Sample records for eurasian badger meles

  1. Pelioid hepatocellular carcinoma in an adult Eurasian badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Salguero, F J; Richard, A; Gough, J; Long, A; Weyer, U; Cooley, W A; Chambers, M A; Lesellier, S

    2010-01-01

    A mass was identified within the left lateral lobe of the liver of a 10-year-old Eurasian badger (Meles meles). The mass was friable and multilobulated, with blood-filled spaces between the lobules. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of sheets and trabeculae of neoplastic hepatocytes often forming cystic spaces containing erythrocytes, fibrin and necrotic debris. The histological appearance was consistent with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed cytokeratin 18 but not von Willebrand factor. Multiple intranuclear (amphophilic or acidophilic) inclusion bodies were observed in hepatocytes at the junction between the tumour and normal hepatic tissue. HCCs have also been reported in other domestic and wild animals. As hepadnavirus infection has been associated with HCC in woodchucks, further histochemical and transmission electron microscopical studies were performed; however, these demonstrated that the inclusions consisted of lipid droplets and not viral particles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring HCC in a Eurasian badger. PMID:19683720

  2. Estimating group size and population density of Eurasian badgers Meles meles by quantifying latrine use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. M. TUYTTENS; B. LONG; T. FAWCETT; A. SKINNER; J. A. BROWN; C. L. CHEESEMAN; A. W. RODDAM; D. W. MACDONALD

    Summary 1. Conservation issues and a potential role in disease transmission generate the continued need to census Eurasian badgers Meles meles , but direct counts and sett counts present difficulties. The feasibility of estimating social group size and population density of badgers by quantifying their use of latrines was evaluated. 2. The number of latrines, or preferably the number of

  3. Increase of skull size in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Denmark during the

    E-print Network

    Yom-Tov, Yoram

    Increase of skull size in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark ABSTRACT The skulls of 272 red years were measured to determine any temporal changes in skull size (and, by implication, body size

  4. Protection of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) from tuberculosis after intra-muscular vaccination with different doses of BCG.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, Sandrine; Palmer, Si; Gowtage-Sequiera, Sonya; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna; Davé, Dipesh; Weyer, Ute; Salguero, F Javier; Nunez, Alejandro; Crawshaw, Timothy; Corner, Leigh A L; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark A

    2011-05-12

    Mycobacterium bovis infection is widespread in Eurasian badger (Meles meles) populations in Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland where they act as a wildlife reservoir of infection for cattle. Removal of infected badgers can significantly reduce the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in local cattle herds. However, control measures based on culling of native wildlife are contentious and may even be detrimental to disease control. Vaccinating badgers with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been shown to be efficacious against experimentally induced TB of badgers when administered subcutaneously and orally. Vaccination may be an alternative or complementary strategy to other disease control measures. As the subcutaneous route is impractical for vaccinating wild badgers and an oral vaccine bait formulation is currently unavailable, we evaluated the intramuscular (IM) route of BCG administration. It has been demonstrated that the IM route is safe in badgers. IM administration has the practical advantage of being relatively easy to perform on trapped wild badgers without recourse to chemical immobilisation. We report the evaluation of the efficacy of IM administration of BCG Danish strain 1331 at two different doses: the dose prescribed for adult humans (2-8×10(5)colony forming units) and a 10-fold higher dose. Vaccination generated a dose-dependent cell-mediated immune response characterised by the production of interferon-? (IFN?) and protection against endobronchial challenge with virulent M. bovis. Protection, expressed in terms of a significant reduction in the severity of disease, the number of tissues containing acid-fast bacilli, and reduced bacterial excretion was statistically significant with the higher dose only. PMID:21440035

  5. Infection of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium complex in Spain.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, Ana; Rodríguez, Oscar; González-Quirós, Pablo; Merediz, Isabel; Sevilla, Iker A; Davé, Dipesh; Dalley, Deanna J; Lesellier, Sandrine; Chambers, Mark A; Bezos, Javier; Muñoz, Marta; Delahay, Richard J; Gortázar, Christian; Prieto, José M

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence, distribution and pathology related to infection with Mycobacterium bovis and other mycobacteria were determined in trapped (n=36) and road-killed (n=121) badgers in Spain from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of M. bovis based on bacteriological culture from road-killed badgers was 8/121 (6.6%) and from trapped badgers was 0/36 (0%). Tuberculosis/M. bovis infection was evident in 15/121 (12.4%) road-killed badgers when bacteriology and histopathology were combined. Mycobacterium avium complex was isolated by culture from the tracheal aspirate of 1/36 (2.8%) trapped badgers and from tissue pools from 8/121 (6.6%) road-killed badgers. PMID:21612958

  6. Immunological responses following experimental endobronchial infection of badgers (Meles meles) with different doses of Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, Sandrine; Corner, Leigh; Costello, Eamon; Sleeman, Paddy; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Glyn Hewinson, R; Chambers, Mark; Gormley, Eamonn

    2009-01-15

    The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is a wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis infection in Ireland and Great Britain and has been implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle. Vaccination of badgers is an option that could be used as part of a strategy to control the disease. In this study we used an endobronchial infection procedure to inoculate groups of badgers with three different doses (3x10(3), 2x10(2) and <10 Colony Forming Units (CFUs)) of M. bovis. After 17 weeks the disease status of each animal was determined by post-mortem pathology and culture for M. bovis. Each of the inoculum doses resulted in establishment of infection in the badgers. The cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were measured by lymphocyte transformation assay (LTA) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultured with bovine tuberculin (PPD-B). In each infected group the CMI responses increased with a kinetic profile corresponding to the delivered dose and the post-mortem pathology. The serological responses were measured by ELISA and a multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) in order to investigate any changes in the antigenic repertoire associated with different infective doses. In contrast to the CMI responses, the ELISA and MAPIA showed that the recognition of antigens by the badgers was intermittent and not strongly influenced by the dose of M. bovis. PMID:18986710

  7. Confirmation of low genetic diversity and multiple breeding females in a social group of Eurasian badgers from microsatellite and field data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Domingo-Roura; D. W. Macdonald; M. S. Roy; J. Marmi; J. Terradas; R. Woodroffe; T. Burke; R. K. Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The Eurasian badger ( Meles meles ) is a facultatively social carnivore that shows only rudi- mentary co-operative behaviour and a poorly defined social hierarchy. Behavioural evid- ence and limited genetic data have suggested that more than one female may breed in a social group. We combine pregnancy detection by ultrasound and microsatellite locus scores from a well-studied badger population

  8. Oral vaccination of badgers (Meles meles) with BCG and protective immunity against endobronchial challenge with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Corner, Leigh A L; Costello, Eamon; O'Meara, Damien; Lesellier, Sandrine; Aldwell, Frank E; Singh, Mahavir; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark A; Gormley, Eamonn

    2010-08-31

    Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) are a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and are implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle in Ireland and Great Britain. The development of a vaccine for use in badgers is considered a key element of any long-term sustainable campaign to eradicate the disease from livestock in both countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective response of badgers vaccinated orally with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) encapsulated in a lipid formulation, followed by experimental challenge with M. bovis. A group of badgers was vaccinated by inoculating the BCG-lipid mixture containing approximately 10(8)colony forming units (cfu) of BCG into the oesophagus. The control group was sham inoculated with the lipid formulation only. Thirteen weeks after vaccination all the badgers were challenged with approximately 10(4)cfu of M. bovis delivered by endobronchial inoculation. Blood samples were taken throughout the study and the cell mediated immune (CMI) responses in peripheral blood were monitored by the IFN-gamma ELISA and ELISPOT assay. At 17 weeks after infection all the badgers were examined post-mortem to assess the pathological and bacteriological responses to challenge. All badgers in both groups were found to be infected. However, a significant protective effect of BCG vaccination was measured as a decrease in the number and severity of gross lesions, lower bacterial load in the lungs, and fewer sites of infection. The analysis of immune responses showed that vaccination with BCG did not generate any detectable CMI immunological responses, however the levels of the responses increased in both groups following M. bovis infection. The results of the study showed that vaccination with oral BCG in the lipid formulation generated a protective effect in the badgers. PMID:20637774

  9. Vigilance in badgers Meles meles : the effects of group size and human persecution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. M. Tuyttens; Nick Stapley; Paul D. Stewart; David W. Macdonald

    2001-01-01

    Potential costs to badgersMeles meles (Linnaeus, 1758) of living in groups may be offset by the ability of a group to either improve predator detection, or reduce\\u000a the time each individual must be vigilant to attain a certain likelihood of predator detection. Using an infra-red video-surveillance\\u000a system, we show that badgers emerge later from their dens in a population that

  10. The taxonomic status of badgers (Mammalia, Mustelidae) from Southwest Asia based on cranial morphometrics, with the redescription of Meles canescens.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Alexei V; Puzachenko, Andrey Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Eurasian badgers (Meles spp.) are widespread in the Palaearctic Region, occurring from the British Islands in the west to the Japanese Islands in the east, including the Scandinavia, Southwest Asia and southern China. The morphometric variation in 30 cranial characters of 692 skulls of Meles from across the Palaearctic was here analyzed. This craniometric analysis revealed a significant difference between the European and Asian badger phylogenetic lineages, which can be further split in two pairs of taxa: meles - canescens and leucurus - anakuma. Overall, European badger populations are very similar morphologically, particularly with regards to the skull shape, but differ notably from those from Asia Minor, the Middle East and Transcaucasia. Based on the current survey of badger specimens available in main world museums, we have recognized four distinctive, parapatric species: Meles meles, found in most of Europe; Meles leucurus from continental Asia; M. anakuma from Japan; and M. canescens from Southwest Asia and the mountains of Middle Asia. These results are in agreement with those based on recent molecular data analyses. The morphological peculiarities and distribution range of M. canescens are discussed. The origin and evolution of Meles species, which is yet poorly understood, is also briefly discussed. PMID:25232583

  11. Detection of mustelid herpesvirus-1 infected European badgers (Meles meles) in the British Isles.

    PubMed

    King, Donald R; Mutukwa, Naledi; Lesellier, Sandrine; Cheeseman, Chris; Chambers, Mark A; Banks, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of mustelid herpesvirus-1 (MusHV-1) infection in free-ranging badgers (Meles meles) in the British Isles. A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed that detected MusHV-1 DNA in 95% (18/19) and 100% (10/10) of anticoagulant-treated blood samples collected from free-ranging badgers sampled in the southwest of England and the Republic of Ireland, respectively. An indirect immunoassay was also developed to detect MusHV-1-specific immunoglobulin-G in serum samples. Using an arbitrary cutoff of twice the optical density obtained with a virus-negative preparation, 32.7% (36/110) of sera sampled from badgers were positive. The conclusion drawn from these data is that infection with MusHV-1 is common among free-ranging badgers in the British Isles. PMID:15137494

  12. Molecular evidence for hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in a Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma) and a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus).

    PubMed

    Harasawa, Ryô; Orusa, Riccardo; Giangaspero, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We report detection of hemoplasma in wild Japanese badgers (Meles meles anakuma) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus). Sequence analysis of the entire 16S rRNA genes identified Mycoplasma haemocanis in the raccoon dog sample, and a potential novel Mycoplasma species in the Japanese badger. PMID:24484489

  13. Partial characterization of a novel gammaherpesvirus isolated from a European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Banks, Malcolm; King, Donald P; Daniells, Clare; Stagg, David A; Gavier-Widen, Dolores

    2002-06-01

    A herpesvirus causing a cytopathic effect was isolated from pulmonary fibroblast cultures established from a European badger (Meles meles). A study was undertaken to classify and to assess some in-vitro growth characteristics of this virus. From a panel of 27 mammalian cell lines, in-vitro replication of the badger herpesvirus (BadHV) was only demonstrated with a mink lung cell line, suggesting a high degree of host specificity. Using PCR with degenerate primers, three independent fragments of the BadHV genome were sequenced. The largest of these fragments comprised a 6.2 kb segment including the DNA polymerase and glycoprotein B genes. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences demonstrated that the BadHV is novel and clearly grouped with members of the Gammaherpesvirinae. In view of the oncogenic and immunosuppressive potential of many related herpesviruses, it is possible that BadHV can impact on existing acute or chronic disease in badgers. PMID:12029147

  14. Antigen specific immunological responses of badgers (Meles meles) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, Sandrine; Corner, Leigh; Costello, Eamon; Sleeman, Paddy; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Singh, Mahavir; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark; Gormley, Eamonn

    2008-03-15

    European badgers (Meles meles) are considered to be an important reservoir of infection for Mycobacterium bovis and are implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle in Ireland and Great Britain. Accurate tests are required for tuberculosis surveillance in badger populations and to provide a basis for the development of strategies, including vaccination, to reduce the incidence of the infection. In this study, we have developed an endobronchial M. bovis infection model in badgers in which we measured cell-mediated immune and serological responses for up to 24 weeks post-infection. Groups of badgers were subjected to necropsy at 6-week intervals and the gross lesion severity status compared with immune responses measured in blood samples taken throughout the course of the study. The panel of antigens included bovine and avian tuberculins (PPD) as well as single antigens, ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB70, Rv3019c, Rv3873, Rv3878 and Rv3879, all known to be recognised by the immune system in other animal models of tuberculosis infection. Our results demonstrated that M. bovis infected badgers responded to specific antigens as early as 6 weeks post-infection, consistent with the presence of visible lesions. The data also revealed unique patterns of antigen recognition with high levels of PBMC proliferation in the presence of CFP-10 but low proliferation levels with ESAT-6. Using a multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), we were able to confirm that MPB83 is the dominant antigen recognised by serum antibodies in infected badgers. PMID:18082897

  15. Improved serodetection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers (Meles meles) using multiantigen test formats.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Lesellier, Sandrine; Houghton, Raymond; Pollock, John; Aagaard, Claus; Andersen, Peter; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark; Lyashchenko, Konstantin

    2003-07-01

    Despite attempts to control bovine tuberculosis, the incidence of disease in Great Britain continues to rise. In GB, the European badger (Meles meles) is a reservoir of infection with Mycobacterium bovis. In an effort to improve the serodetection of badger tuberculosis, we examined sera from M. bovis culture-positive and culture-negative badgers for their ability to recognize M. bovis antigens, using a multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Depending on the antigens used in the MAPIA, the assay had a sensitivity of 49-59% and a specificity of 84-88% Results from the MAPIA were used to select antigens for the development of a lateral-flow immunoassay. This so-called 'Rapid Test' used 5microl of serum and gave unambiguous results within 10 min. When applied to 178 badger sera, the Rapid Test had a sensitivity of 53% and a specificity of 95%. This represented an improvement over the performance of the existing ELISA Test, which had a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 89% on the same sera. This is the first report of a diagnostic test for badger tuberculosis that can be performed alongside the captive animal. PMID:12867095

  16. Development and evaluation of a gamma-interferon assay for tuberculosis in badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Dalley, Deanna; Davé, Dipesh; Lesellier, Sandrine; Palmer, Simonette; Crawshaw, Timothy; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark

    2008-05-01

    In this paper we report the development of a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) in European badgers (Meles meles), based on the stimulation of lymphocytes in whole-blood culture and the subsequent detection of gamma-interferon (IFNgamma) by sandwich ELISA. The comparative levels of IFNgamma produced to bovine and avian tuberculin (B-A) was used as the basis of determining the TB status of badgers, resulting in a more sensitive test than that based on the defined Mycobacterium bovis antigens ESAT6 and CFP10. The assay was evaluated using 235 badgers. The IFNgamma EIA (enzyme immunoassay) based on a monoclonal pair (mEIA) was more sensitive than one using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (pEIA). At a specificity of 93.6%, the mEIA was 80.9% sensitive, compared to a sensitivity of 74.5% for the pEIA. At the same specificity as the EIA, the current serological ELISA test for TB in badgers (Brock test) had a sensitivity of 48.9%. Only one of the culture positive badgers missed by the mEIA was correctly diagnosed by the Brock test, suggesting that the combination of both a T-cell and serological test has little diagnostic advantage. PMID:18083067

  17. Performance of a Noninvasive Test for Detecting Mycobacterium bovis Shedding in European Badger (Meles meles) Populations.

    PubMed

    King, Hayley C; Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, in cattle herds in the United Kingdom is increasing, resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir and is the subject of control measures aimed at reducing the incidence of infection in cattle populations. Understanding the epidemiology of M. bovis in badger populations is essential for directing control interventions and understanding disease spread; however, accurate diagnosis in live animals is challenging and currently uses invasive methods. Here we present a noninvasive diagnostic procedure and sampling regimen using field sampling of latrines and detection of M. bovis with quantitative PCR tests, the results of which strongly correlate with the results of immunoassays in the field at the social group level. This method allows M. bovis infections in badger populations to be monitored without trapping and provides additional information on the quantities of bacterial DNA shed. Therefore, our approach may provide valuable insights into the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations and inform disease control interventions. PMID:26041891

  18. Performance of a Noninvasive Test for Detecting Mycobacterium bovis Shedding in European Badger (Meles meles) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J.; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, in cattle herds in the United Kingdom is increasing, resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir and is the subject of control measures aimed at reducing the incidence of infection in cattle populations. Understanding the epidemiology of M. bovis in badger populations is essential for directing control interventions and understanding disease spread; however, accurate diagnosis in live animals is challenging and currently uses invasive methods. Here we present a noninvasive diagnostic procedure and sampling regimen using field sampling of latrines and detection of M. bovis with quantitative PCR tests, the results of which strongly correlate with the results of immunoassays in the field at the social group level. This method allows M. bovis infections in badger populations to be monitored without trapping and provides additional information on the quantities of bacterial DNA shed. Therefore, our approach may provide valuable insights into the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations and inform disease control interventions. PMID:26041891

  19. The safety and immunogenicity of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Lesellier, S; Palmer, S; Dalley, D J; Davé, D; Johnson, L; Hewinson, R G; Chambers, M A

    2006-07-15

    European badgers (Meles meles) are a wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in Great Britain (GB) and the Republic of Ireland and therefore constitute a potential source of infection for cattle. Reduction of badger densities in the Republic of Ireland has resulted in an associated reduction in the risk of a herd break-down with bovine tuberculosis and a study to determine whether this is also the case in GB has been running since 1997. If badgers are a significant source of M. bovis infection for cattle, vaccinating badgers with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) might prove to be a long term, cost-effective strategy for controlling bovine tuberculosis whilst preserving badger populations. As a first step towards BCG vaccination of wild badgers, it was necessary to demonstrate safety of the vaccine in captive badgers. Therefore, captive badgers were vaccinated with a commercial source of BCG that is already licensed for administration to humans in GB-BCG Danish SSI. Using a protocol prescribed by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) of GB, badgers were vaccinated with two consecutive doses of BCG via either the subcutaneous (s.c.) or intra-muscular (i.m.) routes. The first dose was high, ranging from 16 to 22 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU), and was followed 15 weeks later by a lower dose in the range of 4-7 x 10(5)CFU. Local reaction at the site of injection and general responses (body temperature, haematology and blood serum chemistry), behaviour and excretion of BCG were monitored for 28 weeks from the time of the first vaccination. The only side-effect observed was the occurrence of localised swelling at the site of BCG injection that disappeared 48 days after i.m. vaccination but persisted longer in the group vaccinated by the s.c. route. Immunological responses were measured at regular intervals. Strong cellular responses were observed 13 days after the first vaccination, which persisted for 76 days. The lower dose induced a weaker and shorter-lived response. PMID:16687176

  20. New data on the prevalence of Trichodectes melis (Phthiraptera, Trichodectidae) on the European badger Meles meles (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Kozina, Paulina; Gólcz, Aleksandra; Izdebska, Joanna N

    2014-01-01

    Trichodectes melis is a specific ectoparasite of the European badger Meles meles. Distribution of this chewing louse is little known, although presumably it coincides with the range of its typical host. In Poland, it has been found in only a few stands in the western part of the country. It has recently been observed in the area of the Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest, where 81 specimens of T. melis (48 females, 7 males and 26 nymph forms) were collected from two female European badgers, mainly from the fur of the head area. No symptoms of infestation were observed. PMID:25706425

  1. Discovery of a polyomavirus in European badgers (Meles meles) and the evolution of host range in the family Polyomaviridae.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah C; Murphy, Aisling A; Cotten, Matthew; Palser, Anne L; Benson, Phillip; Lesellier, Sandrine; Gormley, Eamonn; Richomme, Céline; Grierson, Sylvia; Bhuachalla, Deirdre Ni; Chambers, Mark; Kellam, Paul; Boschiroli, María-Laura; Ehlers, Bernhard; Jarvis, Michael A; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-06-01

    Polyomaviruses infect a diverse range of mammalian and avian hosts, and are associated with a variety of symptoms. However, it is unknown whether the viruses are found in all mammalian families and the evolutionary history of the polyomaviruses is still unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a novel polyomavirus in the European badger (Meles meles), which to our knowledge represents the first polyomavirus to be characterized in the family Mustelidae, and within a European carnivoran. Although the virus was discovered serendipitously in the supernatant of a cell culture inoculated with badger material, we subsequently confirmed its presence in wild badgers. The European badger polyomavirus was tentatively named Meles meles polyomavirus 1 (MmelPyV1). The genome is 5187 bp long and encodes proteins typical of polyomaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses including all known polyomavirus genomes consistently group MmelPyV1 with California sea lion polyomavirus 1 across all regions of the genome. Further evolutionary analyses revealed phylogenetic discordance amongst polyomavirus genome regions, possibly arising from evolutionary rate heterogeneity, and a complex association between polyomavirus phylogeny and host taxonomic groups. PMID:25626684

  2. Wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) and other British mammals.

    PubMed

    Delahay, R J; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. The European badger (Meles meles) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the UK and New Zealand respectively. The risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. In the UK, surveys by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) have identified M. bovis infection in deer (Cervus sp., Capreolus sp., Dama sp.), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mink (Mustela vison), feral ferret (Mustela furo), mole (Talpa europaea), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and feral cat (Felis catus). However, the potential contribution to cattle herd breakdowns, of reservoirs of M. bovis infection in mammals other than the badger is poorly understood and is the subject of current research. In contrast, M. bovis infection in the badger has been the subject of a long term ecological and epidemiological study at Woodchester Park in South-West England, where the prevalence and distribution of infection in a wild population has been intensively monitored. The pattern of infection in the population and potential risks to cattle, are profoundly influenced by badger social organization and behaviour. The pattern of land use and cattle farming practices in the UK brings badgers into close contact with domestic animals and provides conditions that may enhance the likelihood of disease transfer. PMID:11463223

  3. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population. PMID:25913367

  4. Climate and the individual: inter-annual variation in the autumnal activity of the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Noonan, Michael J; Markham, Andrew; Newman, Chris; Trigoni, Niki; Buesching, Christina D; Ellwood, Stephen A; Macdonald, David W

    2014-01-01

    We establish intra-individual and inter-annual variability in European badger (Meles meles) autumnal nightly activity in relation to fine-scale climatic variables, using tri-axial accelerometry. This contributes further to understanding of causality in the established interaction between weather conditions and population dynamics in this species. Modelling found that measures of daylight, rain/humidity, and soil temperature were the most supported predictors of ACTIVITY, in both years studied. In 2010, the drier year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, RAIN, and 30cmTEMP (w?=?0.557), while in 2012, a wetter year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, and the RAIN*10cmTEMP (w?=?0.999). ACTIVITY also differed significantly between individuals. In the 2012 autumn study period, badgers with the longest per noctem activity subsequently exhibited higher Body Condition Indices (BCI) when recaptured. In contrast, under drier 2010 conditions, badgers in good BCI engaged in less per noctem activity, while badgers with poor BCI were the most active. When compared on the same calendar dates, to control for night length, duration of mean badger nightly activity was longer (9.5 hrs ±3.3 SE) in 2010 than in 2012 (8.3 hrs ±1.9 SE). In the wetter year, increasing nightly activity was associated with net-positive energetic gains (from BCI), likely due to better foraging conditions. In a drier year, with greater potential for net-negative energy returns, individual nutritional state proved crucial in modifying activity regimes; thus we emphasise how a 'one size fits all' approach should not be applied to ecological responses. PMID:24465376

  5. Climate and the Individual: Inter-Annual Variation in the Autumnal Activity of the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michael J.; Markham, Andrew; Newman, Chris; Trigoni, Niki; Buesching, Christina D.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Macdonald, David W.

    2014-01-01

    We establish intra-individual and inter-annual variability in European badger (Meles meles) autumnal nightly activity in relation to fine-scale climatic variables, using tri-axial accelerometry. This contributes further to understanding of causality in the established interaction between weather conditions and population dynamics in this species. Modelling found that measures of daylight, rain/humidity, and soil temperature were the most supported predictors of ACTIVITY, in both years studied. In 2010, the drier year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, RAIN, and30cmTEMP (w?=?0.557), while in 2012, a wetter year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, and the RAIN*10cmTEMP (w?=?0.999). ACTIVITY also differed significantly between individuals. In the 2012 autumn study period, badgers with the longest per noctem activity subsequently exhibited higher Body Condition Indices (BCI) when recaptured. In contrast, under drier 2010 conditions, badgers in good BCI engaged in less per noctem activity, while badgers with poor BCI were the most active. When compared on the same calendar dates, to control for night length, duration of mean badger nightly activity was longer (9.5 hrs ±3.3 SE) in 2010 than in 2012 (8.3 hrs ±1.9 SE). In the wetter year, increasing nightly activity was associated with net-positive energetic gains (from BCI), likely due to better foraging conditions. In a drier year, with greater potential for net-negative energy returns, individual nutritional state proved crucial in modifying activity regimes; thus we emphasise how a ‘one size fits all’ approach should not be applied to ecological responses. PMID:24465376

  6. Estimating population size by genotyping remotely plucked hair: the Eurasian badger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAIN C. FRANTZ; MICHEL SCHAUL; LISA C. POPE; FRED FACK; LAURENT SCHLEY; CLAUDE P. MULLER; TIMOTHY J. ROPER

    Summary 1. Size is a basic attribute of any population but it is often difficult to estimate, especially if the species under investigation is rare or cryptic. For example, there is currently no cheap and robust way of estimating the abundance of the European badger Meles meles , despite the species' role as an agricultural pest and carrier of bovine

  7. Vaccination of European badgers (Meles meles) with BCG by the subcutaneous and mucosal routes induces protective immunity against endobronchial challenge with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Corner, Leigh A L; Costello, Eamon; Lesellier, Sandrine; O'Meara, Damien; Gormley, Eamonn

    2008-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is endemic in badger (Meles meles) populations of Ireland and the United Kingdom and infected badgers are a potential source of infection for cattle. In domestic livestock tuberculosis causes economic losses from lost production and the costs associated with eradication programmes, and in addition there is a risk of zoonotic infection. Whereas culling is currently used to control tuberculous badger populations in Ireland, vaccination, if it were available, would be preferred. A study was undertaken to examine the protective responses of badgers vaccinated either by the subcutaneous or mucosal (intranasal and conjunctival) routes with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), when challenged with M. bovis by the endobronchial route. Three groups of badgers were used. The first group (n=4) was vaccinated with approximately 5 x 10(5) colony forming units (cfu) of BCG by subcutaneous injection. In the second group (n=5) badgers were vaccinated via the mucosal route by instilling 1.0 x 10(5)cfu into each conjunctival sac and spraying 1.0 x 10(5)cfu into each nostril (final vaccine dose of 4 x 10(5)cfu). The control (n=5) badgers served as a non-vaccinated group. Twelve weeks post-vaccination all badgers in the three groups were challenged with approximately 10(4)cfu of M. bovis by endobronchial inoculation. At 12 weeks post-infection all badgers were examined post-mortem to assess the pathological and bacteriological responses to challenge. Gross and histological lesions of tuberculosis were seen in all challenged badgers and M. bovis was recovered from all challenged badgers. However, across six of the eight parameters used to measure disease severity, the infection in the vaccinated badgers was significantly less severe than in the control group. The BCG vaccine induced a significant protective effect in the badgers and the protective immunity was generated by subcutaneous and mucosal vaccination. PMID:18468490

  8. Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations.

