of future climates is a corner stone of such a strategy. We consider possible systems solutions of this complex problem including (1) integrated ecological and socio-economic analysis of current and future fire regimes; (2) regional requirements to and specific features of a new paradigm of forest fire protection in the boreal zone of Northern Eurasia; (3) anticipatory strategy of the prevention of large-scale disturbances in forests, including adaptation of forest landscapes to the future climates (regulation of tree composition; setup of relevant spatial structure of forest landscapes; etc.); (4) implementation of an effective system of forest monitoring as part of integrated observing systems; (5) transition to ecologically-friendly systems of industrial development of northern territories; (6) development of new/ improvement of existing legislation and institutional frameworks of forest management which would be satisfactory to react on challenges of climate change; and (6) international cooperation.

  7. New reconstructions of Eurasian Ice Sheet build up and deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. L.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, O. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a series of new time-slice reconstructions from the DATED Project documenting the changing limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation (40-10 ka BP). Reconstructions are based on a compiled chronology of over 3000 dates representing the accumulated sum of knowledge on the timing of advance and retreat of the Scandinavian-British-Irish-Barents-Kara Sea Ice Sheets. The timing of both maximum extent and retreat were spatially variable across the ice sheet complex likely reflecting regional contrasts in forcing mechanisms and geographical setting. For example, maximum ice extent in the west occurs ~3000 years earlier than in the northeast sector. We expect the time-slices and derived area and volume estimates to be particularly useful for numerical and isostatic modelling requiring regional scale empirical constraints on past ice sheet extent, and design the reconstructions for this purpose. The ice sheet margin is delineated every 1000 years for the last 25 ka BP. Additional intervening snapshots are reconstructed when necessary to capture significant rapid changes in the ice margin. We also present some reconstructions at uneven intervals for earlier periods, reflecting the preservation bias of the chronological record. Uncertainty estimates (represented by maximum, minimum, preferred positions) are given for each time-slice. The ice sheet scale approach highlights instances of conflicting evidence and gaps in the ice sheet chronology. Greatest gaps are found along the western marine margins, in the Barents Sea and western Russia, and the inland areas glaciated during the Younger Dryas. The database and reconstructions will be updated as new information is published and made publically available via the project webpages. Future versions will extend the spatial coverage to include the Icelandic Ice Sheet and additionally include landform evidence to constrain ice sheet geometry (e.g. ice stream locations and thickness) and retreat patterns. In the database, each date is classified on the basis of stratigraphic information to facilitate interpretation of the ice sheet evolution, attributed to the source publication, fully documented with information relevant to its interpretation and searchable by: location, dated material, dating technique, stratigraphic position or setting, derived age and associated errors, pertinent comments from the source publication and sample elevation or depth, core name, laboratory id and/or sample name as applicable. For internal consistency all radiocarbon ages have been recalibrated using the most recent calibration curve (INTCAL09) and all terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure ages are reported using the same production rate and scaling model. The uncalibrated 14C and TCN ages as reported in the source publications are also given. TCN results are additionally reported with all the necessary details required to re-calculate the ages with different production rate and scaling models.

  8. Emergence of a sylvatic enzootic formosan ferret badger-associated rabies in Taiwan and the geographical separation of two phylogenetic groups of rabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, K J; Hsu, W C; Chuang, W C; Chang, J C; Tu, Y C; Tsai, H J; Liu, H F; Wang, F I; Lee, S H

    2016-01-15

    Taiwan had been declared rabies-free in humans and domestic animals for five decades until July 2013, when surprisingly, three Formosan ferret badgers (FB) were diagnosed with rabies. Since then, a variety of wild carnivores and other wildlife species have been found dead, neurologically ill, or exhibiting aggressive behaviors around the island. To determine the affected animal species, geographic areas, and environments, animal bodies were examined for rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The viral genomes from the brains of selected rabid animals were sequenced for the phylogeny of rabies viruses (RABV). Out of a total of 1016 wild carnivores, 276/831 (33.2%) Formosan FBs were FAT positive, with occasional biting incidents in 1 dog and suspected spillover in 1 house shrew. All other animals tested, including dogs, cats, bats, mice, house shrews, and squirrels, were rabies-negative. The rabies was badger-associated and confined to nine counties/cities in sylvatic environments. Phylogeny of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes from 59 Formosan FB-associated RABV revealed them to be clustered in two distinct groups, TWI and TWII, consistent with the geographic segregation into western and eastern Taiwan provided by the Central Mountain Range and into northern rabies-free and central-southern rabies-affected regions by a river bisecting western Taiwan. The unique features of geographic and genetic segregation, sylvatic enzooticity, and FB-association of RABV suggest a logical strategy for the control of rabies in this nation. PMID:26711025

  9. Fine-scale landscape genetics of the American badger (Taxidea taxus): disentangling landscape effects and sampling artifacts in a poorly understood species.

    PubMed

    Kierepka, E M; Latch, E K

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetics is a powerful tool for conservation because it identifies landscape features that are important for maintaining genetic connectivity between populations within heterogeneous landscapes. However, using landscape genetics in poorly understood species presents a number of challenges, namely, limited life history information for the focal population and spatially biased sampling. Both obstacles can reduce power in statistics, particularly in individual-based studies. In this study, we genotyped 233 American badgers in Wisconsin at 12 microsatellite loci to identify alternative statistical approaches that can be applied to poorly understood species in an individual-based framework. Badgers are protected in Wisconsin owing to an overall lack in life history information, so our study utilized partial redundancy analysis (RDA) and spatially lagged regressions to quantify how three landscape factors (Wisconsin River, Ecoregions and land cover) impacted gene flow. We also performed simulations to quantify errors created by spatially biased sampling. Statistical analyses first found that geographic distance was an important influence on gene flow, mainly driven by fine-scale positive spatial autocorrelations. After controlling for geographic distance, both RDA and regressions found that Wisconsin River and Agriculture were correlated with genetic differentiation. However, only Agriculture had an acceptable type I error rate (3-5%) to be considered biologically relevant. Collectively, this study highlights the benefits of combining robust statistics and error assessment via simulations and provides a method for hypothesis testing in individual-based landscape genetics. PMID:26243136

  10. How might the North American ice sheet influence the northwestern Eurasian climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Dumas, C.; Kageyama, M.; Ritz, C.

    2015-10-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that past Northern Hemisphere ice sheets covering Canada and northern Europe at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exerted a strong influence on climate by causing changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In turn, these changes may have impacted the development of the ice sheets themselves through a combination of different feedback mechanisms. The present study is designed to investigate the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Eurasian ice sheet driven by simulated changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using the LMDZ5 atmospheric circulation model, we carried out 12 experiments under constant LGM conditions for insolation, greenhouse gases and ocean. In these experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet is removed. The 12 experiments differ in the North American ice-sheet topography, ranging from a white and flat (present-day topography) ice sheet to a full-size LGM ice sheet. This experimental design allows the albedo and the topographic impacts of the North American ice sheet onto the climate to be disentangled. The results are compared to our baseline experiment where both the North American and the Eurasian ice sheets have been removed. In summer, the sole albedo effect of the American ice sheet modifies the pattern of planetary waves with respect to the no-ice-sheet case, resulting in a cooling of the northwestern Eurasian region. By contrast, the atmospheric circulation changes induced by the topography of the North American ice sheet lead to a strong decrease of this cooling. In winter, the Scandinavian and the Barents-Kara regions respond differently to the American ice-sheet albedo effect: in response to atmospheric circulation changes, Scandinavia becomes warmer and total precipitation is more abundant, whereas the Barents-Kara area becomes cooler with a decrease of convective processes, causing a decrease of total precipitation. The gradual increase of the altitude of the American ice sheet leads to less total precipitation and snowfall and to colder temperatures over both the Scandinavian and the Barents and Kara sea sectors. We then compute the resulting annual surface mass balance over the Fennoscandian region from the simulated temperature and precipitation fields used to force an ice-sheet model. It clearly appears that the SMB is dominated by the ablation signal. In response to the summer cooling induced by the American ice-sheet albedo, high positive SMB values are obtained over the Eurasian region, leading thus to the growth of an ice sheet. On the contrary, the gradual increase of the American ice-sheet altitude induces more ablation over the Eurasian sector, hence limiting the growth of Fennoscandia. To test the robustness of our results with respect to the Eurasian ice sheet state, we carried out two additional LMDZ experiments with new boundary conditions involving both the American (flat or full LGM) and high Eurasian ice sheets. The most striking result is that the Eurasian ice sheet is maintained under full-LGM North American ice-sheet conditions, but loses ~ 10 % of its mass compared to the case in which the North American ice sheet is flat. These new findings qualitatively confirm the conclusions from our first series of experiments and suggest that the development of the Eurasian ice sheet may have been slowed down by the growth of the American ice sheet, offering thereby a new understanding of the evolution of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets throughout glacial-interglacial cycles.

  11. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Simon J.; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A.; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months – 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (≥3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  12. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Girling, Simon J; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (?3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  13. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petj, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipil, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions; EU-FP-7 e-infra ENVRI "Common Operations of Environmental Research Infrastructures" project. New Siberian research infrastructure and data products should be developed in line with the ACTRIS, ICOS and ENVRI approaches. Furthermore, The Pan-Eurasian Experiment will be supported iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem - Atmosphere Processes Study) bringing the PEEX under umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The permafrost regions and boreal forests of the Pan Eurasian area can be identified as a hot spot of climate change research in a global scale. PEEX experiment can be considered as a crucial part of the strategic aims of several international and national roadmaps for climate change research and the development of next-generation research infrastructures. In this work we present the overall Science Plan for the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and report on the progress made in two PEEX science workshops organized in Helsinki in October 2012 and in Moscow in February 2013.

  14. Suspected flunixin poisoning of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture from Spain.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla, Irene; Martinez, Rosa; Taggart, Mark A; Richards, Ngaio

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to residues of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac present in livestock carcasses has caused extensive declines in 3 Gyps vulture species across Asia. The carcass of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) was found in 2012 on an Andalucian (Spain) game hunting reserve and examined forensically. The bird had severe visceral gout, a finding consistent with Gyps vultures from Asia that have been poisoned by diclofenac. Liver and kidney samples from this Eurasian Griffon Vulture contained elevated flunixin (an NSAID) levels (median = 2.70 and 6.50 mg/kg, respectively). This is the first reported case of a wild vulture being exposed to and apparently killed by an NSAID outside Asia. It is also the first reported instance of mortality in the wild resulting from environmental exposure to an NSAID other than diclofenac. PMID:25303011

  15. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture throughout the African continent.

    PubMed

    Gallego Llorente, M; Jones, E R; Eriksson, A; Siska, V; Arthur, K W; Arthur, J W; Curtis, M C; Stock, J T; Coltorti, M; Pieruccini, P; Stretton, S; Brock, F; Higham, T; Park, Y; Hofreiter, M; Bradley, D G; Bhak, J; Pinhasi, R; Manica, A

    2015-11-13

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5× coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry. PMID:26449472

  16. Present-day deformation of the intra-Eurasian plate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Tesauro, Magdala

    2015-04-01

    We build on the results of two recent, yet independent, studies. In the first (Warners-Ruckstuhl et al., 2013) the forces on, and stresses within the Eurasian plate were established. In the second (Tesauro et al., 2012) the distribution of mechanically strong and weak parts of the Eurasian plate was found. We predict lithospheric deformation of the Eurasian plate, mainly focused on the Tibetan Plateau and in a lesser scale, on the Zagros Mountains and Anatolia, and compare it with observations. This constitutes a test of both the force/stress results and of the strength results. Specific questions are to which extent stresses localize in specific regions and whether micro-plates as identified by geodesists arise naturally from the results. Importantly, Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2013) found an ensemble of mechanically consistent force models based on plate interaction forces, lithospheric body forces and convective tractions. Each of these force sets is in mechanical equilibrium. A subset drives Eurasia in the observed direction of absolute motion and generates a stress field in a homogeneous elastic plate that fits observed horizontal stress directions to first order. Deformation models constitute a further test to discriminate between the remaining force sets. Following Tesauro et al. (2012) we assume five different compositions for the upper and lower crust. We use their geotherms and crustal thickness maps to estimate vertical distributions of strength at any location within the Eurasian plate. From the power-law relationship between strength and viscosity, and based on the assumption that horizontal strain rates do not vary with depth, we estimate the vertically averaged viscosity of each element of the domain. The combination of forces and averaged viscosities, and the inclusion of major active faults in our mechanical model allow us to predict deformation (velocities, strain rates and rotation rates). We compare our results with GPS velocities, InSAR, seismic, and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

  17. Present-day intra-plate deformation of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Tesauro, Magdala

    2014-05-01

    We build on the results of two recent, yet independent, studies. In the first (Warners-Ruckstuhl et al., 2013) the forces on, and stresses within the Eurasian plate were established. In the second (Tesauro et al., 2012) the distribution of mechanically strong and weak parts of the Eurasian plate was found. The aim of our work is to predict lithospheric deformation of the Eurasian plate and to compare it with observations. This constitutes a test of both the force/stress results and of the strength results. Specific questions are to which extent stresses localize in specific regions and whether micro-plates as identified by geodesists arise naturally from the results. Importantly, Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2013) found an ensemble of mechanically consistent force models based on plate interaction forces, lithospheric body forces and convective tractions. Each of these force sets is in mechanical equilibrium. A subset drives Eurasia in the observed direction of absolute motion and generates a stress field in a homogeneous elastic plate that fits observed horizontal stress directions to first order. Deformation models constitute a further test and a possibility to discriminate between the remaining force sets. Following Tesauro et al. (2012) we assume five different compositions for the upper and lower crust. We use their geotherms and crustal thickness maps to estimate vertical distributions of strength at any location within the Eurasian plate. Based on the assumption that horizontal strain rates do not vary with depth allows us to estimate the vertically averaged viscosity of each point. We include major active faults in our mechanical model. We compare our results with GPS velocities, InSAR, seismic, and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

  18. Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Gui-Lian; Soubrier, Julien; Liu, Jin-Yi; Werdelin, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Thomson, Vicki A; Tuke, Jonathan; Wu, Lian-Juan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Chen, Quan-Jia; Lai, Xu-Long; Cooper, Alan

    2014-02-01

    The living hyena species (spotted, brown, striped and aardwolf) are remnants of a formerly diverse group of more than 80 fossil species, which peaked in diversity in the Late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma). The fossil history indicates an African origin, and morphological and ancient DNA data have confirmed that living spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) of Africa were closely related to extinct Late Pleistocene cave hyenas from Europe and Asia. The current model used to explain the origins of Eurasian cave hyena populations invokes multiple migrations out of Africa between 3.5-0.35 Ma. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from radiocarbon-dated Chinese Pleistocene hyena specimens to examine the origin of Asian populations, and temporally calibrate the evolutionary history of spotted hyenas. Our results support a far more recent evolutionary timescale (430-163 kya) and suggest that extinct and living spotted hyena populations originated from a widespread Eurasian population in the Late Pleistocene, which was only subsequently restricted to Africa. We developed statistical tests of the contrasting population models and their fit to the fossil record. Coalescent simulations and Bayes Factor analysis support the new radiocarbon-calibrated timescale and Eurasian origins model. The new Eurasian biogeographic scenario proposed for the hyena emphasizes the role of the vast steppe grasslands of Eurasia in contrast to models only involving Africa. The new methodology for combining genetic and geological data to test contrasting models of population history will be useful for a wide range of taxa where ancient and historic genetic data are available. PMID:24320717

  19. Interactions between Eurasian/African and Arabian plates: Eskişehir Fault, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Süha; Gündoğdu, Erdem; Bekler, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    The Eskişehir Fault is an active right-lateral widespread intra-continental deformation zone which separates central western Anatolia from the Aegean domain. The inversion of fault slip vectors along the Eskişehir Fault yields a strike-slip stress state with NW-trending σHmax (σ1) and NE-trending σHmin (σ3) axes since the Early Pliocene. A change in strike-slip faulting under a compressional stress regime: from old transpression to young transtension, probably occurred in the Quaternary. The inversion of the earthquake source mechanism indicates that the transtensional stress regime continues up to the present. The İnönü and Eskişehir Basins developed under the transtensional stress regime producing consistent and local normal faulting with a continuing NE-trending σHmin (σ3). The stress regime change resulted in a decrease in σHmax (σ1) and/or an increase in σHmin (σ3) stress magnitudes due to coeval influence of the superimposed plate forces and the interaction of three plates (Eurasian/African/Arabian): (1) continental collision of Eurasian/Arabian plates with Anatolian block in the east, (2) westward escape of the Anatolian block by anticlockwise rotation at the west-southwest border of the Eurasian and Arabian/African plates and (3) a complex subduction process between African and Eurasian plates along the Aegean (Hellenic) and the Cyprus arcs which favors western extrusion of the Anatolian block in the eastern Mediterranean region.

  20. The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

  1. Trace element analysis of three tissues from Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukmo; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Soohee; Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Seungwoo; Yu, Hee Jeong; Oh, Su-Jun; Park, Jung-Duck; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Han, Sung Yong; Lim, Jong-Deock; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2015-07-01

    Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) are endangered worldwide, but the specific cause of their decline has not been determined. This study analyzed the concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, Cu, Mn, and Zn, in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of Eurasian otters in South Korea. There were high individual variations in the tissue concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The kidneys had the highest concentrations of Cd and Se among the three tissue groups, and the livers had the highest concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Hg. The Pb and As concentrations in the livers were not significantly different from those in the kidneys, and the lungs had the lowest concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The age-related bioaccumulation of Cd and Hg was evident in the three tissue groups, and of Se in the kidneys. The Pb concentration was higher in the livers of juveniles compared with those of adults and the Zn concentration was higher in the lungs of juveniles. There were no apparent gender differences in the concentrations of the elements analyzed among the tissue groups. The Se concentration correlated with the Hg concentration in the livers and kidneys, and with the Cd concentration in the kidneys. The Hg and Cd levels correlated in the three tissue groups. The Cu and Zn levels also correlated in the livers and kidneys. In general, the element concentrations were within the ranges reported by previous studies of this species from European countries, except for Cd and Hg, the levels of which were mostly lower than those reported previously. These findings may provide baseline information to facilitate the conservation of the Eurasian otter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first available study of trace element concentrations in the tissues of Eurasian otters from South Korea or Asian countries. PMID:25762104

  2. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  3. Eurasian snow cover variability and links to winter climate in the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, Jason C.; Cohen, Judah L.; Butler, Amy H.; Riddle, Emily E.; Kumar, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Observational studies and modeling experiments illustrate that variability in October Eurasian snow cover extent impacts boreal wintertime conditions over the Northern Hemisphere (NH) through a dynamical pathway involving the stratosphere and changes in the surface-based Arctic Oscillation (AO). In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive study of the Eurasian snow-AO relationship in twenty coupled climate models run under pre-industrial conditions from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Our analyses indicate that the coupled climate models, individually and collectively, do not capture well the observed snow-AO relationship. The models lack a robust lagged response between October Eurasian snow cover and several NH wintertime variables (e.g., vertically propagating waves and geopotential heights). Additionally, the CMIP5 models do not simulate the observed spatial distribution and statistics of boreal fall snow cover across the NH including Eurasia. However, when analyzing individual 40-year time slices of the models, there are periods of time in select models when the observed snow-AO relationship emerges. This finding suggests that internal variability may play a significant role in the observed relationship. Further analysis demonstrates that the models poorly capture the downward propagation of stratospheric anomalies into the troposphere, a key facet of NH wintertime climate variability irrespective of the influence of Eurasian snow cover. A weak downward propagation signal may be related to several factors including too few stratospheric vortex disruptions and weaker-than-observed tropospheric wave driving. The analyses presented can be used as a roadmap for model evaluations in future studies involving NH wintertime climate variability, including those considering future climate change.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is found on all continents and can infect all endothermic vertebrates. Toxoplasmosis is a globally important zoonosis with potentially devastating health impacts both for humans and a range of domestic and wild species. The World Health Organisation have repeatedly recommended the collection of accurate epidemiological data for T. gondii, yet despite recognised links between infection of wildlife, domestic animals and humans, seroprevalence in wild species is rarely monitored. Here, serological investigation using the Gold Standard Sabin-Feldman Dye Test was used to test for T. gondii in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) found dead, mainly as road-kill, in England and Wales. This is the first spatially widespread study of T. gondii in UK wildlife, and the first extensive survey of T. gondii in Eurasian otters, a sentinel species of fresh waters. Findings Infection was both common (39.5% prevalence, n?=?271) and widespread, with significantly more infection in the east than the west of the UK. There was an increase in seroprevalence with age, but no sex bias. Conclusions The relatively high prevalence of T. gondii in a predominantly piscivorous freshwater mammal suggests widespread faecal contamination of freshwater ecosystems with oocysts. Continued surveillance of the Eurasian otter for T. gondii is valuable because of conservation concerns due to the otters near threatened status on the IUCN Red List and because of the hosts role as a sentinel for freshwater health. PMID:23510234

  5. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pl; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  6. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Sindi?i?, Magda; Gomer?i?, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primo; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC. PMID:22515208

  7. Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) implications for future reintroductions

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syr??kov, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction. PMID:25067948

  8. Estimating reassortment rates in co-circulating Eurasian swine influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, G.; Coulter, E.; Bhatt, S.; Kellam, P.; McCauley, J. W.; Wood, J. L. N.; Brown, I. H.; Pybus, O. G.; Leigh Brown, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Swine have often been considered as a mixing vessel for different influenza strains. In order to assess their role in more detail, we undertook a retrospective sequencing study to detect and characterize the reassortants present in European swine and to estimate the rate of reassortment between H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes with Eurasian (avian-like) internal protein-coding segments. We analysed 69 newly obtained whole genome sequences of subtypes H1N1H3N2 from swine influenza viruses sampled between 1982 and 2008, using Illumina and 454 platforms. Analyses of these genomes, together with previously published genomes, revealed a large monophyletic clade of Eurasian swine-lineage polymerase segments containing H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. We subsequently examined reassortments between the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments and estimated the reassortment rates between lineages using a recently developed evolutionary analysis method. High rates of reassortment between H1N2 and H1N1 Eurasian swine lineages were detected in European strains, with an average of one reassortment every 23 years. This rapid reassortment results from co-circulating lineages in swine, and in consequence we should expect further reassortments between currently circulating swine strains and the recent swine-origin H1N1v pandemic strain. PMID:22971819

  9. Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    PubMed Central

    Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  10. Early Eurasian migration traces in the Tarim Basin revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Chunxiang; Gao, Shizhu; Xie, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hui

    2010-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of 58 samples from the Daheyan village located in the central Taklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin were determined in this study. Among the 58 samples, 29 haplotypes belonging to 18 different haplogroups were analyzed. Almost all the mtDNAs belong to a subset of either the defined Western or Eastern Eurasian pool. Extensive Eastern Eurasian lineages exist in the Daheyan population in which Northern-prevalent haplogroups present higher frequencies. In the limited existing Western Eurasian lineages, two sub-haplogroups, U3 and X2, that are rare in Central Asia were found in this study, which may be indicative of the remnants of an early immigrant population from the Near East and Caucasus regions preserved only in the Tarim Basin. The presence of U3 in modern and archeological samples in the Tarim Basin suggests that the immigration took place earlier than 2,000 years ago and points to human continuity in this area, with at least one Western lineage originating from the Near East and Caucasus regions. PMID:20091803

  11. Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) - implications for future reintroductions.

    PubMed

    Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syr??kov, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487-489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction. PMID:25067948

  12. Reversible immobilization of eurasian otters with a combination of ketamine and medetomidine.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moran, J; Perez, E; Sanmartin, M; Saavedra, D; Manteca-Vilanova, X

    2001-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of the combination of medetomidine and ketamine was examined in order to establish an adequate chemical immobilization protocol in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) for use during translocation projects in Spain. Thirty-eight Eurasian otters ranging in body mass from 3 to 8.7 kg (mean 5.3 kg) were successfully anesthetized on 82 occasions. The dosage of ketamine was 5.1+/-0.8 (3.4-6.6) mg/kg (mean +/- SD; range) combined with medetomidine at a dosage of 51+/-8 Rg/kg (34-66 microg/kg). In most cases anaesthetic effect occurred within 3 min and the mean induction time was 5.5+/-3.2 min. The mean pulse rate was 95 beats/min. The mean respiratory rate was 32 respirations/min while the relative oxyhemoglobin saturation was 93%. According to these results, this anesthetic protocol is considered safe and can be recommended in wild caught Eurasian otters for immobilization during translocation projects. It is safe, rapid and can be reversed when needed with atipamezole. However caution is required as heart depression resulting in bradychardia may occur. PMID:11504230

  13. The innate immunity of wild Eurasian beaver from Poland present knowledge and the need for research

    PubMed Central

    Pomianowski, Andrzej; Gi?ejewska, Aleksandra; Ma?aczewska, Joanna; Siwicki, Andrzej K.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time we tried to examine the basic parameters of innate immunity in beavers for developing the new methods of prevention against infectious diseases in different reintroduction and translocation programmes in Poland. The aim of the present study was to determine the selected innate immunity parameters in Eurasian beavers living in natural conditions. The analyses of the results showed that the phagocytic ability (RBA) and potential killing activity (PKA) of blood phagocytes were higher in adult beavers compared to the young animals. The similar pattern was observed in proliferative response of blood lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The highest proliferative response in adult Eurasian beavers was observed. The ceruloplasmin activity in plasma was on similar levels in adult and young Eurasian beavers. The results of humoral mediated immunity showed that the lysozyme activity, total protein and gamma-globulin levels in serum were higher in adult beavers compared to the young beavers. The results of this preliminary study are important in comparative and clinical immunology. PMID:26155167

  14. First description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Daniela; Simpson, Vic R; Fontanesi, Luca; Fusillo, Romina; Marcelli, Manlio; Bongiovanni, Laura; Romanucci, Mariarita; Palmieri, Chiara; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Adiaspiromycosis is a pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of the ubiquitous fungus Emmonsia spp., a common soil inhabitant. Information about the replication and dissemination of the fungus from the primary site is lacking. Members of the Family Mustelidae seem to be highly susceptible to this infection, which has been previously reported in otters (Lutra lutra) in Czech Republic/Slovakia, Finland and in the UK. In many cases, Emmonsia?associated lesions have also been reported as incidental findings during necropsies of otherwise healthy animals. A road?killed male Eurasian otter was submitted for the post?mortem examination on 21st December 2009 at the Veterinary Pathology Unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Teramo, as part of the RECAL [RECovery and post?mortem Analysis of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni (Salerno, Italy), and surrounding areas] project. Histologically, multifocal round structures with a PAS?positive thick tri?laminar wall and a central basophilic granular mass were observed within the alveoli. The adiaspores were surrounded by a severe granulomatous reaction with high number of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. Numerous multifocal cholesterol granulomas were observed close to those fungal?induced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter in Italy. PMID:25273962

  15. The innate immunity of wild Eurasian beaver from Poland - present knowledge and the need for research.

    PubMed

    Pomianowski, Andrzej; Gi?ejewska, Aleksandra; Ma?aczewska, Joanna; Schulz, Patrycja; Siwicki, Andrzej K

    2014-01-01

    For the first time we tried to examine the basic parameters of innate immunity in beavers for developing the new methods of prevention against infectious diseases in different reintroduction and translocation programmes in Poland. The aim of the present study was to determine the selected innate immunity parameters in Eurasian beavers living in natural conditions. The analyses of the results showed that the phagocytic ability (RBA) and potential killing activity (PKA) of blood phagocytes were higher in adult beavers compared to the young animals. The similar pattern was observed in proliferative response of blood lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The highest proliferative response in adult Eurasian beavers was observed. The ceruloplasmin activity in plasma was on similar levels in adult and young Eurasian beavers. The results of humoral mediated immunity showed that the lysozyme activity, total protein and gamma-globulin levels in serum were higher in adult beavers compared to the young beavers. The results of this preliminary study are important in comparative and clinical immunology. PMID:26155167

  16. Estimating reassortment rates in co-circulating Eurasian swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Lycett, S J; Baillie, G; Coulter, E; Bhatt, S; Kellam, P; McCauley, J W; Wood, J L N; Brown, I H; Pybus, O G; Leigh Brown, A J

    2012-11-01

    Swine have often been considered as a mixing vessel for different influenza strains. In order to assess their role in more detail, we undertook a retrospective sequencing study to detect and characterize the reassortants present in European swine and to estimate the rate of reassortment between H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes with Eurasian (avian-like) internal protein-coding segments. We analysed 69 newly obtained whole genome sequences of subtypes H1N1-H3N2 from swine influenza viruses sampled between 1982 and 2008, using Illumina and 454 platforms. Analyses of these genomes, together with previously published genomes, revealed a large monophyletic clade of Eurasian swine-lineage polymerase segments containing H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. We subsequently examined reassortments between the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments and estimated the reassortment rates between lineages using a recently developed evolutionary analysis method. High rates of reassortment between H1N2 and H1N1 Eurasian swine lineages were detected in European strains, with an average of one reassortment every 2-3 years. This rapid reassortment results from co-circulating lineages in swine, and in consequence we should expect further reassortments between currently circulating swine strains and the recent swine-origin H1N1v pandemic strain. PMID:22971819

  17. Utility of Surface Pollen Assemblages to Delimit Eastern Eurasian Steppe Types

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng; Wang, Yu-Fei; Ferguson, David K.; Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Ya-Meng; Cai, Zhe; Wang, Qing; Ma, Hong-Zhen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Modern pollen records have been used to successfully distinguish between specific prairie types in North America. Whether the pollen records can be used to detect the occurrence of Eurasian steppe, or even to further delimit various steppe types was until now unclear. Here we characterized modern pollen assemblages of meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe from eastern Eurasia along an ecological humidity gradient. The multivariate ordination of the pollen data indicated that Eurasian steppe types could be clearly differentiated. The different steppe types could be distinguished primarily by xerophilous elements in the pollen assemblages. Redundancy analysis indicated that the relative abundances of Ephedra, Tamarix, Nitraria and Zygophyllaceae were positively correlated with aridity. The relative abundances of Ephedra increased from meadow steppe to typical steppe and desert steppe. Tamarix and Zygophyllaceae were found in both typical steppe and desert steppe, but not in meadow steppe. Nitraria was only found in desert steppe. The relative abundances of xerophilous elements were greater in desert steppe than in typical steppe. These findings indicate that Eurasian steppe types can be differentiated based on recent pollen rain. PMID:25763576

  18. Detection and identification of Bartonella sp. in fleas from carnivorous mammals in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Mrquez, F J; Milln, J; Rodrguez-Libana, J J; Garca-Egea, I; Muniain, M A

    2009-12-01

    A total of 559 fleas representing four species (Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Spilopsyllus cuniculi) collected on carnivores (five Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, six European wildcat Felis silvestris, 10 common genet Genetta genetta, three Eurasian badger Meles meles, 22 red fox Vulpes vulpes, 87 dogs and 23 cats) in Andalusia, southern Spain, were distributed in 156 pools of monospecific flea from each carnivore, and tested for Bartonella infection in an assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16 S-23 S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Twenty-one samples (13.5%) were positive and the sequence data showed the presence of four different Bartonella species. Bartonella henselae was detected in nine pools of Ctenocephalides felis from cats and dogs and in three pools of Ctenocephalides canis from cats; Bartonella clarridgeiae in Ctenocephalides felis from a cat, and Bartonella alsatica in Spilopsyllus cuniculi from a wildcat. DNA of Bartonella sp., closely related to Bartonella rochalimae, was found in seven pools of Pulex irritans from foxes. This is the first detection of B. alsatica and Bartonella sp. in the Iberian Peninsula. All of these Bartonella species have been implicated as agents of human diseases. The present survey confirms that carnivores are major reservoirs for Bartonella spp. PMID:19941605

  19. Survey of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in road-killed wild carnivores in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Loureiro, Filipa; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Matos, Manuela; Coelho, Ana Cludia

    2014-12-01

    A survey to determine the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in wild carnivores in Portugal was conducted by testing samples from road-killed animals between 2009 and 2012. Postmortem examinations were performed and tissues were collected from wild carnivores representing four families and six different species, with a total of 74 animals analyzed. Cultures were performed by using Lwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 solid media and acid-fast isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mycobactin dependency characteristics. Tissues were also screened for MAP by directly extracting DNA and testing for the MAP-specific sequences. The occurrence of infected animals (an animal had at least one tissue that was positive for culture or direct PCR) was 27.0% (n = 20). MAP was isolated from culture of 25 tissue samples (3.8%) and was detected by direct PCR in 40 (6.0%) samples. Infection was recorded in 5/6 studied species: 7/49 (14.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 3/3 (100%) beech martens (Martes foina), 2/4 (50.0%) Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 7/15 (46.7%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and 1/1 (100%) European badger (Meles meles). These species represent three different taxonomic families: Canidae (14.3% were positive), Mustelidae (75.0% were positive), and Herpestidae (46.7% were positive). The results of this study confirm the presence of MAP infection in wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:25632662

  20. The origin of Eurasian Mammoth Faunas (Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2014-07-01

    Pleistocene Mammoth Faunas were the most successful, cold-adapted large mammal assemblages in the history of the Earth. However, the causes for their emergence can not be attributed only to the global trend of climate cooling which occurred during the Neogene/Quaternary period. The formation of the Eurasian Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex was a result of interacting tectonic, geographical, climatic, ecological and phylogenetic processes. The key environmental factors controlling the origin and evolution of Palaearctic cold-adapted large mammal faunas were successive aridification of major parts of Eurasia, rhythmic global climatic cooling with prolonged and intensified cold stages, and increasing continentality. Between 2.6 Ma and around 700 ka BP, largely independent mammal faunas became established in continental Asian steppe regions as well as in the circumpolar tundra. Both faunal complexes were adapted to open environmental conditions but were largely separated from each other. The principal requirements in order for species to evolve into members of Mammoth Faunas are progressing adaptation to aridity, decreasing temperatures and rapid temperature fluctuations. Eurasian Mammoth Faunas were mainly composed of the descendants of either Central Asian steppe or Arctic tundra faunal elements. The majority of species of Central Asian origin emerged in regions north of the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. Between 640 and 480 ka BP, saiga, musk-ox and reindeer occasionally spread far beyond the limits of their respective traditional areas, thus anticipating the subsequent merge of steppe and tundra originated species in Eurasian Mammoth Faunas. During the pronounced cold period of MIS 12, tundra species regularly expanded south- and southwestward into a newly formed type of biome, the so-called tundra-steppe. In parallel, species originating from the Asian steppe dispersed into new habitats north and northwest of their ancestral distribution areas. This drastic faunal turnover led to the formation of the earliest pan-Eurasian Mammoth Fauna at around 460 ka BP. The sister taxa of several species involved in Mammoth Faunas underwent separate evolution in Central Asia, thus indicating ecological differences between the Asian core steppe and Eurasian tundra-steppe habitats. During temperate and humid stages of the late Middle to Late Pleistocene periods the transcontinental reach of the steppe-tundra biome collapsed. As a result, the majority of the characteristic mammal species were forced back to continental steppe or Arctic tundra refugia, only returning during subsequent cold stages when the formation of a new and more evolved Mammoth Fauna began. The maximum geographic extension of the Palaearctic Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex occurred during the Late Pleistocene, when it covered an area of up to 190 degrees of longitude and 40 degrees of latitude.

  1. Ectoparasites of the endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Milln, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Mrquez, F J; Viota, M; Lpez-Bao, J V; Paz Martn-Mateo, M

    2007-09-01

    Ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. We surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 Iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes Vulpes vulpes, 24 Egyptian mongooses Herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets Genetta genetta, two Eurasian badgers Meles meles, one polecat Mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging carnivores (46 cats Felis catus, 29 dogs Canis familiaris) from June 2004 to June 2006 in the two areas where the last lynx metapopulations survive: Sierra Morena and Doana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 65% of lynxes were parasitized (50% by ticks, 19% by fleas, 4% by lice, 31% by hippoboscid flies), as were 75% of foxes (58%, 60%, 0%, 19%), 71% of mongooses (50%, 4%, 46%, 0%), 54% of genets (18%, 36%, 0%, 0%), 30% of cats (22%, 14%, 0%, 2%), and 7% of dogs (surveyed only for ticks). Both badgers presented ticks, fleas and lice. Five species of ixodid ticks (Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev and Matikashvili, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Ixodes hexagonus Leach and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado; and Hyalomma sp.), four species of fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans Linnaeus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale), Xenopsylla cunicularis Smit), three species of chewing lice (Felicola (Felicola) inequalis (Piaget), Trichodectes (Trichodectes) melis (Fabricius), and Felicola (Lorisicola) isidoroi Prez and Palma), and one species of hippoboscid fly (Hippobosca longipennis (Fabricius)) were found. We did not detect any cases of mange. Hippobosca longipennis is a new record for Spanish wildlife, and all the flea species are new records for the Iberian lynx. Fleas were more frequent on lynxes and foxes in winter than in spring. Rhipicephalus spp. were more frequent on cats in spring than in any other season. These and other epidemiological findings are discussed with respect to the conservation of the Iberian lynx. PMID:17897365

  2. Solar influences on spatial patterns of Eurasian winter temperature and atmospheric general circulation anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haishan; Ma, Hedi; Li, Xing; Sun, Shanlei

    2015-09-01

    Solar influences on spatial patterns of Eurasian winter climate and possible mechanisms are investigated based on a multiple linear regression method and multisource observational and reanalysis data. Robust and significant solar signals are detected in Eurasian surface air temperature (SAT), and strong solar activity evidently warms most area of the continent. The spatial pattern of sea level pressure (SLP) responses to solar activity is similar but not identical to that of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Compared to the NAO, geographic distribution of solar-induced SLP anomalies shifts eastward, with significantly enhanced influences over northern Eurasia. Relatively weaker solar signals were also found in mid-to-upper troposphere. The spatial pattern of 500 hPa geopotential anomalies resembles a negative Scandinavia teleconnection pattern, and the 200 hPa subtropical jet is weakened, while zonal wind at high latitudes is enhanced due to strong solar activity. The anomalous zonal circulations can be attributed to the "top-down" mechanism. During high solar activity winters, an enhanced stratospheric zonal wind anomaly propagates downward, causing zonal wind anomalies in the troposphere. However, the "bottom-up" mechanisms may provide more reasonable explanations of the distinct solar influences on Eurasian climate. Solar-induced strong warm advection in lower atmosphere tends to increase SAT but decrease SLP, resulting in enhanced solar influences over northern Eurasia. Meanwhile, change in the land-ocean thermal contrast (LOTC) could also amplify the circulation anomaly. Inhomogeneous surface heating caused by anomalous solar activity modifies LOTC, which probably enhances the solar-induced circulation patterns. Such a positive feedback may potentially strengthen the solar influences.

  3. Virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).

    PubMed

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Nbrega, Cludia Silva; Ribeiro, Tnia; Pedroso, Nuno M; Sales-Lus, Teresa; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tenreiro, Rogrio; Tavares, Lus; Vilela, Cristina Lobo; Oliveira, Manuela

    2013-05-01

    Enterococci are ubiquitous microorganisms found as part of the normal intestinal microbiota of many animals such as the free-ranging Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758). In this work, twenty-nine enterococci isolated from fecal samples of Eurasian otters free-living in reservoirs and associated river stretches in South Portugal were identified and typed by conventional/molecular methods and screened for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Identification allocated the isolates to the species Enterococcus faecalis (19), E. faecium (9) and E. durans (1) and PCR-fingerprinting revealed their high genomic diversity. Regarding virulence factors, three isolates produced cytolysin and six were gelatinase-positive. Genes ace and acm were detected in five enterococci each, ebpABC in seventeen, gelE in fourteen and cylA in three. All isolates showed resistance patterns and antibiotic resistance genes tet(M) and pbp5 were detected in seventeen isolates each, whereas vanB and vanD were identified in thirteen and five, respectively, being most van-harboring isolates members of E. faecium. The aac(6')-Ie-aph (2?) gene, encoding for gentamicin resistance, was observed in all gentamicin-resistant enterococci. Since all isolates harbor virulence and/or antibiotic resistance traits, the role of free-living Eurasian otters in the dissemination of virulent/resistant enterococci among other animals sharing the same ecological niche cannot be disregarded, as well as the health risk they may represent for humans directly interacting with them or their habitat. PMID:23375652

  4. The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Busby, George B.J.; Hellenthal, Garrett; Montinaro, Francesco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Bulayeva, Kazima; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Toncheva, Draga; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Nesheva, Desislava; Anagnostou, Paolo; Cali, Francesco; Brisighelli, Francesca; Romano, Valentino; Lefranc, Gerard; Buresi, Catherine; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Haj-Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Ploski, Rafal; Krajewski, Pawel; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Herrera, Rene J.; Wilson, James F.; Myers, Simon; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8, 9, 10, 11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. PMID:26387712

  5. The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape.

    PubMed

    Busby, George B J; Hellenthal, Garrett; Montinaro, Francesco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Bulayeva, Kazima; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Toncheva, Draga; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Nesheva, Desislava; Anagnostou, Paolo; Cali, Francesco; Brisighelli, Francesca; Romano, Valentino; Lefranc, Gerard; Buresi, Catherine; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Haj-Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Ploski, Rafal; Krajewski, Pawel; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Herrera, Rene J; Wilson, James F; Myers, Simon; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-10-01

    Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1-7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8-11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. PMID:26387712

  6. Sexual dimorphism in territorial scent marking by adult Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Rosell, Frank; Thomsen, Liat R

    2006-06-01

    Mammalian scent marking is often associated with territorial defense. However, males and females may demonstrate different activity patterns and play different roles. Female mammals nurture the young during lactation, while males purportedly perform other tasks more frequently, such as territorial maintenance and defense. This paper investigates the contribution made by mated pairs of adult males and females to territorial scent-marking in the obligate monogamous Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber). We hypothesized that both sexes should show territorial behavior, and predicted that they deposit a higher proportion of scent marks at borders. We also hypothesized that a sexual dimorphism exists due to reproductive constraints on the females, and predicted that males should invest significantly more in scent-marking behavior than females during summer. We obtained behavioral data by radio tracking six mated pairs of Eurasian beavers during spring and summer 2000-2001 on two rivers in southeastern Norway. Our results showed that both males and females clustered their scent marks near territorial borders, but males deposited a larger number of scent marks than females and spent more time at borders. Males were also found to have a higher scent marking rate and scent marks per night than females during summer, but not during spring. Overall, scent marks per night were higher in males than females. We conclude that both males and females Eurasian beavers carry out territorial behavior by scent marking, but males carry a larger part of the territorial defense during summer when females lactate. Our results are discussed in the light of the codefense hypothesis. PMID:16770720

  7. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification. PMID:26234211

  8. Indigenous Arabs are descendants of the earliest split from ancient Eurasian populations

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Fakhro, Khalid; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Ramstetter, Monica D.; Arbiza, Leonardo; Vincent, Thomas L.; Robay, Amal; Malek, Joel A.; Suhre, Karsten; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Al-Nabet Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Salit, Jacqueline; Keinan, Alon; Clark, Andrew G.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Mezey, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    An open question in the history of human migration is the identity of the earliest Eurasian populations that have left contemporary descendants. The Arabian Peninsula was the initial site of the out-of-Africa migrations that occurred between 125,000 and 60,000 yr ago, leading to the hypothesis that the first Eurasian populations were established on the Peninsula and that contemporary indigenous Arabs are direct descendants of these ancient peoples. To assess this hypothesis, we sequenced the entire genomes of 104 unrelated natives of the Arabian Peninsula at high coverage, including 56 of indigenous Arab ancestry. The indigenous Arab genomes defined a cluster distinct from other ancestral groups, and these genomes showed clear hallmarks of an ancient out-of-Africa bottleneck. Similar to other Middle Eastern populations, the indigenous Arabs had higher levels of Neanderthal admixture compared to Africans but had lower levels than Europeans and Asians. These levels of Neanderthal admixture are consistent with an early divergence of Arab ancestors after the out-of-Africa bottleneck but before the major Neanderthal admixture events in Europe and other regions of Eurasia. When compared to worldwide populations sampled in the 1000 Genomes Project, although the indigenous Arabs had a signal of admixture with Europeans, they clustered in a basal, outgroup position to all 1000 Genomes non-Africans when considering pairwise similarity across the entire genome. These results place indigenous Arabs as the most distant relatives of all other contemporary non-Africans and identify these people as direct descendants of the first Eurasian populations established by the out-of-Africa migrations. PMID:26728717

  9. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  10. Ancient mitochondrial DNA and the genetic history of Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Horn, Susanne; Prost, Stefan; Stiller, Mathias; Makowiecki, Daniel; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Benecke, Norbert; Pucher, Erich; Hufthammer, Anne K; Schouwenburg, Charles; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    After centuries of human hunting, the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber had disappeared from most of its original range by the end of the 19th century. The surviving relict populations are characterized by both low genetic diversity and strong phylogeographical structure. However, it remains unclear whether these attributes are the result of a human-induced, late Holocene bottleneck or already existed prior to this reduction in range. To investigate genetic diversity in Eurasian beaver populations during the Holocene, we obtained mitochondrial control region DNA sequences from 48 ancient beaver samples and added 152 modern sequences from GenBank. Phylogeographical analyses of the data indicate a differentiation of European beaver populations into three mitochondrial clades. The two main clades occur in western and eastern Europe, respectively, with an early Holocene contact zone in eastern Europe near a present-day contact zone. A divergent and previously unknown clade of beavers from the Danube Basin survived until at least 6000 years ago, but went extinct during the transition to modern times. Finally, we identify a recent decline in effective population size of Eurasian beavers, with a stronger bottleneck signal in the western than in the eastern clade. Our results suggest that the low genetic diversity and the strong phylogeographical structure in recent beavers are artefacts of human hunting-associated population reductions. While beaver populations have been growing rapidly since the late 19th century, genetic diversity within modern beaver populations remains considerably reduced compared to what was present prior to the period of human hunting and habitat reduction. PMID:24795996

  11. Indigenous Arabs are descendants of the earliest split from ancient Eurasian populations.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Fakhro, Khalid; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Ramstetter, Monica D; Arbiza, Leonardo; Vincent, Thomas L; Robay, Amal; Malek, Joel A; Suhre, Karsten; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Al-Nabet Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Zirie, Mahmoud; Jayyousi, Amin; Salit, Jacqueline; Keinan, Alon; Clark, Andrew G; Crystal, Ronald G; Mezey, Jason G

    2016-02-01

    An open question in the history of human migration is the identity of the earliest Eurasian populations that have left contemporary descendants. The Arabian Peninsula was the initial site of the out-of-Africa migrations that occurred between 125,000 and 60,000 yr ago, leading to the hypothesis that the first Eurasian populations were established on the Peninsula and that contemporary indigenous Arabs are direct descendants of these ancient peoples. To assess this hypothesis, we sequenced the entire genomes of 104 unrelated natives of the Arabian Peninsula at high coverage, including 56 of indigenous Arab ancestry. The indigenous Arab genomes defined a cluster distinct from other ancestral groups, and these genomes showed clear hallmarks of an ancient out-of-Africa bottleneck. Similar to other Middle Eastern populations, the indigenous Arabs had higher levels of Neanderthal admixture compared to Africans but had lower levels than Europeans and Asians. These levels of Neanderthal admixture are consistent with an early divergence of Arab ancestors after the out-of-Africa bottleneck but before the major Neanderthal admixture events in Europe and other regions of Eurasia. When compared to worldwide populations sampled in the 1000 Genomes Project, although the indigenous Arabs had a signal of admixture with Europeans, they clustered in a basal, outgroup position to all 1000 Genomes non-Africans when considering pairwise similarity across the entire genome. These results place indigenous Arabs as the most distant relatives of all other contemporary non-Africans and identify these people as direct descendants of the first Eurasian populations established by the out-of-Africa migrations. PMID:26728717

  12. Eurasian snow cover and Indian monsoon : A new episode of a debated relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peings, Y.; Douville, H.

    2009-04-01

    Since the pioneering works of Blanford at the end of the 19th century, suggesting that Indian monsoon rainfall could be sensitive to snow conditions over Himalaya, many studies have been devoted to a better understanding of the possible teleconnection between winter/spring Eurasian snow cover and the following Indian monsoon. This issue has been recently revisited at CNRM using a maximum covariance analysis. This statistical tool has been applied on both observations (summer precipitation over India on the one hand, satellite data of snow cover or in situ measurements of snow depth on the other hand) and a subset of global coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations from the CMIP3 database. In line with former studies, the observations suggest a link between an east-west snow dipole over Eurasia and the Indian summer monsoon precipitation. However, our results indicate that this relationship is neither statistically significant nor stationary over the last forty years. Moreover, the strongest signal appears over eastern Eurasia and is not consistent with the Blanford hypothesis whereby more snow should lead to a weaker monsoon. The 20th century CMIP3 simulations provide longer timeseries to look for robust snow-monsoon relationships. Some models do show an apparent influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon precipitation, but the snow patterns are model-dependent and not the same as in the observations. Moreover, the apparent snow-monsoon relationship generally denotes a too strong ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) influence on both winter snow cover and summer monsoon rainfall rather than a direct effect of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon. New sensitivity studies with the ARPEGE-Climat model are needed to assess the potential impact of snow anomalies on the monsoon, using climatological sea surface temperature to get rid of the oceanic variability.

  13. Warming of the Eurasian landmass is making the Arabian Sea more productive.

    PubMed

    Goes, Joaquim I; Thoppil, Prasad G; Gomes, Helga do R; Fasullo, John T

    2005-04-22

    The recent trend of declining winter and spring snow cover over Eurasia is causing a land-ocean thermal gradient that is particularly favorable to stronger southwest (summer) monsoon winds. Since 1997, sea surface winds have been strengthening over the western Arabian Sea. This escalation in the intensity of summer monsoon winds, accompanied by enhanced upwelling and an increase of more than 350% in average summertime phytoplankton biomass along the coast and over 300% offshore, raises the possibility that the current warming trend of the Eurasian landmass is making the Arabian Sea more productive. PMID:15845852

  14. [Social play in the development of sibling relations in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, G S; Antonevich, A L; Erofeeva, M N; Na?denko, S V

    2014-01-01

    Social play fulfills an important function in creating and maintaining relations between siblings. However, its relationship with the intralitter social processes is poorly understood. It was noticed that, in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) litters, sex differences in social play are absent in the first 2-3 months of life. Itwas found that the most intense periods of play behavior (at an age of 9 and 1-2 weeks) coincide with periods of aggression. Gradual change in play interactions, which require close physical contact by play elements with increased motor activity, are described. This reflects the changes in the relevance of certain skills of lynx cubs as they grow older. PMID:25735181

  15. [Strigiphilus strigis (Mallophaga: Philopteridae) in a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo interpositus) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, U?ur

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo b. interpositus) was brought to the laboratory of Parasitology Department and was inspected for ectoparasites. Five Mallophaga specimens were collected from the eagle owl and they were mounted on slides in Faure forte medium after being cleared in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the lice were inspected and measured under the light microscope. All of the specimens were identified as Strigiphilus strigis (Pontoppidan 1763). This paper presents the first detection of S. strigis in Turkey. PMID:17471417

  16. Tool-use in a display behaviour by Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Liat R; Campbell, Ruairidh D; Rosell, Frank

    2007-10-01

    Tool use is rare amongst rodents and has never been recorded in connection with agonistic displays. We witnessed a behaviour, stick display (StD), involving tool use in free-living Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) that we conclude is a display behaviour. Two beavers were the main performers of the signal that was observed in at least six beavers from three families. Beavers reacted to displays by increased evasive and agonistic behaviours compared with their usual behavioural patterns when at territory borders. The behaviour was almost exclusively seen between rivals at territory borders. We suggest that the display is used in agonistic encounters, mainly in a territorial context. PMID:17318623

  17. Group Contagion: The Mailbox Melee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, William C.

    2010-01-01

    In a group situation, something goes wrong but no individual feels personal responsibility. This is called the "pie" phenomenon because everybody has a piece of the action, but all believe they are innocent. Each contributes to contagion and chaos but all say, "We didn't do nothing." In this article, the author, a pioneer in work with troubled

  18. Resurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of Eurasian elk (Alces alces), with a report on associated pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varestrongylus alces Demidova & Naumitscheva, 1953 is resurrected for protostrongylid nematodes of Eurasian elk in Europe. Descriptions of males (11.36-16.95 mm) and females (16.25- 21.52 mm) are based on specimens collected from the terminal bronchioles in the lungs of Eurasian elk, Alces alces (L...

  19. Monitoring testicular activity of male Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx by fecal testosterone metabolite measurement.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Naidenko, S V; Goeritz, F; Vargas, A; Dehnhard, M

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify relevant fecal testosterone metabolites in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) using HPLC analysis and to evaluate the specificity of two testosterone immunoassays against these fecal metabolites. Finally, fecal hormone analysis was used to characterize seasonal reproductive activity of captive male Eurasian and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx. Fecal samples from a male Eurasian lynx who received an i.v. injection of [3H]testosterone were subjected to HPLC analysis. All HPLC fractions were analyzed for radioactivity and androgen content by two testosterone immune assays (EIA and Testosterone-Immulite kits, DPC Biermann, Germany). Furthermore, fecal samples from four Eurasian lynx males (n=174) and three Iberian lynx (n=52) were collected throughout the year and fecal testosterone metabolites were determined with Testosterone-Immulite assay. HPLC separation of radiolabeled Eurasian lynx fecal extract indicated that the majority of testosterone metabolites are substances with a higher polarity than testosterone. Only minor proportion of radioactivity co-eluted with authentic testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Enzymatic hydrolysis and solvolysis of the fecal extract were insufficient to liberate testosterone. After solvolysis relatively more activity was eluated the position of DHT, but the majority of metabolites remained unaffected. The EIA measured substantial amount of immunoreactivity, which corresponded with two radioactive peaks. Additionally, both immunoassays recognized two metabolites, which were only minor components according to their radioactivity. The Immulite assay was able to recognize a metabolite at the position of dihydrotestosterone. HPLC separation of Iberian lynx feces extracts revealed a similar metabolite pattern determined by EIA that were typical for Eurasian lynx fecal extracts. Simultaneous analyses of fecal samples with both testosterone assays provided comparative results for both lynx species (Eurasian lynx, r2=0.488; p<0.001; Iberian lynx, r2=0.85, p<0.0001). Thus, seasonal reproductive activity of male Eurasian lynx was demonstrated also by Immulite -assay, confirming high testosterone levels during breeding season in March/April as previously documented with EIA. Preliminary results on testosterone measurements in Iberian lynx feces confirmed the suitability of the applied Immulite test in this highly endangered species. PMID:16843462

  20. The Eurasian species of Xyela (Hymenoptera, Xyelidae): taxonomy, host plants and distribution.

    PubMed

    Blank, Stephan M; Shinohara, Akihiko; Altenhofer, Ewald

    2013-01-01

    The 28 Eurasian species of Xyela Dalman, 1819 are revised based on material of ca 7,500 imagines including about 10 % reared specimens. Larvae of Eurasian Xyela usually are monophagous and feed inside the staminate cones of pines (Pinus spp., Pinaceae). Based on the reared material, on identification by barcoding and on additional collection observations, the larval host associations for the Xyela species are summarized and additional biological observations are noted. An illustrated key to the species and distribution maps are presented. Eight species are described as new: X. altenhoferi Blank, sp. nov. (Croatia), X. heldreichii Blank, sp. nov. (Albania, Greece), X. koraiensis Blank & Shinohara, sp. nov. (Russia, South Korea), X. peuce Blank, sp. nov. (Bulgaria), X. pumilae Blank & Shinohara, sp. nov. (Japan), X. rasnitsyni Blank & Shinohara, sp. nov. (China, Russia, South Korea), X. sibiricae Blank, sp. nov. (Mongolia, Russia), and X. uncinatae Blank, sp. nov. (Andorra, France, Spain, Switzerland). For the other species redescriptions are given. A lectotype is designated for X. longula Dalman, 1819, and neotypes are designated for X. graeca J.P.E.F. Stein, 1876 and Pinicola julii Brbisson, 1818. The following new synonymies are proposed: X. lii Xiao, 1988, syn. nov. of X. sinicola Maa, 1947; X. nigroabscondita Haris & Gyurkovics, 2011, syn. nov. of X. lugdunensis (Berland, 1943); and X. suwonae Ryu & Lee, 1992, syn. nov. of X. ussuriensis Rasnitsyn, 1965. PMID:25325088

  1. Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Nreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ? 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection. PMID:23778601

  2. Evolution of the Eurasian Ice Sheets during the Last Deglaciation (25-10 kyr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. L. C.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, . S.

    2014-12-01

    Both the timing of maximum extent and subsequent pace of retreat of the interconnected Eurasian (British-Irish, Scandinavian, Svalbard-Barents-Kara Sea) Ice Sheets were spatially variable likely reflecting contrasts in response to forcing mechanisms, geographical settings and glacial dynamics both between individual ice sheets and ice-sheet sectors. For example the maximum limit along the western continental shelf edge was reached up to 3,000 years earlier than the maximum, mainly terrestrial, limits in the east. We present new time-slice reconstructions of the ice-sheet evolution through the last deglaciation based on a compiled chronology of over 5,000 dates and published ice-margin positions. Ice-sheet margins are depicted every 1,000 years (25-10 kyr) and include uncertainty estimates (represented by maximum, minimum and most-credible lines). The new ice-sheet scale reconstructions summarise and provide the means for direct comparison of the empirical geological record against simulations of the deglacial ice-sheet evolution from numerical and isostatic ice-sheet modelling and the timing of abrupt events observed in deglacial climate and ocean records. The reconstruction process has identified both instances of conflicting evidence and gaps in the geological record that should be a focus for future studies. This work is part of an on-going project to reconstruct the changing limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheets through the last glacial cycle (www.uib.no/project/dated).

  3. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    N?mejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Kv?to?ov, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimr; Janiszewski, Pawe?; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajsk, Duan; Ravaszov, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kv?, Martin

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus-and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  4. The Cenozoic Eurasian plate is not a single rigid plate: clues from paleomagnetism. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogn, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Cenozoic paleomagnetic inclination anomaly in Central Asia has been explained as a generalized error in the sedimentary magnetic field record over Asia due to an inclination flattening mechanism or as a persistent anomalous non-dipolar component of the magnetic field throughout the Tertiary. We propose that the inclination anomaly does not primarily result from either of these mechanisms. We present an analysis of the Asian paleomagnetic database for Meso-Cenozoic times from which we conclude that the inclination anomaly is most likely related to an underestimated global plate-tectonics cause. Based on this analysis, we propose that the wide so-called Eurasian plate has undergone sinistral transpressive north-south relative movements between its western and eastern parts since the end of the Cretaceous. These Cenozoic relative movements might have been located along the Ural Mountain chain with also some components along the Tornquist-Tesseyre line in central Europe. Therefore, we conclude that the Eurasian plate is not a rigid plate as commonly considered, at least since the late Mesozoic.

  5. Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Wang, Zhiheng; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol 14C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3–6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic. PMID:23940354

  6. mtDNA analysis of 174 Eurasian populations using a new iterative rank correlation method.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Zoltán; Fehér, Tibor; Németh, Endre; Pamjav, Horolma

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we analyse 27-dimensional mtDNA haplogroup distributions of 174 Eurasian, North-African and American populations, including numerous ancient data as well. The main contribution of this work was the description of the haplogroup distribution of recent and ancient populations as compounds of certain hypothetic ancient core populations immediately or indirectly determining the migration processes in Eurasia for a long time. To identify these core populations, we developed a new iterative algorithm determining clusters of the 27 mtDNA haplogroups studied having strong rank correlation among each other within a definite subset of the populations. Based on this study, the current Eurasian populations can be considered as compounds of three early core populations regarding to maternal lineages. We wanted to show that a simultaneous analysis of ancient and recent data using a new iterative rank correlation algorithm and the weighted SOC learning technique may reveal the most important and deterministic migration processes in the past. This technique allowed us to determine geographically, historically and linguistically well-interpretable clusters of our dataset having a very specific, hardly classifiable structure. The method was validated using a 2-dimensional stepping stone model. PMID:26142878

  7. Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge

    PubMed Central

    Mazières, Stéphane; Myres, Natalie M.; Lin, Alice A.; Temori, Shah Aga; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Witzel, Michael; King, Roy J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Chiaroni, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci. PMID:24204668

  8. Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E; van Dongen, Bart E; Gustafsson, rjan; Semiletov, Igor P; Dudarev, Oleg V; Wang, Zhiheng; Montluon, Daniel B; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I

    2013-08-27

    Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol (14)C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3-6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic. PMID:23940354

  9. Understanding of changes in winter runoff across Eurasian pan-Arctic using new observational data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, Alexander; Markov, Mikhail; Tokarev, Igor

    2015-04-01

    There are many evidences of increasing river runoff in Eurasian pan-Arctic. In some regions the winter river flow has increased over 50% when compared to multi-year means. Due to the extensive freeze of surface hydrology, river runoff during the winter is mostly defined by groundwater drainage. The possible causes of winter discharge increase include growth of precipitation in summer-fall and increase in active layer thickness and permafrost thaw. These causes, however, cannot explain consistent increase in discharge throughout the entire winter. We assume that the potential cause of increased winter river runoff is the reduction of barriers between subsurface water reservoirs and surface runoff due to improved drainage pathways as the result of increasing winter air temperature and decreasing river ice thickness. To check this hypothesis we evaluated the long-term relationships over 1960-2012 between air temperature, river ice thickness and river discharge for 32 small and medium size rivers located in different regions of Eurasian pan-Arctic with various climatic conditions and land cover. Preliminary analysis has shown better relationships between river ice thickness and river discharge in regions with no underlying permafrost implying stronger influence of river ice on surface and ground water exchange in these areas.

  10. Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

  11. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrcia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Lus

    2011-05-01

    We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:21104273

  12. Neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Dubey, J P; Pabn, M; Linarez, N; Kwok, O C; Milln, J; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Lpez-Gatius, F; Thulliez, P; Gortzar, C; Almera, S

    2008-08-17

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolves (Canis lupus); in 12.0% of 25 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus); in 16.7% of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris); in 6.4% of 31 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles); in 21.4% of 14 stone martens (Martes foina); in 66.7% of 3 pine martens (M. martes) and in 50% of 2 polecats (Mustela putorius). Antibodies to N. caninum in common genets (Genetta genetta) and Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon) were only observed by c-ELISA but were not confirmed by IFAT and/or NAT. No antibodies were detected in 5 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) by any technique. Statistically significant differences were observed among species and among geographical areas. The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was observed in the Cantabric Coastal region characterized by high humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in free ranging wild carnivores, other than wild canids, in Europe. The existence of a possible sylvatic cycle could have important implications in both sylvatic and domestic cycles since they might influence the prevalence of infection in cattle farms in those areas. PMID:18556128

  13. Potential impacts of northeastern Eurasian snow cover on generation of dust storms in northwestern China during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yun Gon; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Jinwon

    2013-08-01

    The effects of the northeastern Eurasian snow cover on the frequency of spring dust storms in northwestern China have been examined for the period 1979-2007. Averaged over all 43 stations in northwestern China, a statistically significant relationship has been found between dust-storm frequency (DSF) and Eurasian snow-water equivalent (SWE) during spring: mean DSF of 7.4 and 3.3 days for years of high- and low SWE, respectively. Further analyses reveal that positive SWE anomalies enhance the meridional gradients of the lower tropospheric temperatures and geopotential heights, thereby strengthening westerly jets and zonal wind shear over northwestern China and western Inner Mongolia of China, the regions of major dust sources. The anomalous atmospheric circulation corresponding to the Eurasian SWE anomalies either reinforces or weakens atmospheric baroclinicity and cyclogenesis, according to the sign of the anomaly, to affect the spring DSF. This study suggests that Eurasian SWE anomalies can be an influential factor of spring DSF in northwestern China and western Inner Mongolia of China.