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Agren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Cirovi?, D; Sprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

    2014-11-01

    Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

  9. Movement of badgers (Meles meles) in a high-density population: individual, population and disease effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, L M; Delahay, R; Cheeseman, C L; Langton, S; Smith, G C; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    1998-01-01

    The movement of 1763 badgers trapped between 36 social groups in Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, over 18 years was analysed to determine the frequency and duration of moves, the factors associated with a predisposition to move and the spatial pattern of movements. Of those badgers whose capture history could be categorized, nearly half had moved. Of these, 73.1% were classified as 'occasional movers', 22.1% as 'permanent movers' and 4.8% as 'frequent movers'. Most adult badgers that moved made occasional moves (78.8%, n = 67). Cubs made all types of move including permanent moves (29%, n = 10). Seventy per cent of females were non-movers compared with 37% of males. Badgers were significantly more likely to move to smaller groups, whereas male badgers were significantly more likely to move to groups with a greater proportion of females. The spatial pattern of movement differed from the distribution of groups with bovine tuberculosis in the study area. However, temporal changes in movement were significantly related to the incidence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the following year, indicating that as the movement of badgers between groups varies so does the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the population. This finding is of central importance in the formulation of badger control policy. PMID:9718736

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Test for Tuberculosis in Live European Badgers (Meles meles) Based on Measurement of Gamma Interferon mRNA by Real-Time PCR?

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, J.; Mealing, D.; Dalley, D.; Davé, D.; Lesellier, S.; Palmer, S.; Bowen-Davies, J.; Crawshaw, T. R.; Chambers, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for the measurement of gamma interferon (IFN-?) mRNA in European badger (Meles meles) blood cultures was developed. The levels of IFN-? mRNA in blood cultures stimulated with either bovine or avian tuberculin or specific mycobacterial antigens were compared with those in a nonstimulated control blood culture as the basis for determining the tuberculosis (TB) status of live badgers. The assay was validated by testing 247 animals for which there were matching data from postmortem examination and culture of tissues. Relative changes in the levels of IFN-? mRNA in response to bovine tuberculin and specific antigens were found to be greater among badgers with tissues positive for TB on culture. The test was at its most accurate (87% of test results were correct) by using blood cultures containing bovine tuberculin as the antigen and when the response to avian tuberculin was taken into account by subtracting the avian tuberculin response from the bovine tuberculin response. At a specificity of 90.7%, the test was 70.6% sensitive. At the same specificity, the current serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TB in badgers was only 53% sensitive. This work demonstrates that measurement of IFN-? mRNA by real-time PCR is a valid method for the detection of TB in live badgers and may provide an alternative to the current serological methods of diagnosis, the Brock test. The testing procedure can be completed within 5 h of receipt of the blood culture samples. In addition, the use of a molecular biology-based test offers the potential to fully automate the testing procedure through the use of robotics. PMID:17537931

  11. Development and evaluation of a test for tuberculosis in live European badgers (Meles meles) based on measurement of gamma interferon mRNA by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, J; Mealing, D; Dalley, D; Davé, D; Lesellier, S; Palmer, S; Bowen-Davies, J; Crawshaw, T R; Chambers, M A

    2007-08-01

    A real-time PCR assay for the measurement of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA in European badger (Meles meles) blood cultures was developed. The levels of IFN-gamma mRNA in blood cultures stimulated with either bovine or avian tuberculin or specific mycobacterial antigens were compared with those in a nonstimulated control blood culture as the basis for determining the tuberculosis (TB) status of live badgers. The assay was validated by testing 247 animals for which there were matching data from postmortem examination and culture of tissues. Relative changes in the levels of IFN-gamma mRNA in response to bovine tuberculin and specific antigens were found to be greater among badgers with tissues positive for TB on culture. The test was at its most accurate (87% of test results were correct) by using blood cultures containing bovine tuberculin as the antigen and when the response to avian tuberculin was taken into account by subtracting the avian tuberculin response from the bovine tuberculin response. At a specificity of 90.7%, the test was 70.6% sensitive. At the same specificity, the current serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TB in badgers was only 53% sensitive. This work demonstrates that measurement of IFN-gamma mRNA by real-time PCR is a valid method for the detection of TB in live badgers and may provide an alternative to the current serological methods of diagnosis, the Brock test. The testing procedure can be completed within 5 h of receipt of the blood culture samples. In addition, the use of a molecular biology-based test offers the potential to fully automate the testing procedure through the use of robotics. PMID:17537931

  12. Experimental tuberculosis in the European badger (Meles meles) after endobronchial inoculation with Mycobacterium bovis: II. Progression of infection.

    PubMed

    Corner, L A L; Costello, E; Lesellier, S; O'Meara, D; Gormley, E

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe, over a period of 24 weeks, the pathological and bacteriological changes in badgers experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The badgers were infected by endobronchial instillation of 2.5 x10(4) colony forming units (cfu) M. bovis. After infection, the badgers were examined at 3 weekly intervals when blood and tracheal aspirates were collected. At 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks post-infection (pi) three animals were euthanized and a detailed pathological and bacteriological examination was performed to assess the nature of the experimental disease. During the course of the study only one badger developed clinical signs of disease: a subcutaneous swelling on its head, first observed at 18 weeks pi. At post-mortem examination gross and histological lesions of tuberculosis were observed and M. bovis was recovered from all, except one badger. In the majority of badgers the endobronchial route of inoculation resulted in the establishment of infection that over 24 weeks was non-progressive with limited dissemination of infection from the thoracic cavity, mainly to the hepatic and mesenteric lymph nodes. However, in one of the badgers examined at 18 weeks pi and one at 24 weeks pi, infection was widely disseminated. The disease induced by the endobronchial inoculation displayed the characteristics of disease observed in naturally infected badgers. PMID:18433810

  13. Experimental tuberculosis in the European badger (Meles meles) after endobronchial inoculation of Mycobacterium bovis: I. Pathology and bacteriology.

    PubMed

    Corner, L A L; Costello, E; Lesellier, S; O'Meara, D; Sleeman, D P; Gormley, E

    2007-08-01

    The aim was to develop an endobronchial infection procedure for the study of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers. The badgers were anaesthetised and a cannula was passed per os to the tracheal bifurcation. When in place 1 ml of M. bovis suspension was inoculated. Three concentrations of M. bovis suspension were used; <10 colony forming units (cfu), approximately 10(2) cfu and approximately 3 x 10(3) cfu. The badgers were examined at three weekly intervals for clinical signs of disease and a tracheal aspirate was collected at each examination. The badgers were euthanased 17 weeks post infection (pi) and at the post mortem examination a wide range of tissues were examined for gross and histopathological lesions of tuberculosis and cultured for M. bovis. A sample of bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected at post mortem for culture. At post mortem examination 17 weeks after infection, gross and histopathological lesions of tuberculosis were observed in all badgers inoculated with the high and medium dose and 1/3 inoculated with the low dose. M. bovis was recovered from all inoculated badgers. Infection in the high dose group was more widely disseminated than in the other groups. The number of sites with gross and histopathological lesions increased with increasing dose of M. bovis. All tracheal aspirates were negative on culture and only one BAL, collected from a badger of the high dose group, was positive on culture. No clinical signs due to the experimental infection were observed. The endobronchial route of inoculation is an effective route for establishing experimental infection, and could be used for studies of tuberculosis pathogenesis, immunology of M. bovis infection in badgers and for challenging badgers in vaccine protection studies. Badgers appeared to be very susceptible to infection by this procedure even with a dose of < 10 cfu but appear to control and limit the resulting infection. PMID:17197004

  14. Oral vaccination of badgers (Meles meles) against tuberculosis: comparison of the protection generated by BCG vaccine strains Pasteur and Danish.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Denise; Costello, Eamon; Aldwell, Frank E; Lesellier, Sandrine; Chambers, Mark A; Fitzsimons, Tara; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn

    2014-06-01

    Vaccination of badgers by the subcutaneous, mucosal and oral routes with the Pasteur strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has resulted in significant protection against experimental infection with virulent M. bovis. However, as the BCG Danish strain is the only commercially licensed BCG vaccine for use in humans in the European Union it is the vaccine of choice for delivery to badger populations. As all oral vaccination studies in badgers were previously conducted using the BCG Pasteur strain, this study compared protection in badgers following oral vaccination with the Pasteur and the Danish strains. Groups of badgers were vaccinated orally with 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) BCG Danish 1331 (n?=?7 badgers) or 10(8) CFU BCG Pasteur 1173P2 (n?=?6). Another group (n?=?8) served as non-vaccinated controls. At 12 weeks post-vaccination, the animals were challenged by the endobronchial route with 6?×?10(3) CFU M. bovis, and at 15 weeks post-infection, all of the badgers were euthanased. Vaccination with either BCG strain provided protection against challenge compared with controls. The vaccinated badgers had significantly fewer sites with gross pathology and significantly lower gross pathological severity scores, fewer sites with histological lesions and fewer sites of infection, significantly lower bacterial counts in the thoracic lymph node, and lower bacterial counts in the lungs than the control group. No differences were observed between either of the vaccine groups by any of the pathology and bacteriology measures. The ELISPOT analysis, measuring production of badger interferon - gamma (IFN-?), was also similar across the vaccinated groups. PMID:24792450

  15. Will Trespassers Be Prosecuted or Assessed According to Their Merits? A Consilient Interpretation of Territoriality in a Group-Living Carnivore, the European Badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michael J.; Newman, Chris; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-spatial interactions of Carnivores have traditionally been described using the vocabulary of territoriality and aggression, with scent marks interpreted as ‘scent fences’. Here, we investigate the role of olfactory signals in assumed territorial marking of group-living solitary foragers using European badgers Meles meles as a model. We presented anal gland secretions (n = 351) from known individuals to identifiable recipients (n = 187), to assess response-variation according to familiarity (own-group, neighbours, strangers) and spatial context (in-context: at a shared border; out-of-context: at an unshared border/ the main sett). Sniffing and over-marking (with subcaudal gland secretion) responses were strongest to anal gland secretions from strangers, intermediate to neighbouring-group and weakest to own-group members. Secretions from both, strangers and neighbours, were sniffed for longer than were own-group samples, although neighbour-secretion presented out-of-context evoked no greater interest than in-context. On an individual level, responses were further moderated by the relevance of individual-specific donor information encoded in the secretion, as it related to the physiological state of the responder. There was a trend bordering on significance for males to sniff for longer than did females, but without sex-related differences in the frequency of subcaudal over-marking responses, and males over-marked oestrous female secretions more than non-oestrous females. There were no age-class related differences in sniff-duration or in over-marking. Evaluating these results in the context of the Familiarity hypothesis, the Threat-level hypothesis, and the Individual advertisement hypothesis evidences that interpretations of territorial scent-marks depicting rigid and potentially agonistic discrimination between own- and foreign-group conspecifics are overly simplistic. We use our findings to advance conceptual understanding of badger socio-spatial ecology, and the general context of territoriality and group-range dynamics. PMID:26147753

  16. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-10-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

  17. Badger, Meles meles (Mustelidae, Carnivora), diet assessed through scat-analysis: a comparison and critique of different methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jabi ZABALA; Iñigo ZUBEROGOITIA

    We studied the diet of the badger through scat analysis and used seven previously described methods to assess their comparability. Methods compared included those based on frequencies of occurrence of different food items and volumetric methods. Our results showed that, depending on the basic methodological procedure, we could classify methods in two groups: frequencies of appearance and volumetric methods. The

  18. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination reduces the severity and progression of tuberculosis in badgers.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Mark A; Rogers, Fiona; Delahay, Richard J; Lesellier, Sandrine; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna; Gowtage, Sonya; Davé, Dipesh; Palmer, Si; Brewer, Jacky; Crawshaw, Timothy; Clifton-Hadley, Richard; Carter, Steve; Cheeseman, Chris; Hanks, Chris; Murray, Alistair; Palphramand, Kate; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Smith, Graham C; Tomlinson, Alexandra; Walker, Neil J; Wilson, Gavin J; Corner, Leigh A L; Rushton, Stephen P; Shirley, Mark D F; Gettinby, George; McDonald, Robbie A; Hewinson, R Glyn

    2011-06-22

    Control of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has proven particularly challenging where reservoirs of infection exist in wildlife populations. In Britain and Ireland, control is hampered by a reservoir of infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). Badger culling has positive and negative effects on bovine TB in cattle and is difficult, costly and controversial. Here we show that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of captive badgers reduced the progression, severity and excretion of Mycobacterium bovis infection after experimental challenge. In a clinical field study, BCG vaccination of free-living badgers reduced the incidence of positive serological test results by 73.8 per cent. In common with other species, BCG did not appear to prevent infection of badgers subjected to experimental challenge, but did significantly reduce the overall disease burden. BCG vaccination of badgers could comprise an important component of a comprehensive programme of measures to control bovine TB in cattle. PMID:21123260

  19. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination reduces the severity and progression of tuberculosis in badgers

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Mark A.; Rogers, Fiona; Delahay, Richard J.; Lesellier, Sandrine; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna; Gowtage, Sonya; Davé, Dipesh; Palmer, Si; Brewer, Jacky; Crawshaw, Timothy; Clifton-Hadley, Richard; Carter, Steve; Cheeseman, Chris; Hanks, Chris; Murray, Alistair; Palphramand, Kate; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Smith, Graham C.; Tomlinson, Alexandra; Walker, Neil J.; Wilson, Gavin J.; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Gettinby, George; McDonald, Robbie A.; Hewinson, R. Glyn

    2011-01-01

    Control of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has proven particularly challenging where reservoirs of infection exist in wildlife populations. In Britain and Ireland, control is hampered by a reservoir of infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). Badger culling has positive and negative effects on bovine TB in cattle and is difficult, costly and controversial. Here we show that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of captive badgers reduced the progression, severity and excretion of Mycobacterium bovis infection after experimental challenge. In a clinical field study, BCG vaccination of free-living badgers reduced the incidence of positive serological test results by 73.8 per cent. In common with other species, BCG did not appear to prevent infection of badgers subjected to experimental challenge, but did significantly reduce the overall disease burden. BCG vaccination of badgers could comprise an important component of a comprehensive programme of measures to control bovine TB in cattle. PMID:21123260

  20. Fertility control as a means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in badger (Meles meles) populations in south-west England: predictions from a spatial stochastic simulation model.

    PubMed Central

    White, P C; Lewis, A J; Harris, S

    1997-01-01

    A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to assess the potential of fertility control, based on a yet-to-be-developed oral bait-delivered contraceptive directed at females, for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in south-west England. The contraceptive had a lifelong effect so that females rendered sterile in any particular year remained so for the rest of their lives. The efficacy of fertility control alone repeated annually for varying periods of time was compared with a single culling operation and integrated control involving an initial single cull followed by annually repeated fertility control. With fertility control alone, in no instance was the disease eradicated completely while a viable badger population (mean group size of at least one individual) was still maintained. Near eradication of the disease (less than 1% prevalence) combined with the survival of a minimum viable badger population was only achieved under a very limited set of conditions, either with high efficiency of control (95%) over a short time period (1-3 years) or a low efficiency of control (20%) over an intermediate time period (10-20 years). Under these conditions, it took more than 20 years for the disease to decline to such low levels. A single cull of 80% efficiency succeeded in near eradication of the disease (below 1% prevalence) after a period of 6-8 years, while still maintaining a viable badger population. Integrated strategies reduced disease prevalence more rapidly and to lower levels than culling alone, although the mean badger group size following the onset of control was smaller. Under certain integrated strategies, principally where a high initial cull (80%) was followed by fertility control over a short (1-3 year) time period, the disease could be completely eradicated while a viable badger population was maintained. However, even under the most favourable conditions of integrated control, it took on average more than 12 years following the onset of control for the disease to disappear completely from the badger population. These results show that whilst fertility control would not be a successful strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badgers if used alone, it could be effective if used with culling as part of an integrated strategy. This type of integrated strategy is likely to be more effective in terms of disease eradication than a strategy employing culling alone. However, the high cost of developing a suitable fertility control agent, combined with the welfare and conservation implications, are significant factors which should be taken into account when considering its possible use as a means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in the UK. PMID:9447730

  1. Diet-induced and physiologically occurring hypercholesterolemias in the spontaneous hypothyroid European badger (Meles meles L.): a density gradient study of lipoprotein profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Michel Laplaud; Laurence Beaubatie; Daniel Maurel

    As previously shown in this laboratory (Laplaud, P. M. et al. J. Lipid Res. 1980. 21: 724-738), the European badger is, with regard to its plasma lipid transport system, an original and complex animal of great potential interest to li- poprotein research. In an effort to study the response of this animal to cholesterol feeding, we gave a diet supplemented

  2. The distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection in naturally infected badgers.

    PubMed

    Corner, Leigh A L; O'Meara, D; Costello, E; Lesellier, S; Gormley, E

    2012-11-01

    Populations of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis infection) are a significant reservoir of infection for cattle in Ireland and the United Kingdom. In this study the distribution of infection, histological lesions and gross lesions was determined in a sample of 132 culled badgers from naturally-infected wild populations. Badgers were culled when an epidemiological investigation following a tuberculosis breakdown in a cattle herd implicated badgers as the probable source of infection. The definition of tuberculosis infection was based on the isolation of M. bovis from tissues or clinical samples. An accurate diagnosis of infection was achieved by culturing a wide range of lymph nodes (LN) and organ tissues (mean 32.1) and clinical samples (faeces and urine) from each badger. Infection was detected in 57/132 badgers (43.2%). Histological lesions consistent with tuberculosis were seen in 39/57 (68.4%) culture-positive and 7/75 (9.3%) culture-negative animals. Gross lesions were seen in only 30/57 (52.6%) infected badgers, leaving a high proportion (47.4%) of infected animals with latent infection (no grossly visible lesions). The most frequently infected tissues were the lungs and axillary LN, followed by the deep cervical LN, parotid LN and tracheobronchial LN. The data support the hypotheses that in badgers there are only two significant routes of infection, namely, the lower respiratory tract and bite wounds, and that badgers are very susceptible to infection but resistant to the development and progression of the disease. At all levels of disease severity, infection was found in widely dispersed anatomical locations suggesting that there is early dissemination of infection in the period preceding the development of active immunity. PMID:22542391

  3. Advances and prospects for management of TB transmission between badgers and cattle.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gavin J; Carter, Stephen P; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is the most serious endemic disease facing the livestock industry in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (RoI), where its management has been confounded by the presence of persistent infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles). Field evidence suggests that the social structure of badger populations can have an important influence on disease dynamics, and on the outcome of management interventions. Recent, large-scale badger culling experiments in the UK and RoI had complex epidemiological outcomes. In the UK, proactive culling led to reduced bTB incidence in cattle herds inside culled areas, but a temporary increase in adjacent areas. Reactive culling in response to herd breakdowns was associated with an increase in the incidence of bTB in cattle. In contrast, badger culling in RoI was reported to have only beneficial effects on bTB incidence in cattle. The reasons for these differences are not clear. The complexity of the evidence base for culling is highlighted by the different management approaches currently being adopted by the different authorities of the UK and RoI. It is generally accepted that a holistic approach to bTB management, which targets both cattle and wildlife, is necessary. Consequently recent research activities have also focussed on cattle and badger vaccines, and biosecurity on farms. This paper describes recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of bTB in badgers and the consequences of culling, and current research to develop approaches for the vaccination of badgers, and methods of managing the risks of contact between badgers and cattle in farm buildings. PMID:21450417

  4. Badger density and distribution of setts in Bia³owie¿a Primeval Forest (Poland and Belarus) compared to other Eurasian populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksei N. BUNEVICH

    2 . In the whole BPF, badger main setts were spaced regularly, with the nearest neighbour distance between active setts varying from 2.2 to 13.3 km (mean = 5.3 km, SD = 2.1). Surveys of 21 main setts during 1979-1999 (totally 171 sett-years) revealed that badgers occupied the setts in 68.4% of cases, raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides in 12.9%, and

  5. The impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Griffin; D. H. Williams; G. E. Kelly; T. A. Clegg; I. O’Boyle; J. D. Collins; S. J. More

    2005-01-01

    In Ireland, the herd prevalence of bovine tuberculosis has remained stable for several decades, and in common with several other countries, progress towards eradication has stalled. There is evidence in support of the potential role of infected badgers (Meles meles, a protected species) in bovine tuberculosis in Ireland and Britain. However, this evidence on its own has not been sufficient

  6. Impacts of removing badgers on localised counts of hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Trewby, Iain D; Young, Richard; McDonald, Robbie A; Wilson, Gavin J; Davison, John; Walker, Neil; Robertson, Andrew; Doncaster, C Patrick; Delahay, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the interactions among mammalian predators that eat or compete with one another is rare, due to the ethical and logistical challenges of managing wild populations in a controlled and replicated way. Here, we report on the opportunistic use of a replicated and controlled culling experiment (the Randomised Badger Culling Trial) to investigate the relationship between two sympatric predators: European badgers Meles meles and western European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus. In areas of preferred habitat (amenity grassland), counts of hedgehogs more than doubled over a 5-year period from the start of badger culling (from 0.9 ha-1 pre-cull to 2.4 ha-1 post-cull), whereas hedgehog counts did not change where there was no badger culling (0.3-0.3 hedgehogs ha-1). This trial provides experimental evidence for mesopredator release as an outcome of management of a top predator. PMID:24736454

  7. Habitat preferences of the native badger and the invasive raccoon dog in southern Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaarina Kauhala; Miina Auttila

    2010-01-01

    We compared the habitat preferences of the alien raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1834) and the native badger Meles meles (Linnaeus, 1758) in two areas (Ruissalo and Tuulos) in southern Finland by radio-tracking the animals during summer from\\u000a 2005 to 2008. We assumed that the habitat preferences of these two medium-sized carnivores differ to some extent (ie they\\u000a are able

  8. BCG Vaccination Reduces Risk of Tuberculosis Infection in Vaccinated Badgers and Unvaccinated Badger Cubs

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stephen P.; Chambers, Mark A.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Schuchert, Pia; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Murray, Alistair; Rogers, Fiona; Gettinby, George; Smith, Graham C.; Delahay, Richard J.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles). Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio?=?0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.52) the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio?=?0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.88) in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio?=?0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.76; P?=?0.03). When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio?=?0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.81; P?=?0.02). PMID:23251352

  9. Controlling Badger Damage 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service

    2004-06-28

    Dens or holes dug by badgers can be a hazard to livestock, horseback riders and machinery. Badgers can be controlled by trapping, shooting, habitat modification or frightening them away with bright lights....

  10. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; Macarthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1?km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485?km?2 (95% confidence interval 0.449–0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400–76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985–88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2–2.9%), equating to an 88% (70–105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83–123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (?25 to +49%). PMID:24457532

  11. Use of an electronic nose to diagnose Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and cattle.

    PubMed

    Fend, R; Geddes, R; Lesellier, S; Vordermeier, H-M; Corner, L A L; Gormley, E; Costello, E; Hewinson, R G; Marlin, D J; Woodman, A C; Chambers, M A

    2005-04-01

    It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB. The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has been attributed in part to a reservoir of the infection in badgers (Meles meles). Accurate and reliable diagnosis of infection is the cornerstone of TB control. Bacteriological diagnosis has these characteristics, but only with samples collected postmortem. Unlike significant wild animal reservoirs of M. bovis that are considered pests in other countries, such as the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, the badger and its sett are protected under United Kingdom legislation (The Protection of Badgers Act 1992). Therefore, an accurate in vitro test for badgers is needed urgently to determine the extent of the reservoir of infection cheaply and without destroying badgers. For cattle, a rapid on-farm test to complement the existing tests (the skin test and gamma interferon assay) would be highly desirable. To this end, we have investigated the potential of an electronic nose (EN) to diagnose infection of cattle or badgers with M. bovis, using a serum sample. Samples were obtained from both experimentally infected badgers and cattle, as well as naturally infected badgers. Without exception, the EN was able to discriminate infected animals from controls as early as 3 weeks after infection with M. bovis, the earliest time point examined postchallenge. The EN approach described here is a straightforward alternative to conventional methods of TB diagnosis, and it offers considerable potential as a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means of diagnosing M. bovis infection in cattle and badgers. PMID:15814995

  12. Use of an Electronic Nose To Diagnose Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fend, R.; Geddes, R.; Lesellier, S.; Vordermeier, H.-M.; Corner, L. A. L.; Gormley, E.; Costello, E.; Hewinson, R. G.; Marlin, D. J.; Woodman, A. C.; Chambers, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB. The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has been attributed in part to a reservoir of the infection in badgers (Meles meles). Accurate and reliable diagnosis of infection is the cornerstone of TB control. Bacteriological diagnosis has these characteristics, but only with samples collected postmortem. Unlike significant wild animal reservoirs of M. bovis that are considered pests in other countries, such as the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, the badger and its sett are protected under United Kingdom legislation (The Protection of Badgers Act 1992). Therefore, an accurate in vitro test for badgers is needed urgently to determine the extent of the reservoir of infection cheaply and without destroying badgers. For cattle, a rapid on-farm test to complement the existing tests (the skin test and gamma interferon assay) would be highly desirable. To this end, we have investigated the potential of an electronic nose (EN) to diagnose infection of cattle or badgers with M. bovis, using a serum sample. Samples were obtained from both experimentally infected badgers and cattle, as well as naturally infected badgers. Without exception, the EN was able to discriminate infected animals from controls as early as 3 weeks after infection with M. bovis, the earliest time point examined postchallenge. The EN approach described here is a straightforward alternative to conventional methods of TB diagnosis, and it offers considerable potential as a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means of diagnosing M. bovis infection in cattle and badgers. PMID:15814995

  13. Immunological responses and protective immunity in BCG vaccinated badgers following endobronchial infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, Sandrine; Corner, Leigh; Costello, Eamon; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Singh, Mahavir; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark; Gormley, Eamonn

    2009-01-14

    European badgers (Meles meles) are a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and are implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle in Ireland and Great Britain. The development of a vaccine for use in badgers is considered a key element of any campaign to eradicate the disease in livestock in both countries. In this study we have vaccinated groups of badgers with approximately 5 x 10(5)cfu of the BCG vaccine delivered via two alternative routes, subcutaneous and mucosal (intranasal/conjunctival). Following experimental endobronchial infection with approximately 10(4)cfu of M. bovis, all badgers were euthanised at 12 weeks post-infection. At post-mortem examination both vaccinated groups had significantly reduced severity of disease compared with the non-vaccinated controls. The analysis of immune responses throughout the study showed that vaccination with BCG did not generate any detectable immunological responses as measured by IFN-gamma production in antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and IgG serological responses. However, the levels of the responses increased following M. bovis infection, and the kinetic profiles corresponded to the severity of lesions recorded post-mortem. Significant differences were observed in the timing of development of the immune responses between vaccinates and controls. The results suggest that the immunological responses are associated with the levels of protective immunity and could be used as markers to monitor control of disease in badgers following vaccination. PMID:19010372

  14. Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Flavie; Johnston, W. Thomas; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only). Methodology/Principal Findings New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. Conclusions/Significance The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission. PMID:21464920

  15. Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB) in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles). The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to reduce bTB in badgers include efforts to minimise such external sources of infection. PMID:22738118

  16. Evidence for a Role of the Host-Specific Flea (Paraceras melis) in the Transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European Badger

    PubMed Central

    Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W.; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

  17. Niche relations among three sympatric Mediterranean carnivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose M. Fedriani; Francisco Palomares; Miguel Delibes

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies carried out in the Doñana National Park reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were killed by Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), whereas similar-sized Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) were not. Therefore, we predicted that fox would avoid lynx predation risk by niche segregation whereas we did not expect\\u000a such a segregation between badger and lynx. As an approach for evaluating

  18. BADGER MOVEMENT ECOLOGY IN COLORADO AGRICULTURAL AREAS AFTER A FIRE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CRAIG A. RAMEY; JEAN B. BOURASSA

    While investigating the American badger (Taxidea taxus) in eastern Colorado's wheatlands, we studied 3 badgers which were affected by a 2.1 km2 man-made fire and compared them to 2 adjacent badgers unaffected by the fire. All badgers were equipped with radio-telemetry collars and generally located day and night for approximately 1 month pre-fire and 3 weeks post-fire. Three point triangulation

  19. Habitat associations of American badgers in southeastern British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clayton D. Apps; Nancy J. Newhouse; Trevor A. Kinley

    2002-01-01

    American badgers (Taxidea taxus) are endangered in British Columbia due to habitat loss and human-caused mortality. To better understand human impacts and to promote conservation planning, we described badger habitat rela- tionships. At two spatial scales, we analyzed selection by 12 radio-implanted resident badgers for soil composition, for - est overstory, land cover, vegetation productivity, terrain, and human influence. At

  20. Population subdivision and peripheral isolation in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and implications

    E-print Network

    Swanson, Bradley J.