  14. A record of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae) in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra L.) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Joanna; Popio?ek, Marcin; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Pirg, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    Opisthorchid digenean Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) was isolated from liver bile ducts of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) found dead in the fishing pond complex near Wroc?aw (Lower Silesia, SW. Poland) in March 2009. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the otter from Poland, the description, biometrical data and figure are presented. PMID:22165735

  15. Isolation of a recent Korean epizootic strain of Newcastle disease virus from Eurasian Scops Owls affected with severe diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Nah, Jin-Ju; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lee, Hang; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2008-01-01

    Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was recovered from two dead Eurasian Scops Owls (Otus scops) from a wildlife rescue center in Korea during 2005. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the partial fusion (F) protein revealed that the isolates had the highest level of homology to recent Korean NDV strains from poultry. PMID:18263840

  16. Genetic differentiation and admixture among Eurasian and North American Leymus (Triticeae) wildryes detected using chloroplast DNA sequences and AFLP profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leymus is a genomically defined group of allopolyploid Triticeae taxa that show homologous chromosome pairing when hybridized and contain the Ns and Xm subgenomes. Recent investigations showed that Leymus chloroplast DNA sequences are polyphyletic with most Eurasian taxa similar to the Psathyrostac...

  17. Differences in satellite-derived NOx emission factors between Eurasian and North American boreal forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    Current fire emission inventories apply universal emission factors (EFs) for the calculation of NOx emissions over large biomes such as boreal forest. However, recent satellite-based studies over tropical and subtropical regions have indicated spatio-temporal variations in EFs within specific biomes. In this study, satellite measurements of tropospheric NO2 vertical columns (TVC NO2) from the GOME-2 instrument and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS are used for the estimation of fire emission rates (FERs) of NOx over Eurasian and North American boreal forests. The retrieval of TVC NO2 is based on a stratospheric correction using simulated stratospheric NO2 instead of applying the reference sector method, which was used in a previous study. The model approach is more suitable for boreal latitudes. TVC NO2 and FRP are spatially aggregated to a 1° × 1° horizontal resolution and temporally averaged to monthly values. The conversion of the satellite-derived tropospheric NO2 columns into production rates of NOx from fire (Pf) is based on the NO2/NOx ratio as obtained from the MACC reanalysis data set and an assumed lifetime of NOx. A global land cover map is used to define boreal forests across these two regions in order to evaluate the FERs of NOx for this biome. The FERs of NOx, which are derived from the gradients of the linear relationship between Pf and FRP, are more than 30% lower for North American than for Eurasian boreal forest fires. We speculate that these discrepancies are mainly related to the variable nitrogen content in plant tissues, which is higher in deciduous forests dominating large parts in Eurasia. In order to compare the obtained values with EFs found in the literature, the FERs are converted into EFs. The satellite-based EFs of NOx are estimated at 0.83 and 0.61 g kg-1 for Eurasian and North American boreal forests, respectively, which is in good agreement with the value found in a recent emission factor compilation. However, recent fire emission inventories are based on EFs of NOx that are 3-5 times larger, which indicates that there are still large uncertainties in estimates of NOx from biomass burning, especially on the regional scale.

  18. The Effect of Eurasian Snow Cover on Regional and Global Climate Variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, T. P.; Dmenil, L.; Schlese, U.; Roeckner, E.; Latif, M.

    1989-03-01

    The sensitivity of the global climate system to interannual variability of he Eurasian snow cover has been investigated with numerical models. It was found that heavier than normal Eurasian snow cover in spring leads to a `poor' monsoon over Southeast Asia thereby verifying an idea over 100 years old. The poor monsoon was characterized by reduced rainfall over India and Burma, reduced wind stress over the Indian Ocean, lower than normal temperatures on the Asian land mass and in the overlying atmospheric column, reduced tropical jet, increased soil moisture, and other features associated with poor monsoons. Lighter than normal snow cover led to a `good' monsoon with atmospheric anomalies like those described above but of opposite sign. Remote responses from the snow field perturbation include readjustment of the Northern Hemispheric mass field in midlatitude, an equatorially symmetric response of the tropical geopotential height and temperature field and weak, but significant, perturbations in the surface wind stress and heat flux in the tropical Pacific.The physics responsible for the regional response involves all elements of both the surface heat budget and heat budget of the full atmospheric column. In essence, the snow, soil and atmospheric moisture all act to keep the land and overlying atmospheric column colder than normal during a heavy snow simulation thus reducing the land-ocean temperature contrast needed to initiate the monsoon. The remote responses are driven by heating anomalies associated with both large scale air-sea interactions and precipitation events.The model winds from the heavy snow experiment were used to drive an ocean model. The SST field in that model developed a weak El Nio in the equatorial Pacific. A coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulation perturbed only by anomalous Eurasian snow cover was also run and it developed a much stranger El Nio in the Pacific. The coupled system clearly amplified the wind stress anomaly associated with the poor monsoon. These results show the important role of an evolving (not specified) sea surface temperature in numerical experiments and the real climate system. Our general results also demonstrate the importance of land processes in global climate dynamics and their possible role as one of the factors that could trigger ENSO events.

  19. Numerical reconstructions of the Eurasian Ice Sheet and climate during the Late Weichselian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Martin J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.

    2004-06-01

    Geological investigations undertaken through the Quaternary Environments of the Eurasian North programme established ice-sheet limits for the Eurasian Arctic at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), sedimentary records of palaeo-ice streams and uplift information relating to ice-sheet configuration and the pattern of deglaciation. Ice-sheet numerical modelling was used to reconstruct a history of the Eurasian Ice Sheet compatible with these geological datasets. The result was a quantitative assessment of the time-dependent behaviour of the ice sheet, its mass balance and climate, and predictions of glaciological products including sediments, icebergs and meltwater. At the LGM, ice cover was continuous from Scandinavia to the Arctic Ocean margin of the Barents Sea to the north, and the Kara Sea to the east. In the west, along the continental margin between the Norwegian Channel and Svalbard, the ice sheet was characterised by fast flowing ice streams occupying bathymetric troughs, which fed large volumes of sediment to the continental margin that were deposited as a series of trough mouth fans. Ice streams may also have been present in bathymetric troughs to the north between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. Further east, however, the ice sheet was thinner. Across the Kara Sea, the ice thickness was predicted to be less than 300 m, while on Severnaya Zemlya the ice cover may have been thinner at the LGM than at present. It is likely that the Taymyr Peninsula was mainly free of ice at the LGM. In the south, the ice margin was located close to the shoreline of the Russian mainland. The climate associated with this ice sheet is maritime to the west and, in stark contrast, desert-like in the east. Atmospheric General Circulation Modelling has revealed that such a contrast is possible under relatively warm north Atlantic conditions because a circulation system develops across the Kara Sea, isolating it from the moisture-laden westerlies, which are diverted to the south. Ice-sheet decay began through enhanced iceberg calving in the deepest regions of the Barents Sea, which caused a significant ice embayment within the Bear Island Trough. By about 12,000 years ago, further iceberg calving reduced ice extent to the northern archipelagos and their surrounding shallow seas. Ice decay was complete by about 10,000 years ago.

  20. Ice Cover Of Eurasian Water Bodies And Rivers From Satellite And In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouraev, A. V.; Shimaraev, M. N.; Remy, F.; Naumenko, M. A.; Zakharova, E. A.; Suknev, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present studies of ice cover of continental water bodies and rivers using the synergy of more than 15 years-long simultaneous active (radar altimeter) and passive (radiometer) observations from radar altimetric satellites (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, ENVISAT and Geosat Follow-On) complemented by SSM/I passive microwave data. Five largest Eurasian continental water bodies - Caspian and Aral seas, Baikal, Ladoga and Onega lakes, and the Ob' river in the Western Siberia are selected as examples. We use an ice discrimination approach based on a combined use of the data, that has been validated using in situ and independent satellite data in the visible range. We then analyse evolution of ice conditions for the lakes and inland seas using historical data, recent satellite observations and our field studies on the lakes Ladoga and Baikal.

  1. Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Forest Greening Response May Be Associated with Warmer and Drier Summers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buermann, Wolfgang; Parida, Bikash; Jung, Martin; MacDonald, Glen M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Reichstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high latitudes are currently experiencing drastic warming, and recent studies suggest that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual relationships in boreal forest greening and climate over the last three decades using newly available satellite vegetation data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation, a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted western central Eurasian boreal forests into a warmer and drier regime. This may be the leading cause for the emergence of large-scale negative correlations between summer temperatures and forest greenness. If such a regime shift would be sustained, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by heat and drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may proceed more rapidly than anticipated.

  2. Epizootiologic investigations of selected infectious disease agents in free-ranging Eurasian lynx from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Leutenegger, Christian M; af Segerstad, Carl Hrd; Mrner, Torsten; Mattsson, Roland; Lutz, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 106 Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from across Sweden, found dead or shot by hunters in 1993-99, were investigated for presence of antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophila, and for feline leukemia virus antigen. In addition, tissue samples from 22 lynx submitted in 1999 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect nucleic acids specific for viral agents and A. phagocytophila. Except for FPV antibodies in one lynx and A. phagocytophila in four lynx, all serology was negative. All PCR results also were negative. It was concluded that free-ranging Swedish lynx do not have frequent contact with the infectious agents considered in this study. PMID:15827211

  3. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. PMID:25185866

  4. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; af Segerstad, Carl Hrd; Brjer, Caroline; Mrner, Torsten; Jansson, Dsire S; Lundn, Anna; Uggla, Arvid

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Sweden, serosanguinous fluids and feces were collected from 207 carcasses of lynx killed or found dead from 1996 to 1998. Sera were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by the direct agglutination test, and 156 (75.4%) of the sera tested positive at antibody titers>or=40. Antibody prevalence was significantly lower in lynx originating from the northern parts of Sweden than in lynx from the more southern regions that are more densely populated by humans. Age-related differences also were found, with a significantly lower prevalence (55%) in juvenile (<1-yr-old) than in subadult and adult animals (82%). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between males and females. Oocysts typical of T. gondii were not detected in any of the fecal samples. PMID:16699164

  5. Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrn, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females). In general, the breeding proportion varied between age classes and study sites, whereas we did not detect such variation in litter size. The lack of differences in litter sizes among age classes is at odds with most findings in large mammals, and we argue that this is because the level of prenatal investment is relatively low in felids compared to their substantial levels of postnatal care. PMID:22707757

  6. Parvovirus infection in a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and in a European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris).

    PubMed

    Wasieri, J; Schmiedeknecht, G; Frster, C; Knig, M; Reinacher, M

    2009-01-01

    A Eurasian lynx and a European wildcat from the same wildlife park were submitted for necropsy examination after sudden death and after death following a clinical history of lethargy, respectively. Neither animal had been vaccinated against feline parvovirus (feline panleukopenia virus). Feral domestic cats were widespread in the area of the wildlife park and a number of these animals that had been captured had recently died from parvovirus infection. Gross and microscopical findings in the two non-domestic felids were consistent with feline parvovirus infection and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The introduction of feline parvovirus into captive non-domestic felid populations could pose a threat to their health and survival. Vaccination of captive non-domestic felids is therefore recommended. PMID:19135211

  7. [Maternal behavior of the Eurasian Lynx lynx L. during the early postnatal ontogeny of its cubs].

    PubMed

    Chagaeva, A A; Na?denko, S V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the major elements of maternal behavior of Eurasian lynx females during the first month of life of their cubs and their association with litter parameters (number of kittens, sex, and mass) have been traced. By the end of the first month, the amount of time spent by the female outside of the den significantly increases. An association between the litter size and maternal behavior has been found. Females rearing small litters spend more time outside of their den; they also spend more time on allogrooming of each separate kitten than females with large litters. Concerning allogrooming duration, a preference for male kittens by lynx females has been noticed in the third week. PMID:22567872

  8. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 21b from a Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo).

    PubMed

    Kocabiyik, A Levent; Cangul, I Taci; Alasonyalilar, Aylin; Dedicova, Daniela; Karpiskova, Renata

    2006-07-01

    A case of fatal salmonellosis in a Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) from Bursa Province (northwestern Turkey) is described. The organs of the bird were examined histopathologically and microbiologically. Macroscopic and microscopic findings were consistent with a Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) phage type (PT) 21b was isolated from the liver and spleen in pure culture and from the intestine. The isolate was susceptible to amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. This is the first report of an isolation of salmonellae from a wild bird species from Turkey and the first time S. Enteritidis PT21b has been reported from Turkey. PMID:17092905

  9. New constraining datasets for Eurasian ice sheet modelling: chronology, fjords and bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyllencreutz, R.; Tarasov, L.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, . S.

    2009-04-01

    The increasing resolution of ice sheet models demands more detailed data for constraining and for comparison of results. Important data for this include ice sheet chronology, bed conditions and topography. We address this by compiling published data into three new constraining data sets. The Eurasian ice sheet chronology is reconstructed in our database-GIS solution (called DATED; Gyllencreutz et al., 2007). In DATED, we are building a database with all available dates, and a GIS with all geomorphologic features, that are relevant for the ice configuration through the Last Glacial Maximum and the following deglaciation, based on results from the literature. Reconstructions of the ice sheet configuration are presented as thousand-year time slices of the advance and decay of the Eurasian ice sheet between 25 and 10 thousand calendar years ago, based on chronologic, geomorphologic and stratigraphic data from the literature. To facilitate handling of error estimates in ice sheet modeling using our reconstructions, we made three reconstructions for every time slice: a maximum, a minimum and a "probable" ice sheet configuration, based on the limitations of the data at hand. The estimated uncertainty for the reconstructions was calculated in the GIS, and amounts to about 1 million km2 (about 1/5 of the maximum area) for most of the record before the Younger Dryas, indicating significant gaps in the knowledge of the Eurasian ice sheet configuration. In order to facilitate modeling of fast ice flow and ice streams, we compiled information about exposed bedrock from digital Quaternary maps in scale 1:1 million by the geological surveys in Norway, Sweden, Finland, UK and Ireland, together with published drift thickness estimates. The bed conditions data set was generalized to a grid resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 degrees. The Norwegian fjords are important for topographic steering; especially for fast glacier flow and draw-down from more central parts of the ice sheet. However, most fjords are less than a few kilometers wide and therefore are not captured even by high-resolution models. Therefore, we assembled information about the major Norwegian fjords, to a dataset containing fjord width, average depth, post-glacial sediment thickness, threshold elevation and drainage direction, also generalized to a 0.25 x 0.25 degrees grid resolution. The implementation of these new constraining datasets and the associated impact thereof is demonstrated by an ensemble of glacial cycle simulations using a three-dimensional thermo-mechanically coupled glacial systems model. References: Gyllencreutz, R., Mangerud, J., Svendsen, J.-I. & Lohne, . 2007. DATED - A GIS-based Reconstruction and dating Database of the Eurasian Deglaciation. Applied Quaternary research in the central part of glaciated terrain. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 46, 113-120.

  10. Reintroduction of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in northeastern Spain: trapping, handling, and medical management.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Morn, Jesus; Saavedra, Deli; Manteca-Vilanova, Xavier

    2002-09-01

    In 1993 a reintroduction project for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) was initiated in northeastern Spain (Girona, Catalonia) to restore extirpated populations. Between 1996 and 2000, 43 otters were captured from southwestern and northern Spain and from Portugal with modified foot-hold traps and transported to Barcelona Zoo. Lesions produced by capture were classified into four categories of increasing severity. Thirty four (79%) animals had category I, three (7%) had category II, five (12%) had category III, and only one (2%) had category IV injuries. During captivity five (11%) animals died, including one from a precapture problem. Radiotransmitter devices were implanted i.p. into 36 otters to monitor postrelease movement and survival. At least three radio-implanted otters have bred successfully in Girona province, Catalonia, after release in that area. PMID:12462488

  11. Immunoblotting for the serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in alive and dead Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Gottstein, B; Frey, C F; Campbell-Palmer, R; Pizzi, R; Barlow, A; Hentrich, B; Posautz, A; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2014-09-15

    A novel species-specific anti-beaver-IgG-alkaline-phosphatase conjugate was synthesized for the development of a new serological test for echinococcosis in beavers. Two different ELISAs conventionally used for human Echinococcus multilocularis serology (Em18-ELISA and Em2-ELISA) yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 0% and 46%, respectively. In contrast, the subsequently developed immunoblotting assay gave an 85% diagnostic sensitivity (11 out of 13 beavers with alveolar echinococcosis were immunoblotting-positive, i.e. showed reactivity with a specific 21 Mr band), and maximal specificity. In conclusion, this immunoblotting assay should be the method of choice for use in serological studies on E. multilocularis in Eurasian beavers, and the test proved suitable to investigate both animals alive and post-mortem. PMID:24986466

  12. Distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, in the St. Clair-Detroit River system in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1984-01-01

    Submersed macrophytes were surveyed at 595 stations located throughout the St. Clair-Detroit River system between Lakes Huron and Erie, 23 August to 13 October, 1978. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), first recorded in the system in 1974, became the fourth most common submersed macrophyte in the system by 1978. However, it has not been reported as a widespread nuisance in this system as it has in many other large water bodies in the United States. Observations made during the present study, and interpretations of an aerial photograph, suggest that M. spicatum was a minor nuisance to small boat navigation in portions of the system. Information presented in this study provides a baseline against which future changes in the occurrence of M. spicatum in the St. Clair-Detroit River system can be measured.

  13. Late Cretaceous-Paleogene transform zone between the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekhovich, V. D.; Lobkovskii, L. I.; Kononov, M. V.; Sheremet, O. G.

    2015-09-01

    Within the limits of the Chukchi Sea and the Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, study have been carried out to calculate D function anomalies. The result was the discovery of elongated faults that cut, according to the positions of the upper and lower extents of the disturbing masses, both the upper crust and the upper mantle. It is shown that these faults are right-lateral strike-slips continuing the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene structures of the same type in the Bering Sea. This suggests that the en echelon strike-slip system of the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Amerasian Basin is a relic of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene transform fault zone between the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates.

  14. Recent shift in Eurasian boreal forest greening response may be associated with warmer and drier summers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buermann, Wolfgang; Parida, Bikash; Jung, Martin; MacDonald, Glen M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Reichstein, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high latitudes are currently experiencing drastic warming, and recent studies suggest that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual relationships in boreal forest greening and climate over the last three decades using newly available satellite vegetation data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation, a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted western central Eurasian boreal forests into a warmer and drier regime. This may be the leading cause for the emergence of large-scale negative correlations between summer temperatures and forest greenness. If such a regime shift would be sustained, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by heat and drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may proceed more rapidly than anticipated.

  15. Parasitic helminths of Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) from Florida.

    PubMed

    Bean, Diane L; Rojas-Flores, Edith; Foster, Garry W; Kinsella, John M; Forrester, Donald J

    2005-02-01

    Sixty-three Eurasian collared-doves (ECDs) (Streptopelia decaocto) from Florida were examined for parasitic helminths from June to December 2001. Nine species of helminths were identified (5 nematodes, 2 cestodes, and 2 trematodes). The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia columbae (73.0%), Fuhrmannetta crassula (28.6%), Ornithostrongylus quadriradiatus (12.7%), and Bruscapillaria obsignata (11.1%). The helminths with the greatest mean intensity were Tanaisia bragai (13.5), A. columbae (9.3), and O. quadriradiatus (7.1). In Florida, the mean intensity of A. columbae in ECDs (9.3) was similar to that found in white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) (9.1) (P = 0.461), and both the intensities were significantly higher than that in the native mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) (3.7) (P = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively). Fuhrmannetta crassula is reported for the first time in columbids from Florida. PMID:15856898

  16. Nest desertion is not predicted by cuckoldry in the Eurasian penduline tit

    PubMed Central

    Mszros, Lidia A.; van der Velde, Marco; Szkely, Tams; Pogny, kos; Szabad, Jnos; Komdeur, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Engagement in extra-pair copulations is an example of the abundant conflicting interests between males and females over reproduction. Potential benefits for females and the risk of cuckoldry for males are expected to have important implications on the evolution of parental care. However, whether parents adjust parental care in response to parentage remains unclear. In Eurasian penduline tits Remiz pendulinus, which are small polygamous songbirds, parental care is carried out either by the male or by the female. In addition, one third of clutches is deserted by both male and female. Desertion takes place during the egg-laying phase. Using genotypes of nine microsatellite loci of 443 offspring and 211 adults, we test whether extra-pair paternity predicts parental care. We expect males to be more likely to desert cuckolded broods, whereas we expect females, if they obtain benefits from having multiple sires, to be more likely to care for broods with multiple paternity. Our results suggest that parental care is not adjusted to parentage on an ecological timescale. Furthermore, we found that male attractiveness does not predict cuckoldry, and we found no evidence for indirect benefits for females (i.e., increased growth rates or heterozygosity of extra-pair offspring). We argue that male Eurasian penduline tits may not be able to assess the risk of cuckoldry; thus, a direct association with parental care is unlikely to evolve. However, timing of desertion (i.e., when to desert during the egg-laying phase) may be influenced by the risk of cuckoldry. Future work applying extensive gene sequencing and quantitative genetics is likely to further our understanding of how selection may influence the association between parentage and parental care. PMID:20802790

  17. Sex steroid dynamics during embryogenesis and sexual differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Rougeot, C; Krim, A; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P; Mlard, C

    2007-03-15

    It is widely accepted that sex steroid hormones play an important and a specific role during the process of sex differentiation in fish. In order to describe the role of the three main sex steroid hormones (testosterone--T, 17beta-estradiol--E2 and 11keto-testosterone--11KT) during embryogenesis and sex differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, eggs, larvae and juveniles originating from two mixed-sex and two all-female progenies were regularly sampled from fertilization to hatching (D0) and from hatching to day 70 post-hatching (D70). Just after spawning, a significant amount of sex steroids [T (1634.2pgg(-1)), E2 (554.4pgg(-1)) and 11KT (1513.2pgg(-1))] was measured in non-fertilised eggs suggesting a maternal transmission of these steroids. From D2 to D70 post-hatching, E2 levels were significantly higher in mixed-sex progenies (median: 725.7pgg(-1)) than in all-female progenies (156.2pgg(-1)) and significantly increased after the onset of the histological differentiation of the gonad in both progenies (D35). Levels of 11KT were significantly higher in mixed-sex (median: 431.5pgg(-1)) than in all-female progenies (below the limit of assay detection) and significantly increased at D35 in all-female progenies (median value: 343.2pgg(-1)). Mean 11KT to E2 ratio was six-fold higher in mixed-sex progenies (1.35) than in all-female progenies (0.24). The data suggest that the 11-oxygenated androgen (11KT) plays a major role in the male differentiation process, and that sex differentiation in Eurasian perch is probably determined by the 11KT to E2 ratio. PMID:17270265

  18. One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrn, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation. PMID:23859302

  19. Use of electric and bubble barriers to limit the movement of Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Heather A.; Reinhardt, Ulrich G.; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    2006-01-01

    Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) is an aquatic invasive species accidentally introduced via ballast water to the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s. Fish barrier technology is being studied to stop the spread of invasive fish species such as ruffe. Electrical barriers have been constructed, most notably in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, to prevent non-indigenous species such as ruffe from spreading into areas where they are currently absent. Information on the response of an invasive fish to barriers can help managers determine strategies to prevent the spread of these species via artificial waterways. In this laboratory study electrical barriers were set up to determine effectiveness of four electrical settings for repelling Eurasian ruffe measuring 10 cm or more in length. In separate tests, airbubble curtains with two bubble sizes and densities were created to test this type of barrier in blocking movement of ruffe less than 10 cm in length. The most effective electrical settings found (5 ms, 6 Hz) repelled only about half of the attempted passes. When ruffe were offered food or shelter on the opposite side of the electrical barrier, neither food-starved nor shelter-deprived ruffe made significantly more attempts to cross the barrier. Ruffe were significantly repelled by all air-bubble curtains, but a large proportion of passes (4.5 passes per fish on average in the treatments) were still observed. Electrical barrier settings and air-bubble curtains used in this study were found ineffective at completely blocking the movement, but somewhat effective at inhibiting the passage of ruffe.

  20. Asymmetry in the response of central Eurasian winter temperature to AMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xin; He, Shengping; Wang, Huijun

    2015-12-01

    The asymmetry in the teleconnection of the central Eurasian winter surface air temperature (SAT) with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) is discussed using observations and model simulations. Observations indicate that the winter SAT over central Eurasia (30°-70°E, 30°-50°N) shows significant positive anomalies during the warm AMO period but weak and insignificant anomalies in the cold AMO period. In general, the warm winters in central Eurasia are associated with large-scale negative sea level pressure anomalies in Europe, anomalous southwesterly winds at 850 hPa over Europe, the "+ - +" geopotential height anomalies at 500 hPa in the south of Greenland, northern Europe, western Asia, and the slant north-south "+ -" pattern jet stream anomalies at 200 hPa in the north and south of the Caspian Sea. Reverse patterns occur during cold winters. These statistically significant features are observed in the warm phase of AMO. Reversed circulation anomalies are observed during the cold phase of AMO; however, these anomalies are weak and not statistically significant. Furthermore, the asymmetry in the atmospheric response to AMO is well supported by simulations with a suite of GFDL atmospheric model idealized experiments and four CMIP5 models historical experiments. Both observations and simulations indicate that Rossby waves propagating from the North Atlantic eastward to Eurasia emerge in the warm AMO and disappear in the cold AMO. Thus, the different propagations of Rossby waves, induced by the different surface thermal conditions of the warm and cold AMO, are the potential connection between the North Atlantic Ocean and central Eurasian climate, and may explain the asymmetry.

  1. Forcing, variability, and pathway of a freshwater-driven current in the Eurasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janout, Markus; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Hlemann, Jens; Rabe, Benjamin; Schauer, Ursula; Polyakov, Igor; Bacon, Sheldon; Coward, Andrew; Karcher, Michael; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Kassens, Heidi; Timokhov, Leo

    2015-04-01

    Siberian river water is a first-order contribution to the Arctic freshwater budget, with the Ob, Yenisey, and Lena supplying nearly half of the total surface freshwater flux. However, few details are known regarding where, when and how the freshwater transverses the vast Siberian shelf seas. This paper investigates the mechanism, variability and pathways of the fresh Kara Sea outflow through Vilkitsky Strait towards the Laptev Sea. We utilize a high-resolution ocean model and recent shipboard observations to characterize the freshwater-laden Vilkitsky Strait Current (VSC), and shed new light on the little-studied region between the Kara and Laptev Seas, characterized by harsh ice conditions, contrasting water masses, straits and a large submarine canyon. The VSC is 10-20 km wide, surface-intensified, and varies seasonally (maximum from August-March) and interannually. Average freshwater (volume) transport is 500 120 km3 a-1 (0.53 0.08 Sv), with a baroclinic flow contribution of 50-90%. Interannual transport variability is explained by a storage-release mechanism, where blocking-favorable summer winds hamper the outflow and cause accumulation of freshwater in the Kara Sea. The year following a blocking event is characterized by enhanced transports driven by a baroclinic flow along the coast that is set up by increased freshwater volumes. Eventually, the VSC merges with a slope current and provides a major pathway for Eurasian river water towards the Western Arctic along the Eurasian continental slope. Kara (and Laptev) Sea freshwater transport is not correlated with the Arctic Oscillation, but rather driven by regional summer pressure patterns.

  2. Can the Tibetan Plateau snow cover influence the interannual variations of Eurasian heat wave frequency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hua; Li, Yun

    2015-07-01

    The Eurasian continent has experienced significant year-to-year variations of summer heat waves during the past decades. Several possible factors, such as ocean temperature, soil moisture, and changes in land use and greenhouse gases, have been identified in previous studies, but the mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, it is found that the Tibetan Plateau snow cover (TPSC) is closely linked to the interannual variations of summer heat waves over Eurasia. The TPSC variability explains more than 30 % of the total variances of heat wave variability in the southern Europe and northeastern Asia (SENA) region. A set of numerical experiments reveal that the reduced TPSC may induce a distinct teleconnection pattern across the Eurasian continent, with two anomalous high pressure centers in the upper troposphere over the SENA region, which may lead to a reduction of the cloud formation near the surface. The less cloud cover tends to increase the net shortwave radiation and favor a stronger surface sensible heat flux in the dry surface condition over the SENA region, resulting in a deeper, warmer and drier atmospheric boundary layer that would further inhibit the local cloud formation. Such a positive land-atmosphere feedback may dry the surface even further, heat the near-surface atmosphere and thereby intensify the local heat waves. The above dynamical processes also operate on interdecadal time scales. Given the reduction of the TPSC could become more pronounced with increasing levels of greenhouse gases in a warming climate, we infer that the TPSC may play an increasingly important role in shaping the summer heat waves over the SENA region in next decades.

  3. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    PubMed

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas. PMID:12650343

  4. Selection on the human bitter taste gene, TAS2R16, in Eurasian populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Pakstis, Andrew J; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2011-06-01

    Bitter taste is one of the most important senses alerting humans to noxious foods. In gatherer communities, sensitivity to bitterness is presumably advantageous because of various noxious plants. TAS2R16 is the gene coding the taste receptor molecules for some of the most common toxins in plants. A previous study of this gene indicated selection has increased the frequency of a derived allele in this gene that arose before the human expansion out of Africa. We have applied a different methodology for detecting selection, the Long Range Haplotype (LRH) analysis, to TAS2R16 in a larger sampling of populations from around the world. The haplotype with the derived alleles at both the functional polymorphism and a polymorphism in the regulatory region of TAS2R16 showed evidence for recent positive selection in most of the Eurasian populations, though the highest selection signal occurs in Mbuti Pygmies, an African hunter-gatherer group. In Eurasia, only populations of Mesopotamia and the southeast coast of China have no signals of selection. The evidence of recent selection found in most Eurasian populations differs from the geographic pattern seen in the earlier study of selection. One can speculate that the difference may result from a gathering lifestyle extending into the most recent 10,000 yrs and the need to recognize newly encountered bitter natural toxins as populations expanded into new environments and the biota changes with the ending of the most recent ice age. Alternatively, the promoter region variant may be a marker for altered function beyond what the derived amino acid allele conferred. PMID:21740153

  5. Differential replication properties among H9N2 avian influenza viruses of Eurasian origin.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Rokshana; Shehata, Awad A; Heenemann, Kristin; Gac, Malgorzata; Rueckner, Antje; Halami, Mohammad Y; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza H9N2 viruses have become panzootic in Eurasia causing respiratory manifestations, great economic losses and occasionally being transmitted to humans. To evaluate the replication properties and compare the different virus quantification methods, four Eurasian H9N2 viruses from different geographical origins were propagated in embryonated chicken egg (ECE) and Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cell systems. The ECE-grown and cell culture-grown viruses were monitored for replication kinetics based on tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), Hemagglutination (HA) test and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The cellular morphology was analyzed using immunofluorescence (IF) and cellular ELISA was used to screen the sensitivity of the viruses to amantadine. The Eurasian wild type-H9N2 virus produced lower titers compared to the three G1-H9N2 viruses at respective time points. Detectable titers were observed earliest at 16 h post inoculation (hpi), significant morphological changes on cells were first observed at 32 hpi. Few nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were noticed in the HA, NA and NS gene sequences but none of them are related to the known conserved region that can alter pathogenesis or virulence following a single passage in cell culture. All studied H9N2 viruses were sensitive to amantadine. The G1-H9N2 viruses have higher replication capabilities compared to the European wild bird-H9N2 probably due to their specific genetic constitutions which is prerequisite for a successful vaccine candidate. Both the ECE and MDCK cell system allowed efficient replication but the ECE system is considered as the better cultivation system for H9N2 viruses in order to get maximum amounts of virus within a short time period. PMID:26149130

  6. The dynamics of the Eurasian plate and the intraplate stress field in the Middle-Late Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Burgt, Janneke; Govers, Rob; Webb, Peter; Stampfli, Gérard; Vérard, Christian; Hochard, Cyril; Davies, J. Huw; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    The forces driving and resisting plate motion together with the resulting intraplate stresses are analyzed for the Eurasian plate at 40 Ma with the aim to obtain a force model for which the stresses give the best fit to stress observations. Forces acting on a lithospheric plate can be categorized into three groups: i) edge forces due to interaction with neighboring plates; ii) lithospheric body forces and iii) mantle tractions. The direction of the edge forces is based on the boundary types of the Eurasian plate taken from the Lausanne Plate Tectonic Reconstruction (LPTR) from Stampfli and colleagues. Lithospheric body forces include ridge push, slab pull and topographic body forces and for these forces both the direction and magnitude can be computed. Since the uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas is only incompletely constrained, the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the topography (and thus the topographic body forces) at 40 Ma is investigated. Mantle tractions acting on the bottom of a lithospheric plate consist of (i) 'passive' tractions due to the relative motion of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle and ii) 'active' tractions due to the actively convecting mantle. Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2012) found that for the present-day Eurasian plate both passive and active tractions are relevant. This suggests that these tractions were also important in the past. Here we use tractions for the Eurasian plate from the global mantle circulation model by Webb (2012), which is based on mantle convection code TERRA, driven by a 300 Myr integration of the LPTR. The Eurasian plate is assumed to be in mechanical equilibrium. The modeled intraplate stress field resulting from different force sets is compared to paleostress observations to select the force model that best fits the data. We find that in models with small active tractions and lithospheric body forces, the magnitude of collision forces at the boundary between India and Eurasia is small. Warners-Ruckstuhl, K. N., R. Govers, and M. J. R. Wortel (2012), Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian plate, Geophys. J. Int., 189: 1253-1276. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05427. P. J. Webb (2012), Mantle circulation models: constraining mantle dynamics, testing plate motion history and calculating dynamic topography, Ph.D. Thesis Cardiff University, UK, Promotor: J. Huw Davies.