    Population subdivision and peripheral isolation in American badgers (Taxidea taxus.J. Kyle Abstract: In Canada, three subspecies of American badgers (Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777 mitochondrial control region sequences within and among badger subspecies (Taxidea taxus jacksoni Schantz, 1946

  1. The BADGER Inline Equation of State Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heltemes, Thad A.

    The complex multiphysics capabilities of radiation hydrodynamics codes require detailed equation of state (EOS) data. These EOS data need to accurately describe the behavior of materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. This is particularly true for integrated high-gain target explosion --- reaction chamber response simulations where conditions ranging from thermonuclear to solid-state are present throughout the simulation. The models employed to facilitate representing the desired material(s) need to represent solid, liquid, gas and plasma states of matter. Each of these states of matter have unique physical phenomena that must be described in an EOS model. In addition to pure material phase information, an ideal EOS model will incorporate phase-change and chemical reaction information. The BADGER Fortran EOS library was created to meet the needs of these multiphysics simulation codes. BADGER incorporates the most recently published ion EOS, electron EOS and ionization models. It was written as a software library with the express intent of being directly linked into external codes to eliminate the requirement of generating tabular data. The library accepts an arbitrary material composition of natural elements or isotopes and calculates the EOS variables and mean ionization based on the density, temperature and plasma condition (local thermodynamic equilibrium or non-LTE). The results are stored in a data array that is accessible to the external code. When an EOS calculation is requested, the material is broken down into individual isotopes and the EOS/ionization calculation is performed on each isotope. BADGER assumes a thermodynamically consistent average atom model, so the final material result is simply the sum of the isotopic constituents. The BADGER ion and electron EOS models have been verified against SESAME tabulated EOS data from Los Alamos National Laboratory for aluminum and tungsten and the ionization model was verified against FLYCHK tabulated mean ionization data from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The BADGER EOS library will allow for the first time modeling of integrated ICF target and chamber systems using a single, consistent EOS and ionization model throughout.

  2. BADGERS (Taxidea taxus) AS OCCASIONAL PESTS IN AGRICULTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Minta; Rex E. Marsh

    1988-01-01

    The badger (Taxidea taxus). because of its strong propensity for digging, is considered North America's fossorial carnivore, feeding mostly on ground squirrels, pocket gophers, and mice throughout much of the western and midwestern continent. Badger excavations, primarily in search of food, produce mounds and deep holes which can damage alfalfa and other crops and damage farm equipment and water systems.

  3. EFFECTS OF A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRUS CANINE DISTEMPER VACCINE ON CAPTIVE BADGERS (TAXIDEA TAXUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Goodrich; E. S. Williams; S. W. Buskirk

    We vaccinated six captive badgers housed with five controls, and monitored blood antibody titers and white cell counts of both groups for 63 days postvaccination between 29 August and 3 December 1992. Five vaccinated badgers responded with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024 by 63 days postvaccination, whereas the sixth badger did not respond. Treatment badgers also had significant

  4. Tuberculosis in East Sussex. II. Aspects of badger ecology and surveillance for tuberculosis in badger populations (1976-1984).

    PubMed Central

    Wilesmith, J. W.; Sayers, P. E.; Bode, R.; Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.; Brewer, J. I.; Hillman, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    Following the disclosure of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers in East Sussex in 1976, badgers have been examined from and around farms on which cattle have become infected, but with no other attributable source of infection. These farms are confined to the downland of the south-west of the county and M. bovis has been confirmed in badger populations utilising their land. The available evidence indicates that M. bovis infection in badgers is also confined to this area. A detailed study in one area on the South Downs suggested that M. bovis is endemic in the badger population and therefore presents a continued risk for cattle occupying the area. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 1(Contd.) PMID:3525670

  5. 75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS, and Service...leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee...leased workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS, and...

  6. Sexual differences in spatio-temporal interaction among badgers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Minta

    1993-01-01

    I tested the following hypotheses of territorial polygyny on badgers (Taxidea taxus: Carnivora; Mustelidae): Competition among adult females for food should result in intrasexual territoriality, while male\\u000a competition for females should result in larger territories that encompass multiple female territories. The sagebrush-grassland\\u000a study area (Wyoming, USA) contained a depauperate terrestrial fauna with a dense badger population preying on high densities

  7. Badger Roadkill Risk in Relation to the Presence of Culverts and Jersey Barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor A. Kinley; Nancy J. Newhouse

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The subspecies of American badger,found in British Columbia,(Taxidea taxus jeffersonii) is provincially red-listed and nationally endangered.,The primary cause,of mortality is roadkill. Eur opean,badgers,(Melesmeles ) and other carnivores,are known to pass under highways using culverts, and there are indications that American badgers do also, suggesting,that the presence,of more culverts might be associated with lower roadkill risk for American badgers. Furthermore,

  8. HUNTING TECHNIQUES AND TOOL USE BY NORTH AMERICAN BADGERS PREYING ON RICHARDSON'S GROUND SQUIRRELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail R. Michener

    2004-01-01

    Techniques used by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) when hunting Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) were assessed over a 15-year period in southern Alberta to determine the relationship between activity of prey and methods used to capture prey. Badgers frequently hunted hibernating squirrels in autumn, sometimes hunted infants in spring, and rarely hunted active squirrels in summer. Badgers always captured

  9. FOOD HABITS OF THE AMERICAN BADGER (Taxidea taxus) IN SOUTHERN TEXAS: AN OBSERVATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Collins; Louis A. Harveson; Donald C. Ruthven

    Limited information exists on American badgers (Taxidea taxus) within their southern distribution. Our goal was to gather information on diet of badgers in southern Texas. We collected 6 badgers from private ranches and road sides in 2 counties (Dimmitt and Duval). Percent content of food items was calculated for each sample. Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) bean pods,

  10. Serologic testing of badgers to monitor plague in southwestern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Messick, J P; Smith, G W; Barnes, A M

    1983-01-01

    Serologic testing of badgers (Taxidea taxus) was used to monitor plague (Yersinia pestis) in a Townsend ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendi) population in 10,000 ha of the Snake River Birds of Prey Study Area, Idaho. Eighty-six percent of the 294 sera tested in 1975 and in 1976 were positive. Significantly fewer (72%) seropositives occurred in 1977. Seasonal changes in the percentage of seropositives and the decline in 1977 were probably due to the phenology of the Townsend ground squirrel and the proportion of that species in the badger's diet. Eight Townsend ground squirrels found dead had positive bacteriologic tests for plague; however, a high mortality in the ground squirrel population was not observed. Food habits and movement patterns of badgers made them ideal for documenting the geographical and temporal characteristics of the plague focus. PMID:6842729

  11. Effects of a modified-live virus canine distemper vaccine on captive badgers (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    Goodrich, J M; Williams, E S; Buskirk, S W

    1994-10-01

    We vaccinated six captive badgers housed with five controls, and monitored blood antibody titers and white cell counts of both groups for 63 days postvaccination between 29 August and 3 December 1992. Five vaccinated badgers responded with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024 by 63 days postvaccination, whereas the sixth badger did not respond. Treatment badgers also had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in lymphocytes on days 16, 29, and 63. No badgers developed clinical signs of distemper. Control badgers did not produce antibodies against CD virus; thus, the vaccine virus probably was not transmitted between treatment and control animals. The vaccine appears safe for use in healthy badgers, but additional safety and efficacy study is needed. PMID:7760477

  12. The contribution of badgers to confirmed tuberculosis in cattle in high-incidence areas in England.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Christl A; Nouvellet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The role of badgers in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle is widely debated as part of the wider discussions on whether badger culling and/or badger vaccination should play a role in the government's strategy to eradicate cattle TB. The key source of information on the contribution from badgers within high-cattle-TB-incidence areas of England is the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT), with two analyses providing estimates of the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB in these areas. A dynamical model characterizing the association between the estimated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine TB) among badgers culled in the initial RBCT proactive culls and the incidence among sympatric cattle herds prior to culling is used to estimate the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed TB herd breakdowns among proactively culled areas. The resulting estimate based on all data (52%) has considerable uncertainty (bootstrap 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-100%). Separate analyses of experimental data indicated that the largest estimated reduction in confirmed cattle TB achieved inside the proactive culling areas was 54% (overdispersion-adjusted 95% CI: 38-66%), providing a lower bound for the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB. Thus, taking into account both results, the best estimate of the average overall contribution of badgers is roughly half, with 38% being a robustly estimated lower bound. However, the dynamical model also suggested that only 5.7% (bootstrap 95% CI: 0.9-25%) of the transmission to cattle herds is badger-to-cattle with the remainder of the average overall contribution from badgers being in the form of onward cattle-to-cattle transmission. These estimates, confirming that badgers do play a role in bovine TB transmission, inform debate even if they do not point to a single way forward. PMID:24761309

  13. Translocation as a Promising Tool to Aid Recovery of Badger Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NANCY J. NEWHOUSE; TREVOR A. KINLEY; G. TIMOTHY; RICHARD W. KLAFKI

    The subspecies of American badger 1 that occurs in British Columbia (Taxidea taxus jeffersonii) is on the provincial Red List, and is listed federally by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) as Endangered. Within the East Kootenay Trench, the badger population in the Kootenay River valley appears to be stable to possibly increasing slightly, but

  14. Badger (Taxidea taxus) disturbances increase soil heterogeneity in a degraded shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western United States, overgrazing, weed invasion and wildfire have resulted in the conversion of shrub-steppe to annual grasslands, with substantial effects on ecosystem function. In these landscapes, badgers disturb large areas of soil while foraging for prey. Mounds created by badgers cont...

  15. Badger ( Taxidea taxus) disturbances increase soil heterogeneity in a degraded shrub-steppe ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Eldridge; W. G. Whitford

    2009-01-01

    In the western United States, overgrazing, weed invasion and wildfire have resulted in the conversion of shrub-steppe to annual grasslands, with substantial effects on ecosystem function. In these landscapes, badgers disturb large areas of soil while foraging for fossorial animals. Mounds created by badgers contained the lowest concentrations of total carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, mineral nitrogen and mineralizable nitrogen, inter-mound

  16. Eliminating bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: insights from a dynamic model

    E-print Network

    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Wood, James L. N.

    2015-05-13

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a multi-species infection that commonly affects cattle and badgers in Great Britain. Despite years of study, the impact of badgers on BTB incidence in cattle is poorly understood. Using a two-host transmission model...

  17. Killing technique of North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail R. Michener; Andrew N. Iwaniuk

    2001-01-01

    Carcasses of 13 Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) cached during autumn by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in southern Alberta, Canada, were inspected to determine the capture and killing technique. Regardless of prey size (251-651 g) or torpor status (normothermic or torpid), badgers killed ground squir - rels with a single grasping bite directed dorsally or laterally to the thorax.

  18. Seasonal serum urea-creatinine ratios in wild and captive American badgers, Taxidea taxus.

    PubMed

    Harlow, H J; Nelson, R A

    1990-01-01

    1. Blood samples were taken from 22 American badgers in the field during different seasons and analysed for urea and creatinine. 2. The urea-creatinine ratio (U/C) of these animals did not decrease during the winter as previously reported for black bears. This suggests that the badger, unlike the bear, does not demonstrate a winter physiological state of protein conservation. 3. This may be the consequence of intermittent ingestion of protein by the badger during the winter, or due to biochemical mechanisms unique to the bear which allows for protein turnover and resynthesis. 4. Captive badgers fasted in the laboratory during the winter also did not exhibit lower U/C ratios and protein catabolism, compared to a summer fast, thereby supporting the latter hypothesis that badgers do not have an adjustment in protein catabolism during the winter season. PMID:1968814

  19. Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A.; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Methodology Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; “Control”, “Feed Storage”, “Cattle Housing” and “Both”, whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Results Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle. PMID:22220199

  20. A forensic STR profiling system for the Eurasian badger: A framework for developing profiling systems for wildlife species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Dawnay; Rob Ogden; Roger S. Thorpe; Lisa C. Pope; Deborah A. Dawson; Ross McEwing

    2008-01-01

    Developing short tandem repeat (STR) profiling systems for forensic identification is complicated in animal species. Obtaining a representative number of individuals from populations, limited access to family groups and a lack of developed STR markers can make adhering to human forensic guidelines difficult. Furthermore, a lack of animal specific guidelines may explain why many wildlife forensic STR profiling systems developed

  1. Novel calicivirus from a ferret badger (Melogale moschata) in China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fa-Ming; Li, Yue-Hong; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Miao, Fu-Chun; Zhao, Jing-Hui; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2015-07-01

    We describe the isolation and complete genome sequence of a new calicivirus, FBCV-JX12, isolated from a ferret badger (Melogale moschata). Comparison of FBCV-JX12 with other vesiviruses revealed that it shared the highest amino acid sequence identities of 71.6, 60.5, and 59.3 % in the nonstructural protein, VP1, and VP2, respectively, with MCV-DL2007 (mink calicivirus). Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genomic sequence showed that it clustered most closely with MCV-DL2007 of the genus Vesivirus, but with low nucleotide similarity in the three open reading frames (62.1-68.5 %). PMID:25976558

  2. Correction to nickerson and mele-taylor (2014).

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Reports an error in "Empathetic responsiveness, group norms, and prosocial affiliations in bullying roles" by Amanda B. Nickerson and Danielle Mele-Taylor (School Psychology Quarterly, 2014[Mar], Vol 29[1], 99-109). There were two errors in the Method section in the Participants subsection. The following sentence was incorrectly set, "An a priori power analysis ( ? = .05, four predictor variables, anticipated effect size of .05, and a power level of .08) indicated that 242 participants would allow for sufficient power." The effect size should be .50 and power level should be .80. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-11741-005.) In this study, the relationships among gender, empathetic responsiveness, perceived group norms, prosocial affiliations, and bullying roles were examined for 262 fifth- through eighth-grade students (n = 141 males; n = 121 females). According to the Bullying Participant Roles Survey (BPRS), participants were identified as defenders (n = 135; 51.5%), victims (n = 48; 18.3%), bullies (n = 39; 14.9%), and outsiders (n = 26; 9.9%). Results of multinominal logistic regression revealed that empathetic responsiveness was a significant predictor of defending behavior and an inverse predictor of outsider behavior. Gender also predicted defending behavior, with boys being more likely to defend than girls. In addition, participants who indicated that their friends supported bullying were more likely to be involved in bullying perpetration and victimization. An unexpected interaction effect between prosocial affiliations and group norms indicated that girls who reported more probullying group norms but whose friends reported having more prosocial tendencies were more likely to assume roles of bullies and victims than outsiders. Implications for practice are outlined, including recommendations for antibullying initiatives. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26009939

  3. Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions Liang Fu, C. L. Kane, and E. J. Mele

    E-print Network

    Kane, Charles

    Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions Liang Fu, C. L. Kane, and E. J. Mele Department (STI) topological insulators. The WTI are like layered 2D QSH states, but are destroyed by disorder insulator by a Z2 topological invariant [6], analogous to the TKNN invariant of the integer quantum Hall

  4. Subepidermal vesiculobullous filarial dermatitis in free-ranging American badgers (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D; Williams, E S; Welch, V; Nunamaker, C E; Lynn, C

    1993-07-01

    Skin and superficial lymph nodes from the 65 juvenile (< 1 year old) and adult free-ranging American badgers (Taxidea taxus) of both sexes that were killed from late July to late October 1991 as part of the recovery program for the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) were examined for evidence of Filaria taxideae. Fifty-one badgers (51/64, 80%) were infected. Both adult badgers (30/32, 94%) and juvenile badgers (21/32, 67%) were infected by adult filarial worms, which occurred most commonly in subcutaneous tissues of the inguinal area, proximal thigh, and ventral abdomen. Sections of formalin-fixed skin and, from many badgers, subcutaneous lymph nodes were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Jones' methenamine silver (for basement membrane), and an avidin biotin peroxidase complex method (for factor VIII-related antigen). Superficial dermatitis attributable to embryonated filarial ova and larvae was present in 26/64 badgers (41%), all of them adult (> 1 year old). Acute lesions consisted of multifocal vesiculobullous dermoepidermal separation and superficial perivascular dermatitis. Ultrastructural examination and Jones' silver-stained sections revealed separation between basal keratinocytes and the basal lamina (subepidermal vesiculation). Older lesions consisted of ulcerative superficial granulomatous dermatitis associated with ova and larvae. Multifocal granulomatous endolymphangitis, which involved afferent lymphatics of subcutaneous lymph nodes, was associated with viable as well as degenerative ova and larvae. Adult filarial worms were found in the subcutis alone and did not provoke an inflammatory reaction. PMID:8212456

  5. Complication associated with abdominal surgical implantation of a radio transmitter in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jessica H; Gaffney, Patricia M; Gilardi, Kirsten; Murray, Michael; Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K

    2010-03-01

    Radio telemetry has greatly advanced the understanding of wild animal ecology. Telemetry studies must ensure that placement of transmitters does not influence the health and behavior of study animals. Here, 10 American badgers (Taxidea taxus) were implanted with beeswax-coated abdominal radio transmitters under general anesthesia and tracked for an average of 14 mo. Behavior and movements of all badgers indicated successful short-term recovery from implantation; however, three mortalities were observed between 5 mo and 15 mo after capture. Cause of death could not be determined for two badgers due to decomposition of the carcasses. A third badger that was recovered in good postmortem condition died from sepsis secondary to a transmitter-related omental torsion. This study indicates that there is some risk associated with abdominally implanted radio transmitters in badgers. Future studies involving implanted transmitters in mammals should focus on identifying safe and effective telemetry devices that do not affect the health of study animals. American badger, omental adhesion, peritoneal implant, telemetry, Taxidea taxus. PMID:20722276

  6. Eliminating bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: insight from a dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Wood, James L. N.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a multi-species infection that commonly affects cattle and badgers in Great Britain. Despite years of study, the impact of badgers on BTB incidence in cattle is poorly understood. Using a two-host transmission model of BTB in cattle and badgers, we find that published data and parameter estimates are most consistent with a system at the threshold of control. The most consistent explanation for data obtained from cattle and badger populations includes within-host reproduction numbers close to 1 and between-host reproduction numbers of approximately 0.05. In terms of controlling infection in cattle, reducing cattle-to-cattle transmission is essential. In some regions, even large reductions in badger prevalence can have a modest impact on cattle infection and a multi-stranded approach is necessary that also targets badger-to-cattle transmission directly. The new perspective highlighted by this two-host approach provides insight into the control of BTB in Great Britain. PMID:25972466

  7. Farmer attitudes to vaccination and culling of badgers in controlling bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Warren, M; Lobley, M; Winter, M

    2013-07-13

    Controversy persists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland concerning methods of controlling the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between badgers and cattle. The National Trust, a major land-owning heritage organisation, in 2011, began a programme of vaccinating badgers against bTB on its Killerton Estate in Devon. Most of the estate is farmed by 18 tenant farmers, who thus have a strong interest in the Trust's approach, particularly as all have felt the effects of the disease. This article reports on a study of the attitudes to vaccination of badgers and to the alternative of a culling programme, using face-to-face interviews with 14 of the tenants. The results indicated first that the views of the respondents were more nuanced than the contemporary public debate about badger control would suggest. Secondly, the attitude of the interviewees to vaccination of badgers against bTB was generally one of resigned acceptance. Thirdly, most respondents would prefer a combination of an effective vaccination programme with an effective culling programme, the latter reducing population of density sufficiently (and preferably targeting the badgers most likely to be diseased) for vaccination to have a reasonable chance of success. While based on a small sample, these results will contribute to the vigorous debate concerning contrasting policy approaches to bTB control in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. PMID:23775132

  8. 14th Annual Conference Central Eurasian

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    The State of Social Mobilization in Central Eurasia Book Sales Identity Politic (Pre-)Islamic Rituals: Islam and the State in Central Asia Contemporary Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan Past Eurasian Studies: New Foundations for the Development of Reseach within the Region Post-Soviet State

  9. Rice-Mele model with topological solitons in an optical lattice

    E-print Network

    Anna Przysiezna; Omjyoti Dutta; Jakub Zakrzewski

    2014-12-19

    Attractive ultra-cold fermions trapped in a one-dimensional periodically shaken opticla lattices are considered. For an appropriate resonant shaking the system realizes paradigmatic dimes physics described by Rice-Mele model. The important feature of our system is the possible presence of controlled defects. They result in the creation of topologically protected loclaized modes carrying fractional particle number. Their possible experimental signatures are discussed.

  10. Rice–Mele model with topological solitons in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przysi??na, Anna; Dutta, Omjyoti; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Attractive ultracold fermions trapped in a one-dimensional periodically shaken optical lattice are considered. For an appropriate resonant shaking, a dimerized structure emerges for which the system realizes paradigmatic physics described by the Rice–Mele model. The emergent nature of the system together with density fluctuations or controlled modifications of lattice filling allow for the creation of defects. Those defects lead to topologically protected localized modes carrying the fractional particle number. Their possible experimental signatures are discussed.

  11. Atmospheric controls on Eurasian snow extent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martyn P. Clark; Mark C. Serreze; David A. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Composite analyses, based on weekly snow-cover charts, temperature, sea level pressure, cyclone tracks and a rotated PCA of daily filtered 700 hPa geopotential height are used to examine relationships between the dominant modes of low-frequency atmospheric variability and mid-winter snow extent over the Eurasian continent. Two of the circulation modes examined have been identified previously and represent the North Atlantic

  12. EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL MANAGEMENT USING NEWLY DEVELOPED TECHNOLOGIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Newroth; Roger J. Soar

    1986-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, managing Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) integrates harvesting, tillage, bottom barrier applications, and diver-operated dredging methods in annual control programs in nine lakes. Two tillage technologies developed in British Columbia for removing plant roots in high use public areas are not known to have been applied in other jurisdictions. Barge-mounted rototillers achieve 80 to 97 percent

  13. Influence of sampling scheme on the inference of sex-biased gene flow in the American badger

    E-print Network

    Latch, Emily K.

    (Taxidea taxus) E.M. Kierepka, E.K. Latch, and B.J. Swanson Abstract: Population genetics has fueled the American badger (Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777)), a highly elusive and poorly understood mustelid. A total: Taxidea taxus, American badger, sex-biased dispersal, sampling, spatial autocorrelation. Résumé : La

  14. Localized reactive badger culling increases risk of bovine tuberculosis in nearby cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Flavie; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2012-01-01

    Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle is complicated by the maintenance of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bTB) in badgers, acting as reservoirs of infection. Although over 20 000 badgers were culled to control bTB between 1975 and 1997, the incidence of bTB in cattle has substantially increased in parts of Great Britain in recent decades. Our case-control study, involving 1208 cattle herds, provides further evidence of the detrimental effect of localized reactive badger culling in response to the disclosure of a confirmed bTB herd breakdown in cattle. The presence of any reactive badger culling activity and increased numbers of badgers culled in the vicinity of a herd were associated with significantly increased bTB risk, even after adjusting for other important local risk factors. Such findings may partly explain why some earlier localized approaches to bTB control were ineffective. PMID:21752812

  15. Pathogen and rodenticide exposure in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in California.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jessica H; Girard, Yvette A; Gilardi, Kirsten; Hernandez, Yvette; Poppenga, Robert; Chomel, Bruno B; Foley, Janet E; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-04-01

    Urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. American badgers (Taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in California, USA, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. As such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to control nuisance wildlife on agricultural lands. We evaluated free-ranging badgers in California for exposure to pathogens and anticoagulant rodenticides that pose a risk to wildlife, domestic animals, or public health. We found serologic evidence of badger exposure to Francisella tularensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, canine distemper virus, and three Bartonella species: B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Badger tissues contained anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum and bromadiolone, commonly used to control periurban rodent pests. These data provide a preliminary investigation of pathogen and toxicant exposure in the wild badger population. PMID:22493124

  16. Eurasian Heat Waves: Mechanisms and Predictability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hailan; Schubert, Siegfried; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the NASA MERRA reanalysis and GEOS 5 model simulations to examine the causes of Eurasian heat waves including the recent extreme events that occurred in Europe during 2003 and in Russia during 2010. The focus is on the warm season and the part of the Eurasian continent that extends north of about 40oN, or roughly to the north of the mean upper tropospheric jet stream. The results show that such extreme events are an amplification of natural patterns of atmospheric variability that develop over the Eurasian continent as a result of internal atmospheric forcing. The amplification occurs when the wave occasionally becomes locked in place for several weeks to months resulting in extreme heat and drying with the location depending on the phase of the upper atmospheric wave. An ensemble of very long GEOS-S model simulations (spanning the 20th century) forced with observed SST and greenhouse gases show that the model is capable of generating very similar heat waves, and that they have become more intense in the last thirty years as a result of the overall warming of the Asian continent. Sensitivity experiments with perturbed initial conditions indicate that these events have limited predictability.

  17. Use of buspirone and enrichment to manage aberrant behavior in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    Gage, Laurie J

    2005-09-01

    A captive adult female American badger (Taxidea taxus) suffered periodic episodes of agitation and self-mutilation over the course of its lifetime. Initially environmental enrichment curtailed the aberrant behavior; however, intensifying clinical signs periodically required the use of diazepam for amelioration of the problem. When diazepam treatment failed to effectively manage a series of escalating behavioral problems, alternative therapy with buspirone, an azaperone anxiolytic, was initiated. The badger was treated with 10 mg buspirone p.o. b.i.d. for over 18 mo, during which time no undesirable behaviors or noticeable side effects were observed. PMID:17312776

  18. Using spatial information technologies for detecting and mapping Eurasian watermilfoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Everitt; M. R. Davis; F. L. Nibling

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the spectral light reflectance characteristics of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and the application of aerial colour-infrared (CIR) photography and videography for distinguishing infestations of this invasive, exotic, submersed aquatic weed in Texas waterways. Airborne videography was integrated with global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies for mapping the distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil. Field

  19. Valence bond phases in S = 1/2 Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad H; Mosadeq, Hamid; Shahbazi, Farhad; Jafari, S A

    2014-11-12

    The phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model in a classical limit [47] contains disordered regions in the coupling space, as the result of competition between different terms in the Hamiltonian, leading to frustration in finding a unique ground state. In this work we explore the nature of these phases in the quantum limit, for a S = 1/2. Employing exact diagonalization in Sz and nearest neighbour valence bond bases, and bond and plaquette valence bond mean field theories, we show that the disordered regions are divided into ordered quantum states in the form of plaquette valence bond crystals and staggered dimerized phases. PMID:25336537

  20. Valence bond phases in S = 1/2 Kane–Mele–Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Mohammad H.; Mosadeq, Hamid; Shahbazi, Farhad; Jafari, S. A.

    2014-11-01

    The phase diagram of the Kane–Mele–Heisenberg model in a classical limit [47] contains disordered regions in the coupling space, as the result of competition between different terms in the Hamiltonian, leading to frustration in finding a unique ground state. In this work we explore the nature of these phases in the quantum limit, for a S = 1/2. Employing exact diagonalization in Sz and nearest neighbour valence bond bases, and bond and plaquette valence bond mean field theories, we show that the disordered regions are divided into ordered quantum states in the form of plaquette valence bond crystals and staggered dimerized phases.