  7. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR. PMID:22673688

  8. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

  9. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Lack of genetic structure among Eurasian populations of the tick Ixodesricinus contrasts with marked divergence from north-African populations.

    PubMed

    Noureddine, R; Chauvin, A; Plantard, O

    2011-02-01

    Host-parasite interactions may select for significant novel mutations with major evolutionary consequences for both partners. In poor active dispersers such as ticks, their population structures are shaped by their host movements. Here, we use population genetics and phylogeography to investigate the evolutionary history of the most common tick in Europe, Ixodes ricinus, a vector of pathogenic agents causing diseases in humans and animals. Two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes were sequenced for 60 individuals collected on four geographical scales (local, regional, Eurasian and western Palearctic scales). The overall level of nucleotide diversity was low and the variability did not differ at the local, regional or Eurasian scales but increased two fold for the western Palearctic scale. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees indicated an absence of genetic structure among Eurasian ticks, contrasting with a strong differentiation of the north-African ticks which formed a divergent clade. The homogeneity in Eurasian ticks may be explained by gene flows due to passive dispersal of ticks by hosts within a continuous population and recent range expansion of I. ricinus as shown by the fit of the observed frequency distribution of numbers of mismatches between pairwise sequences with the demographic expansion model (Harpending raggedness index, P=0.74). The genetic divergence of the north-African populations could be explained by genetic drift in these small populations that are geographically isolated and/or selection pressures due to different ecological conditions (seasonal activity, pathogenic agents and hosts communities). The consequences of these results on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are discussed. PMID:20946897

  11. Summer precipitation anomalies in Asia and North America induced by Eurasian non-monsoon land heating versus ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Zhou, Xiuji; Chen, Junming; Nan, Sulan; Liu, Ge; Xiao, Dong

    2016-02-01

    When floods ravage Asian monsoon regions in summer, megadroughts often attack extratropical North America, which feature an intercontinental contrasting precipitation anomaly between Asia and North America. However, the characteristics of the contrasting Asian-North American (CANA) precipitation anomalies and associated mechanisms have not been investigated specifically. In this article, we firmly establish this summer CANA pattern, providing evidence for a significant effect of the land surface thermal forcing over Eurasian non-monsoon regions on the CANA precipitation anomalies by observations and numerical experiments. We show that the origin of the CANA precipitation anomalies and associated anomalous anticyclones over the subtropical North Pacific and Atlantic has a deeper root in Eurasian non-monsoon land surface heating than in North American land surface heating. The ocean forcing from the ENSO is secondary and tends to be confined in the tropics. Our results have strong implications to interpretation of the feedback of global warming on hydrological cycle over Asia and North America. Under the projected global warming due to the anthropogenic forcing, the prominent surface warming over Eurasian non-monsoon regions is a robust feature which, through the mechanism discussed here, would favor a precipitation increase over Asian monsoon regions and a precipitation decrease over extratropical North America.

  12. Hybrid watermilfoil lineages are more invasive and less sensitive to a commonly used herbicide than their exotic parent (Eurasian watermilfoil)

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Elizabeth A; Zuellig, Matthew P; Netherland, Michael D; Heilman, Mark A; Thum, Ryan A

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization may stimulate the evolution of invasiveness in human-impacted habitats if unique hybrid genotypes have higher fitness than parental genotypes. Human efforts to control invasive taxa frequently involve the intentional alteration of habitats, but few studies have considered whether hybridization can result in decreased sensitivity to control measures. Here, we investigate whether interspecific hybrids between introduced Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum) are more invasive than parental Eurasian watermilfoil, especially in regard to their relative responses to an herbicide commonly applied for their control (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D). In two separate laboratory experiments, hybrids on average grew faster and were less sensitive to 2,4-D compared with parental Eurasian watermilfoil. These two invasive traits appear to be common in hybrid watermilfoils, as opposed to being restricted to a few unique lineages, because they were found in a diversity of hybrid genotypes from several independent hybridization events. In addition, we found that hybrids occurred more frequently than parental species in natural lakes previously treated with 2,4-D. Our results provide compelling empirical evidence that hybridization is associated with the evolution of increased invasiveness in watermilfoils, and have important implications for their management. PMID:23745138

  13. Summer precipitation anomalies in Asia and North America induced by Eurasian non-monsoon land heating versus ENSO.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Zhou, Xiuji; Chen, Junming; Nan, Sulan; Liu, Ge; Xiao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    When floods ravage Asian monsoon regions in summer, megadroughts often attack extratropical North America, which feature an intercontinental contrasting precipitation anomaly between Asia and North America. However, the characteristics of the contrasting Asian-North American (CANA) precipitation anomalies and associated mechanisms have not been investigated specifically. In this article, we firmly establish this summer CANA pattern, providing evidence for a significant effect of the land surface thermal forcing over Eurasian non-monsoon regions on the CANA precipitation anomalies by observations and numerical experiments. We show that the origin of the CANA precipitation anomalies and associated anomalous anticyclones over the subtropical North Pacific and Atlantic has a deeper root in Eurasian non-monsoon land surface heating than in North American land surface heating. The ocean forcing from the ENSO is secondary and tends to be confined in the tropics. Our results have strong implications to interpretation of the feedback of global warming on hydrological cycle over Asia and North America. Under the projected global warming due to the anthropogenic forcing, the prominent surface warming over Eurasian non-monsoon regions is a robust feature which, through the mechanism discussed here, would favor a precipitation increase over Asian monsoon regions and a precipitation decrease over extratropical North America. PMID:26916258

  14. Tandem duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor exclusively identified among East Eurasian thrushes.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hideaki; Nishiumi, Isao; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2013-12-01

    Mesotocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone found in some non-mammalian vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In this study, we identified and characterized 18-amino acid duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor (MTR), specifically found in Turdus thrushes (Aves: Passeriforms: Turdidae). These duplicated elements are located in the distal part of the C-terminal tails of MTR and consist of amino acids that are highly conserved among major vertebrates. Intraspecific polymorphisms in a variable number of tandem duplications are commonly found in East Eurasian Turdus, but not in any other genus of Turdidae. Moreover, the genus Turdus can be further classified into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of a 3-amino acid deletion just adjacent to the putative palmitoylation site in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. The phylogeny presented here strongly supports the conspecific group of 4 East Eurasian thrushes (Turdus pallidus, T. chrysolaus, T. obscurus, and T. celaenops). Our findings, therefore, provide a new synapomorphy that can be used for phylogenetic assumptions and shed a light on the history of diversification within Eurasian Turdus clades. PMID:24193891

  15. Summer precipitation anomalies in Asia and North America induced by Eurasian non-monsoon land heating versus ENSO

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Zhou, Xiuji; Chen, Junming; Nan, Sulan; Liu, Ge; Xiao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    When floods ravage Asian monsoon regions in summer, megadroughts often attack extratropical North America, which feature an intercontinental contrasting precipitation anomaly between Asia and North America. However, the characteristics of the contrasting Asian-North American (CANA) precipitation anomalies and associated mechanisms have not been investigated specifically. In this article, we firmly establish this summer CANA pattern, providing evidence for a significant effect of the land surface thermal forcing over Eurasian non-monsoon regions on the CANA precipitation anomalies by observations and numerical experiments. We show that the origin of the CANA precipitation anomalies and associated anomalous anticyclones over the subtropical North Pacific and Atlantic has a deeper root in Eurasian non-monsoon land surface heating than in North American land surface heating. The ocean forcing from the ENSO is secondary and tends to be confined in the tropics. Our results have strong implications to interpretation of the feedback of global warming on hydrological cycle over Asia and North America. Under the projected global warming due to the anthropogenic forcing, the prominent surface warming over Eurasian non-monsoon regions is a robust feature which, through the mechanism discussed here, would favor a precipitation increase over Asian monsoon regions and a precipitation decrease over extratropical North America. PMID:26916258

  16. Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

  17. The SE sector of the Middle Weichselian Eurasian Ice Sheet was much smaller than assumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Matti E.; Huitti, Janne V.; Bhattarai, Saroj; Harvey, Jerry; Huttunen, Sanna

    2015-08-01

    Quaternary climatic and glacial history must be known in order to understand future environments. Reconstructions of the last Weichselian glacial cycle 117,000-11,700 years (kyr) ago propose that S Finland, adjacent Russia and the Baltic countries in the SE sector of the Eurasian Ice Sheet (EIS), were glaciated during the Middle Weichselian time [marine isotope stage (MIS) 4, 71-57 kyr ago] and that this glaciation was preceded in S Finland by an Early Weichselian interstadial (MIS 5c, 105-93 kyr ago) with pine forest. We apply glacial sequence stratigraphy to isolated Late Pleistocene onshore outcrop sections and show, that these events did not take place. The one Late Weichselian glaciation (MIS 2, 29-11 kyr ago) was preceded in S Finland by a nearly 90 kyr non-glacial period, featuring tundra with permafrost and probably birch forest. Our new Middle Weichselian paleoenvironmental scenario revises the configuration and hydrology of the S part of EIS and gives new setting for the evolution of Scandinavian biota. If future development during the coming glacial cycle proves to be similar, the high-level nuclear waste stored in the bedrock of SW Finland should be located deeper than currently planned, i.e. below any possible future permafrost.

  18. Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2007-12-01

    Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences in the predation of the western green lizard ( Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated whether the rate of predation differed during the 8-year study period and among the three habitats studied. We collected lizard remains from nest boxes of kestrels. Freshly killed lizards were sexed by visual inspection, whilst the sex of head remains was assigned by analysing the cephalic scale morphology using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that the risk of being predated by a kestrel in our population was overall about 3.55 times higher for males than for females. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a male-biased predation in a lizard species. The selective predation of males was consistent between years over the 8-year study period (1999-2006) and also consistent between the three types of kestrel hunting habitat. Overall predation rates on lizards differed between habitats, depending on the year. We propose that the observed sex-biased predation is mainly due to sex differences in lizard behaviour.

  19. Forests synchronize their growth in contrasting Eurasian regions in response to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Tatiana A; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Génova, Mar; Knorre, Anastasia A; Linares, Juan Carlos; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Voltas, Jordi

    2016-01-19

    Forests play a key role in the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems. One of the main uncertainties in global change predictions lies in how the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest productivity will be affected by climate warming. Here we show an increasing influence of climate on the spatial variability of tree growth during the last 120 y, ultimately leading to unprecedented temporal coherence in ring-width records over wide geographical scales (spatial synchrony). Synchrony in growth patterns across cold-constrained (central Siberia) and drought-constrained (Spain) Eurasian conifer forests have peaked in the early 21st century at subcontinental scales (∼1,000 km). Such enhanced synchrony is similar to that observed in trees co-occurring within a stand. In boreal forests, the combined effects of recent warming and increasing intensity of climate extremes are enhancing synchrony through an earlier start of wood formation and a stronger impact of year-to-year fluctuations of growing-season temperatures on growth. In Mediterranean forests, the impact of warming on synchrony is related mainly to an advanced onset of growth and the strengthening of drought-induced growth limitations. Spatial patterns of enhanced synchrony represent early warning signals of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems at subcontinental scales. PMID:26729860

  20. Helminth parasites of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in southwest Europe.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Feliu, C; Fernndez-Morn, J; Ruz-Olmo, J; Rosoux, R; Santos-Reis, M; Miquel, J; Fons, R

    2004-12-01

    The helminth fauna in 109 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from France, Portugal and Spain was analysed, together with 56 faecal samples collected in Portugal and 23 fresh stools from otters included in a reintroduction programme. Seven helminth species were found in L. lutra in southwest Europe: Phagicola sp. (Trematoda), Aonchotheca putorii, Eucoleus schvalovoj, Strongyloides lutrae, Anisakis (third stage larvae) and Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda), and Gigantorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala). Eucoleus schvalovoj was the dominant species throughout southwest Europe. Strongyloides lutrae was significantly more prevalent in the Iberian Peninsula than in France. Apart from these two dominant nematodes and A. putorii, the other helminth species were incidental parasites of L. lutra in southwest Europe. The helminth fauna of L. lutra in southwest Europe is, in general, poorer than that reported in eastern Europe and in all other aquatic mustelids in southwest Europe. Phagicola specimens are reported for the first time in a non-marine wild carnivore in Europe. The prevalences of E. schvalovoj and S. lutrae obtained by necropsy were higher than those observed by coprological analysis using a formalin-ether concentration method (Ritchie). Nevertheless, the culture of fresh faeces appears to be the best method to study infection of L. lutra by Strongyloides. PMID:15575995

  1. Implications of hybridization, NUMTs, and overlooked diversity for DNA Barcoding of Eurasian ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Ermakov, Oleg A; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L; Titov, Sergey V; Brandler, Oleg V; Ivanova, Natalia V; Borisenko, Alex V

    2015-01-01

    The utility of DNA Barcoding for species identification and discovery has catalyzed a concerted effort to build the global reference library; however, many animal groups of economical or conservational importance remain poorly represented. This study aims to contribute DNA barcode records for all ground squirrel species (Xerinae, Sciuridae, Rodentia) inhabiting Eurasia and to test efficiency of this approach for species discrimination. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences were obtained for 97 individuals representing 16 ground squirrel species of which 12 were correctly identified. Taxonomic allocation of some specimens within four species was complicated by geographically restricted mtDNA introgression. Exclusion of individuals with introgressed mtDNA allowed reaching a 91.6% identification success rate. Significant COI divergence (3.5-4.4%) was observed within the most widespread ground squirrel species (Spermophilus erythrogenys, S. pygmaeus, S. suslicus, Urocitellus undulatus), suggesting the presence of cryptic species. A single putative NUMT (nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene) sequence was recovered during molecular analysis; mitochondrial COI from this sample was amplified following re-extraction of DNA. Our data show high discrimination ability of 100 bp COI fragments for Eurasian ground squirrels (84.3%) with no incorrect assessments, underscoring the potential utility of the existing reference librariy for the development of diagnostic 'mini-barcodes'. PMID:25617768

  2. AON observations in the Eurasian and Makarov Basins target changes in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, I.; Ivanov, V.; Rember, R.; Pnyushkov, A.; Alexeev, V. A.; Alkire, M. B.; Morison, J.; Ashik, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    The pan-Arctic boundary current provides the largest input of water, heat, and salt into the Arctic Ocean. Recent observations captured strong changes in the Eurasian and Makarov basins (EMB); understanding the transition requires tracing the intensity of this major subsurface transport system. Responding to urgent needs for a long-term observation system for understanding rapid high-latitude climate change, an EMB observational network is implemented as an element of the Arctic Observing Network (AON). The overarching goal of this AON program is to compile a cohesive picture of the state and transformations of water masses (particularly, Atlantic Water, AW) in the EMB. NABOS (=Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observational System) was the predecessor of this AON program. Observations provided by the program were critical for understanding the large-scale structure and temporal variability of an oceanic boundary current. Fourteen years long observations were instrumental for documenting all stages of the AW warming providing evidence for the anomalous state of the ocean in the 2000s. For example, the prevailing anticyclonic circulation in 2008-10 over the central Laptev Sea slope was documented — a deviation from the classical shallow-to-right circulation paradigm. This program naturally complements the existing AON infrastructure in a synergistic way working hand-in-hand with other elements of the AON, which is vital for interpreting and assessing polar climate change.

  3. New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

  4. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Nreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

  5. Assessment of the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in red foxes and Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Frey, C F; Schuppers, M E; Mller, N; Ryser-Degiorgis, M P; Gottstein, B

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella spp. larvae have not been detected in Swiss pigs, horses, or wild boar for many decades, whereas the parasite was repeatedly isolated from red foxes and Eurasian lynxes. Whenever the isolated larvae could be subjected to genotyping, T. britovi was found as infective agent. The present study was initiated to re-assess the epidemiological situation of Trichinella infection in Swiss carnivorous wildlife, namely in red foxes and lynxes. Tissue samples from 1,298 foxes were collected between 2006 and 2007, and those of 55 lynxes between 1999 and 2007. All samples were tested by a standard artificial digestion method and a multiplex-PCR to determine the species and/or genotypes of recovered larvae. Trichinella larvae were found in 21 foxes (1.6%) and 15 lynxes (27.3%), and T. britovi was identified as infecting species in all cases. The geographic distribution of positive foxes showed two main clusters: one in Central Switzerland and one in the West of the country, where also many lynxes were found to be positive. While the prevalence for Trichinella infection in foxes was not statistically correlated with sex or age class, the prevalence in lynx was significantly higher in males compared to females, and in adults compared to juveniles. PMID:19041184

  6. Histological Evaluation of Selected Organs of the Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Inhabiting Poland.

    PubMed

    Dolka, I; Gi?ejewska, A; Gi?ejewski, Z; Kluci?ski, W; Ko?odziejska, J

    2015-10-01

    There is a general scarcity of data on the histological structure of major organs in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber). This study presents the histological characteristics of beaver organs such as the liver, spleen, cardiac muscle, lungs and kidneys. Tissue samples were collected from 21 beavers and analysed. Selected samples of tail tissue were additionally examined. Tissue samples were placed in neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. 4-?m-thick sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and other staining techniques were also used. Scant amounts of inter-lobular connective tissue were found in the liver. Ion or copper deposition was not observed, but scattered cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were present in hepatocytes. Our results suggest that beavers have defensive rather than storage spleens. Interestingly, the presence of melanin in splenic red pulp was noted. The histological structure of the examined organs closely resembled that of other rodent species. According to our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the histological structure of beaver organs. Nevertheless, precise characterization of the evaluated organs requires further work with the involvement of accurate and reliable techniques, such as molecular biology or electron microscopy methods. PMID:25255694

  7. A VLBI baseline post-adjustment approach for station velocity estimation in Eurasian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibin; Liu, Xiang

    2014-10-01

    Baseline lengths and their time-derivatives among 58 geodetic VLBI stations were fitted by using 4439 observing sessions from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). First, the velocities of eight stations in Eurasian continent were set as unknown quantities. Then, two standard global solutions from 3523 IVS sessions and 1110 sessions from database code XA, respectively, were applied prior to all-station coordinates and the non-estimated station velocities. Finally, from the relations among the coordinates, velocities, baseline length and its time-derivative, two types of baseline post-adjustment (BPA) were used to estimate the velocities of the eight stations. We discuss the data processing details, including the effect of different prior values for the stations and the optimal solution. The results suggest that the precision of the station velocities based on the proposed approach is comparable to that of the global solution of the XA sessions. The baseline structure and the prior values of the stations affect the velocity estimates. Compared to the standard method of velocity estimation, there are no external constrains and conditions used in the proposed method.

  8. Organic carbon remobilized from thawing permafrost is resequestered by reactive iron on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Andersson, August; Ingri, Johan; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-10-01

    Given the potential for permafrost carbon (PF/C)-climate feedbacks in the Siberian-Arctic land-ocean system, there is a need for understanding the fate of thawed-out PF/C. Here we show that the sequestration of OC by reactive iron (OC-Fe) ranges between 0.5 and 22% on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf, with higher values in the Kara Sea (KS) (18 ± 6%) and the Laptev Sea (LS) (14 ± 4%). The Δ14C/δ13C signatures of the OC-Fe are substantially older and more terrestrial than the bulk sediment OC in the LS but younger and more dominated by marine plankton sources in the East Siberian Sea (ESS). Statistical source apportionment modeling reveal that reactive iron phases resequestered 15 ± 5% of thawing PF/C in the LS and 6.4 ± 5% in the ESS, derived from both coastal erosion of ice complex deposit and thawing topsoil. This Fe-associated trap of PF/C constitutes a reduction of the degradation/outgassing and thus also an attenuation of the PF/C-climate feedback.

  9. Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?

    PubMed

    Rosell, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant. PMID:12371821

  10. Implications of Hybridization, NUMTs, and Overlooked Diversity for DNA Barcoding of Eurasian Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Oleg A.; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergey V.; Brandler, Oleg V.; Ivanova, Natalia V.; Borisenko, Alex V.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of DNA Barcoding for species identification and discovery has catalyzed a concerted effort to build the global reference library; however, many animal groups of economical or conservational importance remain poorly represented. This study aims to contribute DNA barcode records for all ground squirrel species (Xerinae, Sciuridae, Rodentia) inhabiting Eurasia and to test efficiency of this approach for species discrimination. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences were obtained for 97 individuals representing 16 ground squirrel species of which 12 were correctly identified. Taxonomic allocation of some specimens within four species was complicated by geographically restricted mtDNA introgression. Exclusion of individuals with introgressed mtDNA allowed reaching a 91.6% identification success rate. Significant COI divergence (3.5–4.4%) was observed within the most widespread ground squirrel species (Spermophilus erythrogenys, S. pygmaeus, S. suslicus, Urocitellus undulatus), suggesting the presence of cryptic species. A single putative NUMT (nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene) sequence was recovered during molecular analysis; mitochondrial COI from this sample was amplified following re-extraction of DNA. Our data show high discrimination ability of 100 bp COI fragments for Eurasian ground squirrels (84.3%) with no incorrect assessments, underscoring the potential utility of the existing reference librariy for the development of diagnostic ‘mini-barcodes’. PMID:25617768

  11. Patterns of Eurasian HSV-1 molecular diversity and inferences of human migrations.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Rory; Sakaoka, Hiroshi; Ward, Ryk; Donnelly, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Following our recent report of high levels of recombination and geographic structuring amongst isolates from two populations, we have investigated global patterns of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) molecular diversity using population samples from six countries in Europe, Asia and Africa. Sequence comparisons show that HSV-1 from Kenya is both highly diverse and distinct from either European or Asian HSV-1. HSV-1 populations are much more highly differentiated than human populations at the same geographic scales, with 35% of total variation at the level of inter-population comparisons, a difference likely to be due to higher rates of both mutation and genetic drift in HSV-1 than in equivalent human data. There is substantial differentiation between northwestern European HSV-1 populations and those from East Asia, and while patterns of British and Swedish HSV-1 variation were indistinguishable, differentiation was detectable amongst Chinese, Korean and Japanese HSV-1 samples, in spite of their lower overall diversity. The program Structure was used to reconstruct ancestral Eurasian lineages, which we estimated to have originated approximately 60,000 years ago. A specific pattern detected amongst East Asian HSV-1 isolates is currently best explained by the two waves of migration responsible for the peopling of Japan. PMID:16376841

  12. How do colonial Eurasian Griffon Vultures prevent extra-pair mating?

    PubMed Central

    Bertran, Joan; Macià, Francesc Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In colonial breeding species, preventive measures to reduce the risks of extra-pair copulations (EPCs) should reflect the actual risk perceived by males (e.g., proximity of neighbors, intrusions into the nest) mainly during the fertile period. In colonial vultures, specific studies examining the preventive measures that minimize the risks of EPCs occurring within the competitive context of colonial breeding have not been conducted. Here we tested at Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) nesting sites the intensity of paternity assurance behavior, shown as frequency and duration of within-pair copulations (WPCs), potential mate vigilance or nest attendance, and levels of aggressivity. This was measured according to the frequency of territorial intrusions and comparison of the fertile vs. the non-fertile period. Our findings suggest that the frequency of WPCs and their duration increased significantly during the presumed fertile period, regarded as the period when Griffon pairs spent significantly more time together at their nests. In addition, low levels of territorial intrusions were observed, an aggressive response of pairs towards intruders, and a relatively high presence of pairs at the nests during the fertile period. Thus, although nesting sites are subject to low exposure to EPC attempts, the increased frequency and duration of copulations during the fertile period suggests that, under pressure from the colonial breeding system, a higher rate of copulations is the most effective preventive mechanism against relative uncertainty of paternity. PMID:26966674

  13. Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae) from Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mca, Ond?ej; Pavlsek, Ivan; Vorel, Ale

    2015-08-01

    Between March 2012 and April 2014, we performed post-mortem parasitological examinations of 11 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) from the basins of four main rivers (Dyje, Labe, Morava, Vltava) in the Czech Republic. The cause of death of five adult animals was unknown, three adult animals died after being hit by cars, while one young and one adult as a result of serious injuries and one juvenile male drowned. The trematode Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Rudolphi, 1814) Lhe, 1909 was only found in the caecum body and caecum apex of nine beavers (82%), with no significant differences in parasite intensity among beavers. The highest number of trematodes (271) occurred in an adult female in July 2013; while a range of 1-57 individuals were found in other positive beavers. S. subtriquetrus size in both parts of the caecum was 11.0-17.0??5.5-8.0 mm (mean 14.3??6.9 mm). Results demonstrated that for the optimal detection of eggs, it was necessary to examine at least 10 g of faeces with a new modified method of sedimentation. The size range of 30 eggs was 157.1-182.5??99.3-109.8 ?m (mean 168.0??104.4 ?m). There were no differences in prevalence and seasonal occurrence of S. subtriquetrus between male and female beavers. We did not find any other intestinal endoparasites or tissue parasites (Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp.). PMID:25916466

  14. Establishment of a health surveillance program for reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin

    2012-10-01

    In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing. PMID:23060498

  15. Sequence diversity of the MHC DRB gene in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Babik, W; Durka, W; Radwan, J

    2005-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, coding molecules which play an important role in immune response, are the most polymorphic genes known in vertebrates. However, MHC polymorphism in some species is limited. MHC monomorphism at several MHC class I and II loci was previously reported for two neighbouring northern European populations of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) and reduced selection for polymorphism has been hypothesized. Here, we analysed a partial sequence of the second exon of the MHC II DRB locus from seven relict European and Asian beaver populations. We detected 10 unique alleles among 76 beavers analysed. Only a western Siberian population was polymorphic, with four alleles detected in 10 individuals. Each of the remaining populations was fixed for a different allele. Sequences showed considerable divergence, suggesting the long persistence of allelic lineages. A significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions was detected at the antigen binding sites, indicating that sequence evolution of beaver DRB was driven by positive selection. Current MHC monomorphism in the majority of populations may be the result of the superimposition of the recent bottleneck on pre-existing genetic structure resulting from population subdivision and differential pathogen pressure. PMID:16313590

  16. Seismotectonic Properties and Zonation of the Far-Eastern Eurasian Plate Around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Park, Seongjun; Houng, Soung Eil

    2015-09-01

    Regional seismotectonics provides crucial information for seismic hazard analysis, which is difficult to address with short-term earthquake records. The far-eastern Eurasian plate around the Korean Peninsula presents a stable intraplate environment with diffuse seismicity, of which responsible tectonics and active faults are difficult to identify. Combined analysis of instrumental and historical earthquake records is required for assessment of long-term seismicity properties. Seismotectonic provinces are identified from the spatial distribution of seismicity properties controlled by the medium properties and stress field. The boundaries of the seismotectonic provinces are defined considering the medium properties that can be inferred from geological, geophysical and tectonic features. The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationships and maximum magnitudes for the seismotectonic provinces are determined using instrumental and historical earthquake records. The validity of maximum magnitude estimation is tested with synthetic data. A parametric method, the Tate-Pisarenko method, produces more accurate estimates than non-parametric methods. A modified Tate-Pisarenko method is proposed for estimation of maximum magnitudes for incomplete short-term earthquake catalogs. The maximum magnitude of events for the whole region is approximately the same as the average of the maximum magnitudes of events for subdivided provinces, causing apparent variation in maximum magnitudes depending on the number of seismotectonic provinces. Consideration of a reasonable number of seismotectonic provinces may be needed for proper assessment of seismic hazard potentials is recommended. The combined analysis of historical and instrumental earthquake records suggests maximum magnitudes greater than 7 around the peninsula.

  17. Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Vegetation Growth Response Associated with Drought Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buermann, W.; Parida, B.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Reichstein, M.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high-latitudes are currently experiencing drastic climatic changes. Initial findings based largely on satellite vegetation records and atmospheric CO2 data suggested that in response to warming these regions increase productivity as low temperature constraints on plant growth are diminished. In recent years, however, multiple lines of evidence showed that for the circumpolar boreal forests this pattern has not continued and that this biome is becoming increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors including temperature-induced drought stress, shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual and longer-term variations in boreal vegetation growth and relationships with abiotic drivers using a satellite vegetation record spanning nearly 3 decades (1982-2008) in conjunction with climate data and newly available upscaled ecosystem flux data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming and shifts to earlier spring onsets in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation trends a turning point has been crossed around the mid-1990s that shifted portions of the Eurasian boreal forests into a more water-limited regime resulting in large-scale declines of vegetation growth. If the detected decadal trend continues into the future, the forest dieback induced by drought and heat stress as predicted by vegetation models may start earlier than anticipated.

  18. Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Vegetation Growth Response Associated with Increasing Drought Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buermann, W.; Parida, B.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Reichstein, M.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high-latitudes are currently experiencing drastic climatic changes. Initial findings suggested that in response to warming these regions increase productivity as low temperature constraints on plant growth are diminished. Recently, however, multiple lines of evidence have shown that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here, we analyzed interannual variations in boreal forest growth pattern and relationships with abiotic drivers in the period 1982-2008 using satellite vegetation and freeze-thaw records in conjunction with climate and upscaled ecosystem flux data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming and shifts to earlier spring onsets in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted portions of the western central Eurasian boreal forests into a more water-limited regime despite increasing CO2 and related water use efficiency. This has resulted in large-scale and spatially pervasive negative year-to-year relationships between summer temperatures and plant growth. If this regime shift is sustained into the future, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may start earlier and proceeds more rapidly than anticipated.

  19. Immunity and fitness in a wild population of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parejo, Deseada; Silva, Nadia

    2009-10-01

    The immune system of vertebrates consists of several components that partly interact and complement each other. Therefore, the assessment of the overall effectiveness of immune defence requires the simultaneous measurement of different immune components. In this study, we investigated intraspecific variability of innate [i.e. natural antibodies (NAb) and complement] and acquired (i.e. leucocyte profiles) immunity and its relationship with fitness correlates (i.e. blood parasite load and reproductive success in adults and body mass and survival until fledging in nestlings) in the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Immunity differed between nestlings and adults and also between adult males and females. Adult kestrels with higher levels of complement were less parasitised by Haemoproteus, and males with higher values of NAbs showed a higher reproductive success. In nestlings, the H/L ratio was negatively related to body mass. Survival until fledging was predicted by all measured immunological variables of nestlings as well as by their fathers' level of complement. This is the first time that innate immunity is linked to survival in a wild bird. Thus, intraspecific variation in different components of immunity predicts variation in fitness prospects in kestrels, which highlights the importance of measuring innate immune components together with components of the acquired immunity in studies assessing the effectiveness of the immune system in wild animals.