  1. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SENSITIVE AND ENDANGERED NORTHWESTERN BADGER POPULATIONS (TAXIDEA TAXUS TAXUS AND T. T. JEFFERSONII)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Kyle; Richard D. Weir; Nancy J. Newhouse; Helen Davis; Curtis Strobeck

    2004-01-01

    American badgers (Taxidea taxus) are semifossorial carnivores present in many arid regions of central and western North America. Negative demographic trends have prompted recent discussion concerning their conservation status in the northwestern portion of their range. As such, further information regarding the metapopulation structure of this species and factors affecting dispersal is needed. To provide a preliminary assessment of genetic

  2. Metabolic Adaptations to Prolonged Food-Deprivation by the American Badger Taxidea-Taxus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Harlow

    1981-01-01

    Energy expenditures for food processing, maintenance, and activity requirements were determined in the laboratory on the American badger, Taxidea taxus, both with ad lib. food and starved for 7, 20, and 30 days. Body weight decreased at about 76 g per day, resulting in a respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.83 after 30 days of starvation. Energy requirements were calculated from

  3. Reproductive Den Habitat Characterization of American Badgers (Taxidea taxus) in Central California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina Louise Huck

    2010-01-01

    The American badger (Taxidea taxus) is a species of special concern in California, and, as such, conservation measures are necessary. The goal of this study was to identify potential reproductive den habitat characteristics in order to more accurately predict critical reproductive habitat in central California grasslands. A paired study design was used to examine differences between reproductive and non-reproductive sites,

  4. Mesoscale modelling for an offshore wind farm Jake Badger*, Rebecca Barthelmie, Sten Frandsen, Merete Bruun Christiansen

    E-print Network

    Mesoscale modelling for an offshore wind farm Jake Badger*, Rebecca Barthelmie, Sten Frandsen. Here a mesoscale model study has been conducted at 2 km resolution to quantify wind conditions mesoscale modelling of the spatial variation of winds in the coastal zone is of value. Such knowledge can

  5. GameBadger: Design and Development of a Social Gaming Platform

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    their attempts to capitalize on mobile gaming's popularity. Of the 600,000 apps available on Apple's iTunes storeGameBadger: Design and Development of a Social Gaming Platform Brendan Curran, ´Angel Rodr proposition for Game Developers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4 Value proposition for Gamers

  6. Immunohistochemistry of parasitic subepidermal vesiculobullous disease in American badgers (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D; Welch, V; Williams, B

    1994-01-01

    Some populations of free-ranging American badgers (Taxidea taxus) develop a distinctive seasonal dermatitis due to the subcutaneous filariid Filaria taxideae. Subepidermal vesicles that contain filarial ova develop in thinly haired skin of the inguinal area, proximal thigh, and ventral abdomen. The purpose of this study was to establish by immunohistochemistry whether basement membrane components colocalized with the roof or floor of vesicles and to confirm that filarial ova occur in intradermal vessels. Samples of skin with characteristic F. taxideae-induced subepidermal vesicles were collected from 10 adult male (n = 8) and female (n = 2) badgers. Samples were fixed in formalin for 1-4 days and processed routinely into paraffin wax. Immunohistochemical staining for basement membrane was attempted with anti-collagen IV antibodies (AM168-5M, AR079-5R, AB748) and antilaminin antibodies (MA078-5C, AR078-5R, L-9393). Optimal results in skin from badgers were obtained using a biotin-streptavidin technique and AR079-5R (anti-human collagen IV) and AR078-5R (anti-murine laminin). There was positive staining of the floor of vesicles in 5 of 6 badgers tested with antibodies to laminin and collagen IV. In 5/10 badgers, filarial ova and first stage F. taxideae larvae were found in dilated vascular channels of the upper dermis, and these vessels stained positively for factor VIII-related antigen. The results suggest that F. taxideae-induced subepidermal separation occurs consistently in the lamina lucida portion of the basal lamina and that filarial ova occur in dermal vessels. PMID:8011785

  7. Architectural specialization of the intrinsic thoracic limb musculature of the American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    Moore, Alexis L; Budny, Joseph E; Russell, Anthony P; Butcher, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the relationships between muscle structure and digging function in fossorial species is limited. Badgers and other fossorial specialists are expected to have massive forelimb muscles with long fascicles capable of substantial shortening for high power and applying high out-force to the substrate. To explore this hypothesis, we quantified muscle architecture in the thoracic limb of the American badger (Taxidea taxus) and estimated the force, power, and joint torque of its intrinsic musculature in relation to the use of scratch-digging behavior. Architectural properties measured were muscle mass, belly length, fascicle length, pennation angle, and physiological cross-sectional area. Badgers possess hypertrophied shoulder flexors/humeral retractors, elbow extensors, and digital flexors. The triceps brachii is particularly massive and has long fascicles with little pennation, muscle architecture consistent with substantial shortening capability, and high power. A unique feature of badgers is that, in addition to elbow joint extension, two biarticular heads (long and medial) of the triceps are capable of applying high torques to the shoulder joint to facilitate retraction of the forelimb throughout the power stroke. The massive and complex digital flexors show relatively greater pennation and shorter fascicle lengths than the triceps brachii, as well as compartmentalization of muscle heads to accentuate both force production and range of shortening during flexion of the carpus and digits. Muscles of most functional groups exhibit some degree of specialization for high force production and are important for stabilizing the shoulder, elbow, and carpal joints against high limb forces generated during powerful digging motions. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis and indicate that forelimb muscle architecture is consistent with specializations for scratch-digging. Quantified muscle properties in the American badger serve as a comparator to evaluate the range of diversity in muscle structure and contractile function that exists in mammals specialized for fossorial habits. PMID:22987341

  8. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  9. Foods of American badgers in west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during the duck nesting season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roaldson, J.M.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Although the American badger (Taxidea taxus) is common in grasslands and preys on a wide diversity of foods including birds, little is known about badger diet in areas where nesting ducks are common. Small mammals, primarily Muridae and Geomyidae, were the most common food items in the diet of badgers collected from west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during April-July 1987 through 1990, based on analysis of gastrointestinal tracts of 47 adult ( 1/4 -y-old) and 5 juvenile (<6-mo-old) badgers. Remains of mammals occurred in 98% of samples from adult badgers. Small quantities of insects were found in 40% of adult samples. Bird remains were in 32% of adult samples, most birds identified as Anatidae; ducks or ducklings occurred in 27% and duck eggs in 60% of those samples. Remains of reptiles, amphibians and mollusks were present, but were less common than other foods. Insects and bird eggs were more common during spring (April-May) than summer (June-July). Birds were more frequent in diets of adults than juvenile badgers.

  10. Optimising and evaluating the characteristics of a multiple antigen ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a badger vaccine field trial.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Inma; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J; Whelan, Clare; Martin, Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A L; Murphy, Denise; De Jong, Mart C M

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU) obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%), while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation. PMID:24983473

  11. Optimising and Evaluating the Characteristics of a Multiple Antigen ELISA for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Badger Vaccine Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Inma; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J.; Whelan, Clare; Martin, Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Murphy, Denise; De Jong, Mart C. M.

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU) obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%), while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation. PMID:24983473

  12. USING SPATIAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DETECTING AND MAPPING EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the spectral light reflectance characteristics of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and the application of aerial color-infrared photography and videography for distinguishing infestations of this invasive, exotic, submerced aquatic weed in Texas waterways. Airbo...

  13. SEROLOGIC TESTING OF BADGERS TO MONITOR PLAGUE IN SOUTHWESTERN IDAHO1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Messick; Graham W. Smith; Allan M. Barnes

    ABSTRACT: Serologic,testing,of,badgers,(Taxidea,taxus),was,used,to,monitor,plague,(Yersinia pestis) in,a Townsend ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendi) population in 10,000 ha of the Snake River Birds of Prey Study Area, Idaho. Eighty-six percent of the 294 sera tested in 1975 and in 1976 were positive. Significantly,fewer,(72%) seropositives,occurred,in 1977. Seasonal,changes,in the percentage,of seropositives and,the,decline,in,1977 were,probably,due,to,the,phenology,of,the,Townsend,ground,squirrel,and,the proportion,of that,species,in the badger’s,diet. Eight,Townsend,ground,squirrels,found,dead,had,positive bacteriologic tests for plague; however, a high mortality in

  14. Torpor and Other Physiological Adaptations of the Badger (Taxidea-Taxus) to Cold Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Harlow

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen consumption (Vo2) and heart rate were measured at ambient temperatures between +20 and -40 C. Basal metabolic rate was 0.3 cm3\\/g*h (65 beats\\/min), the body temperature was 38 C, the lower critical temperature (Tlc) was 10 C, and conductance was 0.01225 cm3\\/g*hoC. Fat composition of 79 adult badgers captured during the winter showed maximal fat deposition of 31% body

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of the Viral Flora of Pine Marten and European Badger Feces

    PubMed Central

    van den Brand, Judith M. A.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Schapendonk, Claudia M.; Simon, James H.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the diversity of viruses in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about potential pathogens. Metagenomic analysis of the enteric viral flora revealed a new anellovirus and bocavirus species in pine martens and a new circovirus-like virus and geminivirus-related DNA virus in European badgers. In addition, sequences with homology to viruses from the families Paramyxo- and Picornaviridae were detected. PMID:22171250

  16. Oral vaccination of guinea pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in a lipid matrix protects against aerosol infection with virulent M. bovis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. Using a guinea pig pulmonary challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of candidate badger oral vaccines, based on broth-grown or ball-milled BCG, delivered either as aqueous suspensions or formulated in two lipids with differing fatty acid profiles (one being animal derived and the other being vegetable derived). Protection was determined in terms of increasing body weight after aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis, reduced dissemination of M. bovis to the spleen, and, in the case of one oral formulation, restricted growth of M. bovis in the lungs. Only oral BCG formulated in lipid gave significant protection. These data point to the potential of the BCG-lipid formulation for further development as a tool for controlling tuberculosis in badgers. PMID:18519560

  17. Distinguishing characteristics in underwater images of Northern and Eurasian watermilfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Karen T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes a simple scheme for distinguishing between two very similar watermilfoils, Eurasian or Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Northern or Myriophyllum exalbescens. Leaf images were isolated from underwater images of the plants. Characteristic features consisting of the ratio of black to white pixels within the convex hull of an edge-mapped leaf, the eccentricity of the ellipse surrounding the leaf and a spatial-dependency analysis, measuring the frequency of change of pixel intensity of an edge-mapped leaf were combined to provide a measure which could be used to determine whether a leaf was Northern or Eurasian.

  18. Effects of Arctic warming on Eurasian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uotila, Petteri; Vihma, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The rapid warming in the Arctic has been one of the most dramatic signs of the climate change during the last decades. Arctic warming has been at least twice as fast as the global mean. Simultaneously with the strong warming in the central Arctic, an increased occurrence of extreme weather events, often of unprecedented strength and duration, has already been observed in the northern hemisphere. In this study we address the effects of Arctic warming patterns on climate extremes in Eurasia, and on the atmospheric circulation linking the Arctic with the mid-latitudes. Our objective is to enhance the understanding of the regional differences in the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages, which is an issue that has received a little attention in previous studies. We focus on the period since 1979, when high quality atmospheric reanalysis data are available. We apply the Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) to extract the geographical patterns of Arctic surface temperature and relate these patterns with composites of atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices. The extreme indices data are derived from the observational HadEX2 data set. We recognise the fact that the remote effects of Arctic warming may occur with a time lag of several weeks. Therefore we compare Arctic surface temperature patterns and temporally lagged composites of atmospheric circulation and climate extreme data. We compute the frequencies of occurrence of Arctic surface temperature patterns and decompose changes in relevant quantities, such as precipitation, into two components. The first component represents quantity changes associated with changes in frequencies of occurrence of temperature patterns, whilst the second component describes quantity changes due to the local temperature change within each surface temperature pattern. Our preliminary results demonstrate fundamental differences in the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages between the western and central parts of the Eurasian continent. For example, in autumn and early winter, the sea ice cover and air temperatures have a different relationship in the western and central Eurasia, but in late winter their statistical relationships turn similar. Furthermore, frequencies of occurrence of Arctic temperature change significantly from the 1980s until the latest decade. These frequency changes are associated with a particularly distinct reorganisation of the atmospheric circulation over Eurasia, while elsewhere the largest contribution to the atmospheric circulation change in the Northern Hemisphere is associated with local changes in Arctic surface temperatures. We are carrying out more analysis with the SOM technique to different seasons and variables that can provide further insights on the Arctic-mid-latitude linkages.

  19. Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, Manuel; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    Spin-orbit (SO) coupling is the crucial parameter to drive topological-insulating phases in electronic band models. In particular, the generic emergence of SO coupling involves the Rashba term which fully breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry. As soon as interactions are taken into account, however, many theoretical studies have to content themselves with the analysis of a simplified U(1)-conserving SO term without Rashba coupling. We intend to fill this gap by studying the Kane-Mele-Hubbard (KMH) model in the presence of Rashba SO coupling and present the first systematic analysis of the effect of Rashba SO coupling in a correlated two-dimensional topological insulator. We apply the variational cluster approach (VCA) to determine the interacting phase diagram by computing local density of states, magnetization, single particle spectral function, and edge states. Preceded by a detailed VCA analysis of the KMH model in the presence of U(1)-conserving SO coupling, we find that the additional Rashba SO coupling drives new electronic phases such as a metallic regime and a weak topological-semiconductor phase which persist in the presence of interactions.

  20. Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    , 2014 (received for review July 30, 2013) The history of southern Africa involved interactions between in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry en- tered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. prehistory | population genetics | migration

  1. Yellow (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian (P. fluviatilis) perch distinguished in

    E-print Network

    292 Yellow (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian (P. fluviatilis) perch distinguished in fried fish- low perch "fish fries" in their local restaurants were, in fact, local yel- low perch (Perca flavescens Mitchell) taken from the Great Lakes. In re- cent years it has become economical- ly desirable

  2. Physical control of Eurasian watermilfoil in an oligotrophic lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Boylen; Lawrence W. Eichler; James W. Sutherland

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) into oligotrophic waters of high water clarity in temperate zones of North America has produced growth in excess of 6 m depth and yearly biomass approaching 1000 g m-2 dry weight. From its initial observation in Lake George, New York, USA in 1985, by 1993 milfoil had spread to 106 discrete locations within

  3. Epithelioid leiomyosarcoma in the visceral peritoneum of an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Fun-In; Chang, Chih-Hua; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Jeng, Chian-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A 12-year-old female American badger was presented to the Taipei city zoo veterinary ward with anorexia and weakness. Treatments were ineffective, and the badger died of chronic interstitial nephritis and uremia. At necropsy, numerous firm white nodules, measuring 0.5-2.0 cm, were present on the surface of the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, pancreas, and diaphragm. Most nodules were encapsulated and well demarcated from the organs to which they were attached. A poorly demarcated mass, measuring 0.5 cm in diameter, had invaded the hepatic parenchyma and appeared to be the origin of all the nodules derived by transcavitary implantation. Histologically, the nodules contained primarily oval or spindle-shaped cells, typical of smooth muscle cells, forming alternating bundles attached to the surface of the various organs. In some nodules, aggregates of individual polyhedral to round cells with round to oval centrally located nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, typical of smooth muscle origin, were noted. Zones of subcapsular necrosis and multifocal necrosis were also observed in some nodules. Tumor cells stained positively for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin and negatively for desmin, cytokeratin, estrogen, and progesterone receptors. This tumor is similar to but distinguishable from the "disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL)" found in women. PMID:15690961

  4. A Comparison of Fertility Control and Lethal Control of Bovine Tuberculosis in Badgers: The Impact of Perturbation Induced Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Swinton; F. Tuyttens; D. MacDonald; D. J. Nokes; C. L. Cheeseman; R. Clifton-Hadley

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we use mathematical modelling to consider the broad advantages and disadvantages of fertility control over lethal control for bovine tuberculosis in badger populations. We use a deliberately simple model, attempting to capture only the key transmission processes. The model is parametrized with reference to the long-term Woodchester Park study. Estimates of mortality rate from this study suggest

  5. Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

    2010-11-24

    A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:20728995

  6. Florida's Introduced Birds: Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve A. Johnson; Gay Donaldson-Fortier

    Many non-native birds have been introduced in Florida—perhaps as many as 200 species! Of these, at least 14 introduced species are considered established, according to various authorities, and some are now considered invasive and could have serious impacts in Florida. This fact sheet introduces the Eurasian Collared-Dove, and is one of a series of fact sheets about Florida's established non-native

  7. Numerical reconstructions of LGM climate across the Eurasian Arctic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Siegert; Isabelle Marsiat

    2001-01-01

    Although limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are known relatively well from geological evidence, the palaeoclimate coexistent with this ice sheet has yet to be identified confidently. A simple ice-sheet model has been used to determine LGM climate conditions by finding the ice-sheet mass-balance configuration that permits model results to match with geological data

  8. Kemalist Eurasianism: An Emerging Geopolitical Discourse in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emel Akçali; Mehmet Perinçek

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, there has been a convergence between the Eurasianist and Kemalist ideologies in Turkey. A number of Kemalist and Socialist intellectual and political actors together with sections of the military have started to articulate Eurasianism (Avrasyac?l?k in Turkish) as a new geopolitical discourse for Turkey and as an alternative to Turkey's pro-Western foreign policy orientation.

  9. Kane-Mele Hubbard model on a zigzag ribbon: Stability of the topological edge states and quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chung-Hou; Lee, Der-Hau; Chao, Sung-Po

    2014-07-01

    We study the quantum phases and phase transitions of the Kane-Mele Hubbard (KMH) model on a zigzag ribbon of honeycomb lattice at a finite size via the weak-coupling renormalization group (RG) approach. In the noninteracting limit, the Kane-Mele (KM) model is known to support topological edge states where electrons show helical property with orientations of the spin and momentum being locked. The effective interedge hopping terms are generated due to finite-size effect. In the presence of an on-site Coulomb (Hubbard) interaction and the interedge hoppings, special focus is put on the stability of the topological edge states (TI phase) in the KMH model against (i) the charge and spin gaped (II) phase, (ii) the charge gaped but spin gapless (IC) phase, and (iii) the spin gaped but charge gapless (CI) phase depending on the number (even/odd) of the zigzag ribbons, doping level (electron filling factor) and the ratio of the Coulomb interaction to the interedge tunneling. We discuss different phase diagrams for even and odd numbers of zigzag ribbons. We find the TI-CI, II-IC, and II-CI quantum phase transitions are of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. By computing various correlation functions, we further analyze the nature and leading instabilities of these phases. The relevance of our results for graphene is discussed.

  10. Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Smith, Alan; Court, Pinar; Vipond, Julia; Nadian, Allan; Hewinson, R Glyn; Batchelor, Hannah K; Perrie, Yvonne; Williams, Ann; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-10-29

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is causing considerable economic loss to farmers and Government in the United Kingdom as its incidence is increasing. Efforts to control bTB in the UK are hampered by the infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) that represent a wildlife reservoir and source of recurrent M. bovis exposure to cattle. Vaccination of badgers with the human TB vaccine, M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), in oral bait represents a possible disease control tool and holds the best prospect for reaching badger populations over a wide geographical area. Using mouse and guinea pig models, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy, respectively, of candidate badger oral vaccines based on formulation of BCG in lipid matrix, alginate beads, or a novel microcapsular hybrid of both lipid and alginate. Two different oral doses of BCG were evaluated in each formulation for their protective efficacy in guinea pigs, while a single dose was evaluated in mice. In mice, significant immune responses (based on lymphocyte proliferation and expression of IFN-gamma) were only seen with the lipid matrix and the lipid in alginate microcapsular formulation, corresponding to the isolation of viable BCG from alimentary tract lymph nodes. In guinea pigs, only BCG formulated in lipid matrix conferred protection to the spleen and lungs following aerosol route challenge with M. bovis. Protection was seen with delivery doses in the range 10(6)-10(7) CFU, although this was more consistent in the spleen at the higher dose. No protection in terms of organ CFU was seen with BCG administered in alginate beads or in lipid in alginate microcapsules, although 10(7) in the latter formulation conferred protection in terms of increasing body weight after challenge and a smaller lung to body weight ratio at necropsy. These results highlight the potential for lipid, rather than alginate, -based vaccine formulations as suitable delivery vehicles for an oral BCG vaccine in badgers. PMID:18789366

  11. Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco

    E-print Network

    Laaksonen, Toni

    Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Principal Findings: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect

  12. Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Andrén; John D. C. Linnell; Olof Liberg; Reidar Andersen; Anna Danell; Jens Karlsson; John Odden; P aû l F. Moa; Per Ahlqvist; Tor Kvam; Robert Franzén; Peter Segerström

    2006-01-01

    Causes of mortality were described for 245 radio-marked Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in five different Scandinavian study areas. Furthermore, the survival rates and the population growth rates were estimated for three of the study areas where 202 lynx were followed for a total of 314 radio-years. The main causes of mortality in adult Eurasian lynx in all our study areas

  13. Measures of Plant Surface-areas for Eurasian Watermilfoil and Water Stargrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PINAR BALCI; J. H. KENNEDY

    Plant surface areas were measured from samples of two common submersed aquatics with widely diverging morphol- ogies: Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and water stargrass ( Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM.). Measures for the highly dissected leaves of Eurasian watermilfoil in- volved development of a regression equation relating leaf length to direct measures of a subsample of leaf parts. Mea-

  14. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calogero Terregino; Giovanni Cattoli; Barbara Grossele; Elena Bertoli; Ernesto Tisato; Ilaria Capua

    2003-01-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained

  15. Respiration Rates of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis and Ruffe: Lower Energy Costs in Groups

    E-print Network

    for yellow perch Perca flavescens, Bajer et al. (2003) found strong evidence of deficiencies in estimatesRespiration Rates of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis and Ruffe: Lower Energy Costs in Groups DIANA and activity of the two shoaling percids, Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus

  16. Predicting Eurasian watermilfoil's (Myriophylum spicatum L.) distribution and response to biological control in Fall River, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), was first observed in Fall River, California in approximately 2001. Its presence has had impacts on the river. During 2009 and 2010 we determined Eurasian watermilfoil abundance and distribution. We also determined water temperature and total P conce...

  17. Euhrychiopsis lecontei Distribution, Abundance, and Experimental Augmentations for Eurasian Watermilfoil Control in Wisconsin Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA L. JESTER; MICHAEL A. BOZEK; DANIEL R. HELSEL; SALLIE P. SHELDON

    The specialist aquatic herbivore Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Dietz) is currently being researched as a potential biological control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). Our research in Wisconsin focused on 1) determining mil- foil weevil distribution across lakes, 2) assessing limnological characteristics associated with their abundance, and 3) evalu- ating milfoil weevil augmentation as a practical management tool for controlling Eurasian

  18. Chlamydia psittaci in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Laroucau, Karine; Delogu, Mauro; Vorimore, Fabien; Aaziz, Rachid; Cremonini, Eleonora; Biondi, Roberta; Cotti, Claudia; Baldelli, Raffaella; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the Chlamydia spp. occurrence in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) from urban and suburban areas in northern Italy. Among 76 doves screened, prevalence of Chlamydia spp. was 61%. Chlamydia psittaci genotype E was identified in 33 of the 46 positive samples. The multilocus sequence typing pattern of one highly positive sample showed a new allelic combination. The same molecular features were observed in a C. psittaci strain subsequently isolated from a live dove. Our results reveal a high C. psittaci prevalence in S. decaocto. The spread of this zoonotic pathogen from collared doves to other birds or humans seems to be a potential risk. PMID:25375950

  19. Experimental infection of Eurasian collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Panella, Nicholas A; Young, Ginger; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    The Eurasian collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) has recently experienced a population explosion in North America. It is frequently infected with West Nile virus (WNV). To test the hypothesis that the Eurasian collared-dove is competent to transmit WNV, we experimentally infected two cohorts of doves with two different strains of WNV, CO08, and NY99, respectively. Both virus strains induced a low-level viremia, capable of infecting a small fraction of vector mosquitoes. We suggest that the Eurasian collared-dove plays a relatively insignificant role as an amplifying host for WNV, but it may be important where it is locally abundant. PMID:24581347

  20. Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. III. The prevalence of tuberculosis in mammals other than badgers and cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Little, T. W.; Swan, C.; Thompson, H. V.; Wilesmith, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    A large sample of the wild mammals found on a farm in South Dorset were trapped and examined for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis following the discovery of widespread infection in cattle and badgers. M. bovis was isolated from the lymph nodes of two out of 90 rats (rattus norvegicus) and one out of seven foxes (Vulpes vulpes) but no lesions of tuberculosis were observed. It was concluded that the badger was the only species of wild mammal which was a reservoir of M. bovis in this area. PMID:6752272

  1. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez, Marta; Gimeno, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Bulygina, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Eurasian fall snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea-ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea-ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis is based on snow observations from 820 Russian land stations, moisture transport using a Lagrangian approach derived from meteorological re-analyses. We show that declining sea-ice in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS) acts as moisture source for the enhanced Western Siberian snow depth as a result of changed tropospheric moisture transport. Transient disturbances enter the continent from the BKS region related to anomalies in the planetary wave pattern and move southward along the Ural mountains where they merge into the extension of the Mediterranean storm track.

  2. Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    We address the connection between forces on the Eurasian plate, the plate's motion and the intraplate stress field. Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In this study we analyse the forces along the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate, presently the most prominent suture zone on Earth, resulting from the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate the force distribution along the Tethyan boundary as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We evaluate force distributions obeying this mechanical law on the basis of their ability to reproduce observed stress orientations. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Our investigation is structured according to two research objectives, pursued in a corresponding step-wise approach: (1) a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of Eurasia's stress field to the distribution of all acting forces; and (2) a quantification of collision-related forces along the southern boundary of Eurasia, including their relation to observed plate boundary structure, in particular plateau height. Intraplate stress observations as compiled in the World Stress Map project are used to constrain the distribution of forces acting on Eurasia. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and normal pressure from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.2 - 10.5 T N/m and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3 - 2.3 T N/m. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0 - 2.1 and 0 - 0.8 T N/m, respectively. The inferred collision forces are part of the best-fitting overall set of forces acting on the Eurasian plate, satisfying constraints from basic mechanics, absolute plate motion and stress field. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. We find that for both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateau, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force, thus confirming the hypothesis of balanced topography.

  3. Detection of Neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bartley, P M; Wright, S E; Zimmer, I A; Roy, S; Kitchener, A C; Meredith, A; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2013-02-18

    Samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (Mustela furo), 83 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 70 European polecats (Mustela putorius), 65 American mink (Neovison vison), 64 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and 9 stoats (Mustela erminea), from around Great Britain. DNA was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested ITS1 PCR for Neospora caninum. The results from the PCR demonstrated that Neospora specific DNA was detected in all species of wild carnivorans with the exception of the stoats (0/9). Neospora DNA positive samples were detected in: polecats 18.6% (13/70), badgers 10.9% (7/64), ferrets 10.1% (10/99), foxes 4.8% (4/83) and mink 4.6% (3/65). In the badgers N. caninum DNA positive samples were found in brain (n=2), liver (n=2) and neck muscle (n=3). Selected positive ITS1 DNA sequences were submitted to Genbank. Sequence UKwildlife1 (accession number JX857862) was found in two badgers, whilst UKwildlife2 and UKwildlife3 (accession numbers JX857863 and JX857864 respectively) were found in ferrets, all three sequences demonstrated point mutations at a single base, while sequence UKwildlife4 (accession number JX857865) was found in all the species that tested positive and showed complete identity when compared against published reference sequences for: N. caninum (Nc Liverpool isolate, EU564166). Our data shows that almost all the wild carnivoran mammal species tested are intermediate hosts for N. caninum and are therefore capable of acting as reservoirs of infection for other species. These species could also act as useful sentinel species, demonstrating the presence of the parasite in particular geographical and environmental locations. PMID:23102760

  4. 78 FR 48765 - Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (EUR) Request for Proposals for the Fundraising...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (EUR) Request for Proposals for the Fundraising, Construction, Development, Organization, Management, Disassembly and Removal of a USA Pavilion/Exhibition at Universal Expo Milan Italy...

  5. Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta D?utowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews. PMID:23693084

  6. Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion

    E-print Network

    Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion; accepted in revised form 10 October 2005 Key words: eutrophication, food web, invasive species) run- off, which causes eutrophication. Eutrophication has a myriad of negative consequences, including

  7. Toxicity of heavy metals and salts to eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald A. Stanley

    1974-01-01

    The toxicity of various heavy metals and salts to Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) was determined under controlled growth conditions. Toxicants were added to water or to soil in systems with and without woods earth in the substrate.

  8. Apoplastic Synthesis of Nitric Oxide by Plant Tissues Paul C. Bethke,a,1 Murray R. Badger,b and Russell L. Jonesa

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    Apoplastic Synthesis of Nitric Oxide by Plant Tissues Paul C. Bethke,a,1 Murray R. Badger City, ACT 2601, Australia Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. INTRODUCTION Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical that diffuses readily through biomembranes. The half

  9. Eurasian dipper eggs indicate elevated organohalogenated contaminants in urban rivers.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Stanton, David W G; Pereira, M Glória; Newton, Jason; Durance, Isabelle; Tyler, Charles R; Ormerod, Steve J

    2013-08-01

    Many urban European streams are recovering from industrial, mining, and sewage pollution during the 20th century. However, associated recolonization by clean water organisms can potentially result in exposure to legacy or novel toxic pollutants that persist in the environment. Between 2008 and 2010, we sampled eggs of a river passerine, the Eurasian dipper (Cinclus cinclus), from 33 rivers in South Wales and the English borders (UK) which varied in catchment land use from rural to highly urbanized. Dipper egg ?(15)N and ?(13)C stable isotopes were enriched from urban rivers while ?(34)S was strongly depleted, effectively discriminating their urban or rural origins at thresholds of 10% urban land cover or 1000 people/km(2). Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were positively related to urban land cover and human population density while legacy organochlorine pesticides such as p,p'-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene were found in higher concentrations at rural sites. Levels of PBDEs in urban dipper eggs (range of 136-9299 ng/g lw) were among the highest ever reported in passerines, and some egg contaminants were at or approaching levels sufficient for adverse effects on avian development. With the exception of dieldrin, our data shows PCBs and other organochlorine pesticides have remained stable or increased in the past 20 years in dipper eggs, despite discontinued use. PMID:23819781

  10. Results from the LADCP measurements conducted in the Eurasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goszczko, Ilona; Pnyushkov, Andrey; Polyakov, Igor; Rember, Robert; Thurnherr, Andreas M.