  20. Water Transparency Drives Intra-Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Pia; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Svanbck, Richard; Eklv, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization. PMID:22912895

  1. Careful cachers and prying pilferers: Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) limit auditory information available to competitors

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Rachael C.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Food-storing corvids use many cache-protection and pilfering strategies. We tested whether Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) reduce the transfer of auditory information to a competitor when caching and pilfering. We gave jays a noisy and a quiet substrate to cache in. Compared with when alone, birds cached less in the noisy substrate when with a conspecific that could hear but could not see them caching. By contrast, jays did not change the amount cached in the noisy substrate when they were with a competitor that could see and hear them caching compared with when they were alone. Together, these results suggest that jays reduce auditory information during caching as a cache-protection strategy. By contrast, as pilferers, jays did not attempt to conceal their presence from a cacher and did not prefer a silent viewing perch over a noisy one when observing caching. However, birds vocalized less when watching caching compared with when they were alone, when they were watching a non-caching conspecific or when they were watching their own caches being pilfered. Pilfering jays may therefore attempt to suppress some types of auditory information. Our results raise the possibility that jays both understand and can attribute auditory perception to another individual. PMID:23222444

  2. Role of Eurasian snow cover in wintertime circulation: Decadal simulations forced with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsolini, Yvan J.; Kvamstø, Nils G.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the impact of the Eurasian snow cover extent on the Northern Hemisphere winter circulation by performing a suite of ensemble simulations with the Météo-France "Arpege Climat" atmospheric general circulation model, spanning 2 decades (1979-2000). Observed snow cover derived from satellite infrared and visible imagery has been forced weekly into the model. Variability in autumn-early winter snow cover extent over eastern Eurasia is linked to circulation anomalies over the North Pacific that are influencing the North Atlantic sector in late winter through the development of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw teleconnection. The forcing of realistic snow cover in the model augments potential predictability over eastern Eurasia and the North Pacific and improves the hindcast skill score of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw teleconnection. Enhanced eastern Eurasia snow cover is associated with an anomalous upper-tropospheric wave train across Eurasia, anomalously high upward wave activity flux, and a displaced stratospheric polar vortex.

  3. Long Term Seasonality Changes and Short Term Climate Variability Recorded in Eurasian Loess: Examples from Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Haam, E.; Lai, Z. P.; Endlicher, W.

    2012-04-01

    Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent are well studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of considerable debate. While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are modified and transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmosphere and ocean processes and regulate teleconnection patterns of the Northern Hemisphere. The distribution of Eurasian loess deposits allows interregional palaeoclimatic investigations along a west-east transect across the entire Eurasian loess belt of the Northern Hemisphere, offering the potential to reconstruct Pleistocene atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust dynamics on a wide spatial scale. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from several loess sequences across Eurasia (Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China) that provide a detailed signal of glacial-interglacial atmospheric dynamics and long term, semi-continuous trends in the aeolian dust record since marine isotope stage 10. In consideration of the modern synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust transport across the Eurasian landmass, we propose that the observed data reflect oscillations superimposed on a long term signal of seasonality, triggered by changes in duration and permanency of the seasonal shift of the Eurasian polar front during the middle to late Pleistocene. As the activity of the polar front jet is intimately connected with the high level planetary frontal zone (HPFZ), the Eurasian loess archives may also serve as a recorder of intra-hemispheric climate connections in past atmospheric circulation. Although there are large scale similarities in the dust transport record from numerous sites across Eurasia, the data reveal distinct differences in short-term climate variability along the studied transect from SE Europe over Central Asia to China. In Central and East Asia the observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror ?18O and fine dust variations seen in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, the presented data represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to verify hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing theories, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker of suborbital global climate changes and an initiator of abrupt climate oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  4. Successes and Failures in Combating Desertification in the Eastern Edge of Eurasian Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.-Y.; Huang, Gang; Huang, Ying-Xin; Wang, Shao-Kun; Luo, Ya-Yong; Qu, Hao; Lian, Jie

    2009-04-01

    Eurasian Grassland is one of the important biomes in the world. However, this biome is severely desertified since the middle of last century, particularly in the northeastern Inner-Mongolia of China. The Eastern Edge of Eurasian Grassland in Inner Mongolia covers 740.0th km and the desertified grassland is approximately 225.98th km in 2005, about 30.5% desertified. The desertified land in Horqin Sand Land is 43,200 km in 1959, 56,571 km in 1975, and 61,008 km in 1987, and since then decreased to 50,197 in 2000 and 50,167km in 2005. Reversion of desertification in Horqin Sand Land is mainly attributed to the successes in combating desertification, including large scale of tree planting, increase of irrigated cropland for reduction of rain-fed cropland to meet the need of growing expectation for capital income and grain production, and later combination of planting bushes and grasses with natural restoration. Large scale of tree planting is only effective in a short term but more fragile to drought. As a result, about 1.66m trees, equal to 830m hm of planted woodland, died of water depletion. And the grassland productivity is reduced from 520g/m in the middle of 1930 to 360 g/m in 1982 and 220 g/min 2005. Rapid increase of irrigated cropland resulted in reduction of water availability, which is characterized with drying-up of lakes and wetland, stop-running of rivers, and reduction of underground water table. Observation found that the averaged reduction of water table is about 2-3m in this area, with a maximum of 16m in last ten years. The Xiliao River, one of the largest river in northeastern China, is dried up in 1999. These failures still put severe impacts on combating desertification in this region and even in the whole northern China, driven by improper land use, which is identified as one of the immediate causes of desertification in this region. Concerning these failures, in-depth researches have been launched since 2000 to reveal the mechanism of consistent restoration of desertified grassland in relation to sustainable water use. Keyword: Horqin Sand Land, Desertification, Water availability, Success, Failure Acknowledgement: the authors give gratitude to the staff in Naiman Desertification Research Station, Chinese Ecosystems Research network. This research is funded by the projects 2009CB421303 and KZCX2-YW-431. Reference 1 Tao Wang, Xian Xue and Guangting Chen, 2005. Map of Desert and Desertified Land in China. China Map Press. Beijing. 2 Zhao Xueyong, Zhao Halin, Zuo Xiaoan, Luo Yayong, Wang Shaokun, Kou Zhiqiang, Qu Hao. Restoration of desertified grassland and challenges in northern China-for the possibility of sustained desertification reversion. Multifunctional Grasslands in a Changing World Volume I, P:720-724. 3 Comprehensive Investigating Team on Natural Resources in Inner-Mongolia and Ningxia, 19885. Vegetation in Inner-Mongolian. P:467. China Academic Press. Beijing.

  5. Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez-Padilla, Jess; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2008-05-01

    Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Background Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. Results The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. Conclusions This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species. PMID:23861841

  7. Connections between the Eurasian teleconnection and concurrent variation of upper-level jets over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yaocun

    2015-03-01

    The variation of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) associated with the Eurasian (EU) teleconnection pattern is investigated using 60-yr NCEP-NCAR daily reanalysis data over the period 1951-2010. The EAJS consists of three components: the polar front jet (PFJ); the plateau subtropical jet (PSJ); and the ocean subtropical jet (OSJ). Of these three jets over East Asia, the EU pattern exhibits a significant influence on the PFJ and OSJ. There is a simultaneous negative correlation between the EU pattern and the PFJ. A significant positive correlation is found between the EU pattern and the OSJ when the EU pattern leads the OSJ by about 5 days. There is no obvious correlation between the EU pattern and the PSJ. The positive EU phase is accompanied by a weakened and poleward-shifted PFJ, which coincides with an intensified OSJ. A possible mechanism for the variation of the EAJS during different EU phases is explored via analyzing the effects of 10-day high-and low-frequency eddy forcing. The zonal wind tendency due to high-frequency eddy forcing contributes to the simultaneous negative correlation between the EU pattern and the PFJ, as well as the northward/southward shift of the PFJ. High- and low-frequency eddy forcing are both responsible for the positive correlation between the EU pattern and the OSJ, but only high-frequency eddy forcing contributes to the lagged variation of the OSJ relative to the EU pattern. The negative correlation between the EU pattern and winter temperature and precipitation anomalies in China is maintained only when the PFJ and OSJ are out of phase with each other. Thus, the EAJS plays an important role in transmitting the EU signal to winter temperature and precipitation anomalies in China.

  8. Macroparasite community of the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris): poor species richness and diversity.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Pisanu, Benot; Ferrari, Nicola; Basset, Franck; Tillon, Laurent; Wauters, Lucas A; Martinoli, Adriano; Saino, Nicola; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2013-10-01

    The Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is the only naturally occurring tree squirrel throughout its range. We aim at improving current knowledge on its macroparasite fauna, expecting that it will have a poor parasite diversity because in species that have no sympatric congeners parasite richness should be lower than in hosts sharing their range with several closely related species, where host-switching events and lateral transmission are promoted. We examined gastro-intestinal helminth and ectoparasite communities (excluding mites) of, respectively, 147 and 311 red squirrel roadkills collected in four biogeographic regions in Italy and France. As expected, the macroparasite fauna was poor: we found five species of nematodes and some unidentified cestodes, three fleas, two sucking lice and two hard ticks. The helminth community was dominated by a single species, the oxyurid Trypanoxyuris (Rodentoxyuris) sciuri (prevalence, 87%; mean abundance, 373 65 worms/host). Its abundance varied among seasons and biogeographic regions and increased with body mass in male hosts while decreased in females. The most prevalent ectoparasites were the flea Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) sciurorum (28%), whose presence was affected by season, and the generalist tick Ixodes (Ixodes) ricinus that was found only in France (34%). All the other helminths and arthropod species were rare, with prevalence below 10%. However, the first record of Strongyloides robustus, a common nematode of North American Eastern grey squirrels (S. carolinensis), in two red squirrels living in areas where this alien species co-inhabits, deserves further attention, since low parasite richness could result in native red squirrels being particularly vulnerable to parasite spillover. PMID:23873618

  9. Scent-marking behaviour and social dynamics in a wild population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kristina; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Klliker, Mathias; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2014-07-01

    Scent-marking is widespread among mammals and has been observed in many felid species. Although the behaviour is well-described, little is known about its function in wild felid populations. We investigated patterns of scent-marking and its role in intra- and intersexual communication among resident and non-resident Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx by observing interactions among wild lynx at natural marking sites by means of infrared camera traps. Marking activity of resident animals showed a peak during the mating season and was lowest during the time when females gave birth and lactated. Both sexes scent-marked, but male lynx visited marking sites much more often than females and marked relatively more often when visiting a site. Most visits to marking sites were by residents but we also observed scent-marking by non-residents. Juveniles were never observed marking. We found no evidence of lynx regularly renewing scent-marks after a certain 'expiry date' but the presence of a strange scent-mark triggered over-marking. Males responded similarly to the presence of another individual's scent-mark, irrespective of whether it was the top- or the underlying scent-mark in a mixture of scent-marks they encountered. Our results suggest that marking sites could serve as 'chemical bulletin boards', where male lynx advertise their presence and gain information on ownership relationships in a given area. Females placed their urine marks on top of the ones left by resident males, but further studies are needed to explain the functions of over-marking in females. PMID:24814909

  10. Histological and endocrine characterisation of the annual luteal activity in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Carnaby, Kim; Painer, Johanna; Sderberg, Arne; Gavier-Widn, Dolores; Gritz, Frank; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2012-10-01

    Lynx presents a unique sexual cycle with persistent corpora lutea (CLs) and elevated serum progesterone (P?) throughout parturition and lactation. In other mammals, CLs normally disintegrate after parturition, therefore the aim of our study was to characterise the annual life cycle of lynx CLs. Ovaries from Eurasian lynxes were obtained from the National Veterinary Institute in Sweden, where tissues from killed lynx were stored at -20?C. Ovaries from 66 animals were weighed; each corpus luteum was segmented for histology and hormone analysis. Ovary and CLs weights were constant throughout the year, peaking during pregnancy. In non-pregnant lynxes, the seasonal level of intraluteal steroids was steady for P? (3.21.9 s.d. ?g/g, n=53) and total oestrogens (18.315.5 s.d. ng/g, n=53). Within histology slides, structurally intact luteal cells were found throughout the year with the highest incidence in March/April; evidence of luteal regression was predominantly found in post-breeding season. Ovaries from pregnant animals contained two types of CLs. Group A was bigger in size with large luteal cells (P?, 72.365.4 s.d. ?g/g; oestrogen, 454.052.4 s.d. ng/g). In contrast, group B were smaller, with greater luteal regression and lower steroid concentrations (P?, 8.32.9 s.d. ?g/g; oestrogen, 31.520.4 s.d. ng/g). Our results suggest that structural luteolysis proceeds throughout the year and into next breeding cycle, resulting in two CLs types on the same ovary. PMID:22829688

  11. Food availability and animal space use both determine cache density of Eurasian red squirrels.

    PubMed

    Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

    2013-01-01

    Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years. PMID:24265833

  12. Food Availability and Animal Space Use Both Determine Cache Density of Eurasian Red Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

    2013-01-01

    Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years. PMID:24265833

  13. Developmental impairment in eurasian dipper nestlings exposed to urban stream pollutants.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Stanton, David W G; Tyler, Charles R; Pereira, M Glria; Newton, Jason; Durance, Isabelle; Ormerod, Steve J

    2014-06-01

    Avian studies of endocrine disruption traditionally have focused on reproductive impairment, given that many environmental contaminants affect sex steroid hormones. There is also increasing interest in altered thyroid function, and associated early development, particularly in altricial species with extended developmental windows. Both types of effect are relevant under the complex pollutant conditions created in streams draining urban areas, but case studies are scarce. Therefore, the authors measured breeding performance, as well as nestling growth, condition, and plasma thyroid hormones, in 87 Eurasian dipper (Cinclus cinclus) nests on 36 urban and rural streams in south and mid-Wales (UK); invertebrate prey data were also collected. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether urban stream pollution or food scarcity might affect reproduction or development in this specialized aquatic songbird. Clutch sizes and egg fertility were similar on rural and urban streams, whereas nest success was actually higher at urban sites and food abundance was not significantly reduced. However, subtle but important differences were apparent. Urban nestlings were significantly lighter than rural nestlings for their body size (condition index), and brood sex ratios were increasingly male biased with increasing urbanization. The nestling thyroid hormone profile closely reflected urban land use, whereas depressed triiodothyronine (T3) hormones and poorer body condition were associated with higher exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at urbanized sites. These data suggest that PCBs, PBDEs, and/or accompanying contaminants in urban streams could be affecting dipper nestling development, with potential consequences for the birds' fitness. PMID:24648128

  14. Impact and implications of the Afro-Eurasian collision south of Cyprus from reflection seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimke, Jennifer; Ehrhardt, Axel

    2014-06-01

    The Cyprus Arc in the Eastern Mediterranean represents the active collision front between the African and Eurasian (Anatolian) Plates. Along the Cyprus Arc, the Eratosthenes Seamount is believed to have been blocking the northward motion of the African Plate since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Based on a dense grid of 2D reflection seismic profiles covering the Eratosthenes Seamount and western Levant Basin offshore Cyprus, new observations regarding the Cyprus Arc collision front at the triple transition zone Eratosthenes Seamount-Levant Basin-Hecataeus Rise are presented. The data show that the Levant Basin is filled with ~ 10 km of sediments of Early Mesozoic (probably Jurassic) to Plio-Quaternary age with only a localized deformation affecting the Miocene-Oligocene rock units. The sediments onlap directly against the steep eastern flank of the Eratosthenes Seamount to the west and the southern flank of the Hecataeus Rise to the north. The sediments show no deformation that could be associated with collision and are undeformed even very close to the two prominent structures. Pinching out of the Base Miocene reflector in the Levant Basin due to onlapping of the Middle Miocene reflector indicates uplift of the Eratosthenes Seamount and the Hecataeus Rise. In contrast to the Messinian Evaporites north of the Eratosthenes Seamount, the salt in the Levant Basin, even close to the Hecataeus Rise, is tectonically undeformed. It is proposed that the Eratosthenes Seamount, the western Levant Basin and the Hecataeus Rise act as one tectonic unit. This implies that the collision front is located north of this unit and that the Hecataeus Rise shields the sediments south of it from deformation associated with collision of the African and Anatolian Plates.

  15. Sea ice thickness distribution in the Greenland Sea and Eurasian Basin, May 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhams, Peter

    1992-04-01

    Upward sonar data from a 3400-km track in the Greenland Sea and the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, obtained by a British submarine in May 1987, have been statistically analyzed. Mean ice thicknesses in the Greenland Sea show significant melting with downstream distance, at an average rate of 0.38 m per degree of latitude, equivalent to about 2140 km3 yr-1 of freshwater input between 80N and 75N. In the region north of Fram Strait, between 82N and 80N, there is remarkable consistency between mean ice drafts in 1987 and in three previous cruises (1976, 1979, 1985), while between Greenland and the North Pole there was a significant thinning in 1987 relative to 1976. In Fram Strait the mean ice draft shows evidence of thinning within the region of influence of a semipermanent eddy. Ice draft distributions show that the probability density function of deformed ice follows a negative exponential distribution and that the change of shape of the distribution with downstream distance in the Greenland Sea is due to preferential melting of thicker ice. Pressure ridge draft distributions also fit a negative exponential, while their spacings fit a lognormal distribution. Lead width distribution follows a power law with an exponent of -1.45 for narrow leads and -2.50 for wider leads, if leads are defined as having a 1-m maximum draft ( -1.67 and -2.76 for a 0.5-m maximum draft). Lead spacings follow a negative exponential distribution for moderate spacings (400-1500 m) but with an excess of lead pairs at small and very large spacings.

  16. Colonization of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by Fungi under Controlled Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig S.; Chand, Tara; Harris, Robin F.; Andrews, John H.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory assay to assess colonization of a submersed aquatic plant, Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by fungi was developed and used to evaluate the colonization potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Acremonium curvulum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, a Paecilomyces sp., and an unidentified sterile, septate fungus. Stem segments of plants were first immersed in suspensions of fungal propagules for 24 h and then washed to remove all but the tightly attached component of the population. Inoculation was followed by two growth cycles of 3 days each. At the start of each cycle, washed plants were transferred to a mineral salts medium to provide an opportunity for the attached fungal populations to grow. After each growth period, plants were again washed, and fungal populations in the medium (nonattached), loosely attached and tightly attached to the plant, and within the plant (endophytic) were assayed by dilution plating. The fungi differed in the extent to which they attached to water milfoil and in their ability to grow in association with it. There were relatively few significant differences among the tightly attached fungal populations after 24 h, but growth of the better colonizers led to a greater number of significant differences after 4 and 7 days. In addition, the better colonizers showed sustained regrowth of loosely and nonattached fungal propagules in the face of intermittent removal by washing. A milfoil pathogen, C. gloeosporioides, was the only endophytic colonizer; it was also among the best epiphytic colonizers but was not demonstrably better than A. curvulum, a fungus commonly found as an epiphyte on watermilfoil. The yeastlike hyphomycete Aureobasidium pullulans was the only fungus that consistently failed to establish an increasing population on the plant. Images PMID:16348013

  17. Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values

    PubMed Central

    Olden, Julian D.; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995–2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  18. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; Gonzlez-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Dez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortzar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account. PMID:26051843

  19. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yang, Xiaohan; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  20. Spatial spread of Eurasian beavers in river networks: a comparison of range expansion rates.

    PubMed

    Bartk, Vojt?ch; Vorel, Ale; Smov, Petra; Pu, Vladimr

    2013-05-01

    1. Accurately measuring the rate of spread for expanding populations is important for reliably predicting their future spread, as well as for evaluating the effect of different conditions and management activities on that rate of spread. 2. Although a number of methods have been developed for such measurement, all these are designed only for one- or two-dimensional spread. Species dispersing along rivers, however, require specific methods due to the distinctly branching structure of river networks. 3. In this study, we analyse data regarding Eurasian beavers' modern recolonization of the Czech Republic. We developed a new methodology for quantifying spread of species dispersing along streams based on representation of the river network by means of a weighted graph. 4. We defined two different network-based spread rate measures, one estimating the rate of range expansion, with the range defined as the total length of occupied streams, and the second, named range diameter, quantifying the progress along one or several main streams. In addition, we estimated the population growth rates, and, dividing the population size by the range size, we measured the density of beaver records within their overall range. Using linear regression, we compared four beaver populations under different environmental conditions in terms of each of these measures. Finally, we discuss the differences between our method and the classical approaches. 5. Our method provided substantially higher spread rate values than did the classical methods. Both population growth and range expansion were found to follow logistic growth. In cases of there being no considerable barriers in dispersal routes, the rate of progress along main streams did not differ significantly among populations. In homogeneous environments, population densities remained relatively constant over time even though overall population sizes increased. This indicates that at large spatial scales, the population growth of beavers occurs through progressive space filling rather than increasing population density. PMID:23336367

  1. Estimation of cultivable bacterial diversity in the cloacae and pharynx in Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus).

    PubMed

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Serrano, Emmanuel; Agustí, Susana; Porrero, María C; Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we describe the biodiversity of cloacal and pharynx culture-based bacteria (commensal and pathogenic), in 75 Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two geographic areas. We address the question of whether the cultivable microbiota of vultures is organised into assemblages occurring by chance. In addition, we assess bacterial diversity in both anatomic regions and geographic areas. Bacterial diversity was represented by 26 Gram-negative and 20 Gram-positive genera. The most common genera were Escherichia, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Lactococcus. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common species in cloacal and pharyngeal samples. Staphylococcus and Erysipelothrix were isolated from the pharynx and Salmonella and Corynebacterium from the cloacae, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the cloacal swabs. Ten cloacal swabs were positive for Salmonella, of which five isolates were Salmonella enterica serotype 4,(5),12:i:-, one isolate was S. enterica serotype Derby, three isolates were S. enterica serotype 61:k:1,5,7 and one isolate was S. enterica serotype Infantis. The null modelling approach revealed that the commensal bacteria of vultures are not structured in assemblages. On the other hand, differences in bacterial genus and species richness between cloacal and pharyngeal samples or between geographic areas were clear, with the pharynx in vultures from both geographic areas being richer. The results of this study indicate also that vultures can serve as a reservoir of certain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria. The dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens in wildlife could be prevented by periodic sanitary surveys. PMID:25388757

  2. Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Nave and Vaccinated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Pablo R.; Hughes, Joseph; Battista, Patrizia; Lloyd, Lucy; Baillie, Gregory J.; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H.; Ormond, Doug; Oliver, Karen; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Caccamo, Mario; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wood, James L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in nave and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies. PMID:22693449

  3. Living on the edge: Space use of Eurasian red squirrels in marginal high-elevation habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Preatoni, Damiano; Tosi, Guido; Martinoli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    In marginal habitats located at the edge of a species' range, environmental conditions are frequently extreme and individuals may be subject to different selective pressures compared to central populations. These so-called edge or marginal populations tend to have lower densities and reproductive rates than populations located in more suitable habitats, but little is known about local adaptations in spacing behavior. We studied space use and social organization in a population of Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) in a high-elevation marginal habitat of dwarf mountain pine ( Pinus mugo) and compared it with spacing patterns in high-quality Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest at lower-elevation. Home ranges and core areas were larger in the marginal habitat. In both habitats, males used larger home ranges than females, but sex differences in core area size were significant only in the edge population. Patterns of core area overlap were similar in both habitats with intra-sexual territoriality among adult females and higher degrees of inter-sexual overlap, typical for the species throughout its range. However, low densities in the edge population resulted in higher female by males overlap in spring-summer, suggesting males increased home ranges and core areas during mating season to augment access to estrus females. Thus, in the marginal habitat, with low food abundance and low population densities, linked with extreme winter conditions, squirrels, especially males, used large home ranges. Finally, squirrels responded more strongly to variation in food availability (inverse relation between home range size and seed abundance), and even to fluctuations in density (inverse relation between core area size and density of animals of the same sex), in the marginal than in the high-quality habitat, suggesting high behavioral plasticity to respond to the ecological constraints in marginal habitats.

  4. Three Eurasian teleconnection patterns: spatial structures, temporal variability, and associated winter climate anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuyun; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

    2014-06-01

    The Eurasian (EU) pattern is a distinct teleconnection pattern observed in boreal winter. Since the EU pattern was first identified, three types have been reported in the literature: the conventional EU pattern; the type 1 EU pattern, or Scandinavian (SCAND) pattern; and the type 2 EU pattern, or East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) pattern. Based on several reanalysis and observational datasets, the three EU patterns are extracted using the rotated empirical orthogonal function method. In order to provide a further distinction and understanding of the three EU patterns, a comprehensive side-by-side comparison is performed among them including their temporal variability, horizontal and vertical structure, related stationary Rossby wave activity, impact on climate, and possible driving factors associated with external forcing. The results reveal that all three EU patterns are characterised by a clear quasi-barotropic wave-train structure, but each has a distinct source and centre of action. Accordingly, their impacts on the precipitation and surface air temperature also differ from one other. Further evidence suggests that the conventional EU pattern is likely driven by anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic, in which process the transient eddies are actively involved. The SCAND pattern is partly maintained by the vorticity source over Western Europe, which arises from the anomalous convergence/divergence over the Mediterranean and is efficiently driven by the tropical and southern Indian Ocean SST via divergent circulation. The EATL/WRUS pattern shows some linkage to the North American snow cover, and the involved process remains unclear and needs further investigation.

  5. Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Toni; Negro, Juan J.; Lyytinen, Sami; Valkama, Jari; Ots, Indrek; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Background Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. Methodology To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Principal Findings Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal) on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. Significance These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood. PMID:18545646

  6. Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Depth across Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Snow depth is one of the important parameters of snow cover, and it affects the surface energy balance, assessment of snow water equivalent, ecosystem, soil temperatures, and water cycle as a whole. In this study, the long-term observed snow depth from 1972 meteorological stations and snow course sites were used to investigate snow depth climatology and its spatiotemporal variations over Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008. Preliminary results showed that snow depth was affected by latitude, which in general snow depth increased with the increasing latitude. The higher values of snow depth were found in the northeastern European Russia, the east of western Siberia, the west of central Siberia, Kamchatka Peninsula, and some areas of Sakhalin. While the lower snow accumulation occurred in most areas of China except for the north of Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, Northeast China, and some regions of the southwestern Tibet. Both of the trends in inter-annual variability of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were not significant. However, the long-term monthly mean snow depth had obvious increasing trends from February to May. There were similar spatial distributions of linear trend coefficients of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth across the former Soviet Union (USSR). The most significant trends of changes in annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were found between 40 to 70N. The obvious trends of variability in monthly mean snow depth appeared in the areas between 50 to 60N. The significant decreasing trends in monthly mean snow depth were observed in most areas of China from February to March. This may be largely influenced by climate change, which leads to an advancing of the end date of snow cover.

  7. Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Spencer N.; Hurlbert, Allen H.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 3548% and 4146% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models. PMID:25354270

  8. Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian ruffe or yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolar, C.S.; Fullerton, A.H.; Martin, K.M.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread to areas with more dense zebra mussel populations, the zone of interaction among zebra mussels, yellow perch, and ruffe will increase and intensify. In the laboratory, the effect of zebra mussel shells on the ability of these fishes to forage on amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) and chironomids (Chironomus plumosus) was examined in light and darkness. In 12 h, ruffe consumed more amphipods than did similar-sized yellow perch, particularly in darkness on bare cobble, and in light within zebra mussels. Amphipods decreased activity more in the presence of ruffe than yellow perch. More amphipods were found in zebra mussel shells than in bare cobble, whether or not fish were present. In darkness, when ruffe consumed more amphipods on bare cobble, amphipods became more associated with zebra mussel shells. Although ruffe consumed more amphipods than yellow perch, perch consumed more chironomids than ruffe on bare cobble. The presence of zebra mussel shells altered the relative consumption of invertebrates in some substrate-light combinations. Experiments such as these help to improve understanding of the direct and indirect effects of predation between and among native and nonindigenous species that may exert structuring forces on the nearshore communities of the Great Lakes currently or in the future.

  9. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    PubMed

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  10. MIS 7 and MIS 5 glacial inceptions: investigating the asynchronous build-up of Laurentide and Eurasian ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleoni, F.; Masina, S.; Cherchi, A.; Liakka, J.; Jochum, M.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Rosemblum, N.; Ritz, C.; Dumas, C.; Lipscomb, W.; Rutt, I.

    2012-04-01

    During the last glacial cycle, the final volume and extent of the Laurentide ice sheet was larger than over Eurasia. According to ICE-5G multi-proxy and methods reconstruction (Peltier, 2004), the Laurentide (~ 74 m Sea Level Equivalent, SLE hereafter) was ~ 5 times larger than its Eurasian counterpart (~ 17 m SLE. The final eustatic sea level drop was ~ -130 m) while a more recent study based on marine ?18O isotope suggests a smaller difference (Bintanja, 2008). On the contrary, during the penultimate glacial cycle (~245 - 126 kiloyears BP, kyrs BP), the Eurasian ice sheet reached its maximum Quaternary extent (Svendsen et al. 2004). Its volume is estimated to be ~ 60 m SLE based on numerical reconstructions (Lambeck, 2006; Peyaud 2006, Colleoni et al., 2009) implying a smaller ice volume over North America to keep consistent with the eustatic sea level drop of this period (~ -128 m, Waelbroeck et al. 2002). The fact that one of those two ice sheets is systematically larger than the other one at the peak glacial of the cycles implies: 1- a substantial amount of time to built it, larger than for the smaller one, 2- an asynchronous built-up of the ice sheets during the cycle. The notion of asynchronous build-ups over North America and Eurasia is supported by recent model estimates of North American and Eurasian ice volume evolution over the last three million years (e.g. Bintanja, 2008). It suggests that a shift in the mean ice volume distribution over the Northern Hemisphere occurred during the penultimate glacial cycle. It also suggests that the Laurentide ice sheet was mostly smaller than the Eurasian one during the older glacial cycles. Indeed, the absence of glacial landscape traces from older glacial cycles in North America suggests that the Laurentide ice sheet reached its largest Quaternary extent during the Last Glacial Maximum, destroying the previous traces of ice dynamics. What could have caused this change in ice distribution over the Northern Hemisphere? A recent study modelling the last glacial inception (~115 kyrs) suggests that the growth of the Eurasian ice sheet was delayed by persisting high oceanic heat transport into the high latitudes regions (Born et al., 2010). This supports the idea that the build-up of the Laurentide and the Eurasian ice sheets was asynchronous from the very beginning of the cycle. In this work, we use the CESM climate model (in its fully coupled version) and the GRISLI ice sheet model to simulate the climate and ice distribution of the last two glacial inceptions, MIS 5 (~ 125 - 115 kyrs BP) and MIS 7 (~ 236 - 229 kyrs BP). Pseudo transient simulations only accounting for changes in orbitals and greenhouse gas are performed over the periods defined above (vegetation and aeolian dusts are prescribed as their predindustrial distribution). Outputs are then analysed to investigate whether the external forcing alone could be responsible for different ice distributions.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Fortmann, R.G.

    1994-01-14

    The goals during this period included the following objectives from the Statement of Work: in Phase 2A, completion of Subtask 2.1.4 -- Interpret data, of Task 2.1 -- Acquire 3-D seismic data; and, in Phase 2B, completion of Subtask 2.2.1 -- Solicit bids and award, and initiation of Subtask 2.2.2 -- Acquire cores, of Task 2.2 -- Drill slant hole. Subtask 2.1.4 -- Interpret data: Interpretation of the 3- D seismic survey was completed on a Sun Sparcstation10 workstation (UNIX based), using Landmark Graphics latest version of Seisworks 3D software. Subtask 2.2.2 -- Acquire cores: Sierra had picked a location and prepared a drilling plan for the slant/horizontal wellbores. Sierra was ready to submit an Application for Permit to Drill. However, due to the fact that Sierra entered into an agreement to sell the Badger Basin property, the drilling phase was put on hold.