    2015-04-01

    Preliminary results from 114 dual headed LADCP (Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurements performed during the NABOS (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) 2013 cruise in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean are discussed. Calculated horizontal magnetic field strength for that specific study area and cruise time span equals to 1500-4200 nT which is a critically low value. This affected the heading usability of instruments' compasses, thereby making the obtained ocean currents velocities and directions difficult to assess. Additional data post-processing performed with the LDEO Software (Version IX_9) and dedicated Matlab routines have so far allowed to obtain reasonable velocity profiles only in several cases (with additional information from the SeaBird 911plus CTD, GPS and bottom tracking). Thus, doubts concerning the feasibility of compasses, confirmed by difficulties encountered previously in similar polar locations, rise the necessity of providing an additional heading source which should be mounted together with the Teledyne RDI instruments to gain an unquestionable velocity field.

  11. Seismic Anisotropy Along the Eurasian-Arabian Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvol, E. A.; Skobeltsyn, G.; Turkelli, N.; Polat, G.; Yetirmishli, G.; Godoladze, T.; Mellors, R. J.; Gok, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Anatolian plateau and Caucasus are part of the orogenic belt that formed as the result of the closure of the Neo Tethys Ocean and the ensuing continental collision of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Multiple tomographic studies of both P and S wave velocities all show a broad low velocity zone beneath East Anatolian and North Iranian plateaus. The low velocity zone appears to range from the Moho to a depth 150 km, which suggests asthenospheric material underlying a very thin lithosphere of eastern Anatolia. This low velocity zone coincides with widespread Late Miocene - Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanic products of mantle origin. This very shallow asthenosphere strongly implies that any present day anisotropy is likely to reflect very recent mantle deformation. In order to image seismic anisotropy and improve understanding of the nature of mantle deformation in young continental collision zone we analyzed data from the IRIS station KIV and the regional seismic networks of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia to determine shear wave splitting fast polarization directions and delay times in the region. Our results show that the fast polarization directions are quite uniformly parallel to NE-SW across the East Anatolian Plateau and the westernmost part of the Greater Caucasus. The observed delay times decrease northward with the shortest located in the western Greater Caucasus. However, to the east, the fast polarization direction rotates clockwise until it becomes parallel to the EW topographic? trend in the Lesser Caucasus where the delay times are the largest in the region. The situation becomes more complex north of the Lesser Caucasus, in the central and eastern parts of the Greater Caucasus, where the fast polarization directions shift abruptly to the NNE-SSW. Furthemore, we find relatively strong evidence of layered anisotropy using a new method we have developed to image multi-layered polarization anisotropy from teleseismic core phases such as SKS.

  12. Group velocity tomography of the Indo-Eurasian collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, C. E.; Priestley, K.; Gaur, V. K.; Rai, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of a Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion study of the Indo-Eurasian collision zone. Group velocity dispersion curves are measured and combined to produce dispersion maps for 10-70 s period Rayleigh waves from 4054 paths and for 15-70 s Love waves from 1946 paths. Group velocity maps benefit from the inclusion of data recorded at a large number of stations within India, an advantage over previous global studies. This has the largest impact at short periods as a result of the improved path length distribution. Synthetic tests are used to estimate resolution, which ranges from 3° to 5° on the continents for Rayleigh wave maps and from 5° to 7.5° for Love wave maps. Group velocities correspond well with known geological and tectonic features and show good correlation with sediment thickness at short periods. The cratons of the Indian Shield can be distinguished in the short-period and midperiod group velocities. Group velocities are slow across Tibet until 70 s whereas the cratonic cores of the Indian Shield appear as a high velocity anomaly at 70 s. Dispersion curves extracted from the Rayleigh wave group velocity maps are inverted for shear wave velocity as a function of depth for profiles across India and Tibet. The relationship between shear velocity contours and the Moho indicated by receiver function studies has been used to obtain a first-order estimate of crustal thickness across the collision zone. Results suggest a slow Tibetan midcrust and low sub-Moho velocities beneath the central and northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Magnetic anomaly modeling at the Indo Eurasian collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Mita; Langel, R. A.

    1992-10-01

    One of the consistent features of satellite crustal magnetic anomaly maps is the large negative anomaly in the Indo Eurasian collision zone. This region is modeled by the introduction of magnetic blocks representing the Tibetan, Asian and Himalayan mountain regions. The crustal thickness of these blocks is based on the principle of isostasy. It has been shown that the removal of the core field from the Magsat data removes most of the long-wavelength anomalies associated with the ocean-continent susceptibility contrast, and that some of the observed anomalies, after processing of the satellite data, are a manifestation of this contrast. To account for this, the final model is a superposition of the above block model on a global model of typical continent and ocean susceptibility, called a Standard Earth Magnetization Model (SEMM). A combination of the three blocks superposed on the SEMM reproduces the major features of the observed Magsat anomalies. Block model susceptibilities of the Asian and Himalayan regions are the same as for the continental portion of the SEMM, albeit with a greater crustal thickness. Thus, the crust in these regions is typical. By contrast, the satellite magnetic data require an integrated susceptibility in the Tibetan region which is considerably lower than typical. Two possible explanations are suggested. One, that the origin and tectonic history of the Tibetan region differs from the neighboring regions in such a way as to result in lower susceptibility. This is consistent with current thinking that the Tibetan plateau is made up of several fragments or micro-continents which were attached to Asia prior to the collision of India with Asia. The other possible explanation is that the Curie isotherm in the Tibetan region is elevated compared to the Asian and Himalayan regions.

  14. Contact Networks in a Wildlife-Livestock Host Community: Identifying High-Risk Individuals in the Transmission of Bovine TB among Badgers and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Monika; Hutchings, Michael R.; White, Piran C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The management of many pathogens, which are of concern to humans and their livestock, is complicated by the pathogens' ability to cross-infect multiple host species, including wildlife. This has major implications for the management of such diseases, since the dynamics of infection are dependent on the rates of both intra- and inter-specific transmission. However, the difficulty of studying transmission networks in free-living populations means that the relative opportunities for intra- versus inter-specific disease transmission have not previously been demonstrated empirically within any wildlife-livestock disease system. Methodology/Principal Findings Using recently-developed proximity data loggers, we quantify both intra-and inter-specific contacts in a wildlife-livestock disease system, using bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in badgers and cattle in the UK as our example. We assess the connectedness of individuals within the networks in order to identify whether there are certain ‘high-risk’ individuals or groups of individuals for disease transmission within and between species. Our results show that contact patterns in both badger and cattle populations vary widely, both between individuals and over time. We recorded only infrequent interactions between badger social groups, although all badgers fitted with data loggers were involved in these inter-group contacts. Contacts between badgers and cattle occurred more frequently than contacts between different badger groups. Moreover, these inter-specific contacts involved those individual cows, which were highly connected within the cattle herd. Conclusions/Significance This work represents the first continuous time record of wildlife-host contacts for any free-living wildlife-livestock disease system. The results highlight the existence of specific individuals with relatively high contact rates in both livestock and wildlife populations, which have the potential to act as hubs in the spread of disease through complex contact networks. Targeting testing or preventive measures at high-contact groups and individuals within livestock populations would enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of disease management strategies. PMID:19401755

  15. Hematological and biochemical reference intervals for wild caught Eurasian otter from Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Morán, J; Molina, L; Flamme, G; Saavedra, D; Manteca-Vilanova, X

    2001-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals were determined from 33 wild caught Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra lutra) between November 1995 and May 1998 during a reintroduction project. Blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture after administration of ketamine and medetomidine. The mean, standard deviation, and range for 19 hematology parameters and 28 serum chemistry values are presented. There were no significant differences between sexes in most analytes. The results are in agreement with those reported previously for Eurasian otters with the exception of higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, lower eosinophil and lymphocyte counts and higher activities for aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. The Eurasian otters have lower erythrocyte counts but higher mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin values than the river otter (Lutra canadensis) in North America. PMID:11272491

  16. Genetic relationship among eurasian and american larix species based on allozymes

    PubMed

    Semerikov; Lascoux

    1999-07-01

    Genetic variation at 16 allozyme loci was studied in both American (Larix occidentalis Nutt., L. laricina (Du Roi) C. Koch, L. lyallii Parl.) and Eurasian (L. sibirica Ledeb., L. gmelinii Rupr., L. olgensis A. Henry, L. kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. (=L. leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.), L. kamtschatica (Rupr.) Carr. and L. decidua (Mill. )) larch species. Species with a limited range, such as L. olgensis and L. lyallii, had lower genetic variation than species with a wider range. Population differentiation within species was of the same order of magnitude among species. The resulting phylogeny indicates a clear separation between American and Eurasian species. This result is in agreement with recent palaeontological findings that suggest that gene flow between American and Eurasian species has been unlikely since the last glaciation. PMID:10447704

  17. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation. PMID:19930716

  18. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n?=?42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores. PMID:24886057

  19. A comparison between the effects of snow albedo and infiltration of melting water of Eurasian snow on East Asian summer monsoon

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuqing

    A comparison between the effects of snow albedo and infiltration of melting water of Eurasian snow October 2009; accepted 16 October 2009; published 30 January 2010. [1] The effect of Eurasian spring snow observations and numerical simulations. The results indicate that information on the Eurasian spring snow

  20. Relative abundance of American badger (Taxidea taxus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in landscapes with high and low rodenticide poisoning levels.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Gilbert; MacKenzie, Neil

    2012-03-01

    Over the past decade, extensive poisoning campaigns have been conducted in southern Saskatchewan to control Richardson's ground squirrel Spermophilus richardsonii (Sabine, 1822) populations. Such campaigns might impact on predator abundance by decreasing prey levels, and also through secondary poisoning. Using spotlighting, we investigated the relative abundance of American badgers Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) and red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) in 2 study areas with road access and crops, but with different levels of poisoning. In the study area with relatively low poisoning (19.6% of the area traversed by roads), there were 2.2 times more American badgers per km of road and 6.4 times more red foxes per km than in the study area with high poisoning (89.7% of the area). It is recommended that an Integrated Pest Management program be developed to conserve natural predators across landscapes. PMID:22405447

  1. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas, steered in October by a Scandinavia block and a low to the East, extending to Central Russia land areas. The disturbances transport moisture southward where their tracks merge with the eastward extension of the Mediterranean storm track. Maxima in storm activity trigger increasing uplift, often accompanied by positive snowfall and snow depth anomalies. We show that declining sea ice in the Barents and Kara Seas acts as moisture source for enhanced Siberian snow cover as a result of changed tropospheric moisture transport. Transient disturbances enter the continent from the Barents and Kara Seas region related to anomalies in the planetary wave pattern and move southward along the Ural mountains.

  2. Extending Health Care Coverage to the Low-Income Population: The Influence of the Wisconsin BadgerCare Program on Labor Market Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Wolfe; Thomas Kaplan; Robert Haveman; Yoonyoung Cho

    2005-01-01

    The Wisconsin BadgerCare program, which became operational in July 1999, expanded public health insurance eligibility to families with incomes below 185 percent of the U.S poverty line (200 percent for those already enrolled). This eligibility expansion was part of a federal initiative known as the State Children’s Health Initiative Program (SCHIP). In this paper, we investigate the effect of Wisconsin’s

  3. Effect of investigator disturbance on nest attendance and egg predation in Eurasian oystercatchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanette Verboven; Bruno J. Ens; Sharon Dechesne

    2001-01-01

    Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) breeding on the salt marsh of Schiermonnikoog (Dutch Wadden Sea) lose many eggs to predators, mainly Herring (Larus argentatus) and Mew gulls (L. canus). We estimated that the probability for an egg to survive from laying until hatching was 69ÐDaily egg mortality was higher during the laying period than during the incubation period. When researchers were

  4. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ip, Hon S.; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pederson, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  5. Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and the Extinction of European Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place. PMID:24848272

  6. RUSSIAN, EAST EUROPEAN, AND EURASIAN STUDIES 2014-16 Degree Plan (expires August 2022)

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    and Performing Arts Cultural Expression, Human Experience, and Thought (REE 301) in major · Requirements above » Global Cultures (REE 301) in major Cultural Diversity in the United States Quantitative Reasoning · Flag REQUIREMENTS REE 301 Intro to Russian, East European, and Eurasian Studies 21 hours in one of the following

  7. Fourth East Asian Conference on Slavic and Eurasian Studies 4-5 September 2012

    E-print Network

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    Fourth East Asian Conference on Slavic and Eurasian Studies 4-5 September 2012 Kolkata Venue: Azad Bhavan, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies IB 166, Sector III Salt Lake City 700106 Asian Sphere The image of Central Asian borderlands Chair: Discussant: Feng Shaolei: Historical

  8. NAO influence on sea ice extent in the Eurasian coastal region Claes Rooth,2

    E-print Network

    Hu, Aixue

    NAO influence on sea ice extent in the Eurasian coastal region Aixue Hu,1 Claes Rooth,2 Rainer; published 20 November 2002. [1] Influence of winter pre-conditioning of Arctic sea ice due to atmospheric forcing associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the reduction in summer sea ice extent

  9. Species-specific and shared features in vocal repertoires of three Eurasian ground squirrels (genus Spermophilus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera A. Matrosova; Irena Schneiderová; Ilya A. Volodin; Elena V. Volodina

    Along to alarm calls, Eurasian ground squirrels of the genus Spermophilus also produce other call types toward potential predators and rival conspecifics. Individually identified 50 speckled (Spermophilus suslicus), 18 European (S. citellus) and 59 yellow (S. fulvus) ground squirrels were examined for interspecies differences in their vocal repertoires. A separate sample of 116 (90 adult\\u000a and 26 juvenile) S. suslicus

  10. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Hon S.; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues. PMID:25898265

  11. Inter-sexual differences in the immune response of Eurasian kestrel nestlings under food shortage

    E-print Network

    Laaksonen, Toni

    inter-sexual differences in physiological strategies in early life, suggesting sex-related differencesREPORT Inter-sexual differences in the immune response of Eurasian kestrel nestlings under food a central role in current theories of life-history evolution (Stearns 1992). Most studies assessing this con

  12. Intraseasonal Teleconnection between the Summer Eurasian Wave Train and the Indian Monsoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinghua Ding; Bin Wang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the most recurrent coupled pattern of intraseasonal variability between midlati- tude circulation and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The leading singular vector decomposition (SVD) pattern reveals a significant, coupled intraseasonal variation between a Rossby wave train across the Eurasian continent and the summer monsoon convection in northwestern India and Pakistan (hereafter referred to as NISM). The wave

  13. Habitat selection of the Eurasian woodcock in winter in relation to earthworms availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Duriez; Yves Ferrand; Françoise Binet; Eve Corda; François Gossmann; Hervé Fritz

    2005-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) is a game species experiencing high hunting pressure, long-term modifications of its habitats, and with questions regarding its current conservation status. Winter is a season of highest concentration of birds and hunting pressure but woodcock precise habitat requirements are poorly known. It is crucial to assess threats and to develop sustainable management options for the

  14. Seismic Tomography Of The Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone And Tectonic Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Toksoz; Y. Sun; C. Li; R. van der Hilst; D. Kalafat

    2008-01-01

    The objective of our research is to determine P and S wave velocity structures in the crust and upper mantle in the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. In recent years the number of seismic stations has increased greatly in the region because of new and expanded seismic networks in

  15. Assessing the suitability of central European landscapes for the reintroduction of Eurasian lynx

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHANIE SCHADT; THORSTEN WIEGAND; FELIX KNAUER; PETRA KACZENSKY; URS BREITENMOSER; LUDEK BUFKA; JAROSLAV CERVENY; PETR KOUBEK; THOMAS HUBER; CVETKO STANISA; LUDWIG TREPL

    2002-01-01

    Summary 1. After an absence of almost 100 years, the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx is slowly recover- ing in Germany along the German-Czech border. Additionally, many reintroduction schemes have been discussed, albeit controversially, for various locations. We present a habitat suitability model for lynx in Germany as a basis for further management and conservation efforts aimed at recolonization and population

  16. Prey density, environmental productivity and home-range size in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivar Herfindal; John D. C. Linnell; John Odden; Erlend Birkeland Nilsen; Reidar Andersen

    2005-01-01

    Variation in size of home range is among the most important parameters required for effective conservation and management of a species. However, the fact that home ranges can vary widely within a species makes data transfer between study areas difficult. Home ranges of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx vary by a factor of 10 between different study areas in Europe. This

  17. Fragmented landscapes, road mortality and patch connectivity: modelling influences on the dispersal of Eurasian lynx

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHANIE KRAMER-SCHADT; ELOY REVILLA; THORSTEN WIEGAND; URS BREITENMOSER

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. Although many reintroduction schemes for the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in Germany have been discussed, the implications of connectivity between suitable patches have not been assessed. 2. We introduce an individual-based, spatially explicit dispersal model to assess the probability of a dispersing animal reaching another suitable patch in the complex heterogeneous German landscape, with its dense transport system.

  18. Genetic relationship among Eurasian and American Larix species based on allozymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir L Semerikov; Martin Lascoux

    1999-01-01

    Genetic variation at 16 allozyme loci was studied in both American (Larix occidentalis Nutt., L. laricina (Du Roi) C. Koch, L. lyallii Parl.) and Eurasian (L. sibirica Ledeb., L. gmelinii Rupr., L. olgensis A. Henry, L. kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. (=L. leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.), L. kamtschatica (Rupr.) Carr. and L. decidua (Mill.)) larch species. Species with a limited range,

  19. Using Scent-Marking Stations to Collect Hair Samples to Monitor Eurasian Lynx Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRZYSZTOF SCHMIDT; RAFA? KOWALCZYK

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive sampling of mammalian hairs for surveying their populations and for providing density estimations is widely applicable in wildlife ecology and management. However, the efficiency of the method may differ depending on the species or local circumstances. We modified a method of hair trapping from free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to collect DNA samples to work in a low-density population.

  20. Distribution of porphyry deposits in the Eurasian continent and their corresponding tectonic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Lehmann, Bernd; Luo, Maocheng; Berzina, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In the Eurasian continent there are three huge metallogenic belts of Cu and Mo porphyry deposits, comprising the Paleozoic Central Asian Ore Belt in the north, the Tethyan Eurasian Ore Belt of Jurassic to Cenozoic age in the southwest, and the East Margin Ore Belt of the Eurasian Continent of Jurassic to Cretaceous age in the east. The latter is considered to be part of the vast Circum-Pacific ore belt. Some of the main features of the spatial-temporal distribution of Cu and Mo porphyry systems and related geodynamic processes of the three metallogenic belts are described. In particular, the key role of post-subduction - related porphyry ore systems is emphasized, comprising collisional and post-collisional Cu-Mo porphyry deposits during the geological history of the Eurasian continent. The recurrent feature of these ore systems and related felsic rocks is their derivation from partial melting of stagnant or residual oceanic slabs, and mixing with a variable amount of crustal material during magma ascent to shallower levels.

  1. Tetrameres (Tetrameres) grusi (Shumakovich, 1946) (Nematoda: Tetrameridae) in Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) in Central Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Mowlavi; J. Massoud; I. Mobedi; M. J. Gharagozlou; M. Rezaian

    The proventriculi of 11 Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) from central Iran were examined for the existence of parasitic hel- minths. Preliminary reports suggested that the death of these birds was related to untimely cold weather. Nine proventriculi (82%) were heavily infected by the nematode Tetrameres grusi. Glandular structure of the infected proventriculi was replaced by epithelial atrophy but significant inflammatory

  2. Fish predation on Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) herbivores and indirect effects on macrophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren M. Ward; Raymond M. Newman

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the effect of fish predation on native and naturalized insect herbivores of the invasive aquatic plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) using manipulative field experiments within lakes and a field survey across lakes. For the field experiments, we manipulated sunfish (Lepomis spp.) density in cages in the littoral plant beds of two contrasting lakes: one with many sunfish, few

  3. Sequence diversity of the MHC DRB gene in the Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. BABIK; W. DURKA; J. RADWAN

    2005-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, coding molecules which play an important role in immune response, are the most polymorphic genes known in vertebrates. However, MHC polymorphism in some species is limited. MHC monomorphism at several MHC class I and II loci was previously reported for two neighbouring northern European populations of the Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber ) and reduced

  4. Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the Oden 91 expedition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Anderson; G. Björk; O. Holby; E. P. Jones; G. Kattner; K. P. Koltermann; B. Liljeblda; R. Lindegren; B. Rudels; J. Swift

    1994-01-01

    The Oden 91 North Pole expedition obtained oceanographic measurements on four sections in the Nansen and Amundsen basins of the Eurasian Basin and in the Makarov Basin of the Canadian Basin, thereby proving the feasibility of carrying out a typical oceanographic program using an icebreaker in the Arctic Ocean. The data show greater spatial variability in water structure and circulation

  5. Whole Lake Fluridone Treatments For Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil: II. Impacts on Submersed Plant Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Madsen; Kurt D. Getsinger; R. Michael Stewart; Chetta S. Owens

    2002-01-01

    The aquatic herbicide fluridone is being used in northern tier states to selectively control the submersed exotic species Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) growing in lakes and reservoirs. Reliable quantitative information linking changes in the submersed plant community following fluridone applications is limited, particularly with respect to water residue records. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of

  6. Biological Control of Eurasian watermilfoil by Euhrychiopsis lecontei : Assessing Efficacy and Timing of Sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUSTIN L. REEVES; P. D. LORCH; M. W. KERSHNER; M. A. HILOVSKY

    The milfoil weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei Dietz, is a biological control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.), a nuisance aquatic macrophyte. EnviroScience, Inc. (Stow, OH) rears and stocks E. lecontei for management of EWM infestations. Here, we analyze data collected by Enviro- Science, Inc. from treatment (weevil-stocked) and control (unstocked) EWM beds in 30 Michigan and Wisconsin lakes over

  7. Competitive Interactions between Eurasian Watermilfoil and Northern Watermilfoil in Experimental Tanks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAHMAN D. VALLEY; RAYMOND M. NEWMAN

    Two submersed macrophytes, the exotic Eurasian water- milfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and the native northern watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum sibiricum Kom.), were grown in 0.30-m 3 outdoor experimental tanks in single- and mixed- species cultures of low (75 stems m -2 ) and high densities (150 stems m -2 ). Elongation rates (cm week -1 ) and average individ- ual

  8. Response of Submersed Macrophyte Communities to Selective Removal in Eurasian Watermilfoil Dominated Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Newman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species such are thought to dominate communities through competitive superiority. When invasive species are controlled, revegetation by native plants is desired, but often difficult. The response of submersed macrophytes communities to selective removal of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native plants was investigated in three lakes: a lake with high water clarity and few herbivores, a lake with poor

  9. Risk analysis for species introductions: forecasting population growth of Eurasian ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Drake

    2005-01-01

    The North American distribution of the Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), an ecologically important and costly invasive fish, is presently limited to the Laurentian Great Lakes. Risk analyses for accidental introductions of ruffe to inland lakes should focus on the chance of establishment for small introductions such as those that would result from transporting ruffe as bait. Here I use Akaike's

  10. Size-mediated dominance and begging behaviour in Eurasian kestrel broods

    E-print Network

    Laaksonen, Toni

    Size-mediated dominance and begging behaviour in Eurasian kestrel broods Juan A. Fargallo, 1 * Toni by inter-sexual size dimorphism. High dimorphism promotes differential costs in rearing male and female, Falco tinnunculus, food provisioning, immune response, raptor, sex allocation, sexual size dimorphism

  11. Leptospirosis in wild and domestic carnivores in natural areas in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; Candela, Mónica G; López-Bao, José Vicente; Pereira, Marian; Jiménez, María Angeles; León-Vizcaíno, Luis

    2009-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Carnivores are at the top of the feeding chain, thus being exposed to pathogens through their preys. From June 2004 to April 2007, we analyzed for evidences of contact with 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans Sensu Lato serum (analyzed by indirect Microscopic Agglutination Test) and urine or kidney samples (analyzed by microscopic observation, immunostaining and culture) collected from 201 wild and domestic carnivores, including 26 free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 33 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 25 common genets (Genetta genetta), two Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and one Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), and 53 free-roaming cats and 28 rural dogs in protected areas in Andalusia (southern Spain). Twenty-three percent of the animals presented evidences of contact, being the prevalence similar among wild (23.5%) and domestic species (22.2%). Contact with Lesptospira was detected in all the species but the otter. Prevalence was: lynx (11% by bacteriological detection, 32% by serology), fox (0%, 47%), mongoose (5%, 20%), genet (0%, 12%), badger (0%, 50%), cat (20%, 14%), dog (only serology: 36%). Serovar Icterohemorragiae accounted for 2/3 of the cases. Serovar Canicola was detected in half of the positive dogs and one lynx. Other serovars detected were Ballum, Sejroë, and Australis. No macroscopic lesions were observed in necropsied animals that showed evidence of contact with the agent, although histopathologic lesions (chiefly chronic interstitial nephritis) were observed in 7 out of the 11 microscopically analyzed individuals. Thus, L. interrogans may cause previously unrecorded disease in wild carnivores in Spain. Wild and free-roaming carnivores may not act as reservoir of L. interrogans but as a dead-end hosts, though the dog may act as reservoir of serovar Canicola. Carnivores are apparently good sentinels for the epidemiological monitorization of leptospirosis. PMID:18973450

  12. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Simon J.; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A.; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months – 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (?3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  13. An Alternative AO Mode and Its Role on the Salinification of the Eurasian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Walsh, J. E.; Ikeda, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Arctic climate system has been undergoing dramatic changes in recent decades. Two salient features in atmosphere and ocean are characterized by the decreasing of sea level pressure (SLP) over the polar cap (Walsh et al., 1996; Thompson and Wallace, 1998) and the warming and salinification in the Eurasian Basin (Steel and Boyd, 1998). In order to investigate the coupling or linkage of the changes in atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, we proposed an alternative AO mode, which is obtained by EOF analysis with the SLP north of 62.5N. Then, we employed an Arctic coupled ocean/sea-ice model to explore the roles of the AO mode play in the salinification of the Eurasian Basin. Steel and Boyd (1998) speculated that the salinification in the Eurasian Basin is caused by a shift in the region influenced by western Siberian river runoff due to changes of atmosphere circulation and sea-ice drift. This means that the inflow of river waters from the Kara and Laptev Seas shifted from the Amundsen to the Makarov Basin. Our modeling results support this speculation by Steel and Boyd (1998). However, our simulation proposed other two more critical mechanisms. Changes of sea-ice development and oceanic freshwater transport driven by the AO mode play important roles in the salinification. In the positive AO phase, sea-ice growth strengthens over the eastern Eurasian Basin, the western Makarov Basin and the Laptev Sea, which leads to more brine rejection. The changed ocean circulation reduces the transport of clod freshwater from the Beaufort Sea/Canada Basin towards the Eurasian Basin. Quantitative diagnosis was performed in this study.

  14. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the permafrost areas. Overall, Russia should expect a disproportionate escalation of fire regimes compared to increasing climatic fire danger. Thus, development and implementation of an efficient adaptation strategy is a pressing problem of current forest management of the country. An appropriate system of forest fire protection which would be able to meet challenges of future climates is a corner stone of such a strategy. We consider possible systems solutions of this complex problem including (1) integrated ecological and socio-economic analysis of current and future fire regimes; (2) regional requirements to and specific features of a new paradigm of forest fire protection in the boreal zone of Northern Eurasia; (3) anticipatory strategy of the prevention of large-scale disturbances in forests, including adaptation of forest landscapes to the future climates (regulation of tree composition; setup of relevant spatial structure of forest landscapes; etc.); (4) implementation of an effective system of forest monitoring as part of integrated observing systems; (5) transition to ecologically-friendly systems of industrial development of northern territories; (6) development of new/ improvement of existing legislation and institutional frameworks of forest management which would be satisfactory to react on challenges of climate change; and (6) international cooperation.