  12. Cloning and functional characterization of Δ6 fatty acid desaturase (FADS2) in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Tinti, E; Mellery, J; Michaux, C; Larondelle, Y; Perpète, E; Kestemont, P

    2016-01-01

    The Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a freshwater carnivorous species of high interest to diversify inland aquaculture. However, little is known about its ability to bioconvert polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from plant oils into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). In this study, special attention has been given to the fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) which is commonly described to be a rate-limiting enzyme of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. This work reports on the cloning, tissue expression and functional characterization of the Eurasian perch fads2, but also on the cloning of two alternative splicing transcripts named fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2. The fads2 cDNA cloned is composed of an open reading frame (ORF) of 1338 nucleotides (nt) and encodes a protein of 445 amino acids. This deduced amino acid sequence displays the typical structure of microsomal FADS2 including two transmembrane domains and an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain with the "HPGG" motif. Quantitative real-time PCR assay of fads2, fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2 expressions revealed that the fads2 transcript was mainly expressed in the liver and intestine and exhibited a typical gene expression pattern of freshwater species while fads2-AS1 and fads2-AS2 genes were highly expressed in the brain, followed by the liver and intestine. Functional characterization of Eurasian perch FADS2 in transgenic yeast showed a fully functional Δ6 desaturation activity toward C18 PUFA substrates, without residual Δ5 and Δ8 desaturase activities. PMID:26478265

  13. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    PubMed

    Axnr, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widn, D; Sderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P < 0.001) and were largest in the follicular and luteal phases. The number of endometrial glands evaluated blindly coded on a subjective scale was significantly associated with the reproductive stage (P < 0.0001) and was significantly higher in the luteal phase than that in any other reproductive stages (P < 0.05). Cornification of the vaginal epithelium was only observed in females in the follicular stage or in females with signs of a recent ovulation. In conclusion, both macroscopic and histologic measurements are useful for a correct classification of the reproductive stage when evaluating reproductive organs in the Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. PMID:26050610

  14. Levels of heavy metals and metalloids in critically endangered Iberian lynx and other wild carnivores from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Milln, J; Mateo, R; Taggart, M A; Lpez-Bao, J V; Viota, M; Monsalve, L; Camarero, P R; Blzquez, E; Jimnez, B

    2008-07-25

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world with a wild population which probably stands at less than 200 individuals inhabiting two areas in Southern Spain (Doana and Sierra Morena) that are known to have been contaminated by heavy metals and metalloids due to a long history of mining activities. This contamination may pose a threat to long term conservation efforts and hence, the concentrations of seven elements (As, Se, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg) were determined in the liver, muscle and bone of 9 lynx, as well as 17 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 11 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 4 common genets (Genetta genetta) and 1 Eurasian badger (Meles meles). The mean concentrations found were below the threshold levels indicative of chronic intoxication in all the species studied. In general, genet and red fox were species with the highest concentrations of several elements in Doana, whilst Iberian lynx had the lowest levels of most of them. Lynx from Sierra Morena had significantly higher concentrations of bone Pb (2.05 microg/g d.w.) than those from Doana (0.13 microg/g d.w.), probably due to the mineralised underlying geology and/or the abandoned mine workings in Sierra Morena. Egyptian mongoose presented liver concentrations of Hg up to 9.7 microg/g d.w. A strong relationship between Hg and Se levels was found in liver and muscle samples of all the studied species, especially in mongoose. In conclusion, levels of the studied elements do not appear to represent a significant threat for the lynx or for the other carnivores studied. However, given the critical status of the Iberian lynx, a continuous monitoring scheme remains necessary. PMID:18455757

  15. Disease threats to the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Milln, Javier; Candela, Mnica G; Palomares, Francisco; Cubero, Mara Jos; Rodrguez, Alejandro; Barral, Marta; de la Fuente, Jos; Almera, Sonia; Len-Vizcano, Luis

    2009-10-01

    The Iberian lynx, (Lynx pardinus), is the most endangered felid in the world. To determine whether sympatric carnivores are reservoirs of pathogens posing a disease risk for the lynx, evidence of exposure to 17 viral, bacterial and protozoan agents was investigated in 176 carnivores comprising 26 free-living lynx, 53 domestic cats, 28 dogs, 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 24 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 10 common genets (Genetta genetta) and 2 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in the areas inhabited by the last two populations of Iberian lynx, both in Andalusia (South-Western Spain). The results indicated that the lynx had low rates of contact with viral pathogens, with one seropositive finding each for feline leukemia virus, parvovirus and canine adenovirus-1, whereas contact with bacteria and protozoa appeared more frequent. Active infections with parvovirus, Ehrlichia spp., Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans and Cytauxzoon spp. were confirmed. In contrast, 53% of the domestic cats were exposed to some infectious agent (prevalence range 4.5-11.4%). Antibodies to canine distemper virus and parvovirus were frequently found in dogs (32% and 42%, respectively) and foxes (30% and 12%). Past or present infections with parvovirus, Ehrlichia spp., Chlamydophila spp., M. bovis, Salmonella enterica, L. interrogans, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum were also detected in these and other species surveyed. Questionnaires to owners revealed that 14% of the dogs but none of the cats had been vaccinated, and no cat had been neutered. Based on the apparent absence of acquired immunity of the lynx against infectious agents, the frequent detection of agents among sympatric carnivores, and the reported lack of immunocompetence of the Iberian lynx, a disease outbreak among the local abundant carnivores may pose a serious disease risk for lynx conservation. PMID:18555712

  16. Snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of Egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida D; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Slvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendona, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P; Rosalino, Lus Miguel; Barros, Tnia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mnica V

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n?=?99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n?=?19), stone marten (Martes foina, n?=?3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n?=?3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n?=?4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox's as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten's as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

  17. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

  18. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  19. Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  20. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in wild and domestic carnivores and their ticks at the human-wildlife interface.

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; Proboste, Tatiana; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Chirife, Andrea D; de la Fuente, José; Altet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and Rickettsia conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although carnivores may not be reservoir hosts for zoonotic Rickettsia, they can have an important role as mechanical dispersers of infected ticks. PMID:26643497

  1. The impact of the North American ice sheet on the evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet during the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakka, J.; Löfverström, M.; Colleoni, F.

    2015-11-01

    Modeling studies show that the massive ice sheet expanding over the North American and Eurasian continents in the last glacial cycle has a large impact on the atmospheric stationary waves and thus yielded a glacial climate distinctly different from the present. However, to what extent the two ice sheets influenced each others growth trajectories remains largely unexplored. In this study we investigate how ice sheets in North America influence the downstream evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet, using a thermomechanical ice-sheet model forced by climate data from snapshot simulations of three distinctly different phases of the last glacial cycle: the Marine Isotope Stages 5b, 4 and 2 (LGM). Our results suggest that changes in the North American paleo-topography may have had a large influence on evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet. In the MIS4 and LGM experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet migrates westward towards the Atlantic sector - largely consistent with geological data and contemporary ice-sheet reconstructions - due to a low wavenumber stationary wave response, which yields a cooling in Europe and a warming in northeastern Siberia. The expansion of the North American ice sheet between MIS4 and LGM amplifies the Siberian warm anomaly, which limits the glaciation there and may therefore help to explain the progressive westward migration of the Eurasian ice sheet over this time period. While the Eurasian ice sheet in the MIS4 and LGM experiments appears to be in equilibrium with the simulated climate conditions, the MIS5b climate forcing is too warm to grow an ice sheet. First-order sensitivity experiments suggest that most of the MIS5b ice sheet was established during preceding colder stages.

  2. Entrapment of ancient and modern organic carbon by iron on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvado, Joan A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, rjan

    2015-04-01

    Given the potential for climate-carbon feedbacks in the Siberian-Arctic land-ocean system, there is a need for improved understanding of carbon cycle processes (Vonk et al., 2012). The entrapment of organic carbon in sediments is a key factor to attenuate the outgassing of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In this context, there is a pressing need to understand the mechanisms that control preservation and accumulations of organic carbon in marine sediments. Recently, the role of iron oxides in the preservation of organic matter globally has been outlined (Lalonde et al., 2012). In the present study, the composition of organic carbon associated to reactive iron (OC-Fe) on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf is evaluated. For this purpose, sediment cores and grab samples were collected in the shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea from 9 to 69 m water depth. Experiments were conducted to extract the OC-Fe from the sediments by applying a citrate-dithionite iron reduction method -accurately control corrected- and analyze the ?13C, % OC and ?14C of the bulk and iron-associated fractions. The results show that 11.0 5.5% of organic carbon in surface-sediments of the Siberian Arctic Shelf is attached to reactive iron. The ?14C and ?13C signatures presented sharply contrasting offsets between the sedimentary bulk and the OC-Fe. The OC-Fe is much younger than the OC-bulk in the eastern East Siberian Sea and older in the Laptev Sea. The same offsets were observed using a dual-carbon endmember mixing model showing that the iron fraction is mainly composed by young marine plankton organic carbon in the eastern East Siberian Sea and pre-aged thawing permafrost in the Laptev Sea. Overall, it seems that (i) some of this pre-aged organic carbon still remains bound to iron oxides after permafrost thawing and (ii) the iron oxides are transferring dissolved organic carbon to the sediment. This study presents the first analyses of ?14C ever done in the OC-Fe fraction to start progressing on what organic matter components are prone to entrapment by iron oxides. References Vonk, J.E., Snchez-Garca L., van Dongen B.E., Alling V., Kosmach D., Charkin A., Semiletov I.P., Dudarev O.V., Shakhova N., Roos P., Eglinton T.I., Andersson A., Gustafsson . Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia. Nature 489, 137-140 (2012). Lalonde K., Mucci A., Ouellet A., Glinas Y. Preservation of organic matter in sediments promoted by iron. Nature 483, 198-200 (2012).

  3. Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-01

    Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.50.67) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can improve the characterization of emission locations, magnitudes and trends over sparsely monitored areas such as seas or oceans.

  4. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Andrn, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was ? = 1.079 ( 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was ? = 0.94 ( 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by ?? = 0.14 ( 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

  5. Collection of field reproductive data from carcasses of the female Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Axnr, E; Payan-Carreira, R; Setterlind, P; sbrink, J; Sderberg, A

    2013-11-01

    Information about reproductive physiology in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) would generate knowledge that could be useful in the management of the Swedish lynx population based on the knowledge about their reproductive potential and population development. Age-related differences in ovulation and implantation rates would affect the reproductive output and the development of the population. The aims of this study were to evaluate a protocol for collection of reproductive data from carcasses by comparisons with published field data and to generate data about reproduction in the Swedish lynx. Reproductive organs from 120 females that were harvested between March 1 and April 9 from 2009 to 2011 were collected and evaluated macroscopically for placental scars. Females had their first estrus as yearlings but did not have their first litter until the next season. Pregnancy rates were lower in 2-year-old females than in females aged 3 to 7 years but did not differ significantly from females aged 8 to 13 years (54.5%, 95.6%, and 75.0%, respectively). CL from the present season were morphologically distinctly different from luteal bodies from previous cycles (LBPC). All females ?3 years had macroscopically visible LBPC, whereas only 67% of 22 to 23 months old females had one to three LBPC and no females <1 year of age had LBPC. Females aged 34 to 35 months had up to eight LPBC, whereas the highest number of LBPC counted in females ?3 years of age was 11. These data would be in agreement with only one estrus per season and LBPC from at least three previous reproductive seasons in older females. The number of LBPC was significantly correlated with the weight of the ovaries rs = 0.648, P < 0.001) and the age of the animals (rs = 0.572, P < 0.001). Uterine weight differed significantly with the stage of the reproductive cycle and was highest for mature females in the luteal phase of the cycle. The estrous period, defined as occurrence of ovarian follicles lasted from March 5 to April 1 in this material. In conclusion, this study confirms that useful information about lynx reproduction can be collected from reproductive organs retrieved after the death of the animals. Continuous monitoring of lynx reproductive organs would therefore make a valuable contribution to collection of field data, gathering information that can be useful for the management of lynx populations and potentially for the lynx as an indicator of environmental disturbances. PMID:23987987

  6. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8C to 4C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire events. Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and in contrast, a normal fire season burned in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the fire season (April - September) for 1999, 2002, and 2004. We assess these data sets for evidence of relationships between the net radiative fluxes and fire onset as well as evidence for residual influence of the fires upon the radiative budgets.

  7. Structure and variability of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew C.; Janout, Markus; Rabe, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) transports a vast amount of mass and heat around cyclonic gyres of the deep basins, acting as a narrow, topographically-controlled flow, confined to the continental margins. Current observations during 2002-2011 at seven moorings along the major Atlantic Water (AW) pathway, complemented by an extensive collection of measured temperatures and salinities as well as results of state-of-the-art numerical modeling, have been used to examine the spatial structure and temporal variability of the ACBC within the Eurasian Basin (EB). These observations and modeling results suggest a gradual, six-fold decrease of boundary current speed (from 24 to 4 cm/s) on the route between Fram Strait and the Lomonosov Ridge, accompanied by a transformation of the vertical flow structure from mainly barotropic in Fram Strait to baroclinic between the area north of Spitsbergen and the central Laptev Sea continental slope. The relative role of density-driven currents in maintaining AW circulation increases with the progression of the ACBC eastward from Fram Strait, so that baroclinic ACBC forcing dominates over the barotropic in the eastern EB. Mooring records have revealed that waters within the AW and the cold halocline layers circulate in roughly the same direction in the eastern EB. The seasonal signal, meanwhile, is the most powerful mode of variability in the EB, contributing up to ~70% of the total variability in currents (resolved by moorings records) within the eastern EB. Seasonal signal amplitudes for current speed and AW temperature both decrease with the eastward progression of AW flow from source regions, and demonstrate strong interannual modulation. In the 2000s, the state of the EB (e.g., circulation pattern, thermohaline conditions, and freshwater balance) experienced remarkable changes. Results showing anomalous circulation patterns for an extended period of 30 months in 2008-2010 for the eastern EB, and a two-core AW temperature structure that emerged in this region of the Arctic Ocean in the most recent decade, suggest a shift of the EB toward a new, more dynamic state. This also likely suggests that the EB interior will become more susceptible to future climate change. Evaluating properties of the ACBC, its temporal variability at time scales from a season to several years, and possible governing mechanisms, this study contributes to a better understanding of Arctic Ocean circulation.

  8. Large Impact of Eurasian Lynx Predation on Roe Deer Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

  9. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research and capacity-building initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Sorvari, S.; Bäck, J.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-11-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked, global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change; air quality; biodiversity loss; urbanization; chemicalization; food and freshwater availability; energy production; and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructure and related capacity-building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure and summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  10. Comparative study of the reproductive characteristics of XY male and hormonally sex-reversed XX male Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Rougeot, Carole; Nicayenzi, Flix; Mandiki, S N M; Rurangwa, Eugne; Kestemont, Patrick; Mlard, Charles

    2004-09-01

    In order to compare the reproductive capacity of XY male versus XX male (neomales) Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), we determined the sperm quality (sperm concentration and motility) and reproductive characteristics such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), fertilization rate and sex steroid levels (testosterone, T; 17beta-estradiol, E2 and 11-ketotestosterone, 11KT) during the reproductive season. Median GSI was not significantly different between XY males (7.9%) and XX males (7.5%). Fertilization rates ranged between 30.0 and 98.0%. Sperm concentration ranged between 27.9 x 10(9) and 42.0 x 10(9) spermatozoa ml(-1). Median level of T, 11KT and E2 levels increased in the middle of the reproductive season (2136.0, 2409.0 and 3252.0 pg ml(-1), respectively) and decreased at the end (1657.0, 2006.6 and 431.0 pg ml(-1), respectively). Sperm motility was assessed by CASA and expressed by the curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), percentage of motile sperm (% MOT) and motile concentration (MOC). Overall, there were not any significant differences between XY and XX males. In conclusion, no differences of reproductive capacities were observed between XY males and XX males suggesting that the last can be crossed with females to improve the productivity of Eurasian perch by producing all-female stock. PMID:15251230

  11. Non cat-like ovarian cycle in the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx - ultrasonographical and endocrinological analysis.

    PubMed

    Gritz, F; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Martinez, F; Lpez-Bao, J V; Palomares, F; Jewgenow, K

    2009-07-01

    The Iberian lynx is considered the most endangered felid species. Therefore, an ex situ conservation program was initiated to protect this species from extinction. Additional knowledge on lynx reproduction biology and reliable methods for reproductive monitoring are important for developing a captive breeding program. The aim of this study in lynx was to implement transrectal ultrasonography to visualize ovarian structures (follicles, corpora lutea) and to assess ovarian activity in addition to analysis of serum progesterone and oestradiol. Because of limited access to Iberian lynxes, the less-endangered Eurasian lynx and bobcat were also studied in this comparative study. Recent endocrinological studies based on faecal and urinary progesterone and oestrogen metabolites revealed that steroid profiles in both these species were alike and did not follow the typical pattern of other felids. Pregnancy diagnosis was not possible, since progesterone concentrations did not differ between pregnant and pseudopregnant animals. Progesterone was also detected after parturition as well as after weaning until the onset of a new oestrous cycle. In the present study, the presence of corpora lutea during the non-breeding season was confirmed by ultrasonography and by elevated serum levels of progesterone averaging 3.56 +/- 1.3 ng/ml in Eurasian and 6.1 +/- 0.26 ng/ml in Iberian lynx, respectively. The ultrasonographical findings on the ovarian structures suggest strongly that corpora lutea developed after ovulation stay active until November and regress before the onset of the next oestrus. PMID:19754543

  12. Improvement in Simulation of Eurasian Winter Climate Variability with a Realistic Arctic Sea Ice Condition in an Atmospheric GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to approx. 0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

  13. Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam

    PubMed Central

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  14. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    PubMed

    Graf, Patricia M; Wilson, Rory P; Qasem, Lama; Hacklnder, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  15. Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Green, David E.; Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J.; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Ip, Hon S.

    2012-01-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens.

  16. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    PubMed

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  17. Role for Eurasian Arctic shelf sea ice in a secularly varying hemispheric climate signal during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Marcia Glaze; Curry, Judith A.

    2014-05-01

    A hypothesized low-frequency climate signal propagating across the Northern Hemisphere through a network of synchronized climate indices was identified in previous analyses of instrumental and proxy data. The tempo of signal propagation is rationalized in terms of the multidecadal component of Atlantic Ocean variabilitythe Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Through multivariate statistical analysis of an expanded database, we further investigate this hypothesized signal to elucidate propagation dynamics. The Eurasian Arctic Shelf-Sea Region, where sea ice is uniquely exposed to open ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as a strong contender for generating and sustaining propagation of the hemispheric signal. Ocean-ice-atmosphere coupling spawns a sequence of positive and negative feedbacks that convey persistence and quasi-oscillatory features to the signal. Further stabilizing the system are anomalies of co-varying Pacific-centered atmospheric circulations. Indirectly related to dynamics in the Eurasian Arctic, these anomalies appear to negatively feed back onto the Atlantic`s freshwater balance. Earth's rotational rate and other proxies encode traces of this signal as it makes its way across the Northern Hemisphere.

  18. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Patricia M.; Wilson, Rory P.; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  19. Global Trends in Higher Education and Their Impact on the Region. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, June 12-13, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education presents conference proceedings of the annual Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held June 12-13, 2013, at Nazarbayev University. The theme of this year's Forum is "Global Trends in Higher Education and their Impact on the Region". Many internationally-recognized higher…

  20. Rapid detection of Eurasian and American H7 subtype influenza A viruses using a single TaqManMGB real-time RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) was developed for the detection of all H7 subtype avian influenza viruses. A TaqmanMGB probe targeting a highly conserved HA2 H7 region was developed and either combined with primers targeting Eurasian isolates (primer mix EA), North American isolates...

  1. Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5N2 Virus Containing Gene Segments Related to Eurasian H5N8 in British Columbia, Canada, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    In late November 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. This virus, composed of 5 gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, M and NS) related to Eurasian HPAI H5N8 and the remaining gene segments (PB1, NP and NA) related to North American lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first HPAI outbreak in North American poultry due to a virus with Eurasian lineage genes. Since its first appearance in Korea in January 2014, HPAI H5N8 spread to Western Europe in November 2014. These European outbreaks happened to temporally coincide with migratory waterfowl movements. The fact that the British Columbia outbreaks also occurred at a time associated with increased migratory waterfowl activity along with reports by the USA of a wholly Eurasian H5N8 virus detected in wild birds in Washington State, strongly suggest that migratory waterfowl were responsible for bringing Eurasian H5N8 to North America where it subsequently reassorted with indigenous viruses. PMID:25804829

  2. Connecting ground-based in-situ observations, ground-based remote sensing and satellite data within the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petj, Tuukka; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Moisseev, Dmitri; O'Connor, Ewan; Bondur, Valery; Kasimov, Nikolai; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Guo, Huadong; Zhang, Jiahua; Matvienko, Gennadii; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Baklanov, Alexander; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-10-01

    Human activities put an increasing stress on the Earth' environment and push the safe and sustainable boundaries of the vulnerable eco-system. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research program aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims to (i) understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in both pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks filling the gaps of the insitu observational network, (iii) contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan- Eurasian region. In this contribution, we underline general features of the satellite observations relevant to the PEEX research program and how satellite observations connect to the ground-based observations.

  3. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced EWM invasions have negative impacts on native biodiversity, recreational boating, fishing, and other types of aquatic tourism (e.g., Eiswerth et al. 2000). On a broader scale, EWM can also be harmful to man-made aquatic infrastructure, such as hydroelectric dams. If an EWM invasion can be detected in an early stage where eradication is still a possibility, many of these negative consequences can be limited or prevented altogether (e.g., Madsen et al. 2002). The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of pure and hybridized EWM DNA using both laboratory and field experiments. We performed a pilot experiment in outdoor tanks to determine the basic functionality and sensitivity of the assay. Following this initial test, we collected field samples from Michigan and Montana lakes with and without known EWM populations. Taken together, our findings suggest that eDNA techniques have potential to be a useful strategy for the early detection of EWM.

  4. Stability of permafrost and gas hydrates in Arctic coastal lowlands and on the Eurasian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubberten, H. W.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Romanovskii, N.; Wetterich, S.

    2011-12-01

    During the last Glacial period thick continuous permafrost developed on the Siberian coastal lowlands and large shelf areas due to the up to 120 m lower sea level and the exposure of these areas to cold temperatures. With the beginning of the Holocene transgression, complex interaction processes of sea water with the permafrost landscape occurred. The occurrence of gas hydrates captured in permafrost is a characteristic feature of the the Eurasian Arctic shelf areas, especially on the shelf of the Kara, Laptev and East Siberia seas. In some of the shelf areas oceanic rift zones stretch to the continent, as for example in the Laptev Sea area where the Gakkel Ridge continues into the land. Great differences in geothermal heat flow values and in the properties of the sediments and rocks have to be assumed in undisturbed lithosphere block and in fault zones like as in continental rifts (such as Momskii and Baikalskii rifts, etc.). As a result differences in the thickness of permafrost and the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) within these structures are expected. The thickness of permafrost and the GHSZ change essentially and irregularly in the stages of regressions and transgressions of the sea. Models show that the thickness of offshore (subsea) permafrost in the stages of climatic warming and transgressions essentially decrease however, rather irregular. The possibilities and the boundary conditions for the occurrence of open taliks, which may result in an emission of greenhouse gases from sub-permafrost gases and hydrates, have been estimated. Ice-bearing and ice-bonded permafrost in the northern regions of Arctic lowlands and in the inner shelf zone, have been preserved during at least four Pleistocene climatic and glacial-eustatic cycles. Presently, they are subjected to degradation from the bottom under the impact of geothermal heat flux as well as from interaction with warmer sea water at the top. Subsea permafrost formed on the arctic continental shelves that were inundated following the end of the last Glacial period 18,000 years ago. This inundation has increased the mean annual temperature at the sediment surface since the mean annual sea bottom water temperature is higher than the temperature of the land surface before the transgression. This increase in temperature leads to the thawing of permafrost below the seabed, which can occur as a result of temperature increase, but also due to the penetration of salt-water into the seabed, which lowers the freezing point of the sediment's pore water. Coastal and subsea permafrost are important components in the global carbon system. It contains significant amounts of methane and organic carbon, which may be released to the atmosphere during permafrost warming and degradation. Gas hydrates, and in particular methane hydrates, have been observed trapped within and below arctic permafrost. Recent observations of high methane concentrations in Siberian shelf waters may indicate a shift in release rates connected to submarine permafrost degradation.

  5. Eurasian Tree Sparrows, Risk for H5N1 Virus Spread and Human Contamination through Buddhist Ritual: An Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gutirrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Sorn, San; Nicholls, John M.; Buchy, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 virus has dramatically spread throughout Southeast Asia since its first detection in 1997. Merit Release Birds, such as the Eurasian Tree Sparrow, are believed to increase one's positive karma when kissed and released during Buddhist rituals. Since these birds are often in close contact with both poultry and humans, we investigated their potential role in the spread of H5N1 virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven series of experiments were conducted in order to investigate the possible interactions between inoculated and exposed birds, including sparrow/sparrow, sparrow/chicken, duck/sparrow. Daily and post-mortem samples collected were tested for H5N1 virus by real-time RT-PCR and egg inoculation. When directly inoculated, Eurasian Tree Sparrows were highly susceptible to the H5N1 virus, with a fatality rate approaching 100% within 5 days post-inoculation. Although transmission of fatal infection between sparrows did not occur, seroconversion of the exposed birds was observed. Up to 100% chickens exposed to inoculated sparrows died of H5N1 infection, depending on the caging conditions of the birds, while a fatality rate of 50% was observed on sparrows exposed to infected ducks. Large quantities of H5N1 virus were detected in the sparrows, particularly in their feathers, from which infectious particles were recovered. Conclusions/Significance Our study indicates that under experimental conditions, Eurasian Tree Sparrows are susceptible to H5N1 infection, either by direct inoculation or by contact with infected poultry. Their ability to transmit H5N1 infection to other birds is also demonstrated, suggesting that the sparrows may play a role in the dissemination of the virus. Finally, the presence of significant quantities of H5N1 virus on sparrows' feathers, including infectious particles, would suggest that Merit Release Birds represent a risk for human contamination in countries where avian influenza virus is circulating and where this religious ritual is practiced. PMID:22164310

  6. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Gritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p < 0.0001) showing a postpartum increase both in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females. The results from the Eurasian lynx revealed that the measurement of faecal progesterone metabolites led to profiles dissimilar to profiles shown in other felid species, but similar to those from faecal gestagen metabolite analysis in the Iberian lynx. To identify faecal gestagen and oestrogen metabolites a radio-metabolism study was performed. Using the progesterone immunoassay two major progesterone metabolites were detected demonstrating that the assay indeed tracks the relevant metabolites. The oestrogen assay measured authentic 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone, and their conjugates. The analysis of the faecal metabolite composition in samples from early and late pregnancy and lactation particularly revealed a distinct shift in the relation between 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone that changed in favour of oestrone. This might indicate different hormone sources during and after pregnancy (corpus luteum, placenta). We hypothesize, that placental steroid analysis in combination with other highly sophisticated analytical techniques, like liquid chromatography mass spectrometry or urinary relaxin analysis may led to analytical options to confirm pregnancy and to differentiate this from pseudo-pregnancy in lynx species. PMID:18638107

  7. PanEurasian Experiment (PEEX): Modelling Platform for Earth System Observations and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Mahura, Alexander; Penenko, Vladimir; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    As the part of the PEEX initiative, for the purpose of supporting the PEEX observational system and answering on the PEEX scientific questions, a hierarchy/ framework of modern multi-scale models for different elements of the Earth System integrated with the observation system is needed. One of the acute topics in the international debate on land-atmosphere interactions in relation to global change is the Earth System Modeling (ESM). The question is whether the ESM components actually represent how the Earth is functioning. The ESMs consist of equations describing the processes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, terrestrial and marine biosphere. ESMs are the best tools for analyzing the effect of different environmental changes on future climate or for studying the role of whole processes in the Earth System. These types of analysis and prediction of the future change are especially important in the Arctic latitudes, where climate change is proceeding fastest and where near-surface warming has been about twice the global average during the recent decades. The processes, and hence parameterization, in ESMs are still based on insufficient knowledge of physical, chemical and biological mechanisms involved in the climate system and the resolution of known processes is insufficient. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere-ocean interactions using ESMs provides a way to explore the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of land system and on climate. There is a lack, however, ways to forward a necessary process understanding effectively to ESMs and to link all this to the decision-making process. Arctic-boreal geographical domain plays significant role in terms of green-house gases and anthropogenic emissions and as an aerosol source area in the Earth System. The PEEX Modelling Platform (PEEX-MP) is characterized by: • An ensemble approach with the integration of modelling results from different models/ countries etc.; • A hierarchy of models, analysing scenarios, inverse modelling, modelling based on measurement needs and processes; • Model validation by remote sensing data and assimilation of satellite observations to constrain models to better understand processes, e.g., emissions and fluxes with top-down modelling; • Geophysical/ chemical model validation with experiments at various spatial and temporal scales. Added value of the comprehensive multi-platform observations and modeling; network of monitoring stations with the capacity to quantify those interactions between neighboring areas ranging from the Arctic and the Mediterranean to the Chinese industrial areas and the Asian steppes is needed. For example, apart from development of Russian stations in the PEEX area a strong co-operation with surrounding research infrastructures in the model of ACTRIS network needs to be established in order to obtain a global perspective of the emissions transport, transformation and ageing of pollutants incoming and exiting the PEEX area. The PEEX-MP aims to simulate and predict the physical aspects of the Earth system and to improve understanding of the bio-geochemical cycles in the PEEX domain, and beyond. The environmental change in this region implies that, from the point-of-view of atmospheric flow, the lower boundary conditions are changing. This is important for applications with immediate relevance for society, such as numerical weather prediction. The PEEX infrastructure will provide a unique view to the physical properties of the Earth surface, which can be used to improve assessment and prediction models. This will directly benefit citizens of the North in terms of better early warning of hazardous events, for instance. On longer time-scales, models of the bio-geochemical cycles in the PEEX domain absolutely need support from the new monitoring infra-structure to better measure and quantify soil and vegetation properties. In the most basic setup, the atmospheric and oceanic Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are connected to each other, sharing e.g. fluxes of momentum, water vapour and CO2. Traditionally, the land compartment has been an integral part of the atmospheric model, but in most modern ESMs the land model has been clearly separated. In most cases, the GCMs are complemented by other additional sub models covering, for example, atmospheric chemistry and aerosols, biogeochemistry or dynamic vegetation. Although the models can communicate also directly with each other, usually a separate coupler is used as an interface between different sub models. One of the main PEEX modelling activities is to evaluate process-models of chemistry-biota-atmosphere interactions in Pan Eurasian region and to improve GCM parameterizations. PEEX scientific plan is designed to serve a research chain that aims to advance our understanding of climate and air quality through a series of connected activities beginning at the molecular scale and extending to the regional and global scales. Past variations in climate in Pan Eurasian regions and corresponding forcing agents would be revealed by analysis of firn and ice cores in glaciers and ice sheets. A combination of direct and inverse modelling will be applied to diagnosing, designing, monitoring, and forecasting of air pollution in Siberia and Eurasia. Regional models coupled with the global one by means of orthogonal decomposition methods allow one to correctly introduce data about the global processes onto the regional level where environmental quality control strategies are typically implemented. Proceeding from the above mentioned limitations, a new concept and methodology considering the concept of 'one-atmosphere' as two-way interacted meteorological and chemical processes is suggested. The atmospheric chemistry transport models should include not only health-effecting pollutants (air quality components), but also green-house gases and aerosols effecting climate, meteorological processes, etc. Such concept requests a strategy of new generation integrated chemistry-climate modelling systems for predicting atmospheric composition, meteorology and climate change. The on-line integration of meteorological/ climate models and atmospheric aerosol and chemical transport models gives a possibility to utilise all meteorological 3D fields at each time step and to consider feedbacks of air pollution (e.g. aerosols) on meteorological processes and climate forcing, and further on the chemical composition (as a chain of dependent processes). This promising way for future atmospheric simulation systems (as a part of and a step to ESMs) will be considered in PEEX. It will lead to a new generation of models for climatic, meteorological, environmental and chemical weather forecasting.