  15. A brief review of Badger-Bauer rule and its validation from a first-principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Ram S.; Iyer, Prasad P.; Dhinojwala, Ali; Tsige, Mesfin

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the acid-base interactions is important in chemistry, biology and material science as it helps to rationalize materials properties such as interfacial properties, wetting, adhesion and adsorption. Quantitative relation between changes in enthalpy (?H) and frequency shift (??) during the acid-base complexation is particularly important. We investigate ?H and ?? of twenty-five complexes of acids (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and phenol) with bases (benzene, pyridine, DMSO, Et2O and THF) in CCl4 using intermolecular perturbation theory calculations. ?H and ?? of complexes of all alcohols with bases except benzene fall in the range from -14 kJ mol-1 to -30 kJ mol-1 and 215 cm-1 to 523 cm-1, respectively. Smaller values of ?H (-2 kJ mol-1 to -6 kJ mol-1) and ?? (23 cm-1 to 70 cm-1) are estimated for benzene. Linear correlations are found between theoretical and experimental values of ?H as well as ??. For all the studied complexes, ?H varies linearly (R2 ? 0.97) with ?? concurrent with the Badger-Bauer rule yielding the average slope and intercept of 0.053(± 0.002) kJ mol-1 cm and 2.15(± 0.56) kJ mol-1, respectively.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Benetka; M. Leschnik; N. Affenzeller; K. Möstl

    2011-01-01

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to

  17. Enumeration and Characterization of Bacterial Colonists of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.).

    PubMed

    Chand, T; Harris, R F; Andrews, J H

    1992-10-01

    A simple procedure for enumerating and grouping the bacterial colonists of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is described. Colony characteristics of bacteria associated with M. spicatum were better defined and more stable on nutrient-poor, diluted nutrient broth agar than on high-nutrient media. Acinetobacter, Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Pseudomonas and/or Alcaligenes, and Vibrio/Aeromonas spp., as well as two highly fastidious unidentified bacterial groups (gram-negative rods and gram-negative cocci), were associated with cultured watermilfoil during January, February, May, June, July, and August 1988. In Lake Wingra (Madison, Wis.), Micrococcus spp. and enterobacters were also associated with Eurasian watermilfoil during July, August, and October 1987. PMID:16348792

  18. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions; EU-FP-7 e-infra ENVRI "Common Operations of Environmental Research Infrastructures" project. New Siberian research infrastructure and data products should be developed in line with the ACTRIS, ICOS and ENVRI approaches. Furthermore, The Pan-Eurasian Experiment will be supported iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem - Atmosphere Processes Study) bringing the PEEX under umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The permafrost regions and boreal forests of the Pan Eurasian area can be identified as a hot spot of climate change research in a global scale. PEEX experiment can be considered as a crucial part of the strategic aims of several international and national roadmaps for climate change research and the development of next-generation research infrastructures. In this work we present the overall Science Plan for the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and report on the progress made in two PEEX science workshops organized in Helsinki in October 2012 and in Moscow in February 2013.

  19. Trace element analysis of three tissues from Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukmo; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Soohee; Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Seungwoo; Yu, Hee Jeong; Oh, Su-Jun; Park, Jung-Duck; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Han, Sung Yong; Lim, Jong-Deock; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2015-07-01

    Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) are endangered worldwide, but the specific cause of their decline has not been determined. This study analyzed the concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, Cu, Mn, and Zn, in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of Eurasian otters in South Korea. There were high individual variations in the tissue concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The kidneys had the highest concentrations of Cd and Se among the three tissue groups, and the livers had the highest concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Hg. The Pb and As concentrations in the livers were not significantly different from those in the kidneys, and the lungs had the lowest concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The age-related bioaccumulation of Cd and Hg was evident in the three tissue groups, and of Se in the kidneys. The Pb concentration was higher in the livers of juveniles compared with those of adults and the Zn concentration was higher in the lungs of juveniles. There were no apparent gender differences in the concentrations of the elements analyzed among the tissue groups. The Se concentration correlated with the Hg concentration in the livers and kidneys, and with the Cd concentration in the kidneys. The Hg and Cd levels correlated in the three tissue groups. The Cu and Zn levels also correlated in the livers and kidneys. In general, the element concentrations were within the ranges reported by previous studies of this species from European countries, except for Cd and Hg, the levels of which were mostly lower than those reported previously. These findings may provide baseline information to facilitate the conservation of the Eurasian otter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first available study of trace element concentrations in the tissues of Eurasian otters from South Korea or Asian countries. PMID:25762104

  20. Present-day deformation of the intra-Eurasian plate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Tesauro, Magdala

    2015-04-01

    We build on the results of two recent, yet independent, studies. In the first (Warners-Ruckstuhl et al., 2013) the forces on, and stresses within the Eurasian plate were established. In the second (Tesauro et al., 2012) the distribution of mechanically strong and weak parts of the Eurasian plate was found. We predict lithospheric deformation of the Eurasian plate, mainly focused on the Tibetan Plateau and in a lesser scale, on the Zagros Mountains and Anatolia, and compare it with observations. This constitutes a test of both the force/stress results and of the strength results. Specific questions are to which extent stresses localize in specific regions and whether micro-plates as identified by geodesists arise naturally from the results. Importantly, Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2013) found an ensemble of mechanically consistent force models based on plate interaction forces, lithospheric body forces and convective tractions. Each of these force sets is in mechanical equilibrium. A subset drives Eurasia in the observed direction of absolute motion and generates a stress field in a homogeneous elastic plate that fits observed horizontal stress directions to first order. Deformation models constitute a further test to discriminate between the remaining force sets. Following Tesauro et al. (2012) we assume five different compositions for the upper and lower crust. We use their geotherms and crustal thickness maps to estimate vertical distributions of strength at any location within the Eurasian plate. From the power-law relationship between strength and viscosity, and based on the assumption that horizontal strain rates do not vary with depth, we estimate the vertically averaged viscosity of each element of the domain. The combination of forces and averaged viscosities, and the inclusion of major active faults in our mechanical model allow us to predict deformation (velocities, strain rates and rotation rates). We compare our results with GPS velocities, InSAR, seismic, and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

  1. Phylogeographic structure and mitochondrial DNA variation in true lemmings ( Lemmus ) from the Eurasian Arctic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VADIM FEDOROV; ANNA GOROPASHNAYA; GORDON H. JARRELL; KARL FREDGA

    1999-01-01

    The geographic pattern of mtDNA variation in lemmings from 13 localities throughout the Eurasian Arctic was studied by using eight restriction enzymes and sequencing of the cytochromebregion. These data are used to reveal the vicariant history ofLemmus, and to examine the effect of the last glaciation on mtDNA variation by comparing diversity in formerly glaciated areas to the diversity in

  2. Specificity and success of oral-bait delivery to Eurasian wild boar in Mediterranean woodland habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Ballesteros; Joaquín Vicente; Ricardo Carrasco-García; Rafael Mateo; José de la Fuente; Christian Gortázar

    Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is an important reservoir host for pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. The eradication of these diseases may\\u000a require the development of control strategies that reduce pathogen transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. Baiting\\u000a for oral vaccine delivery is often considered for wildlife disease control. The effective and efficient field vaccination\\u000a of wildlife requires species-specific

  3. An evaluation of field and noninvasive genetic methods for estimating Eurasian otter population size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Hájková; Barbora Zemanová; Kevin Roche; Bed?ich Hájek

    2009-01-01

    Successful conservation and management of rare and elusive species requires reliable estimates of population size, but acquisition\\u000a of such data is often challenging. We compare the two most frequently used methods of assessing abundance of Eurasian otter\\u000a (Lutra lutra) populations, noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) based on genotyping of faeces and field surveys using snow tracking. In\\u000a a 100-km2 oligotrophic otter

  4. Diet and fish choice of Eurasian otters ( Lutra lutra L.) in fish wintering ponds in Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    József Lanszki; Zsuzsanna S. Pallos; Dénes Nagy; Grace Yoxon

    2007-01-01

    The diet composition and fish preference of piscivorous Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) were studied in two fish farm systems in Hungary using spraint (otter faeces) analysis during two wintering periods. The\\u000a primary food source of otters in both fish farms was fish (97–99% of biomass). The main fish prey was small-sized, below 100 g\\u000a in weight (96% in both areas), while

  5. Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Gui-Lian; Soubrier, Julien; Liu, Jin-Yi; Werdelin, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Thomson, Vicki A; Tuke, Jonathan; Wu, Lian-Juan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Chen, Quan-Jia; Lai, Xu-Long; Cooper, Alan

    2014-02-01

    The living hyena species (spotted, brown, striped and aardwolf) are remnants of a formerly diverse group of more than 80 fossil species, which peaked in diversity in the Late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma). The fossil history indicates an African origin, and morphological and ancient DNA data have confirmed that living spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) of Africa were closely related to extinct Late Pleistocene cave hyenas from Europe and Asia. The current model used to explain the origins of Eurasian cave hyena populations invokes multiple migrations out of Africa between 3.5-0.35 Ma. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from radiocarbon-dated Chinese Pleistocene hyena specimens to examine the origin of Asian populations, and temporally calibrate the evolutionary history of spotted hyenas. Our results support a far more recent evolutionary timescale (430-163 kya) and suggest that extinct and living spotted hyena populations originated from a widespread Eurasian population in the Late Pleistocene, which was only subsequently restricted to Africa. We developed statistical tests of the contrasting population models and their fit to the fossil record. Coalescent simulations and Bayes Factor analysis support the new radiocarbon-calibrated timescale and Eurasian origins model. The new Eurasian biogeographic scenario proposed for the hyena emphasizes the role of the vast steppe grasslands of Eurasia in contrast to models only involving Africa. The new methodology for combining genetic and geological data to test contrasting models of population history will be useful for a wide range of taxa where ancient and historic genetic data are available. PMID:24320717

  6. Behavioural and spatial adaptation of the Eurasian lynx to a decline in prey availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of food resources is a major factor influencing animal populations. I studied the effect of\\u000a a roe and red deer population decline on diet composition, home range size and foraging pattern in the Eurasian lynxLynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF), eastern Poland. The population of cervids in BPF experienced a\\u000a nearly two-fold

  7. Present-day intra-plate deformation of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Tesauro, Magdala

    2014-05-01

    We build on the results of two recent, yet independent, studies. In the first (Warners-Ruckstuhl et al., 2013) the forces on, and stresses within the Eurasian plate were established. In the second (Tesauro et al., 2012) the distribution of mechanically strong and weak parts of the Eurasian plate was found. The aim of our work is to predict lithospheric deformation of the Eurasian plate and to compare it with observations. This constitutes a test of both the force/stress results and of the strength results. Specific questions are to which extent stresses localize in specific regions and whether micro-plates as identified by geodesists arise naturally from the results. Importantly, Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2013) found an ensemble of mechanically consistent force models based on plate interaction forces, lithospheric body forces and convective tractions. Each of these force sets is in mechanical equilibrium. A subset drives Eurasia in the observed direction of absolute motion and generates a stress field in a homogeneous elastic plate that fits observed horizontal stress directions to first order. Deformation models constitute a further test and a possibility to discriminate between the remaining force sets. Following Tesauro et al. (2012) we assume five different compositions for the upper and lower crust. We use their geotherms and crustal thickness maps to estimate vertical distributions of strength at any location within the Eurasian plate. Based on the assumption that horizontal strain rates do not vary with depth allows us to estimate the vertically averaged viscosity of each point. We include major active faults in our mechanical model. We compare our results with GPS velocities, InSAR, seismic, and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

  8. Vigilance patterns of wintering Eurasian Wigeon: female benefits from male low-cost behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Portugal; Matthieu Guillemain

    2011-01-01

    Increased vigilance in male animals has been attributed to mate guarding (male investment hypothesis), to secondary sexual\\u000a characteristics increasing predation risk (male constraint hypothesis) or for the benefit to the female (female benefits\\u000a hypothesis). We studied Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) while they grazed on dry land, a ‘risky’ foraging situation, at two points during the winter period (pre- and post-pair

  9. Nest desertion is not predicted by cuckoldry in the Eurasian penduline tit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René E. van Dijk; Lidia A. Mészáros; Marco van der Velde; Tamás Székely; Ákos Pogány; János Szabad; Jan Komdeur

    2010-01-01

    Engagement in extra-pair copulations is an example of the abundant conflicting interests between males and females over reproduction.\\u000a Potential benefits for females and the risk of cuckoldry for males are expected to have important implications on the evolution\\u000a of parental care. However, whether parents adjust parental care in response to parentage remains unclear. In Eurasian penduline\\u000a tits Remiz pendulinus, which

  10. Genetic structure of the Eurasian lynx population in north-eastern Poland and the Baltic states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Schmidt; Rafa? Kowalczyk; Janis Ozolins; Peep Männil; Joerns Fickel

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the genotypes of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from three populations in the westernmost part of the species main range. One population was situated at the distribution\\u000a edge (NE Poland) and the two other (Latvia and Estonia) were located within the main, contiguous range of the species. The\\u000a aim was to determine if the genetic composition varied among these

  11. Spatial interactions between grey wolves and Eurasian lynx in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest, Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Schmidt; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Henryk Okarma; Rafa? Kowalczyk

    2009-01-01

    Various species of large predators are reported to influence each other through interference or exploitation competition that\\u000a may affect demography and survival of the subordinate species. We analyzed spatial relationships between grey wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF, eastern Poland) to determine how they partitioned the space. The wolves (n = 8) and lynx (n = 14)

  12. Insect fauna in nests of the Eurasian griffon vulture ( Gyps fulvus ) in Croatia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tvrtko Dražina; Maria Špoljar

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative, quantitative and trophic structure of insects found in Eurasian griffon vulture nests were analysed. A total\\u000a of 249 insects belonging to six orders were found in 18 griffon vulture nests, collected in three colonies on the islands\\u000a Cres and Plavnik (Adriatic Sea). Eudominant orders were beetles (64.26%) and ants (22.49%). Dermestid beetles were present\\u000a in all examined nests and

  13. A Five-Year Record of Summer Melt on Eurasian Arctic Ice Caps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Sharp; Libo Wang

    2009-01-01

    Climatologies and annual anomaly patterns (2000-04) of melt season duration and dates of melt onset\\/ freeze-up on Eurasian Arctic ice masses were derived from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) backscatter data. Severnaya Zemlya, Russia, has later melt onset, earlier freeze-up, and shorter melt seasons than Svalbard, Norway\\/Novaya Zemlya, Russia. In all three archipelagos 2001 was the longest melt season and 2000 was

  14. Mating system, paternity and sex allocation in Eurasian Wrynecks ( Jynx torquilla )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wink; Detlef Becker; Dirk Tolkmitt; Verena Knigge; Hedi Sauer-Gürth; Heidi Staudter

    This paper provides for the first time an insight into the breeding system of the Eurasian Wryneck (Jynx torquilla). DNA fingerprinting and molecular sexing were used to investigate paternity, mating system and sex allocation in a population\\u000a near the city of Halberstadt, Germany. Similar to other woodpeckers, social and genetic monogamy is the norm in this species.\\u000a The abundance of

  15. Microhabitat selection by Eurasian lynx and its implications for species conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Podgórski; Krzysztof Schmidt; Rafa? Kowalczyk; Agnieszka Gulczy?ska

    2008-01-01

    We studied microhabitat selection of the Eurasian lynxLynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) at 116 hunting and 88 resting sites in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (Poland) to describe its characteristics\\u000a and determine the importance of habitat structure for stalking prey and for security during resting. We identified lynx-used\\u000a sites by radio-tracking 3 male and 3 female lynx. When hunting, the lynx did not

  16. Efficacy of Rotovation in Controlling Eurasian Watermilfoil in the Pend Oreille River, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maribeth V. Gibbons; Harry L. Gibbons Jr

    1988-01-01

    Full-scale mechanical rotovation of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) beds was conducted at selected sites along the Pend Oreille River in eastern Washington during the fall of 1986. Fifteen hectares (36 acres) of milfoil-infested river sediments were mechanically tilled to dislodge rootcrowns from the substrate. Treatment was performed by a prototype float-mounted rotovator equipped with a 2.5 m (8-foot) wide pivoting

  17. Response of Eurasian Watermilfoil to Integrated Fluridone-Fungal Pathogen Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Nelson; Judy F. Shearer

    PURPOSE: This technical note describes laboratory investigations conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the herbicide fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4(1H)- pyridinone) and the fungal pathogen Mt (Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Gerd.) Ostazeski), applied alone and in combination with one another, against Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). Results of this research will demonstrate the potential for integrating chemical and biological control tactics to improve the long-term

  18. Tool-use and instrumental learning in the Eurasian jay ( Garrulus glandarius )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy G. Cheke; Christopher D. Bird; Nicola S. Clayton

    2011-01-01

    Recent research with Rooks has demonstrated impressive tool-using abilities in captivity despite this species’ classification\\u000a as a non-tool-user in the wild. Here, we explored whether another non-tool-using corvid, the Eurasian Jay, would be capable\\u000a of similar feats and investigated the relative contributions of causal knowledge and instrumental conditioning to the birds’\\u000a performance on the tasks. Five jays were tested on

  19. Utility of Surface Pollen Assemblages to Delimit Eastern Eurasian Steppe Types

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng; Wang, Yu-Fei; Ferguson, David K.; Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Ya-Meng; Cai, Zhe; Wang, Qing; Ma, Hong-Zhen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Modern pollen records have been used to successfully distinguish between specific prairie types in North America. Whether the pollen records can be used to detect the occurrence of Eurasian steppe, or even to further delimit various steppe types was until now unclear. Here we characterized modern pollen assemblages of meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe from eastern Eurasia along an ecological humidity gradient. The multivariate ordination of the pollen data indicated that Eurasian steppe types could be clearly differentiated. The different steppe types could be distinguished primarily by xerophilous elements in the pollen assemblages. Redundancy analysis indicated that the relative abundances of Ephedra, Tamarix, Nitraria and Zygophyllaceae were positively correlated with aridity. The relative abundances of Ephedra increased from meadow steppe to typical steppe and desert steppe. Tamarix and Zygophyllaceae were found in both typical steppe and desert steppe, but not in meadow steppe. Nitraria was only found in desert steppe. The relative abundances of xerophilous elements were greater in desert steppe than in typical steppe. These findings indicate that Eurasian steppe types can be differentiated based on recent pollen rain. PMID:25763576

  20. The innate immunity of wild Eurasian beaver from Poland – present knowledge and the need for research

    PubMed Central

    Pomianowski, Andrzej; Gi?ejewska, Aleksandra; Ma?aczewska, Joanna; Siwicki, Andrzej K.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time we tried to examine the basic parameters of innate immunity in beavers for developing the new methods of prevention against infectious diseases in different reintroduction and translocation programmes in Poland. The aim of the present study was to determine the selected innate immunity parameters in Eurasian beavers living in natural conditions. The analyses of the results showed that the phagocytic ability (RBA) and potential killing activity (PKA) of blood phagocytes were higher in adult beavers compared to the young animals. The similar pattern was observed in proliferative response of blood lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The highest proliferative response in adult Eurasian beavers was observed. The ceruloplasmin activity in plasma was on similar levels in adult and young Eurasian beavers. The results of humoral mediated immunity showed that the lysozyme activity, total protein and gamma-globulin levels in serum were higher in adult beavers compared to the young beavers. The results of this preliminary study are important in comparative and clinical immunology.

  1. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Terregino, Calogero; Cattoli, Giovanni; Grossele, Barbara; Bertoli, Elena; Tisato, Ernesto; Capua, Ilaria

    2003-02-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) are thought to originate from India and they have colonized, throughout the centuries, the Middle East and, more recently, Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Spain. In the present paper we report of the isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from Eurasian collared doves during 2000-2001, and compare them to isolates obtained from feral pigeons (Columba livia) during the same period. All isolates could be classified as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV1) and belonged to the pigeon variant group (PPMV1), as their haemagglutinating activity was inhibited by mAb 161/617 which is specific for PPMV1. The intracerebral pathogenicity indices ranged from 0.68 to 1.38 and all isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of the fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicate that 18/20 of these form a separate cluster from the isolates obtained from pigeons in the same period. These findings suggest that different lineages are circulating in feral pigeon populations, and that a separate lineage affects Eurasian collared doves. PMID:12745382

  2. Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    PubMed Central

    Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  3. Characteristics of Eurasian snow depth with respect to Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamgain, Ashu; Dash, S. K.; Sarthi, P. Parth

    2010-12-01

    Earlier studies show a strong negative relationship between Eurasian snow cover/depth and Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). In such studies, both the parameters snow and rainfall are seasonally averaged over large areas. Indian summer monsoon has its own characteristics of evolution such as onset, active, break and withdrawal phases which have been studied extensively. However, the evolution of Eurasian snow is yet to be examined. Further, it is interesting to explore the characteristics of evolution of snow over the different regions of Eurasia and their relationship with the evolution characteristics of summer monsoon. In this paper, a detailed examination has been done on the starting and the ending dates of snowfall over different regions of Eurasia and attempts have been made to explore any relationship with onset of ISMR. It is observed that the regions where snowfall started early, it also ended late. Further, in those regions maximum snow depth also occurred late. In some years, more snowfall in East Eurasia is followed by less snowfall in West Eurasia. Also snow depths particularly in the northernmost and southwest regions of East Eurasia are opposite in phase. The results of this study indicate a weak relationship between snow starting dates in Eurasia and summer monsoon onset dates in the Kerala coast. However, the relationship between the northernmost Eurasian snow depth and the summer monsoon precipitation in the Peninsular India is significant.

  4. Contemporary Variability and Projected Changes in the North Eurasian Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.; Shiklomanov, I. A.; Proussevitch, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Water Systems Analysis Group at the University of New Hampshire, USA in close collaboration with international partners has recently developed a new regional monitoring and analysis system for northern Eurasia to facilitate integration between water related projects involved in North Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The system, along with new data from the State Hydrological Institute, Russia, were used to analyze historical and contemporary changes in major water cycle components across northern Eurasia. Significant changes in various components of the hydrological regime were found over the last few decades in different regions. Specifically, the hydroclimatic conditions of the dry and warm summer of 2010 in European Russia were analyzed along with historical characteristics to demonstrate unique and anomalous nature of this summer. To evaluate potential future patterns of change in the northern Eurasian water cycle we used projections of climate change simulated by eight coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Future simulations of hydrological regime from the UNH Water Balance and Water Transport Models (WBM/WTM), incorporating irrigation and reservoir effects, were analyzed to assess potential effects of climate and water management on various hydrological characteristics. All data can be found at the Northern Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative Water Center website (http://NEESPI.sr.unh.edu).

  5. Large-scale serosurvey of Besnoitia besnoiti in free-living carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; Sobrino, Raquel; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Oleaga, Alvaro; Gortazar, Christian; Schares, Gereon

    2012-11-23

    The disease bovine besnoitiosis is responsible for severe economic losses caused by the protozoan Besnoitia besnoiti. The identity of the definitive host (DH) of this parasite has yet to be determined, although it is presumed to be a carnivore. With the aim of advancing in the identification of B. besnoiti DH, a necessary step in implementing control strategies, the contact rate of 205 free-roaming carnivores with this parasite in Spain was studied. The study included 16 wolves (Canis lupus), 41 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 21 pine martens (Martes martes), eight stone martens (M. foina), 12 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 18 common genets (Genetta genetta), five Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 28 European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), 43 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus), and 13 other animals belonging to five other species. Serum samples were analysed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by two western immunoblots (WB, one with tachyzoite and the other with bradyzoite antigen). Twelve individuals (eight of which were cats) seroconverted by one or other of these techniques but no individual showed seroconversion by IFAT and one of the WBs. The results provided no evidence to support the idea that within the geographical regions covered by the analysis wild carnivores are implicated in the transmission of B. besnoiti in Spain. PMID:22770702

  6. Eurasian ice-sheet interaction in northwestern Russia throughout the late KURT H. KJR, EILIV LARSEN, SVEND FUNDER, IGOR N. DEMIDOV, MARIA JENSEN, LENA HA KANSSON AND

    E-print Network

    Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F Eurasian ice-sheet interaction in northwestern Russia throughout°kansson, L. & Murray, A. 2006 (August): Eurasian ice-sheet interaction in northwestern Russia throughout the Kanin Peninsula and Chyoshskaya Bay in northwestern Russia contain information on the marginal behaviour

  7. Resurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of Eurasian elk (Alces alces), with a report on associated pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varestrongylus alces Demidova & Naumitscheva, 1953 is resurrected for protostrongylid nematodes of Eurasian elk in Europe. Descriptions of males (11.36-16.95 mm) and females (16.25- 21.52 mm) are based on specimens collected from the terminal bronchioles in the lungs of Eurasian elk, Alces alces (L...

  8. Responses of lake macrophyte beds dominated by Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum) to best management practices in agricultural sub-watersheds: Declines in biomass but not species dominance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isidro Bosch; Joseph C. Makarewicz; Elizabeth A. Bonk; Cristopher Ruiz; Michael Valentino

    2009-01-01

    Long-term studies of macrophyte beds growing near streams in Conesus Lake, New York, have revealed a high biomass and continuing dominance of the invasive rooted species Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). We tested whether agricultural best management practices (BMPs) designed to reduce tributary nutrient and soil loss from the watershed could reduce populations of Eurasian watermilfoil downstream in the lake littoral.

  9. Seismicity and Deep Structure of the Joint Area of Eurasian, North American and Okhotomorsk Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, V. M.; Seleznev, V. S.; Salnikov, A. S.; Timofeev, V. Y.; Shibaev, S. V.; Petrov, A.; Liseikin, A. V.; Shenmayer, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    Modern geodynamics and seismicity of Far-Eastern region is mostly determined by interaction of Eurasian, Pacific, North American and supposed Amur and Okhotomorsk plates. The paper presents materials on seismicity, deep structure and space geodesy. These materials are used as a base for research the joint region of the plates. All earthquakes of this zone are aroused in the middle and in the bottom parts of the Earth`s crust at the depth of 7-30km. Seismic investigations and DSS observations materials show that seismic process is proceeding at pressure conditions. According to the DSS materials at the regional geotransect 2-DV (Magadan - Vrangel island) there is registered significant decrease of boundary velocity values (to 7.5-7.7 km/sec) along the Moho in the joint zone and local raise of the Moho. At the deep seismographic section in this zone we can see extremely heterogeneous middle crust, reduction of reflection contrast in the bottom of the crust and in the Moho section. In this zone we can also see reduction of average (effective) velocity in all stratum of the Earth`s crust, it can be an evidence of high fragmentation of the Earth`s crust structures. These materials, along with high seismicity at great depths up to 30 km, show appearance of the joint region of Okhotomorsk and North American plates not only in the upper part of the Earth`s crust, but also in the middle and in the bottom parts of the crust and in the Moho section. Along with the profile data of the geotransect 2-DV there are presented modern materials of areal seismological investigations for a section of joint of three big plates: earthquakes quantity distribution, total dedicated seismic energy and K- parameter, connected with velocities of P- and S-waves within seismic active layer of the Earth`s crust. By these data, the boundary of North American plate with Eurasian plate in the north and with Okhotomorsk plate in the south is more contrasting. The most severe earthquakes are also connected with this boundary. Joint area of Eurasian and Okhotomorsk plates is less contrasting. There are also presented some preliminary materials on sub-latitudinal geophysical profile Yakutsk - Susuman, which was realized by The Federal Subsoil Resources Management Agency in 2011-2012. Further complex interpretation of geology-geophysics materials of this profile allow to specify the boundary of Eurasian and Okhotomorsk plates.

  10. Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Wang, Zhiheng; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol 14C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3–6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic. PMID:23940354

  11. Pilfering Eurasian jays use visual and acoustic information to locate caches.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-11-01

    Pilfering corvids use observational spatial memory to accurately locate caches that they have seen another individual make. Accordingly, many corvid cache-protection strategies limit the transfer of visual information to potential thieves. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) employ strategies that reduce the amount of visual and auditory information that is available to competitors. Here, we test whether or not the jays recall and use both visual and auditory information when pilfering other birds' caches. When jays had no visual or acoustic information about cache locations, the proportion of available caches that they found did not differ from the proportion expected if jays were searching at random. By contrast, after observing and listening to a conspecific caching in gravel or sand, jays located a greater proportion of caches, searched more frequently in the correct substrate type and searched in fewer empty locations to find the first cache than expected. After only listening to caching in gravel and sand, jays also found a larger proportion of caches and searched in the substrate type where they had heard caching take place more frequently than expected. These experiments demonstrate that Eurasian jays possess observational spatial memory and indicate that pilfering jays may gain information about cache location merely by listening to caching. This is the first evidence that a corvid may use recalled acoustic information to locate and pilfer caches. PMID:24889656

  12. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    N?mejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Kv?to?ová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Pawe?; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kvá?, Martin

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus-and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  13. Intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher (Martes pennanti) and a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Susan L; Imai, Denise M; Trnpkiewicz, John G; Garner, Michael M; Ogasawara, Seigo; Stokol, Tracy; Kiupel, Matti; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V

    2010-06-01

    Intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes was diagnosed in a 6-year-old fisher (Martes pennanti) and a geriatric Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Clinical signs included lethargy and inappetance in both animals and vomiting and occasional diarrhea in the fisher. The diagnosis in both cases was made using cytology of fresh tissue, histology of fixed tissues, and immunohistochemistry. Granules were seen most clearly on cytologic examination of direct impressions from fresh tissue. Because granules were absent in most histologic sections, cytology of fresh tissue was essential for the diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry determined that the neoplastic cells had positive membranous immunoreactivity to CD3 and were negative for CD79a, which was consistent with alimentary T-cell lymphoma. The disease course in both animals was presumed to be aggressive, with rapid progression of clinical signs, high mitotic index and effacement of local intestinal architecture in both cases, and metastatic disease in the fisher. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher and a Eurasian otter. PMID:20597223

  14. Response of Submersed Macrophyte Communities to Selective Removal in Eurasian Watermilfoil Dominated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, R. R.

    2005-05-01

    Invasive species such are thought to dominate communities through competitive superiority. When invasive species are controlled, revegetation by native plants is desired, but often difficult. The response of submersed macrophytes communities to selective removal of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native plants was investigated in three lakes: a lake with high water clarity and few herbivores, a lake with poor clarity and few herbivores, and a clear lake with a high density of milfoil herbivores. At each lake, 16 to 20 2mX2m plots were identified and delineated with a pvc frame on the bottom and each plot was assigned to one of 4 treatments in a randomized block design. Treatments were: remove all plants, remove Eurasian watermilfoil, remove all non-milfoil plants or remove no plants. Prior to treatment duplicate biomass samples were collected from each plot. Visual estimates of plant cover were made every 2-4 weeks and biomass samples were collected at the end of the summer. Plots were resampled similarly in the year following the manipulation. The treatments were successful at manipulating the plant community in each lake, but overall did not reveal dramatic shifts or competitive interactions. Within one year the communities reverted to their premanipulation state.

  15. The Eurasian species of Xyela (Hymenoptera, Xyelidae): taxonomy, host plants and distribution.

    PubMed

    Blank, Stephan M; Shinohara, Akihiko; Altenhofer, Ewald

    2013-01-01

    The 28 Eurasian species of Xyela Dalman, 1819 are revised based on material of ca 7,500 imagines including about 10 % reared specimens. Larvae of Eurasian Xyela usually are monophagous and feed inside the staminate cones of pines (Pinus spp., Pinaceae). Based on the reared material, on identification by barcoding and on additional collection observations, the larval host associations for the Xyela species are summarized and additional biological observations are noted. An illustrated key to the species and distribution maps are presented. Eight species are described as new: X. altenhoferi Blank, sp. nov. (Croatia), X. heldreichii Blank, sp. nov. (Albania, Greece), X. koraiensis Blank & Shinohara, sp. nov. (Russia, South Korea), X. peuce Blank, sp. nov. (Bulgaria), X. pumilae Blank & Shinohara, sp. nov. (Japan), X. rasnitsyni Blank & Shinohara, sp. nov. (China, Russia, South Korea), X. sibiricae Blank, sp. nov. (Mongolia, Russia), and X. uncinatae Blank, sp. nov. (Andorra, France, Spain, Switzerland). For the other species redescriptions are given. A lectotype is designated for X. longula Dalman, 1819, and neotypes are designated for X. graeca J.P.E.F. Stein, 1876 and Pinicola julii Brébisson, 1818. The following new synonymies are proposed: X. lii Xiao, 1988, syn. nov. of X. sinicola Maa, 1947; X. nigroabscondita Haris & Gyurkovics, 2011, syn. nov. of X. lugdunensis (Berland, 1943); and X. suwonae Ryu & Lee, 1992, syn. nov. of X. ussuriensis Rasnitsyn, 1965. PMID:25325088

  16. Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge

    PubMed Central

    Mazières, Stéphane; Myres, Natalie M.; Lin, Alice A.; Temori, Shah Aga; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Witzel, Michael; King, Roy J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Chiaroni, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci. PMID:24204668

  17. Sex-specific recruitment and brood sex ratios of Eurasian kestrels in a seasonally and annually fluctuating

    E-print Network

    Laaksonen, Toni

    Sex-specific recruitment and brood sex ratios of Eurasian kestrels in a seasonally and annually-ordinating editor: J. Tuomi Abstract. Timing of birth and food availability may select for biased offspring sex in brood sex ratio during the breeding season in a long-term data from 8 years. As far as we know

  18. Indiana University Department of Central Eurasian Studies invites applications for the new Balassi Institute Graduate Fellowship in Hungarian Studies.

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Indiana University Department of Central Eurasian Studies invites applications for the new Balassi admitted to the University Graduate School at Indiana University-Bloomington and is primarily engaged to Hungarian culture and history. Indiana University is a research university with world-class programs in both

  19. Epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities on Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and Myriophyllum alterniflorum in eastern North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Wilson; Anthony Ricciardi

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the survival and proliferation of invertebrates in freshwater eco- systems. Epiphytic invertebrate communities may be altered through the replacement of native macrophytes by exotic mac- rophytes, even when the macrophytes are close relatives and have similar morphology. We sampled an invasive exotic macrophyte, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and

  20. Increasing river discharge in the Eurasian Arctic: Consideration of dams, permafrost thaw, and fires as potential agents of change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. McClelland; R. M. Holmes; B. J. Peterson; M. Stieglitz

    2004-01-01

    Discharge from Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean has increased significantly in recent decades, but the reason for this trend remains unclear. Increased net atmospheric moisture transport from lower to higher latitudes in a warming climate has been identified as one potential mechanism. However, uncertainty associated with estimates of precipitation in the Arctic makes it difficult to confirm whether or

  1. Impacts of predation by the Eurasian round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) on molluscs in the upper St. Lawrence River

    E-print Network

    Ricciardi, Anthony

    Impacts of predation by the Eurasian round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) on molluscs in the upper of this benthivore and determined whether its predatory impacts on molluscs in the river are similar to those, particularly molluscs, but dreissenid mussels (the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel

  2. Nonstationary impact of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and the response of mid-latitude Eurasian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tingting; Shi, Zhengguo; Wang, Hongli; An, Zhisheng

    2015-02-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), although a local atmospheric mode over the North Atlantic Ocean, plays an important remote role in the Eurasian climate. However, the link between the NAO and Eurasian climate might be unstable. Here, we present a study on the relationship between the winter NAO and mid-latitude Eurasian climate, especially the mid-latitude East Asian precipitation, mainly based on meteorological data and output from an 1155-year-long coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulation. The results show that the winter NAO exerts a remarkable effect on the changes in mid-latitude Eurasian climate; however, the impact of the NAO is nonstationary. According to the model output, the impact of the NAO varies synchronously with the NAO variance with a period of around 150 years. During the high NAO variance period, the NAO has significant correlation with mid-latitude East Asian precipitation; low NAO variance periods do not. The variation of the NAO-precipitation teleconnection may arise from the changing influence of NAO on the local temperature. The NAO signal moves eastward by a zonally oriented wave train, where it modulates the atmospheric circulation structure, and thus results in the nonstationary relationship between the NAO and mid-latitude East Asian precipitation.

  3. Use of water exchange information to improve chemical control of eurasian watermilfoil in Pacific Northwest rivers. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Getsinger; D. Sisneros; E. G. Tumer

    1993-01-01

    The submersed plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), continues to adversely impact areas in the high water exchange environment of the Columbia River system. Studies designed to characterize water movement and to evaluate a slow release matrix device (SRMD) for improving the chemical control of that target plant were conducted in the Pend Oreille and Columbia Rivers, Washington, in August

  4. Linking geological evidence from the Eurasian suture zones to a regional Indian Ocean plate tectonic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, A.; Aitchison, J.; Müller, R.; Whittaker, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a revised regional plate tectonic model for the Indian Ocean from the Late Jurassic to present, which assimilates both marine geophysical data constraining the seafloor spreading history as well as a variety of geological observations from the Eurasian collision zone. This model includes relative motion between Greater India, Sri Lanka, West Australia, East Antarctica, East Madagascar, the Seychelles and Argoland, a continental sliver which began migrating towards Eurasia in the Late Jurassic, forming the northern margins of Greater India and western Australia. Recently collected data offshore northwest Australia suggest that the majority of Greater India reached only halfway along the West Australian margin in an Early Mesozoic reconstruction, bounded by the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. The revised geometries and relative motion histories redefine the timing and nature of collisional events, as well as the history of back-arc basins and intra-oceanic arcs, such as the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc in northwest India and Pakistan. Abundant ophiolites have been identified throughout the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone, between the Indian-Himalaya and Tibet, several have boninitic compositions and almost all date to either the Mid Jurassic or late Early Cretaceous. Further evidence suggests that an intra-oceanic arc collided with Greater India before colliding with Eurasia. Our model features a transform boundary running north of East Africa, which initiated an oceanic arc following short-lived compression between the western and central Mesotethys in the Late Jurassic, coinciding with the initial motion of Argoland. The arc developed through extension and ophiolite generation until at least the mid-Cretaceous and consumed a narrow thinned sliver of West Argoland between ~120-65 Ma. The arc remained active in the same position until its eventual collision with Greater India ~55 Ma. The eastern portion of the intra-oceanic arc accreted to eastern Eurasia (near Burma) causing anticlockwise rotation/retreat of the margin until collision between the main portion of Greater India and central Eurasian margin took place ~36 Ma. This relatively young collision between India and Eurasia is supported by subduction-related magmatism, which continued into the Late Eocene. The Upper Eocene Pengqu Formation also suggests that marine conditions prevailed south of the suture zone until that time, while the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene Gangrinboche conglomerates mark the initial mixing and deposition of both Eurasian and Indian-sourced sediments.

  5. Distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, in the St. Clair-Detroit River system in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1984-01-01

    Submersed macrophytes were surveyed at 595 stations located throughout the St. Clair-Detroit River system between Lakes Huron and Erie, 23 August to 13 October, 1978. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), first recorded in the system in 1974, became the fourth most common submersed macrophyte in the system by 1978. However, it has not been reported as a widespread nuisance in this system as it has in many other large water bodies in the United States. Observations made during the present study, and interpretations of an aerial photograph, suggest that M. spicatum was a minor nuisance to small boat navigation in portions of the system. Information presented in this study provides a baseline against which future changes in the occurrence of M. spicatum in the St. Clair-Detroit River system can be measured.

  6. Immunoblotting for the serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in alive and dead Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Gottstein, B; Frey, C F; Campbell-Palmer, R; Pizzi, R; Barlow, A; Hentrich, B; Posautz, A; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2014-09-15

    A novel species-specific anti-beaver-IgG-alkaline-phosphatase conjugate was synthesized for the development of a new serological test for echinococcosis in beavers. Two different ELISAs conventionally used for human Echinococcus multilocularis serology (Em18-ELISA and Em2-ELISA) yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 0% and 46%, respectively. In contrast, the subsequently developed immunoblotting assay gave an 85% diagnostic sensitivity (11 out of 13 beavers with alveolar echinococcosis were immunoblotting-positive, i.e. showed reactivity with a specific 21 Mr band), and maximal specificity. In conclusion, this immunoblotting assay should be the method of choice for use in serological studies on E. multilocularis in Eurasian beavers, and the test proved suitable to investigate both animals alive and post-mortem. PMID:24986466

  7. Forcing, variability, and pathway of a freshwater-driven current in the Eurasian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janout, Markus; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Hölemann, Jens; Rabe, Benjamin; Schauer, Ursula; Polyakov, Igor; Bacon, Sheldon; Coward, Andrew; Karcher, Michael; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Kassens, Heidi; Timokhov, Leo

    2015-04-01

    Siberian river water is a first-order contribution to the Arctic freshwater budget, with the Ob, Yenisey, and Lena supplying nearly half of the total surface freshwater flux. However, few details are known regarding where, when and how the freshwater transverses the vast Siberian shelf seas. This paper investigates the mechanism, variability and pathways of the fresh Kara Sea outflow through Vilkitsky Strait towards the Laptev Sea. We utilize a high-resolution ocean model and recent shipboard observations to characterize the freshwater-laden Vilkitsky Strait Current (VSC), and shed new light on the little-studied region between the Kara and Laptev Seas, characterized by harsh ice conditions, contrasting water masses, straits and a large submarine canyon. The VSC is 10-20 km wide, surface-intensified, and varies seasonally (maximum from August-March) and interannually. Average freshwater (volume) transport is 500 ± 120 km3 a-1 (0.53 ± 0.08 Sv), with a baroclinic flow contribution of 50-90%. Interannual transport variability is explained by a storage-release mechanism, where blocking-favorable summer winds hamper the outflow and cause accumulation of freshwater in the Kara Sea. The year following a blocking event is characterized by enhanced transports driven by a baroclinic flow along the coast that is set up by increased freshwater volumes. Eventually, the VSC merges with a slope current and provides a major pathway for Eurasian river water towards the Western Arctic along the Eurasian continental slope. Kara (and Laptev) Sea freshwater transport is not correlated with the Arctic Oscillation, but rather driven by regional summer pressure patterns.

  8. Nest desertion is not predicted by cuckoldry in the Eurasian penduline tit

    PubMed Central

    Mészáros, Lidia A.; van der Velde, Marco; Székely, Tamás; Pogány, Ákos; Szabad, János; Komdeur, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Engagement in extra-pair copulations is an example of the abundant conflicting interests between males and females over reproduction. Potential benefits for females and the risk of cuckoldry for males are expected to have important implications on the evolution of parental care. However, whether parents adjust parental care in response to parentage remains unclear. In Eurasian penduline tits Remiz pendulinus, which are small polygamous songbirds, parental care is carried out either by the male or by the female. In addition, one third of clutches is deserted by both male and female. Desertion takes place during the egg-laying phase. Using genotypes of nine microsatellite loci of 443 offspring and 211 adults, we test whether extra-pair paternity predicts parental care. We expect males to be more likely to desert cuckolded broods, whereas we expect females, if they obtain benefits from having multiple sires, to be more likely to care for broods with multiple paternity. Our results suggest that parental care is not adjusted to parentage on an ecological timescale. Furthermore, we found that male attractiveness does not predict cuckoldry, and we found no evidence for indirect benefits for females (i.e., increased growth rates or heterozygosity of extra-pair offspring). We argue that male Eurasian penduline tits may not be able to assess the risk of cuckoldry; thus, a direct association with parental care is unlikely to evolve. However, timing of desertion (i.e., when to desert during the egg-laying phase) may be influenced by the risk of cuckoldry. Future work applying extensive gene sequencing and quantitative genetics is likely to further our understanding of how selection may influence the association between parentage and parental care. PMID:20802790

  9. Differential replication properties among H9N2 avian influenza viruses of Eurasian origin.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Rokshana; Shehata, Awad A; Heenemann, Kristin; Gac, Malgorzata; Rueckner, Antje; Halami, Mohammad Y; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza H9N2 viruses have become panzootic in Eurasia causing respiratory manifestations, great economic losses and occasionally being transmitted to humans. To evaluate the replication properties and compare the different virus quantification methods, four Eurasian H9N2 viruses from different geographical origins were propagated in embryonated chicken egg (ECE) and Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cell systems. The ECE-grown and cell culture-grown viruses were monitored for replication kinetics based on tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), Hemagglutination (HA) test and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The cellular morphology was analyzed using immunofluorescence (IF) and cellular ELISA was used to screen the sensitivity of the viruses to amantadine. The Eurasian wild type-H9N2 virus produced lower titers compared to the three G1-H9N2 viruses at respective time points. Detectable titers were observed earliest at 16 h post inoculation (hpi), significant morphological changes on cells were first observed at 32 hpi. Few nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were noticed in the HA, NA and NS gene sequences but none of them are related to the known conserved region that can alter pathogenesis or virulence following a single passage in cell culture. All studied H9N2 viruses were sensitive to amantadine. The G1-H9N2 viruses have higher replication capabilities compared to the European wild bird-H9N2 probably due to their specific genetic constitutions which is prerequisite for a successful vaccine candidate. Both the ECE and MDCK cell system allowed efficient replication but the ECE system is considered as the better cultivation system for H9N2 viruses in order to get maximum amounts of virus within a short time period. PMID:26149130

  10. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2011-05-01

    We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:21104273

  11. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR. PMID:22673688

  12. Effects of a Low-dose Fluridone Treatment on Submersed Aquatic Vegetation in a Eutrophic Minnesota Lake Dominated by Eurasian Watermilfoil and Coontail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAY D. VALLEY; W. CROWELL

    Whole-lake, low-dose applications of fluridone herbicide are often used to control infestations of Eurasian watermil- foil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.). Studies in mesotrophic lakes have documented temporary reductions in Eurasian water- milfoil with little effect on native macrophytes and water quality. Less is known regarding the effects of low-dose fluri- done (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4(1 H )- pyridinone) applications in eutrophic lakes. Therefore,

  13. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

  14. Pn tomographic imaging of mantle lid velocity and anisotropy at the junction of the Arabian, Eurasian and African plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali I. Al-Lazki; Eric Sandvol; Dogan Seber; Muawia Barazangi; Niyazi Turkelli; Randa Mohamad

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian plate has played a major role in building the young mountain belts along the Zagros-Bitlis continent-continent collision zone. Arabia's northward motion is considered to be the primary driving force behind the present-day westerly escape of the Anatolian plate along the North and East Anatolian fault zones as well as the formation

  15. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Exclusive core areas and intrasexual territoriality in Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris ) revealed by incremental cluster polygon analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica Di Pierro; Ambrogio Molinari; Guido Tosi; Lucas A. Wauters

    2008-01-01

    When animal home ranges overlap extensively in species lacking overt territorial behaviours, identifying exclusive core areas\\u000a within individual ranges can be difficult. By analysing the size and overlap of successively smaller core areas among individual\\u000a Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris), we determined exclusive areas within the home ranges of resident males and females. Possible effects of habitat composition\\u000a and food

  17. Impacts of a Habitat-Forming Exotic Species on Estuarine Structure and Function: An Experimental Assessment of Eurasian Milfoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Martin; John F. Valentine

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that successful colonization of ecosystems by non-native species will have catastrophic consequences\\u000a for the recipient system. Within the Mobile–Tensaw Delta, AL, exotic Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) has been reported to trigger degradation of ecosystem structure and function. We evaluated the impacts of structurally complex\\u000a milfoil on food web structure and predator-prey interactions via comparisons with two

  18. Whole-lake Herbicide Treatments for Eurasian Watermilfoil in Four Wisconsin Lakes: Effects on Vegetation and Water Clarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly I. Wagner; J. Hauxwell; P. W. Rasmussen; F. Koshere; P. Toshner; K. Aron; D. R. Helsel; S. Toshner; S. Provost; M. Gansberg; J. Masterson; S. Warwick

    2007-01-01

    Four pilot whole-lake herbicide treatments for extensive Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM) (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) infestations were conducted in Wisconsin between 1997 and 2001 using fluridone at a range of dosages (6–16 ?g\\/L). Annual post-treatment data (4–7 years) were evaluated to assess (1) effects on exotic plants; (2) changes to native plant communities; and (3) effects on water clarity. Temporal shifts in

  19. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental causes of variation in yellow skin pigmentation and serum carotenoids in Eurasian kestrel nestlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Casagrande; David Costantini; James Tagliavini; Giacomo Dell’Omo

    2009-01-01

    In the context of sexual selection and parent-offspring communication, carotenoid-based coloration operates as a dynamic condition-dependent\\u000a signal, as pigments stored in the skin and in the bill can be reallocated to other tissues in accordance with physiological\\u000a needs. We studied the proximate factors affecting the carotenoid-dependent coloration of the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Kestrel nestlings show carotenoid-based coloration at the

  20. Terrestrial Arctic Amplification Due to Changes in the Eurasian Soil Thermal Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfeld, O. W.; Chen, L.; Zhang, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic amplification phenomenon suggests that due to feedbacks largely involving sea ice, increases in surface air temperature in response to greenhouse gas forcing are most pronounced in the Arctic. As the Arctic warms in response to climate change, the summer melt season lengthens and intensifies, leading to less sea ice at the end of summer. Absorption of solar radiation during summer in expanding open water areas increases the heat content of the ocean, delaying ice formation and promoting increased upward heat fluxes. Loss of sea ice thus provides a positive feedback that exacerbates the warming observed in the Arctic. The underlying premise of our study is that much like Arctic amplification due to the loss of sea ice, changes in the amount and distribution of frozen ground in Northern Hemisphere land areas represent a terrestrial analog to Arctic amplification. In response to climate warming we are observing increases in soil temperatures, deepening of the active layer, and talik formation in permafrost regions. This leads to delayed freeze-up of soils, decreased freeze depths in seasonally frozen ground regions, and earlier spring thaw. These changes in the soil thermal regime result in more and more heat storage in soils during the warm season, amplifying the frozen ground changes in high latitudes. The increased heat storage in the soil thermal regime results in a seasonal redistribution of energy, which leads to a substantially increased heat flux from the soil to the atmosphere during the cold season. It is this heat flux that represents our hypothesized feedback. We use monthly historical soil temperature observations at 423 station locations in the Eurasian high latitudes combined with soil properties based on the Harmonized World Soil Database to provide estimates of this soil heat flux. We calculate the temperature gradient based on soil temperature and, for a generalized assessment, first use a constant, estimated thermal conductivity for frozen versus unfrozen soil to calculate soil heat flux. Next, we use the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model to estimate soil moisture at each of the 423 sites, thereby providing a more robust estimate of site-specific thermal conductivity and hence soil heat flux. Finally, we use the thermal conductivity estimate provided by VIC itself, for a third estimate of soil heat flux. These various estimates are compared across the Eurasian high latitudes for a comprehensive validation of our hypothesized anomalous heat flux to the atmosphere in the transitional and cold seasons. We thereby present evidence for a previously unexplored land-atmosphere coupling, potentially capable of altering the large-scale flow of the atmospheric circulation.

  1. Tethyan collision forces and the stress field of the Eurasian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-10-01

    Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In previous studies of the Eurasian Plate, we have analysed the balance of plate boundary forces, tractions resulting from lithosphere-mantle coupling, and intraplate variations in topography and density structure. This yielded a range of acceptable force distributions. In this study, we investigate to which extent the observed present-day stress field provides further constraints on the distribution of forces. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate all forces as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Intraplate stress observations used are from the World Stress Map project. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be particularly sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a much lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and tractions from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.0-10.5 TN m-1 and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3-2.7 TN m-1. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0-2.5 and 0-1.3 TN m-1, respectively. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. For both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateaus, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, we find that the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force.

  2. A VLBI baseline post-adjustment approach for station velocity estimation in Eurasian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibin; Liu, Xiang

    2014-10-01

    Baseline lengths and their time-derivatives among 58 geodetic VLBI stations were fitted by using 4439 observing sessions from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). First, the velocities of eight stations in Eurasian continent were set as unknown quantities. Then, two standard global solutions from 3523 IVS sessions and 1110 sessions from database code XA, respectively, were applied prior to all-station coordinates and the non-estimated station velocities. Finally, from the relations among the coordinates, velocities, baseline length and its time-derivative, two types of baseline post-adjustment (BPA) were used to estimate the velocities of the eight stations. We discuss the data processing details, including the effect of different prior values for the stations and the optimal solution. The results suggest that the precision of the station velocities based on the proposed approach is comparable to that of the global solution of the XA sessions. The baseline structure and the prior values of the stations affect the velocity estimates. Compared to the standard method of velocity estimation, there are no external constrains and conditions used in the proposed method.

  3. Careful cachers and prying pilferers: Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) limit auditory information available to competitors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

    2013-02-01

    Food-storing corvids use many cache-protection and pilfering strategies. We tested whether Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) reduce the transfer of auditory information to a competitor when caching and pilfering. We gave jays a noisy and a quiet substrate to cache in. Compared with when alone, birds cached less in the noisy substrate when with a conspecific that could hear but could not see them caching. By contrast, jays did not change the amount cached in the noisy substrate when they were with a competitor that could see and hear them caching compared with when they were alone. Together, these results suggest that jays reduce auditory information during caching as a cache-protection strategy. By contrast, as pilferers, jays did not attempt to conceal their presence from a cacher and did not prefer a silent viewing perch over a noisy one when observing caching. However, birds vocalized less when watching caching compared with when they were alone, when they were watching a non-caching conspecific or when they were watching their own caches being pilfered. Pilfering jays may therefore attempt to suppress some types of auditory information. Our results raise the possibility that jays both understand and can attribute auditory perception to another individual. PMID:23222444

  4. Water Transparency Drives Intra-Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Pia; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Svanbäck, Richard; Eklöv, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization. PMID:22912895

  5. Converging migration routes of Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo crossing the African equatorial rain forest

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Hake, Mikael; Olofsson, Patrik; Alerstam, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Autumn migration of adult Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo from Europe to southern Africa was recorded by satellite telemetry and observed routes were compared with randomly simulated routes. Two non-random features of observed routes were revealed: (i) shifts to more westerly longitudes than straight paths to destinations and (ii) strong route convergence towards a restricted area close to the equator (1°?S, 15°?E). The birds migrated south or southwest to approximately 10°?N, where they changed to south-easterly courses. The maximal spread between routes at 10°?N (2134?km) rapidly decreased to a minimum (67?km) close to the equator. We found a striking relationship between the route convergence and the distribution of continuous rainforest, suggesting that hobbies minimize flight distance across the forest, concentrating in a corridor where habitat may be more suitable for travelling and foraging. With rainforest forming a possible ecological barrier, many migrants may cross the equator either at 15°?E, similar to the hobbies, or at 30–40°?E, east of the rainforest where large-scale migration is well documented. Much remains to be understood about the role of the rainforest for the evolution and future of the trans-equatorial Palaearctic-African bird migration systems. PMID:18986977

  6. Tula virus infections in the Eurasian water vole in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Mathias; Kindler, Eveline; Essbauer, Sandra S; Wolf, Ronny; Thiel, Jörg; Groschup, Martin H; Heckel, Gerald; Oehme, Rainer M; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2012-06-01

    Recent reports of novel hantaviruses in shrews and moles and the detection of rodent-borne hantaviruses in different rodent species raise important questions about their host range and specificity, evolution, and host adaptation. Tula virus (TULV), a European hantavirus, is believed to be slightly or non-pathogenic in humans and was initially detected in the common vole Microtus arvalis, the East European vole M. levis (formerly rossiaemeridionalis), and subsequently in other Microtus species. Here we report the first multiple RT-PCR detection and sequence analyses of TULV in the Eurasian water vole Arvicola amphibius from different regions in Germany and Switzerland. Additional novel TULV S-, M-, and L-segment sequences were obtained from M. arvalis and M. agrestis trapped in Germany at sites close to trapping sites of TULV-RT-PCR-positive water voles. Serological investigations using a recombinant TULV nucleocapsid protein revealed the presence of TULV-reactive antibodies in RT-PCR-positive and a few RT-PCR-negative water voles. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a geographical clustering of the novel S-, M-, and L-segment sequences from A. amphibius with those of M. arvalis- and M. agrestis-derived TULV lineages, and may suggest multiple TULV spillover or a potential host switch to A. amphibius. Future longitudinal studies of sympatric Microtus and Arvicola populations and experimental infection studies have to prove the potential of A. amphibius as an additional TULV reservoir host. PMID:22225425

  7. Limitations of gravity models in predicting the spread of Eurasian watermilfoil.

    PubMed

    Rothlisberger, John D; Lodge, David M

    2011-02-01

    The effects of non-native invasive species are costly and environmentally damaging, and resources to slow their spread and reduce their effects are scarce. Models that accurately predict where new invasions will occur could guide the efficient allocation of resources to slow colonization. We assessed the accuracy of a model that predicts the probability of colonization of lakes in Wisconsin by Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). We based this predictive model on 9 years (1990-1999) of sequence data of milfoil colonization of lakes larger than 25 ha (n =1803). We used milfoil colonization sequence data from 2000 to 2006 to test whether the model accurately predicted the number of lakes that actually were colonized from among the 200 lakes identified as being most likely to be colonized. We found that a lake's predicted probability of colonization was not correlated with whether a lake actually was colonized. Given the low predictability of colonization of specific lakes, we compared the efficacy of preventing milfoil from leaving occupied sites, which does not require predicting colonization probability, with protecting vacant sites from being colonized, which does require predicting colonization probability. Preventing organisms from leaving colonized sites reduced the likelihood of spread more than protecting vacant sites. Although we focused on the spread of a single species in a particular region, our results show the shortcomings of gravity models in predicting the spread of numerous non-native species to a variety of locations via a wide range of vectors. PMID:20964712

  8. Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Vegetation Growth Response Associated with Increasing Drought Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buermann, W.; Parida, B.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Reichstein, M.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high-latitudes are currently experiencing drastic climatic changes. Initial findings suggested that in response to warming these regions increase productivity as low temperature constraints on plant growth are diminished. Recently, however, multiple lines of evidence have shown that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here, we analyzed interannual variations in boreal forest growth pattern and relationships with abiotic drivers in the period 1982-2008 using satellite vegetation and freeze-thaw records in conjunction with climate and upscaled ecosystem flux data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming and shifts to earlier spring onsets in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted portions of the western central Eurasian boreal forests into a more water-limited regime despite increasing CO2 and related water use efficiency. This has resulted in large-scale and spatially pervasive negative year-to-year relationships between summer temperatures and plant growth. If this regime shift is sustained into the future, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may start earlier and proceeds more rapidly than anticipated.