  8. Mapping the indentation between the Iberian and Eurasian plates beneath the Western Pyrenees/Eastern Cantabrian Mountains from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Ruiz, M.; Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.

    2012-10-01

    In the last decades, active seismic profiling in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula has evidenced that the Alpine collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates resulted in a complex crustal structure, with the Iberian crust underthrusting the Eurasian crust and reaching depths of at least 45-50 km beneath the Pyrenean chain and the Cantabrian Mountains. In the transition between these two zones the situation is particularly complex, as evidenced in previous wide-angle and passive seismic studies. This contribution focuses in getting new clues on the crustal structure of this transitional zone through receiver function (RF) analysis of teleseismic data recorded at permanent and temporary stations located in both the Spanish and French sides of the Western Pyrenees. Different techniques (H-κ stacking, pseudo-migration, synthetic 2D modeling) have been considered in the analysis. Passive seismic data from previous temporary deployments in the zone have been reworked and added to the discussion. A first order result is that passive seismic data are broadly consistent with the indentation of the Iberian and Eurasian crusts inferred from active seismic profiling, thus providing a completely independent confirmation of this feature. For the first time, an Iberian Moho underlying the Eurasian crust is documented from RF beneath the stations located at the Northern side of the Pyrenean range. Moreover, clear indications of dipping interfaces are observed at some stations. The new RF results suggest that in the crustal indentation beneath the Basque Massifs area, the Eurasian crust extends farther south with respect to the image inferred from active seismic data. This new geometry implies that the Pamplona transfer zone has played a major role in the regional geodynamic history.

  9. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers. PMID:20582437

  10. Coprological study on helminth fauna in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczesna, J; Popio?ek, M; Schmidt, K; Kowalczyk, R

    2008-08-01

    One hundred fecal samples were collected during research on Eurasian lynx ecology and food habits in the Polish part of the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest (BPF) from 2001 to 2006. Seventy-three percent of samples contained eggs or larvae of helminths. A total of 10 species of helminths was identified, including 3 Cestoda (Diphyllobothrium latum, Spirometra janickii, and unidentified species of Taeniidae), 1 Trematoda (Alaria alata), and 6 Nematoda (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Eucoleus aerophilus, Metastrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., and Toxocara cati). Alaria alata has not been reported previously in lynx. A statistical comparison of the 2 techniques used to isolate eggs, i.e., flotation and sedimentation, indicates that sedimentation was more effective. PMID:18576790

  11. The Effects of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the Foraging Success of Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Axel; Mrtl, Martin; Eckmann, Reiner

    2004-07-01

    Complex habitat structures can influence the foraging success of fish. Competition for food between fish species can therefore depend on the competitors' abilities to cope with structural complexity. In laboratory experiments, we comparatively assessed effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) on the foraging success of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)). In single-species and mixed-species experiments, the fish were fed caddisfly larvae (Tinodes waeneri (L.)) over complex (mussel-covered stones) and less-complex (bare stones) substrates. With intraspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe decreased significantly when the complex substrate was used. With interspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe did not change with substrate complexity, but perch clearly out-competed ruffe on both substrates. Zebra mussel beds provide a refuge for macrozoobenthos against predation by ruffe and probably also by perch. (

  12. Molecular signals for late Tertiary/early Quaternary range splits of an Eurasian steppe plant: Clausia aprica (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Franzke, A; Hurka, H; Janssen, D; Neuffer, B; Friesen, N; Markov, M; Mummenhoff, K

    2004-09-01

    Several vegetation belts stretch continuously from Europe to Asia, taiga and steppe being most prominent. Numerous plant species within these belts share a conspicuous distribution area, which is longitudinally contracted or disrupted approximately along longitude 70 degrees E. To date no hypothesis for this intriguing distribution pattern has been put forward. We detected molecular footprints in the contemporary genetic composition in nuclear DNA (ITS1, ITS2) and chloroplast DNA (trnL-trnF spacer region) of the steppe element Clausia aprica (Brassicaceae) providing evidence for a severe longitudinal range split and genetic differentiation east of the Ural Mountains about 1 million years ago caused by Quaternary climatic oscillations. Clausia aprica provides the first phylogeographical analysis on the intraspecific evolution of an Eurasian steppe plant. PMID:15315689

  13. Summer Arctic Atmospheric Circulation Response to Spring Eurasian Snow Cover and its Possible Linkage to Accelerated Sea Ice Decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, S.; Zhang, X.; Yamazaki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Anticyclonic circulation has intensified over the Arctic Ocean in summer during recent decades. However, the underlying mechanism is, as yet, not well understood. Here we show that earlier spring Eurasian snowmelt leads to anomalously negative sea level pressure (SLP) over Eurasia and positive SLP over the Arctic, which has strong projection on the negative phase of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) in summer through the wave-mean flow interaction. Specifically, earlier spring snowmelt over Eurasia leads to a warmer land surface, due to reduced surface albedo. The warmed surface amplifies stationary Rossby waves, leading to a deceleration of the subpolar jet. As a consequence, rising motion is enhanced over the land, and compensating subsidence and adiabatic heating occur in the Arctic troposphere, forming the negative NAM. The intensified anticyclonic circulation has played a contributing role in accelerating the sea ice decline observed during the last two decades. The results here provide important information for improving seasonal prediction of summer sea ice cover.

  14. Fluctuating feather asymmetry in relation to corticosterone levels is sex-dependent in Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) nestlings

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Samuli; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been widely used as a stress-related phenotypic marker of developmental instability. However, previous studies relating FA to various stressful conditions have produced inconsistent results and we still lack quantitative individual-level evidence that high FA is related to stress in wild vertebrate species. We studied how baseline plasma levels of corticosterone predicted FA of wing and tail feathers in free-living Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) nestlings. We found a sex-specific association between corticosterone levels and FA: high corticosterone levels were related to an increased FA in male but not in female nestlings. These results suggest that in treecreepers, FA may correlate with individual stress hormone levels, male developmental trajectory being potentially more sensitive to stress than that of the female. PMID:20129951

  15. Lead levels in Eurasian otters decline with time and reveal interactions between sources, prevailing weather, and stream chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Simpson, Victor R; Nicholls, Abigail E L; Slater, Frederick M

    2011-03-01

    The uptake of contaminants by biota varies spatially and temporally due to a complex range of interacting environmental variables, but such complexities are typically disregarded in studies of temporal change. Here, we use linear modeling to explore spatial and temporal variation in bone Pb levels measured in samples taken from 329 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) found dead in southwest England. Between 1992 and 2004 Pb levels in otters fell by 73%, following UK legislative control of Pb emissions implemented since the mid 1980s. Spatial variation in bone Pb was positively correlated with modeled Pb emissions and stream sediment Pb, which interacted negatively with wind-speed and sediment Ca, respectively. Opportunistic collection of samples from wildlife mortalities provided a valuable opportunity for monitoring environmental contamination, interpretation of which was aided by spatially explicit analysis of environmental variables. PMID:21294545

  16. Influence of domestication process on immune response to repeated emersion stressors in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.).

    PubMed

    Douxfils, J; Lambert, S; Mathieu, C; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Henrotte, E; Wang, N; Dieu, M; Raes, M; Rougeot, C; Kestemont, P

    2014-03-25

    Domestication might be a possible way to reduce the physiological response to long-term stressors and deleterious effects on immunity. The present study aimed to evaluate the chronic immune response induced by repeated emersions and the possible impact of domestication by comparing farmed Eurasian perch with short (F1) and long (F4) captive-life history. In the first experiment, fish were exposed to a single emersion and physiological stress response was measured in the short term to characterize fish sensitivity to the tested stressor. Serum cortisol and glucose elevated within 6h post-stress and splenosomatic index (SSI) decreased within 48h, indicating that the species was affected by emersion stressor. In the second experiment, F1 and F4 generations were submitted to repeated water emersions (3 times/week during 44days). On day 9, 18 and 44, samplings were performed 48h post-stressor to highlight any sustained disruption of immune system. Serum cortisol, glucose, SSI and lysozyme activity were evaluated and serum proteome was analyzed using 2D-DIGE. Any of the tested variables were affected by repeated emersions and proteomic analysis only revealed that alpha-2 macroglobulins (a2Ms) were up-regulated in the serum of stressed individuals. Domestication also resulted in the up-regulation of five a2M isoforms and down-regulation of complement C3 and Ig light chain proteins, independently of any stressor exposure. In conclusion, the results suggested that repeated emersions are not severe stressors for Eurasian perch, probably explaining why domestication had no influence on fish responses. Changes associated with domestication are highly complex and certainly need further investigations. PMID:24674818

  17. The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current along the Eurasian slope and the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge: Water mass properties, transports and transformations from moored instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodgate, Rebecca A.; Aagaard, Knut; Muench, Robin D.; Gunn, John; Bjrk, Gran; Rudels, Bert; Roach, A. T.; Schauer, Ursula

    2001-08-01

    Year-long (summer 1995 to 1996) time series of temperature, salinity and current velocity from three slope sites spanning the junction of the Lomonosov Ridge with the Eurasian continent are used to quantify the water properties, transformations and transport of the boundary current of the Arctic Ocean. The mean flow is cyclonic, weak (1 to 5 cm s -1), predominantly aligned along isobaths and has an equivalent barotropic structure in the vertical. We estimate the transport of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin to be 51 Sv. About half of this flow is diverted north along the Eurasian Basin side of the Lomonosov Ridge. The warm waters (>1.4C) of the Atlantic layer are also found on the Canadian Basin side of the ridge south of 86.5N, but not north of this latitude. This suggests that the Atlantic layer crosses the ridge at various latitudes south of 86.5N and flows southward along the Canadian Basin side of the ridge. Temperature and salinity records indicate a small (0.02 Sv), episodic flow of Canadian Basin deep water into the Eurasian Basin at 1700 m, providing a possible source for an anomalous eddy observed in the Amundsen Basin in 1996. There is also a similar flow of Eurasian Basin deep water into the Canadian Basin. Both flows probably pass through a gap in the Lomonosov Ridge at 80.4N. A cooling and freshening of the Atlantic layer, observed at all three moorings, is attributed to changes (in temperature and salinity and/or volume) in the outflow from the Barents Sea the previous winter, possibly caused by an observed increased flow of ice from the Arctic Ocean into the Barents Sea. The change in water properties, which advects at 5 cm s -1 along the southern edge of the Eurasian Basin, also strengthens the cold halocline layer and increases the stability of the upper ocean. This suggests a feedback in which ice exported from the Arctic Ocean into the Barents Sea promotes ice growth elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean. The strongest currents recorded at the moorings (up to 40 cm s -1) are related to eddy features which are predominantly anticyclonic and, with a few exceptions, are of two main types: cold core eddies, confined to the upper 100-300 m, probably formed on the shelf, and warm core eddies of greater vertical extent, probably related to instabilities of an upstream front.

  18. Schuelkelia gen. n., a new eastern Palaearctic ant-like stone beetle, with synopsis of Eurasian genera of Cyrtoscydmini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Ja?oszy?ski, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    Schuelkelia unicornis gen. & sp. n. is described from Yunnan, China. The new taxon belongs to a group of genera characterized by the submentum lacking lateral sutures, and is most similar to Euconnus. Among the Eurasian genera Schuelkelia can be easily identified on the basis of the broad occipital constriction, pronotum lacking antebasal pits or grooves, elytra lacking externally visible basal foveae; mesoscutellum not visible between elytral bases; long and slender but weakly elevated mesoventral intercoxal process, and other features which are described and illustrated in detail. Morphological structures of Schuelkelia are compared with those of all other Palaearctic and Oriental Cyrtoscydmini, and keys to identification of all Eurasian and separately Chinese genera of Cyrtoscydmini are given. A brief illustrated synopsis of all genera of Cyrtoscydmini known to occur in the Oriental and Palaearctic regions is given, to facilitate identifications and future studies. PMID:26623815

  19. Timing of Indian-Eurasian collision from the Indus Basin in Ladakh, northwestern Indian Himalaya: An interdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, A.; Hodges, K.; Edwards, C. S.; Gordon, G. W.; Wartho, J.

    2012-12-01

    The early Cenozoic Indus Basin of northwest India straddles the Indus suture zone and has long been regarded as having the potential to yield important constraints on the timing of collision between India and Eurasia and final closure of the intervening Neo-Tethys ocean basin. Unfortunately, three issues have frustrated previous attempts to capitalize on that potential. First, outcrops in the Indus Basin are deformed, making accurate reconstructions of basin stratigraphy difficult. As a consequence, published maps of the basin are discrepant - in some cases significantly so. Second, previously published detrital zircon U-Pb data for Pre-Oligocene sandstone units point to a distinctive Eurasian source, with scant evidence for Indian detritus, leaving open the possibility that deposition could have been prior to the docking of India. Finally, much of the succession does not contain age-diagnostic fossils and datable volcanic units (e.g., tuffs) have not been found. We report here the results of an interdisciplinary study that has permitted us to overcome these obstacles and better constrain the timing of collision at this sector of the orogen. Detailed photogeologic analysis of most of the Indus Basin using all bands (visible to thermal infrared) of ASTER satellite imagery, coupled with topical ground-truthing in the field, has allowed for both improved mapping of the macroscopic structure and improved resolution of key stratigraphic characteristics. Based upon our map, we present both isotopic and trace element geochemical data from various, carefully selected samples. First, the distribution of U-Pb dates for detrital zircons from quartzite cobbles within the oldest Indus Basin unit are comparable to those found in Indian passive margin units. Trace element geochemistry of mafic pebbles from throughout the older Indus Basin units appear to demonstrate derivation from the Shyok suture zone, situated north of the local Eurasian source area. However, several clasts are geochemically similar to ophiolitic material found within the Indus suture zone, implying sourcing from fragments of the Neo-Tethys ocean basin caught up in the suture or obducted onto the Indian passive margin prior to collision. 40Ar/39Ar cooling dates for detrital biotite from a sandstone unit intercalated with an upper Ypresian marine limestone (the youngest marine unit in the Indus Basin) are more consistent with an Indian plate source region than a Eurasian provenance. These results collectively point to an Early Eocene (upper Ypresian) minimum age for India-Eurasia collision in this sector of the orogenic system, consistent with conventional wisdom but seemingly inconsistent with suggestions of Oligocene-aged collision (e.g., Aitchison et al., 2007). Aitchison, J. C., J. R. Ali, and A. M. Davis (2007), When and where did India and Asia collide?, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B05423, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004706.

  20. Eurasian-Origin Gene Segments Contribute to the Transmissibility, Aerosol Release, and Morphology of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawala, Seema S.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Wang, Weijia; Santos, Celia P.; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindsley, William G.; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiological success of pandemic and epidemic influenza A viruses relies on the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplet (RD) transmission of influenza viruses requires efficient replication and release of infectious influenza particles into the air. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus originated by reassortment of a North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) virus with a Eurasian swine virus that contributed the neuraminidase (NA) and M gene segments. Both the TRS and Eurasian swine viruses caused sporadic infections in humans, but failed to spread from person-to-person, unlike the pH1N1 virus. We evaluated the pH1N1 and its precursor viruses in a ferret model to determine the contribution of different viral gene segments on the release of influenza virus particles into the air and on the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. We found that the Eurasian-origin gene segments contributed to efficient RD transmission of the pH1N1 virus likely by modulating the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air. All viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of infected ferrets, suggesting that factors other than viral replication are important for the release of influenza virus particles and transmission. Our studies demonstrate that the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air correlates with increased NA activity. Additionally, the pleomorphic phenotype of the pH1N1 virus is dependent upon the Eurasian-origin gene segments, suggesting a link between transmission and virus morphology. We have demonstrated that the viruses are released into exhaled air to varying degrees and a constellation of genes influences the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. PMID:22241979

  1. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

    2014-09-15

    Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. PMID:25066418

  2. Structure of the mitochondrial control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ketmaier, V; Bernardini, C

    2005-01-01

    In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven other species have a single location with tandem repeats in the right domain, while the spotted hyena (Hyaenidae) and the tiger (Felidae) have repeated sequences in both the right and left domains. To assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity of the Eurasian otter in Italy we sequenced two fragments of the gene and analyzed length polymorphisms of repeated sequences and heteroplasmy in 32 specimens. The study includes 23 museum specimens collected in northern, central, and southern Italy; most of these specimens are from extinct populations, while the southern Italian samples belong to the sole extant Italian population of the Eurasian otter. The study also includes all the captive-reared animals living in the colony "Centro Lontra, Caramanico Terme" (Pescara, central Italy). The colony is maintained for reintroduction of the species. We found a low level of genetic polymorphism; a single haplotype is dominant, but our data indicate the presence in central and southern Italy of two slightly divergent haplotypes. One haplotype belongs to an extinct population, the other is present in the single extant Italian population. Analyses of length polymorphisms and heteroplasmy indicate that the autochthonous Italian samples are characterized by a distinct array of repeated sequences from captive-reared animals. PMID:15731216

  3. Impact of Eurasian biomass burning emissions on the springtime lower-tropospheric ozone in North China and the rest of Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Thouret, V.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Strahan, S. E.; Damon, M.; Steenrod, S. D.; Strode, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Intensive biomass burning activities take place in Eurasia from April through September, severely degrading regional air quality. We examine the impact of Eurasian biomass burning on the springtime (April-May) lower-tropospheric (LT) ozone over Northeast Asia in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model driven by the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields from the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). We evaluate model-simulated ozone against the multi-year (1995-2012) aircraft ozone profiles over Beijing from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program and ozonesonde measurements at Japanese stations obtained from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC). The model-simulated large-scale temporal and vertical variability in ozone is similar to that in the MOZAIC observations, but the model often underestimates the magnitude of the observed ozone enhancements in the LT during April-May. By conducting model sensitivity simulations, we quantify and contrast the impacts of Eurasian biomass burning on the springtime LT ozone over Northeast Asia in the years with and without active biomass burning activities, respectively. Extremely high Eurasian biomass burning emissions in combination with stronger northward transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions resulted in very large ozone enhancements in the LT over Northeast Asia in May 2003. We find that the impact of Eurasian biomass burning emissions on the springtime LT ozone in Beijing can be comparable to, or even higher than that of Chinese anthropogenic emissions. These results have important implications for predicting the air quality of the North China Plain as well as understanding the interannual variability of springtime tropospheric ozone in Northeast Asia.

  4. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) in three different scenarios of heavy metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Espn, Silvia; Martnez-Lpez, Emma; Len-Ortega, Mario; Martnez, Jos Enrique; Garca-Fernndez, Antonio Juan

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of the present study is the assessment of oxidative stress related to metals in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) from three areas (agricultural and rural area, industrial area, and mining area) of Murcia, Southern Spain. Mean blood metal concentrations were Cd=0.070.21, Pb=3.275.21, Cu=10.624.77, Zn=311.4767.14, Hg=2.323.83 ?g/dl wet weight. Although individuals from the mining area had significant higher Pb and Hg concentrations, and significant lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in red blood cells (RBC); the lack of differences in oxidative damage to membrane lipids (TBARS) among areas suggests that the antioxidant capacity of the different populations is able to deal with oxidant species and maintain TBARS levels in the same amount. Despite the low levels of metals, several oxidative stress biomarkers were correlated with metal concentrations. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals cause effects on the antioxidant system in Eagle owls. Blood Cd concentrations greater than 0.3 ?g/dl produced an inhibition in GPx (32%) and CAT (26%) activity in RBC. However, Cd concentrations higher than 0.02 ?g/dl were enough to produce an inhibition of these enzymes. Regarding Pb levels, blood concentrations above 2 ?g/dl produced an inhibition of 8% and 10.5% in GPx and CAT activities, respectively, in RBC. A depletion of 16% and 4% in tGSH levels was associated with Pb concentrations higher than 15 and 3 ?g/dl, respectively, in individuals from the ancient mine site. In addition, Pb concentrations above 2 and 10 ?g/dl produced a TBARS induction of 10% and 28%, respectively, in individuals from both the industrial and the mining area. Finally, Hg concentrations greater than 3 and 10 ?g/dl resulted in a TBARS induction of 102% and 190%, respectively, in Eurasian eagle owls from the industrial area. Our findings show that Pb may produce effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in Strigiformes at lower concentrations than those typically accepted for considering physiological effects in Falconiformes (20 g/dl in blood). In addition, we provide new data on Hg and Cd concentrations related to effects in the antioxidant system. PMID:24721131

  5. Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: The eurasian collared-dove streptopelia decaocto in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bled, F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the spread direction consistent with empirical observations. Site persistence probability exhibits a quadratic response to density. We also succeeded at detecting differences in the relationship between density and initial colonization vs. recolonization probabilities. We provide a map of sites that may be colonized in the future as an example of possible practical application of our work. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Variation in corticosterone response and corticosteroid binding-globulin during different breeding sub-stages in Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Sun, Yanfeng; Wu, Junzhe; Zhang, Xiaorui; Li, Juyong; Yao, Yao; Liu, Xuelu; Li, Dongming; Wu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In free-living animals, it has been well demonstrated that the intensity of the adrenocortical response to acute restraint stress can vary with reproductive investment during breeding. The parental care hypothesis posits that the stress response is negatively correlated with parental investment in avian species. To further test this hypothesis, we examined changes in both free and total corticosterone (CORT) at baseline and stress-induced levels (maximal CORT) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) capacities, in both sexes of a multi-brooded Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus), during the nest building, the early nestling, the later egg-laying, and the later nestling stages. Our results showed Eurasian tree sparrows did not exhibit any differences between sexes in CORT and CBG levels during the egg-laying or nestling stages. Both sexes had lowered CBG capacities and females exhibited lower maximal CORT during the early compared to later nestling stages. In addition, both sexes had lower maximal free CORT levels during the nest building stage than those of the early nestling stages, and males expressed higher total maximal CORT levels than females during nest building stage. The variation in CORT response and CBG levels during different breeding sub-stages in Eurasian tree sparrow may correlate with their energetic situations and parental investments. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:75-83, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26627679

  7. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian wild birds: a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nicola S; Verhagen, Josanne H; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Russell, Colin A; Lexmond, Pascal; Westgeest, Kim B; Bestebroer, Theo M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Ransier, Amy; Fedorova, Nadia B; Stockwell, Timothy B; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Olsen, Bjrn; Smith, Gavin; Bahl, Justin; Wentworth, David E; Waldenstrm, Jonas; Fouchier, Ron A M; de Graaf, Miranda

    2015-08-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences collected as part of an intensive long-term Eurasian wild bird surveillance study, and combined this genetic data with temporal and spatial information to explore the virus evolutionary dynamics. Frequent reassortment and co-circulating lineages were observed for all eight genomic RNA segments over time. There was no apparent species-specific effect on the diversity of the avian IAVs. There was a spatial and temporal relationship between the Eurasian sequences and significant viral migration of avian IAVs from West Eurasia towards Central Eurasia. The observed viral migration patterns differed between segments. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges faced when analysing these surveillance and sequence data, and the caveats to be borne in mind when drawing conclusions from the apparent results of such analyses. PMID:25904147

  8. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian wild birds: a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nicola S.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Russell, Colin A.; Lexmond, Pascal; Westgeest, Kim B.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Ransier, Amy; Fedorova, Nadia B.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Olsen, Björn; Smith, Gavin; Bahl, Justin; Wentworth, David E.; Waldenström, Jonas; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences collected as part of an intensive long-term Eurasian wild bird surveillance study, and combined this genetic data with temporal and spatial information to explore the virus evolutionary dynamics. Frequent reassortment and co-circulating lineages were observed for all eight genomic RNA segments over time. There was no apparent species-specific effect on the diversity of the avian IAVs. There was a spatial and temporal relationship between the Eurasian sequences and significant viral migration of avian IAVs from West Eurasia towards Central Eurasia. The observed viral migration patterns differed between segments. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges faced when analysing these surveillance and sequence data, and the caveats to be borne in mind when drawing conclusions from the apparent results of such analyses. PMID:25904147

  9. Genetic composition of communal roosts of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica) inferred from non-invasive samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Young; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Choe, Jae Chun

    2012-11-01

    Many animal species form communal roosts in which they aggregate and sleep together. Several benefits of communal roost have been suggested, but due to lack of data on relatedness among group members, it is unknown whether these benefits can be amplified by the formation of kin-based communal roosts. We investigate the genetic composition of two winter roosts of Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica), using microsatellite markers on non-invasive samples. Using permutation tests by reshuffling the alleles presented in the roosts, we determined that individuals in the communal roosts of magpies were not more related than expected by chance, suggesting that kinship may not be a driving force for the formation of communal roosts in magpies. However, the pairwise relatedness and estimated relationship based on a maximum likelihood approach revealed that the roosts involve both kin and non-kin. Relatedness coefficients varied widely within a roost, indicating that family subgroups form a small proportion of the total number of birds in a roost. Our results suggest that ecological benefits of communal roost in animals are sufficient for the evolution of communal roosts without any involvement of kinship. PMID:23106562

  10. Effect of incubation on bacterial communities of eggshells in a temperate bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica).

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Young; Kim, Mincheol; Jablonski, Piotr G; Choe, Jae Chun; Lee, Sang-im

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica). We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent) bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce. PMID:25089821

  11. Characterisation of Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Toms, Andr; Thode, Ftima Regina P B; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2015-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a specimen of the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus held for rehabilitation and reintroduction into the wild in a centre for research and recovery of wild animals in Quinta de Marim, Olho, Portugal. Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. has subspherical to ovoidal ocysts, measuring on average 26.4נ23.4?m, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1?m thick. Micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 16.0נ10.9m. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is prominent and rounded. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered spherules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. The morphological and morphometric data for the new species were compared with those for species parasitising birds of the Muscicapidae, Turdidae, Timaliidae, Troglodytidae and Cinclidae, which are considered phylogenetically close. The original histograms of Isospora turdi Schwalbach, 1959 were redrawn for comparison with I. lusitanensis n. sp. and a linear regression of width against length of the ocysts is presented for characterisation. This is the first isosporoid coccidian described from T. merula in mainland Portugal. PMID:26358076

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in resident Eurasian Tree Sparrow from Shanghai: geographical distribution and implication for potential sources.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei-biao; Huang, Kai; Zhao, Jian-hua; Zhang, Zheng; Liang, Si; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuang-fei

    2015-05-01

    An investigation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) samples (n=37) collected from different land use areas in Shanghai provided information about the levels, compositional patterns, geographical distribution, potential sources of PBDEs and the evaluation of contamination status in Shanghai. The concentrations of BDE 209 and Sum-PBDEs were within the range of 8.20-292.0 ng g(-1) lw (median: 47.0 ng g(-1) lw) and 33.16-375.63 ng g(-1) lw (median: 78.7 ng g(-1) lw), respectively. As the predominant individual congener, BDE 209 was detected in all samples with a mean percentage of 62.8%, followed by BDE 47, 99 and 100 sequentially. The geographical distribution of PBDEs in ETS muscles followed the order below: landfill>urban>industrial parks>suburban>rural>remote, indicating that Shanghai Laogang Municipal Landfill was an important emission source of PBDEs in Shanghai, and also the PBDE levels were in association with urbanization and industrialization. Compared with other regions, contamination status in Shanghai was relatively good with the exception of these high concentration areas. There was significant correlation (r(2)=0.89, P<0.01) between PBDEs concentrations in soil and ETS, indicating ETS could be used as a useful biomonitoring tool for PBDEs in Shanghai. PMID:25665899

  13. Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species

    PubMed Central

    Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

  14. Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.

    PubMed

    Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

  15. Progress in Oral Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Its Main Wildlife Reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Beltrn-Beck, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaqun; de la Fuente, Jos; Gortzar, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar. PMID:22848869

  16. Distribution of Eurasian otter biliary parasites, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metorchis albidus (Family Opisthorchiidae), in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Sherrard-Smith, E; Cable, J; Chadwick, E A

    2009-08-01

    Gall bladders from 273 otter carcasses, collected throughout England and Wales, were screened to assess the status of gall bladder parasites in the Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra. The digenean Pseudamphistomum truncatum had previously been found in UK otters collected between 2000 and 2007. The parasite was established in Somerset and Dorset but its distribution elsewhere in the UK was largely unknown. In the current study, P. truncatum was also found to be abundant in south Wales, with occasional cases elsewhere, but appears to be absent from the north of England. Overall, 11.7% of otters were infected with 1-238 P. truncatum. A second digenean, Metorchis albidus, previously unreported in British otters, was found in the biliary system of 6.6% of otters. M. albidus appears well established in Suffolk, Norfolk and north Essex but was recorded elsewhere rarely. Both parasites are associated with pathological damage to the otter gall bladder. The recent discovery of these two non-native parasites provides a unique opportunity to assess their impact on native British fauna. PMID:19523253

  17. Socio-ecological features other than sex affect habitat selection in the socially obligate monogamous Eurasian beaver.

    PubMed

    Steyaert, Sam M J G; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Habitat selection is a context-dependent mechanism, in which both the internal state as well as external factors affect the behavior and decisions of an individual. This is well known for polygamous mammals, which are typically sexually dimorphic, and often express great variability in behavior and habitat selection between individuals as well between the sexes. Among monogamous mammals, however, variability in habitat selection should be explained by group characteristics and the presence of offspring rather than by sex. We evaluated this hypothesis in a socially monogamous rodent, the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), in a saturated Norwegian population. For the first time in this species we applied GPS tracking devices (N = 22 adult beavers, in 15 territories, 2009-2013), and used resource selection functions (i) to document population-wide habitat selection and the importance of 'territory' therein, and (ii) to evaluate which socio-ecological factors explained potential individual differences in habitat selection. We found that variation in habitat selection was stronger between territories than between years or individuals nested by territory. We identified that family size and the presence of kits, but not sex, explained individual variation in habitat selection. Adults with kits and/or larger families tended to exhibit low risk-taking behavior (avoiding human-related variables such as roads, buildings, and agricultural land), and stayed close to their main lodge (parental care). Our results show that habitat selection is a context-dependent mechanism even in a species which expresses very little behavioral and morphological dimorphism. PMID:26260166

  18. Sustainably harvesting a large carnivore? Development of Eurasian lynx populations in Norway during 160 years of shifting policy.

    PubMed

    Linnell, John D C; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multi-use landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversial and technically challenging. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and over optimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation. PMID:20213233

  19. The Eurasian genes of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus: an integrative perspective on their conveyance to and assimilation in America.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Dany

    2016-03-01

    The formation of pandemic influenza genotypes varied phylogeographically and ecophylogenetically throughout their fully recognized recent 100-years natural history, involving consistently avian plus human genes, and at times swine genes. The last four traceable pandemic strains (PSs) included two American H1N1 viruses with genomes predominantly containing swine genes, of which at least one genome originated from both America and Eurasia; and two non-H1N1 Asian viruses with genomes entirely originating from Asia, and having no swine genes. This study explores whether there is a particular interhemispheric system underlying such divergence, and its properties. Unlike the assumption that transport of live pigs from Eurasia to America facilitated the formation of the 2009 H1N1 PS in America, it is suggested that conveyance of Eurasian swine genes to America, and their assimilation therein, took place through a distinct, perfectly natural ecophylogenetic machinery. The latter conjunctively involves, foremost, a native Asian duck-swine-man interface, a Holarctic chain of certain migratory Anas ducks, a native American turkey-swine-man interface, and two specific clades of American influenza A viruses. Likewise, the described machinery could have readily given rise to the 1918 H1N1, and, presumably, earlier American PSs, altogether constituting private cases of a much broader, self-sustained, permanent phylogeographic system. PMID:25058514

  20. Effect of Incubation on Bacterial Communities of Eggshells in a Temperate Bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Young; Kim, Mincheol; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Choe, Jae Chun; Lee, Sang-im

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica). We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent) bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce. PMID:25089821

  1. Predicting average wintertime wind and wave conditions in the North Atlantic sector from Eurasian snow cover in October

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, Swen

    2014-04-01

    The present study assesses the lead-lag teleconnection between Eurasian snow cover in October and the December-to-February mean boreal winter climate with respect to the predictability of 10 m wind speed and significant wave heights in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. Lead-lag correlations exceeding a magnitude of 0.8 are found for the short time period of 1997/98-2012/13 (n = 16) for which daily satellite-sensed snow cover data is available to date. The respective cross-validated hindcast skill obtained from using linear regression as a statistical forecasting technique is similarly large in magnitude. When using a longer but degraded time series of weekly snow cover data for calculating the predictor variable (1979/80-2011/12, n = 34), hindcast skill decreases but yet remains significant over a large fraction of the study area. In addition, Monte-Carlo field significance tests reveal that the patterns of skill are globally significant. The proposed method might be used to make forecast decisions for wind and wave energy generation, seafaring, fishery and offshore drilling. To exemplify its potential suitability for the latter sector, it is additionally applied to DJF frequencies of significant wave heights exceeding 2 m, a threshold value above which mooring conditions at oil platforms are no longer optimal.

  2. DUPAL anomaly in the Sea of Japan: Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic variations at the eastern Eurasian continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic rocks from the eastern Eurasian plate margin (southwestern Japan, the Sea of Japan, and northeastern China) show enriched (EMI) component signatures. Volcanic rocks from the Ulreung and Dog Islands in the Sea of Japan show typical DUPAL anomaly characteristics with extremely high ??208/204 Pb (up to 143) and enriched Nd and Sr isotopic compositions (??{lunate}Nd = -3 to -5, 87Sr 86Sr = ~0.705). The ??208/204 Pb values are similar to those associated with the DUPAL anomaly (up to 140) in the southern hemisphere. Because the EMI characteristics of basalts from the Sea of Japan are more extreme than those of southwestern Japan and inland China basalts, we propose that old mantle lithosphere was metasomatized early (prior to the Proterozoic) with subduction-related fluids (not present subduction system) so that it has been slightly enriched in incompatible elements and has had a high Th/U for a long time. The results of this study support the idea that the old subcontinental mantle lithosphere is the source for EMI of oceanic basalts, and that EMI does not need to be stored at the core/ mantle boundary layer for a long time. Dredged samples from seamounts and knolls from the Yamato Basin Ridge in the Sea of Japan show similar isotopic characteristics to basalts from the Mariana arc, supporting the idea that the Yamato Basin Ridge is a spreading center causing separation of the northeast Japan Arc from Eurasia. ?? 1991.

  3. Flowering Time Diversification and Dispersal in Central Eurasian Wild Wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss.: Genealogical and Ecological Framework

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi

    2008-01-01

    Timing of flowering is a reproductive trait that has significant impact on fitness in plants. In contrast to recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of floral transition, few empirical studies have addressed questions concerning population processes of flowering time diversification within species. We analyzed chloroplast DNA genealogical structure of flowering time variation in central Eurasian wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. using 200 accessions that represent the entire species range. Flowering time measured as days from germination to flowering varied from 144.0 to 190.0 days (average 161.3 days) among accessions in a common garden/greenhouse experiment. Subsequent genealogical and statistical analyses showed that (1) there exist significant longitudinal and latitudinal clines in flowering time at the species level, (2) the early-flowering phenotype evolved in two intraspecific lineages, (3) in Asia, winter temperature was an environmental factor that affected the longitudinal clinal pattern of flowering time variation, and (4) in Transcaucasus-Middle East, some latitudinal factors affected the geographic pattern of flowering time variation. On the basis of palaeoclimatic, biogeographic, and genetic evidence, the northern part of current species' range [which was within the temperate desert vegetation (TDV) zone at the Last Glacial Maximum] is hypothesized to have harbored species refugia. Postglacial southward dispersal from the TDV zone seems to have been driven by lineages that evolved short-flowering-time phenotypes through different genetic mechanisms in Transcaucasus-Middle East and Asia. PMID:18769547

  4. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  5. Topographic Constraints on Deviatoric Stress Field in the Indo-Eurasian Collision Region: Seismo-Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Reddy, C. D.; Prajapati, Sanjay K.

    2013-04-01

    The deviatoric stress field are computed from the inversion of Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) for the Indo-Eurasian plate collision region including the Himalaya and the Tibet Plateau. The resulting stress pattern in combination with stress and strain rates obtained by inverting, respectively, the focal mechanism solution of large earthquakes and GPS derived plate motions are used to study the nature of the present-day deformations. A narrow belt bordering the Himalayan collision zone from the south is characterized by strong compressive stresses. The variations in stress pattern along this belt coincide with arc-normal ridges extending into the Himalaya and are able to explain arc-parallel segmentation of seismicity. Gravitational collapse seems to play an important role in the southeastern Tibet Plateau. Depth sensitivity of the seismic derived stresses and GPS derived surface strain rates coupled with evidence of arcuate shaped high electrical conductivity favour strong ductile flow around the Eastern Himalaya Syntaxis (EHS) at mid-crustal depth. The deflection of crustal flow indicted by the viscous resistance offered by the rigid Sichuan basin adds to the traction stresses to cause clockwise rotation of the block around EHS.

  6. Genetic diversity of invasive species in the Great Lakes versus their Eurasian source populations: insights for risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Carol A; Brown, Joshua E; Neilson, Matthew E; Tumeo, Mark A

    2005-08-01

    Combining DNA variation data and risk assessment procedures offers important diagnostic and monitoring tools for evaluating the relative success of exotic species invasions. Risk assessment may allow us to understand how the numbers of founding individuals, genetic variants, population sources, and introduction events affect successful establishment and spread. This is particularly important in habitats that are "hotbeds" for invasive species--such as the North American Great Lakes. This study compares genetic variability and its application to risk assessment within and among three Eurasian groups and five species that successfully invaded the Great Lakes during the mid 1980s through early 1990s; including zebra and quagga mussels, round and tubenose gobies, and the ruffe. DNA sequences are compared from exotic and native populations in order to evaluate the role of genetic diversity in invasions. Close relatives are also examined, since they often invade in concert and several are saline tolerant and are likely to spread to North American estuaries. Results show that very high genetic diversity characterizes the invasions of all five species, indicating that they were founded by very large numbers of propagules and underwent no founder effects. Genetic evidence points to multiple invasion sources for both dreissenid and goby species, which appears related to especially rapid spread and widespread colonization success in a variety of habitats. In contrast, results show that the ruffe population in the Great Lakes originated from a single founding population source from the Elbe River drainage. Both the Great Lakes and the Elbe River populations of ruffe have similar genetic diversity levels--showing no founder effect, as in the other invasive species. In conclusion, high genetic variability, large numbers of founders, and multiple founding sources likely significantly contribute to the risk of an exotic species introduction's success and persistence. PMID:16268948

  7. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    PubMed

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Kchenhoff, Helmut; Andrn, Henrik; Bufka, Lud?k; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 497'N in central Europe to 7000'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

  8. The influence of climate and hydrological variables on opposite anomaly in active layer thickness between Eurasian and North American watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Walsh, J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Sherstiukov, A. B.; Iijima, Y.; Ohata, T.

    2012-07-01

    This study not only examined the spatiotemporal variations of permafrost active layer thickness (ALT) during 1948-2006 over the terrestrial Arctic regions experiencing climate changes, but also identified the associated drivers based on observational data and a simulation conducted by a land surface model (CHANGE). The focus on the ALT extends previous studies that have emphasized ground temperatures in permafrost regions. The Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Yukon, and Mackenzie watersheds are foci of the study. Time series of ALT in Eurasian watersheds showed generally increasing trends, while ALT in North American watersheds showed decreases. An opposition of ALT variations implicated with climate and hydrological variables was most significant when the Arctic air temperature entered into a warming phase. The warming temperatures were not simply expressed to increases in ALT. Since 1990 when the warming increased, the forcing of the ALT by the higher Annual Thawing Index in the Mackenzie and Yukon Basins was offset by the combined effects of less insulation caused by thinner snow depth and drier soil during summer. In contrast, the increasing Annual Thawing Index together with thicker snow depth and higher summer soil moisture in the Lena contributed to the increase in ALT. The results imply that the soil thermal and moisture regimes formed in the pre-thaw season(s) provide memory that manifests itself during the summer. While it is widely believed that ALT will increase with global warming, this hypothesis may need modification because the ALT also shows responses to variations in snow depth and soil moisture that can over-ride the effect of air temperature. The dependence of the hydrological variables driven by the atmosphere further increases the uncertainty in future changes of the permafrost active layer.

  9. Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R.; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7′N in central Europe to 70°00′N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day–night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian flying squirrel Pteromys volans (Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae) and revision of rodent phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian flying squirrel Pteromys volans (Rodentia, Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae) was sequenced and characterized in detail. The entire mitochondrial genome of P. volans consisted of 16,513 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and two non-coding regions. Its gene arrangement pattern was consistent with the mammalian ground pattern. The overall base composition and AT contents were similar to those of other rodent mitochondrial genomes. The light-strand origin generally identified between tRNA ( Asn ) and tRNA ( Cys ) consisted of a secondary structure with an 11-bp stem and an 11-bp loop. The large control region was constructed of three characteristic domains, ETAS, CD, and CSB without any repeat sequences. Each domain contained ETAS1, subsequences A, B, and C, and CSB1, respectively. In order to examine phylogenetic contentious issues of the monophyly of rodents and phylogenetic relationships among five rodent suborders, here, phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequence data of the 35 rodent and 3 lagomorph mitochondrial genomes were performed using the Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood method. The result strongly supported the rodent monophyly with high node confidence values (BP 100 % in ML and BPP 1.00 in BI) and also monophylies of four rodent suborders (BP 85-100 % in ML and BPP 1.00 in BI), except for Anomalumorpha in which only one species was examined here. Also, phylogenetic relationships among the five rodent suborders were suggested and discussed in detail. PMID:23114915

  11. Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37–0.47 and 0.14–0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

  12. Prevalence, genetics, and transmissibility in ferrets of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Qiao, Chuanling; He, Xijun; Zhou, Hong; Sun, Yu; Yin, Hang; Meng, Shasha; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Qianyi; Kong, Huihui; Gu, Chunyang; Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-12

    Pigs are important intermediate hosts for generating novel influenza viruses. The Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have circulated in pigs since 1979, and human cases associated with EAH1N1 SIVs have been reported in several countries. However, the biologic properties of EAH1N1 SIVs are largely unknown. Here, we performed extensive influenza surveillance in pigs in China and isolated 228 influenza viruses from 36,417 pigs. We found that 139 of the 228 strains from pigs in 10 provinces in China belong to the EAH1N1 lineage. These viruses formed five genotypes, with two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 and A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013, both of which are antigenically and genetically distinct from the current human H1N1 viruses. Importantly, the EAH1N1 SIVs preferentially bound to human-type receptors, and 9 of the 10 tested viruses transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. We found that 3.6% of children (≤10 y old), 0% of adults, and 13.4% of elderly adults (≥60 y old) had neutralization antibodies (titers ≥40 in children and ≥80 in adults) against the EAH1N1 A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus, but none of them had such neutralization antibodies against the EAH1N1 A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013 virus. Our study shows the potential of EAH1N1 SIVs to transmit efficiently in humans and suggests that immediate action is needed to prevent the efficient transmission of EAH1N1 SIVs to humans. PMID:26711995

  13. Use of water exchange information to improve chemical control of eurasian watermilfoil in Pacific Northwest rivers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Getsinger, K.D.; Sisneros, D.; Tumer, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The submersed plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), continues to adversely impact areas in the high water exchange environment of the Columbia River system. Studies designed to characterize water movement and to evaluate a slow release matrix device (SRMD) for improving the chemical control of that target plant were conducted in the Pend Oreille and Columbia Rivers, Washington, in August 1990. A series of rhodamine WT dye treatments were applied (using conventional, liquid application techniques) to 4-ha plots representing milfoil-dominated riverine and cove sites to estimate potential herbicide contact time. In addition, dye-impregnated SRMDs were deployed in 0.4-ha plots and evaluated for their potential as slow-release herbicide carriers. Dye dissipation data were used to calculate water-exchange half-lives in plots treated with conventional application techniques. Mean half-lives ranged from 8.8 to 12.2 hr in riverine plots, to 36.3 hr in a plot situated in a protected embayment. Half-lives from these 4-ha plots were two to four times longer than half-lives measured in smaller plots (0.4 ha) from previous dye studies conducted in similar locations. In most cases, dye release rates from SRMDs provided water concentrations near the target level of 10 micrograms/L through 7 days after deployment (DAD). Dye concentrations peaked at 105 to 130 micrograms/L at 2 DAD in Plot I (main channel plot) and 4.5 to 82 micrograms/L at I DAD in Plot 2 (side channel plot).

  14. High genetic diversity declines towards the geographic range periphery of Adonis vernalis, a Eurasian dry grassland plant.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H; Wagner, V; Danihelka, J; Ruprecht, E; Snchez-Gmez, P; Seifert, M; Hensen, I

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity is important for species' fitness and evolutionary processes but our knowledge on how it varies across a species' distribution range is limited. The abundant centre hypothesis (ACH) predicts that populations become smaller and more isolated towards the geographic range periphery - a pattern that in turn should be associated with decreasing genetic diversity and increasing genetic differentiation. We tested this hypothesis in Adonis vernalis, a dry grassland plant with an extensive Eurasian distribution. Its life-history traits and distribution characteristics suggest a low genetic diversity that decreases and a high genetic differentiation that increases towards the range edge. We analysed AFLP fingerprints in 28 populations along a 4698-km transect from the geographic range core in Russia to the western range periphery in Central and Western Europe. Contrary to our expectation, our analysis revealed high genetic diversity (range of proportion of polymorphic bands = 56-81%, He = 0.168-0.238) and low genetic differentiation across populations (?(ST) = 0.18). However, in congruence with the genetic predictions of the ACH, genetic diversity decreased and genetic differentiation increased towards the range periphery. Spanish populations were genetically distinct, suggesting a divergent post-glacial history in this region. The high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in the remaining A. vernalis populations is surprising given the species' life-history traits and points to the possibility that the species has been widely distributed in the studied region or that it has migrated from a diverse source in an East-West direction, in the past. PMID:26122089

  15. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin. PMID:22363811

  16. Genomic analyses detect Eurasian-lineage H10 and additional H14 influenza A viruses recovered from waterfowl in the Central United States

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Anthony C; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Bowman, Andrew S; Killian, Mary L; Wentworth, David E; Slemons, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    The accurate and timely characterization of influenza A viruses (IAV) from natural reservoirs is essential for responses to animal and public health threats. Differences between antigenic and genetic subtyping results for 161 IAV isolates recovered from migratory birds in the central United States during 2010–2011 delayed the recognition of four isolates of interest. Genomic sequencing identified the first reported Eurasian-origin H10 subtype in North America and three additional H14 isolates showing divergence from previously reported H14 isolates. Genomic analyses revealed additional diversity among IAV isolates not detected by antigenic subtyping and provided further insight into interhemispheric spread of avian-origin IAVs. PMID:24698181

  17. Evaluation of DNA damage in Eurasian marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) by comet assay for determination of possible pollution in the different lakes in central Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Ci?erci, ?brahim Hakki; Konuk, Muhsin

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, adult Eurasian marsh frogs, Pelophylax ridibundus, and water samples were collected from a reference lake and three water bodies in central Anatolia, Turkey, to evaluate the water for chemical pollutants and possible effects of pollutants on the DNA of frog erythrocytes by using a comet assay. The results for DNA damage parameters of the comet assay (total comet length, tail intensity, and olive tail moment) and their statistical analysis by ANOVA demonstrated that P. ridibundus and the comet assay together represent an useful approach for the early detection of polluted water bodies. PMID:23563591

  18. Organohalogen exposure in a Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) population from Southeastern Spain: temporal-spatial trends and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Ramrez, P; Martnez-Lpez, E; Garca-Fernndez, A J; Zweers, A J; van den Brink, N W

    2012-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) were analysed in 58 Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) unhatched eggs collected between 2004 and 2009 in Southeastern Spain. Levels of p,p'-DDE were found to be higher than in eggs laid by other European owls in the same decade, probably due to the greater agricultural activity in our study area. Compared to other European raptors, exposure to PCBs can be considered intermediate, but low to PBDEs. Land use differences and prey availability were the rationale to divide the study area in two subareas in further assessments. Temporal trends of HCB, p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH, PCBs and PBDEs were significantly different in each subarea, generally increasing over time in the Southern but decreasing or remaining stable in the Northern. On the contrary, levels of cyclodienes tended to decrease in both subareas. Dietary shifts with a greater amount of birds are suggested as a cause for increasing organochlorine loads in raptors. This may explain the increasing trend in the Southern territories. However, due to the proximity of most of these nests to Cartagena, an important industrial city, increasing environmental pollution cannot be ruled out. Although average levels of the compounds analysed are below threshold levels, 17% of the samples exceeded 400 pg g(-1)ww (wet weight), the LOAEC for Total TEQs. Moreover, a negative correlation between TEQ concentrations and the metabolizable fraction of PCBs (F(prob)=0.0018) was found when TEQs values were above 10 pg g(-1)ww. This could be indicative of hepatic enzymes induction in the birds exposed at higher concentrations, which are mainly breeding in the Southern subarea. These females could be suffering from Ah-receptor-related toxic effects, some of which have been related to altered bird reproduction. Finally, a significant negative correlation between p,p'-DDE levels and eggshell thickness (r=-0.469, p<0.001) was observed, with about 17% of eggshell thinning for eggs with p,p'-DDE levels above 100 ?g g(-1)lw. The persistence of this degree of thinning over a period of time has been related to population declines in other raptor species. PMID:22503462

  19. Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores.

  20. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with specificity being 100% (95%CI 79.2–100%). For laparoscopy alone sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 34.2–100%), with specificity also being 100% (95% CI 77.2–100%). Further immunoblotting, PCR and histopathological examination revealed one individual positive for E. multilocularis, whilst the other individual was positive for Taenia martis. PMID:26167927

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Risn; Del Pozo, Jorge; Gottstein, Bruno; Girling, Simon; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank; Pizzi, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5-90.6%), with specificity being 100% (95%CI 79.2-100%). For laparoscopy alone sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 34.2-100%), with specificity also being 100% (95% CI 77.2-100%). Further immunoblotting, PCR and histopathological examination revealed one individual positive for E. multilocularis, whilst the other individual was positive for Taenia martis. PMID:26167927

  2. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  3. Application of a west Eurasian-specific filter for quasi-median network analysis: Sharpening the blade for mtDNA error detection

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Bettina; Rck, Alexander; Huber, Gabriela; Krmer, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M.; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    The application of quasi-median networks provides an effective tool to check the quality of mtDNA data. Filtering of highly recurrent mutations prior to network analysis is required to simplify the data set and reduce the complexity of the network. The phylogenetic background determines those mutations that need to be filtered. While the traditional EMPOPspeedy filter was based on the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny, haplogroup-specific filters can more effectively highlight potential errors in data of the respective (sub)-continental region. In this study we demonstrate the performance of a new, west Eurasian filter EMPOPspeedyWE for the fine-tuned examination of data sets belonging to macrohaplogroup N that constitutes the main portion of mtDNA lineages in Europe. The effects on the resulting network of different database sizes, high-quality and flawed data, as well as the examination of a phylogenetically distant data set, are presented by examples. The analyses are based on a west Eurasian etalon data set that was carefully compiled from more than 3500 control region sequences for network purposes. Both, etalon data and the new filter file, are provided through the EMPOP database (www.empop.org). PMID:21067984

  4. The influence of climate and hydrological variables on opposite anomaly in active-layer thickness between Eurasian and North American watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Walsh, J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Sherstiukov, A. B.; Iijima, Y.; Ohata, T.

    2013-04-01

    This study not only examined the spatiotemporal variations of active-layer thickness (ALT) in permafrost regions during 1948-2006 over the terrestrial Arctic regions experiencing climate changes, but also identified the associated drivers based on observational data and a simulation conducted by a land surface model (CHANGE). The focus on the ALT extends previous studies that have emphasized ground temperatures in permafrost regions. The Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Yukon, and Mackenzie watersheds are foci of the study. Time series of ALT in Eurasian watersheds showed generally increasing trends, while the increase in ALT in North American watersheds was not significant. However, ALT in the North American watersheds has been negatively anomalous since 1990 when the Arctic air temperature entered into a warming phase. The warming temperatures were not simply expressed to increases in ALT. Since 1990 when the warming increased, the forcing of the ALT by the higher annual thawing index (ATI) in the Mackenzie and Yukon basins has been offset by the combined effects of less insulation caused by thinner snow depth and drier soil during summer. In contrast, the increasing ATI together with thicker snow depth and higher summer soil moisture in the Lena contributed to the increase in ALT. The results imply that the soil thermal and moisture regimes formed in the pre-thaw season(s) provide memory that manifests itself during the summer. The different ALT anomalies between Eurasian and North American watersheds highlight increased importance of the variability of hydrological variables.

  5. Helena, the hidden beauty: Resolving the most common West Eurasian mtDNA control region haplotype by massively parallel sequencing an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Iuvaro, Alessandra; Strobl, Christina; Nagl, Simone; Huber, Gabriela; Pelotti, Susi; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Parson, Walther

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial (mt)DNA is a powerful tool in forensic genetics when nuclear markers fail to give results or maternal relatedness is investigated. The mtDNA control region (CR) contains highly condensed variation and is therefore routinely typed. Some samples exhibit an identical haplotype in this restricted range. Thus, they convey only weak evidence in forensic queries and limited phylogenetic information. However, a CR match does not imply that also the mtDNA coding regions are identical or samples belong to the same phylogenetic lineage. This is especially the case for the most frequent West Eurasian CR haplotype 263G 315.1C 16519C, which is observed in various clades within haplogroup H and occurs at a frequency of 3-4% in many European populations. In this study, we investigated the power of massively parallel complete mtGenome sequencing in 29 Italian samples displaying the most common West Eurasian CR haplotype - and found an unexpected high diversity. Twenty-eight different haplotypes falling into 19 described sub-clades of haplogroup H were revealed in the samples with identical CR sequences. This study demonstrates the benefit of complete mtGenome sequencing for forensic applications to enforce maximum discrimination, more comprehensive heteroplasmy detection, as well as highest phylogenetic resolution. PMID:25303789

  6. Influence of the Eurasian snow on the negative North Atlantic Oscillation in subseasonal forecasts of the cold winter 2009/2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsolini, Y. J.; Senan, R.; Vitart, F.; Balsamo, G.; Weisheimer, A.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.

    2015-11-01

    The winter 2009/2010 was remarkably cold and snowy over North America and across Eurasia, from Europe to the Far East, coinciding with a pronounced negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While previous studies have investigated the origin and persistence of this anomalously negative NAO phase, we have re-assessed the role that the Eurasian snowpack could have played in contributing to its maintenance. Many observational and model studies have indicated that the autumn Eurasian snow cover influences circulation patterns over high northern latitudes. To investigate that role, we have performed a suite of forecasts with the coupled ocean-atmosphere ensemble prediction system from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Pairs of 2-month ensemble forecasts with either realistic or else randomized snow initial conditions are used to demonstrate how an anomalously thick snowpack leads to an initial cooling over the continental land masses of Eurasia and, within 2 weeks, to the anomalies that are characteristic of a negative NAO. It is also associated with enhanced vertical wave propagation into the stratosphere and deceleration of the polar night jet. The latter then exerts a downward influence into the troposphere maximizing in the North Atlantic region, which establishes itself within 2 weeks. We compare the forecasted NAO index in our simulations with those from several operational forecasts of the winter 2009/2010 made at the ECWMF, and highlight the importance of relatively high horizontal resolution.

  7. A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Godfray, H Charles J; Donnelly, Christl A; Kao, Rowland R; Macdonald, David W; McDonald, Robbie A; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L N; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B; McLean, Angela R

    2013-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material. PMID:23926157

  8. A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H. Charles J.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Kao, Rowland R.; Macdonald, David W.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L. N.; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B.; McLean, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material. PMID:23926157

  9. Combined Analysis of Land Cover Change and NDVI Trends in the Northern Eurasian Grain Belt and the Aral Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. K.; Henebry, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Regional environmental change can be assessed using remote sensing in two ways: by looking for trends in image time series in terms of spectral indices, like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), or through post-classification change analysis to identify land cover change (LCC). Here we demonstrate the efficacy of combined trend-LCC analysis using the Northern Eurasian grain belt (NEGB) and Aral Basin (AB) as examples. NDVI time series from 2001-2008 were derived from 500m MODIS NBAR 8-d composites spanning the growing season from March to October of each year. LCC analysis was based on the 500m MODIS Global Land Cover product for the years 2001 and 2008. Seasonal Kendall trend tests showed, on a per-pixel basis, that statistically significant (p<0.05) NDVI trends were largely negative, with declining seasonal NDVI covering 57% of the NEGBs land area and 15% of the AB. Among pixels exhibiting negative NDVI trends, we found elevated LCC rates (relative to pixels exhibiting no trend) from: (1) cropland mosaic to pure cropland in the northern portion of the NEGB, largely in Russia (RU); (2) cropland to grassland in the southern portion of the NEGB, largely in Kazakhstan (KZ); (3) cropland to grassland, and shrub to grassland, in the AB. Statistically significant (p<0.05) positive NDVI trends were rare, covering less than 1% of the NEGB and AB. Among pixels exhibiting positive NDVI trends, we found elevated LCC rates from: (1) cropland to cropland mosaic in relatively small clusters of pixels in the northern NEGB, mostly in RU; (2) grassland to cropland in the southern NEGB, largely in KZ, and also in small clusters; (3) grassland to cropland (largely along the Amu Darya river), in addition to more widespread conversion of grassland and barren classes to shrub, in the AB. In the NEGB, the overall direction of regional change was toward agricultural de-intensification in KZ, likely reflecting persistent drought, in contrast with agricultural intensification in RU - perhaps due to overriding effects of socioeconomic forces, relative to climatic drivers, on land use decisions in RU. In the AB, we find agricultural intensification (grassland to cropland conversion) associated with positive NDVI trends; concentration of positive trends along the Amu Darya in Karakalpakstan suggests an expansion of irrigation. We also find both shrub decline and shrub encroachment in the AB, with likely effects on ecosystem function reflected in negative NDVI trends (declining GPP) where shrubs are declining and positive NDVI trends (increasing GPP) where shrubs are increasing. In sum, LCC analysis complements NDVI trend analyses. LCC analysis focuses on discrete, abrupt, and principally human-caused change. NDVI trend analysis is better suited to identifying continuous, gradual change, primarily driven by climatic conditions. However, land surface changes are both discrete and continuous, depending on perspective, and can be mutually reinforcing. Here we find that LCC results inform our interpretation of NDVI trends and vice versa. Each analysis, alone, provides an incomplete picture of the complexities of land surface change.

  10. Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

    2013-07-01

    Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum, their ability to serve as vectors of M. bovis, and their propensity to ingest contaminated sources of M. bovis requires additional research in Michigan, USA. PMID:23531427

  11. Radioactive contamination of nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus due to the Fukushima nuclear accident: The significance in the first year.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Morimoto, Gen; Mikami, Osamu K; Watanabe, Mamoru; Ueda, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident contaminated large areas of eastern and northeastern Japan, releasing vast amounts of radiation. Here we investigated radioactive contamination of the nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus from the breeding season of 2011 directly after the accident to the next breeding season of 2012 at two sites. In Tokyo (222 km southwest of the plant), ambient dose rates in the nestboxes were lower than those in Ibaraki (175 km southwest of the plant), where the levels of 2011 were higher than those of 2012. Further, the amount of radioactive Cs in each nest increased with the increase in nest weight, with a higher increment at Ibaraki than at Tokyo. These data suggested higher nest contamination levels in the breeding season directly after a nuclear accident than in later seasons, and an increment of nest contamination levels via nest materials of birds. PMID:26162335

  12. Blood lead levels and ?-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Ramrez, P; Martnez-Lpez, E; Mara-Mojica, P; Len-Ortega, M; Garca-Fernndez, A J

    2011-01-01

    In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations. However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site ("Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union") or in their surroundings (Geometric mean (GM) = 5.83 ?g/dl, range 0.49-25.61 ?g/dl), an area highly polluted by lead and other metals, were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the rest of the population (GM = 1.66 ?g/dl, range = Non detected-18.37 ?g/dl). Because ?-ALAD activity is considered the best biomarker for lead exposure and effect in birds, the activity of this enzyme was also evaluated and correlated with lead levels in blood. In this study, low levels of blood lead inhibited ?-ALAD, even when lead concentrations were lower than the limits described by other authors in raptors. Adverse effects caused by this inhibition may occur when blood lead levels were above 15 ?g/dl, although only eight chicks presented these concentrations in their blood. Sampling site also influenced enzymatic activity, since it decreased about 60% in the polluted area in relation to the rest. For all these reasons, further research regarding risk assessment for lead exposure in Eagle Owls nesting in the polluted area is advisable. Our results suggest that the Eurasian Eagle Owl can be considered a suitable sentinel animal for monitoring lead contamination and ?-ALAD activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker for lead exposure and effect in this species. PMID:21076940

  13. Long-Range Gene Flow and the Effects of Climatic and Ecological Factors on Genetic Structuring in a Large, Solitary Carnivore: The Eurasian Lynx

    PubMed Central

    Ratkiewicz, Mirosław; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P.; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Schmidt, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

  14. Observations of water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Bjrk, G.; Korhonen, M.; Pisarev, S.; Rabe, B.; Wisotzki, A.

    2012-08-01

    The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modelling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies). The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY). Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the Atlantic layer that is found in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the Northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, implying a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600-800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending boundary plumes may also contribute to the warming of the deeper layers.

  15. Observations of water masses and circulation with focus on the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Bjrk, G.; Korhonen, M.; Pisarev, S.; Rabe, B.; Wisotzki, A.

    2013-02-01

    The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies). The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY). Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the water to the Atlantic layer in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream, north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, suggesting a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600-800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending, saline boundary plumes may also contribute to the warming of the deeper layers.

  16. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Mirosław; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Schmidt, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

  17. Effects of dietary linseed oil on innate immune system of Eurasian perch and disease resistance after exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida achromogen.

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Douxfils, J; Larondelle, Y; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designated to investigate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO diet) replacement by linseed oil (LO diet) on regulation of immune response and disease resistance in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). A control diet containing fish oil (FO = cod liver oil) and characterized by high levels of n-3 high LC-PUFA (6% EPA, 7.5% of total fatty acids (FAs)) was compared to linseed oil diet (LO diet) composed of low LC-PUFA contents (1% EPA, 2.3% DHA of total FAs) but high C18 fatty acids levels. The experiment was conducted in quadruplicate groups of 80 fish each. After 10 weeks of feeding, the innate immune status was evaluated in various organs (liver, spleen, and head-kidney) (feeding condition). Two days later, a bacterial challenge was performed on fish from 2 rearing conditions: fish infected with Aeromonas salmonicida (bacteria condition) and fish injected with sterile medium but maintained in the same flow system that fish challenged with bacteria (sentinel condition). Three days after injection of bacteria, a significant decrease of lymphocyte, thrombocyte and basophil populations was observed while neutrophils were not affected. In addition, plasma lysozyme activity and reactive oxygen species production in kidney significantly increased in fish challenged with A. salmonicida while the plasma alternative complement pathway activity was not affected. Increase of plasma lysozyme activity as well as reactive oxygen species production in spleen and kidney of sentinel fish suggest that these immune defenses can also be activated, but at lower bacteria concentration than infected fish. No differences in leucocyte populations, plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activities were observed between dietary treatments. Similarly, expression of genes related to eicosanoid synthesis in