  9. Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Vegetation Growth Response Associated with Drought Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buermann, W.; Parida, B.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Reichstein, M.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high-latitudes are currently experiencing drastic climatic changes. Initial findings based largely on satellite vegetation records and atmospheric CO2 data suggested that in response to warming these regions increase productivity as low temperature constraints on plant growth are diminished. In recent years, however, multiple lines of evidence showed that for the circumpolar boreal forests this pattern has not continued and that this biome is becoming increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors including temperature-induced drought stress, shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual and longer-term variations in boreal vegetation growth and relationships with abiotic drivers using a satellite vegetation record spanning nearly 3 decades (1982-2008) in conjunction with climate data and newly available upscaled ecosystem flux data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming and shifts to earlier spring onsets in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation trends a turning point has been crossed around the mid-1990s that shifted portions of the Eurasian boreal forests into a more water-limited regime resulting in large-scale declines of vegetation growth. If the detected decadal trend continues into the future, the forest dieback induced by drought and heat stress as predicted by vegetation models may start earlier than anticipated.

  10. Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2007-12-01

    Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences in the predation of the western green lizard ( Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated whether the rate of predation differed during the 8-year study period and among the three habitats studied. We collected lizard remains from nest boxes of kestrels. Freshly killed lizards were sexed by visual inspection, whilst the sex of head remains was assigned by analysing the cephalic scale morphology using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that the risk of being predated by a kestrel in our population was overall about 3.55 times higher for males than for females. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a male-biased predation in a lizard species. The selective predation of males was consistent between years over the 8-year study period (1999-2006) and also consistent between the three types of kestrel hunting habitat. Overall predation rates on lizards differed between habitats, depending on the year. We propose that the observed sex-biased predation is mainly due to sex differences in lizard behaviour.

  11. Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays

    PubMed Central

    Ostoji?, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one’s own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others’ actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female’s current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males’ sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate’s behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males’ own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates. PMID:23382187

  12. Careful cachers and prying pilferers: Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) limit auditory information available to competitors

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Rachael C.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Food-storing corvids use many cache-protection and pilfering strategies. We tested whether Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) reduce the transfer of auditory information to a competitor when caching and pilfering. We gave jays a noisy and a quiet substrate to cache in. Compared with when alone, birds cached less in the noisy substrate when with a conspecific that could hear but could not see them caching. By contrast, jays did not change the amount cached in the noisy substrate when they were with a competitor that could see and hear them caching compared with when they were alone. Together, these results suggest that jays reduce auditory information during caching as a cache-protection strategy. By contrast, as pilferers, jays did not attempt to conceal their presence from a cacher and did not prefer a silent viewing perch over a noisy one when observing caching. However, birds vocalized less when watching caching compared with when they were alone, when they were watching a non-caching conspecific or when they were watching their own caches being pilfered. Pilfering jays may therefore attempt to suppress some types of auditory information. Our results raise the possibility that jays both understand and can attribute auditory perception to another individual. PMID:23222444

  13. Immunity and fitness in a wild population of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parejo, Deseada; Silva, Nadia

    2009-10-01

    The immune system of vertebrates consists of several components that partly interact and complement each other. Therefore, the assessment of the overall effectiveness of immune defence requires the simultaneous measurement of different immune components. In this study, we investigated intraspecific variability of innate [i.e. natural antibodies (NAb) and complement] and acquired (i.e. leucocyte profiles) immunity and its relationship with fitness correlates (i.e. blood parasite load and reproductive success in adults and body mass and survival until fledging in nestlings) in the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Immunity differed between nestlings and adults and also between adult males and females. Adult kestrels with higher levels of complement were less parasitised by Haemoproteus, and males with higher values of NAbs showed a higher reproductive success. In nestlings, the H/L ratio was negatively related to body mass. Survival until fledging was predicted by all measured immunological variables of nestlings as well as by their fathers' level of complement. This is the first time that innate immunity is linked to survival in a wild bird. Thus, intraspecific variation in different components of immunity predicts variation in fitness prospects in kestrels, which highlights the importance of measuring innate immune components together with components of the acquired immunity in studies assessing the effectiveness of the immune system in wild animals.

  14. Occurrence of non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-ortho substituted PCB congeners in polecats, stone martens and badgers from the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Behnisch, P; Engelhart, A; Apfelbach, R; Hagenmaier, H

    1997-06-01

    The concentrations of non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-ortho substituted PCB congeners in tissues of three European mustelid species--polecat, stone marten and badger--were determined. Median congener concentrations are comparable in the three species and are lower than in previous studies on polecats. In all samples PCB-126 contributes most to the TCDD-TEQ; it occurs in considerably higher concentrations in polecats. Additionally, amphibs, the main prey of polecats, were analysed. The total PCB intake of polecats feeding solely on amphibs would be below a critical level, considering the NOAEL for the reproduction of mink, a closely related species. PMID:9192465

  15. Impact and implications of the Afro-Eurasian collision south of Cyprus from reflection seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimke, Jennifer; Ehrhardt, Axel

    2014-06-01

    The Cyprus Arc in the Eastern Mediterranean represents the active collision front between the African and Eurasian (Anatolian) Plates. Along the Cyprus Arc, the Eratosthenes Seamount is believed to have been blocking the northward motion of the African Plate since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Based on a dense grid of 2D reflection seismic profiles covering the Eratosthenes Seamount and western Levant Basin offshore Cyprus, new observations regarding the Cyprus Arc collision front at the triple transition zone Eratosthenes Seamount-Levant Basin-Hecataeus Rise are presented. The data show that the Levant Basin is filled with ~ 10 km of sediments of Early Mesozoic (probably Jurassic) to Plio-Quaternary age with only a localized deformation affecting the Miocene-Oligocene rock units. The sediments onlap directly against the steep eastern flank of the Eratosthenes Seamount to the west and the southern flank of the Hecataeus Rise to the north. The sediments show no deformation that could be associated with collision and are undeformed even very close to the two prominent structures. Pinching out of the Base Miocene reflector in the Levant Basin due to onlapping of the Middle Miocene reflector indicates uplift of the Eratosthenes Seamount and the Hecataeus Rise. In contrast to the Messinian Evaporites north of the Eratosthenes Seamount, the salt in the Levant Basin, even close to the Hecataeus Rise, is tectonically undeformed. It is proposed that the Eratosthenes Seamount, the western Levant Basin and the Hecataeus Rise act as one tectonic unit. This implies that the collision front is located north of this unit and that the Hecataeus Rise shields the sediments south of it from deformation associated with collision of the African and Anatolian Plates.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  17. Colonization of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by Fungi under Controlled Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig S.; Chand, Tara; Harris, Robin F.; Andrews, John H.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory assay to assess colonization of a submersed aquatic plant, Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by fungi was developed and used to evaluate the colonization potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Acremonium curvulum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, a Paecilomyces sp., and an unidentified sterile, septate fungus. Stem segments of plants were first immersed in suspensions of fungal propagules for 24 h and then washed to remove all but the tightly attached component of the population. Inoculation was followed by two growth cycles of 3 days each. At the start of each cycle, washed plants were transferred to a mineral salts medium to provide an opportunity for the attached fungal populations to grow. After each growth period, plants were again washed, and fungal populations in the medium (nonattached), loosely attached and tightly attached to the plant, and within the plant (endophytic) were assayed by dilution plating. The fungi differed in the extent to which they attached to water milfoil and in their ability to grow in association with it. There were relatively few significant differences among the tightly attached fungal populations after 24 h, but growth of the better colonizers led to a greater number of significant differences after 4 and 7 days. In addition, the better colonizers showed sustained regrowth of loosely and nonattached fungal propagules in the face of intermittent removal by washing. A milfoil pathogen, C. gloeosporioides, was the only endophytic colonizer; it was also among the best epiphytic colonizers but was not demonstrably better than A. curvulum, a fungus commonly found as an epiphyte on watermilfoil. The yeastlike hyphomycete Aureobasidium pullulans was the only fungus that consistently failed to establish an increasing population on the plant. Images PMID:16348013

  18. Piagetian object permanence and its development in Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Zucca, Paolo; Milos, Nadia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2007-04-01

    Object permanence in Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) was investigated using a complete version of the Uzgiris and Hunt scale 1. Nine hand-raised jays were studied, divided into two groups according to their different developmental stages (experiment 1, older jays: 2-3 months old, n = 4; experiment 2, younger jays: 15 days old, n = 5). In the first experiment, we investigated whether older jays could achieve piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. Tasks were administered in a fixed sequence (1-15) according to the protocols used in other avian species. The aim of the second experiment was to check whether testing very young jays before their development of "neophobia" could influence the achievement times of piagetian stages. Furthermore, in this experiment tasks were administered randomly to investigate whether the jays' achievement of stage 6 follows a fixed sequence related to the development of specific cognitive abilities. All jays tested in experiments 1 and 2 fully achieved piagetian stage 6 and no "A not B" errors were observed. Performance on visible displacement tasks was better than performance on invisible ones. The results of experiment 2 show that "neophobia" affected the response of jays in terms of achievement times; the older jays in experiment 1 took longer to pass all the tasks when compared with the younger, less neophobic, jays in experiment 2. With regard to the achieving order, jays followed a fixed sequence of acquisition in experiment 2, even if tasks were administered randomly, with the exception of one subject. The results of these experiments support the idea that piagetian stages of cognitive development exist in avian species and that they progress through relatively fixed sequences. PMID:17242935

  19. Exclusion in corvids: the performance of food-caching Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Plotnik, Joshua M; Clayton, Nicola S

    2013-11-01

    Choice by exclusion involves selecting a rewarded stimulus by rejecting alternatives that are unlikely to be rewarded. It has been proposed that in corvids, exclusion is an adaptive specialization for caching that, together with object permanence and observational spatial memory, enhances a bird's ability to keep track of the contents of caches. Thus, caching species are predicted to perform well in tasks requiring exclusion. We tested this prediction by assessing the performance of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius), a highly specialized cacher, in a two-way object choice task in which food was hidden in 1 of 2 cups. Consistent with the corvids' capacity for observational spatial memory, jays were highly accurate when shown the location of the food reward. However, the jays failed to exclude the empty cup when shown its contents. This failure to select the baited cup when shown the empty cup was possibly due to jays attending to the experimenter's movements and erroneously selecting the empty cup by responding to these local enhancement cues. To date, no corvids have been tested in an auditory two-way object choice task. Testing exclusion in the auditory domain requires that a bird use the noise produced when the baited cup is shaken to locate the reward. Although jays chose the baited cup more frequently than predicted by chance, their performance did not differ from trials controlling for the use of conflicting cues provided by the experimenter. Overall, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that caching has shaped exclusion abilities in corvids. PMID:23668696

  20. Scent-marking behaviour and social dynamics in a wild population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kristina; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Kölliker, Mathias; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2014-07-01

    Scent-marking is widespread among mammals and has been observed in many felid species. Although the behaviour is well-described, little is known about its function in wild felid populations. We investigated patterns of scent-marking and its role in intra- and intersexual communication among resident and non-resident Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx by observing interactions among wild lynx at natural marking sites by means of infrared camera traps. Marking activity of resident animals showed a peak during the mating season and was lowest during the time when females gave birth and lactated. Both sexes scent-marked, but male lynx visited marking sites much more often than females and marked relatively more often when visiting a site. Most visits to marking sites were by residents but we also observed scent-marking by non-residents. Juveniles were never observed marking. We found no evidence of lynx regularly renewing scent-marks after a certain 'expiry date' but the presence of a strange scent-mark triggered over-marking. Males responded similarly to the presence of another individual's scent-mark, irrespective of whether it was the top- or the underlying scent-mark in a mixture of scent-marks they encountered. Our results suggest that marking sites could serve as 'chemical bulletin boards', where male lynx advertise their presence and gain information on ownership relationships in a given area. Females placed their urine marks on top of the ones left by resident males, but further studies are needed to explain the functions of over-marking in females. PMID:24814909

  1. Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian ruffe or yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolar, C.S.; Fullerton, A.H.; Martin, K.M.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread to areas with more dense zebra mussel populations, the zone of interaction among zebra mussels, yellow perch, and ruffe will increase and intensify. In the laboratory, the effect of zebra mussel shells on the ability of these fishes to forage on amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) and chironomids (Chironomus plumosus) was examined in light and darkness. In 12 h, ruffe consumed more amphipods than did similar-sized yellow perch, particularly in darkness on bare cobble, and in light within zebra mussels. Amphipods decreased activity more in the presence of ruffe than yellow perch. More amphipods were found in zebra mussel shells than in bare cobble, whether or not fish were present. In darkness, when ruffe consumed more amphipods on bare cobble, amphipods became more associated with zebra mussel shells. Although ruffe consumed more amphipods than yellow perch, perch consumed more chironomids than ruffe on bare cobble. The presence of zebra mussel shells altered the relative consumption of invertebrates in some substrate-light combinations. Experiments such as these help to improve understanding of the direct and indirect effects of predation between and among native and nonindigenous species that may exert structuring forces on the nearshore communities of the Great Lakes currently or in the future.

  2. Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Depth across Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Snow depth is one of the important parameters of snow cover, and it affects the surface energy balance, assessment of snow water equivalent, ecosystem, soil temperatures, and water cycle as a whole. In this study, the long-term observed snow depth from 1972 meteorological stations and snow course sites were used to investigate snow depth climatology and its spatiotemporal variations over Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008. Preliminary results showed that snow depth was affected by latitude, which in general snow depth increased with the increasing latitude. The higher values of snow depth were found in the northeastern European Russia, the east of western Siberia, the west of central Siberia, Kamchatka Peninsula, and some areas of Sakhalin. While the lower snow accumulation occurred in most areas of China except for the north of Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, Northeast China, and some regions of the southwestern Tibet. Both of the trends in inter-annual variability of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were not significant. However, the long-term monthly mean snow depth had obvious increasing trends from February to May. There were similar spatial distributions of linear trend coefficients of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth across the former Soviet Union (USSR). The most significant trends of changes in annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were found between 40° to 70°N. The obvious trends of variability in monthly mean snow depth appeared in the areas between 50° to 60°N. The significant decreasing trends in monthly mean snow depth were observed in most areas of China from February to March. This may be largely influenced by climate change, which leads to an advancing of the end date of snow cover.

  3. Food Availability and Animal Space Use Both Determine Cache Density of Eurasian Red Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

    2013-01-01

    Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years. PMID:24265833

  4. Macroparasite community of the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris): poor species richness and diversity.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Pisanu, Benoît; Ferrari, Nicola; Basset, Franck; Tillon, Laurent; Wauters, Lucas A; Martinoli, Adriano; Saino, Nicola; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2013-10-01

    The Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is the only naturally occurring tree squirrel throughout its range. We aim at improving current knowledge on its macroparasite fauna, expecting that it will have a poor parasite diversity because in species that have no sympatric congeners parasite richness should be lower than in hosts sharing their range with several closely related species, where host-switching events and lateral transmission are promoted. We examined gastro-intestinal helminth and ectoparasite communities (excluding mites) of, respectively, 147 and 311 red squirrel roadkills collected in four biogeographic regions in Italy and France. As expected, the macroparasite fauna was poor: we found five species of nematodes and some unidentified cestodes, three fleas, two sucking lice and two hard ticks. The helminth community was dominated by a single species, the oxyurid Trypanoxyuris (Rodentoxyuris) sciuri (prevalence, 87%; mean abundance, 373 ± 65 worms/host). Its abundance varied among seasons and biogeographic regions and increased with body mass in male hosts while decreased in females. The most prevalent ectoparasites were the flea Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) sciurorum (28%), whose presence was affected by season, and the generalist tick Ixodes (Ixodes) ricinus that was found only in France (34%). All the other helminths and arthropod species were rare, with prevalence below 10%. However, the first record of Strongyloides robustus, a common nematode of North American Eastern grey squirrels (S. carolinensis), in two red squirrels living in areas where this alien species co-inhabits, deserves further attention, since low parasite richness could result in native red squirrels being particularly vulnerable to parasite spillover. PMID:23873618

  5. Three Eurasian teleconnection patterns: spatial structures, temporal variability, and associated winter climate anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuyun; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

    2014-06-01

    The Eurasian (EU) pattern is a distinct teleconnection pattern observed in boreal winter. Since the EU pattern was first identified, three types have been reported in the literature: the conventional EU pattern; the type 1 EU pattern, or Scandinavian (SCAND) pattern; and the type 2 EU pattern, or East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) pattern. Based on several reanalysis and observational datasets, the three EU patterns are extracted using the rotated empirical orthogonal function method. In order to provide a further distinction and understanding of the three EU patterns, a comprehensive side-by-side comparison is performed among them including their temporal variability, horizontal and vertical structure, related stationary Rossby wave activity, impact on climate, and possible driving factors associated with external forcing. The results reveal that all three EU patterns are characterised by a clear quasi-barotropic wave-train structure, but each has a distinct source and centre of action. Accordingly, their impacts on the precipitation and surface air temperature also differ from one other. Further evidence suggests that the conventional EU pattern is likely driven by anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic, in which process the transient eddies are actively involved. The SCAND pattern is partly maintained by the vorticity source over Western Europe, which arises from the anomalous convergence/divergence over the Mediterranean and is efficiently driven by the tropical and southern Indian Ocean SST via divergent circulation. The EATL/WRUS pattern shows some linkage to the North American snow cover, and the involved process remains unclear and needs further investigation.

  6. Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Spencer N.; Hurlbert, Allen H.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35–48% and 41–46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models. PMID:25354270

  7. Range expansion and population dynamics of an invasive species: the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Spencer N; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35-48% and 41-46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models. PMID:25354270

  8. Low-level temperature inversions of the eurasian arctic and comparisons with Soviet drifting station data

    SciTech Connect

    Serreze, M.C.; Schnell, R.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kahl, J.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Seasonal and regional variations in characteristics of the Arctic low-level temperature inversion are examined using up to 12 years of twice-daily rawinsonde data from 31 inland and coastal sites of the Eurasian Arctic and a total of nearly six station years of data from three Soviet drifting stations near the North Pole. The frequency of inversions, the median inversion depth, and the temperature difference across the inversion layer increase from the Norwegian Sea eastward toward the Laptev and East Siberian seas. This effect is most pronounced in winter and autumn, and reflects proximity to oceanic influences and synoptic activity, possibly enhanced by a gradient in cloud cover. East of Novaya Zemlya during winter, inversions are found in over 95% of all soundings and tend to be surface based. For all locations, however, inversions tend to be most intense during winter due to the large deficit in surface net radiation. The strongest inversions are found over eastern Siberia, and reflect the effects of local topography. The frequency of inversions is lowest during summer, but is still >50% at all locations. Most summer inversions are elevated, and are much weaker than their winter counterparts. Data from the drifting stations reveal an inversion in every sounding from December to April. The minimum frequency of 85% occurs during August. While the median inversion depth is over 1200 m during March, it decreases to approximately 400 m during August, with median temperature differences across the inversion layer of 12.6[degrees]and 2.8[degrees]C, respectively. The median depth of the summertime mixed layer below inversions at the drifting stations ranges from 300 to 400 m. Seasonal changes in these inversion characteristics show a strong relationship with seasonal changes in cloud cover. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2008-05-01

    Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

  10. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    PubMed

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  11. Trends in Eurasian Arctic runoff timing and their relationship to snow cover changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A.; Adam, J. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pronounced land surface process changes have occurred in the Arctic and sub-Arctic in recent decades. Apparent earlier ablation of snow cover in spring implies that some of the energy that was once used to melt snow is now absorbed by the ground, thereby lowering the albedo and thus leading to more snowmelt. To date, however, confirmation of such causal explanations for hydrologic trends has been elusive, primarily because of short record lengths and/or absence of requisite data records. We examine changes in the timing of runoff from 53 unregulated Eurasian Arctic streamflow gauges distributed over the Lena, Ob and Yenisei River basins for the period 1958 - 1999. Variables examined include the onset date of the spring runoff pulse, the centroid of timing of spring runoff, and seasonal fractional flows. These results were compared with surface air temperature anomalies and (satellite) snow cover trends to diagnose the sensitivity of runoff in each of the basins to snow cover disappearance, snow-free duration and period of snowmelt. We find that there are consistent trends indicating an earlier onset of runoff in spring across many of the basins, which can be linked to changes in snowmelt timing, and an increase in winter flows, which appears to be related to shorter snow cover duration. Surface air temperature trends have less obvious linkages with the streamflow timing changes, with the exception of the Yenisei basin where an increase in May temperatures are associated with lower snowmelt season runoff, but increases in June temperatures are associated with increased June runoff.

  12. Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values

    PubMed Central

    Olden, Julian D.; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995–2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  13. North America-Greenland-Eurasian relative motions: implications for circum-arctic tectonic reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, D.B.; Lottes, A.L.; Ziegler, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-Arctic region is based on constraints imposed by (1) relative motion histories of the three major plates (North America, Greenland, and Eurasia) and a number of smaller pieces, and (2) distribution and age of sutures, accretionary prisms, volcanic arcs, fold-thrust belts, stretched continental crust, strike-slip faults, and ocean floor. The authors conclude that: (1) North America and Eurasia remained relatively fixed to each other until the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene opening of the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay and Greenland-Norwegian and Eurasian basins (earlier convergence between North America and Eurasia in the Bering Sea region shown on many reconstructions are artifacts of incorrect plate reconstructions); (2) the North Slope-Seward-Chukotka block has constituted an isthmus connection between North America and northeast Asia since at least the middle Paleozoic and did not rotate away from the Canadian Arctic; (3) the Canada basin opened behind a clockwise-rotating Alpha Cordillera-Mendeleyev ridge arc during the Early to middle Cretaceous and consumed older, Paleozoic(.) Makarov basin ocean floor (the Chukchi cap is a detached continental fragment derived from the Beaufort Sea; the North Slope Arctic margin is a left-lateral transform fault associated with the opening of the Canada basin); and (4) the Nares Strait fault has a net relative displacement of approximately 25 km, but actual motion between Greenland and northern Ellesmere was about 250 km of strongly transpressive motion that resulted in the Eurekan and Svalbardian orogenies.

  14. MIS 7 and MIS 5 glacial inceptions: investigating the asynchronous build-up of Laurentide and Eurasian ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleoni, F.; Masina, S.; Cherchi, A.; Liakka, J.; Jochum, M.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Rosemblum, N.; Ritz, C.; Dumas, C.; Lipscomb, W.; Rutt, I.

    2012-04-01

    During the last glacial cycle, the final volume and extent of the Laurentide ice sheet was larger than over Eurasia. According to ICE-5G multi-proxy and methods reconstruction (Peltier, 2004), the Laurentide (~ 74 m Sea Level Equivalent, SLE hereafter) was ~ 5 times larger than its Eurasian counterpart (~ 17 m SLE. The final eustatic sea level drop was ~ -130 m) while a more recent study based on marine ?18O isotope suggests a smaller difference (Bintanja, 2008). On the contrary, during the penultimate glacial cycle (~245 - 126 kiloyears BP, kyrs BP), the Eurasian ice sheet reached its maximum Quaternary extent (Svendsen et al. 2004). Its volume is estimated to be ~ 60 m SLE based on numerical reconstructions (Lambeck, 2006; Peyaud 2006, Colleoni et al., 2009) implying a smaller ice volume over North America to keep consistent with the eustatic sea level drop of this period (~ -128 m, Waelbroeck et al. 2002). The fact that one of those two ice sheets is systematically larger than the other one at the peak glacial of the cycles implies: 1- a substantial amount of time to built it, larger than for the smaller one, 2- an asynchronous built-up of the ice sheets during the cycle. The notion of asynchronous build-ups over North America and Eurasia is supported by recent model estimates of North American and Eurasian ice volume evolution over the last three million years (e.g. Bintanja, 2008). It suggests that a shift in the mean ice volume distribution over the Northern Hemisphere occurred during the penultimate glacial cycle. It also suggests that the Laurentide ice sheet was mostly smaller than the Eurasian one during the older glacial cycles. Indeed, the absence of glacial landscape traces from older glacial cycles in North America suggests that the Laurentide ice sheet reached its largest Quaternary extent during the Last Glacial Maximum, destroying the previous traces of ice dynamics. What could have caused this change in ice distribution over the Northern Hemisphere? A recent study modelling the last glacial inception (~115 kyrs) suggests that the growth of the Eurasian ice sheet was delayed by persisting high oceanic heat transport into the high latitudes regions (Born et al., 2010). This supports the idea that the build-up of the Laurentide and the Eurasian ice sheets was asynchronous from the very beginning of the cycle. In this work, we use the CESM climate model (in its fully coupled version) and the GRISLI ice sheet model to simulate the climate and ice distribution of the last two glacial inceptions, MIS 5 (~ 125 - 115 kyrs BP) and MIS 7 (~ 236 - 229 kyrs BP). Pseudo transient simulations only accounting for changes in orbitals and greenhouse gas are performed over the periods defined above (vegetation and aeolian dusts are prescribed as their predindustrial distribution). Outputs are then analysed to investigate whether the external forcing alone could be responsible for different ice distributions.

  15. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) overcome their current desires to anticipate two distinct future needs and plan for them appropriately.

    PubMed

    Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2012-04-23

    Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present satiety to cache food they will desire in the future. Here, we show that another corvid, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), can distinguish between two distinct future desires and plan for each appropriately, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms of previous work, and suggest a way in which associative learning processes and future-oriented cognition may combine to allow prospective behaviour. PMID:22048890

  16. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) overcome their current desires to anticipate two distinct future needs and plan for them appropriately

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2012-01-01

    Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present satiety to cache food they will desire in the future. Here, we show that another corvid, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), can distinguish between two distinct future desires and plan for each appropriately, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms of previous work, and suggest a way in which associative learning processes and future-oriented cognition may combine to allow prospective behaviour. PMID:22048890

  17. Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Krysten L; Green, David E; Justice-Allen, Anne E; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Ip, Hon S

    2012-06-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens. PMID:22476688

  18. Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) – Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam

    PubMed Central

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  19. Entrapment of ancient and modern organic carbon by iron on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvado, Joan A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-04-01

    Given the potential for climate-carbon feedbacks in the Siberian-Arctic land-ocean system, there is a need for improved understanding of carbon cycle processes (Vonk et al., 2012). The entrapment of organic carbon in sediments is a key factor to attenuate the outgassing of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In this context, there is a pressing need to understand the mechanisms that control preservation and accumulations of organic carbon in marine sediments. Recently, the role of iron oxides in the preservation of organic matter globally has been outlined (Lalonde et al., 2012). In the present study, the composition of organic carbon associated to reactive iron (OC-Fe) on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf is evaluated. For this purpose, sediment cores and grab samples were collected in the shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea from 9 to 69 m water depth. Experiments were conducted to extract the OC-Fe from the sediments by applying a citrate-dithionite iron reduction method -accurately control corrected- and analyze the ?13C, % OC and ?14C of the bulk and iron-associated fractions. The results show that 11.0 ± 5.5% of organic carbon in surface-sediments of the Siberian Arctic Shelf is attached to reactive iron. The ?14C and ?13C signatures presented sharply contrasting offsets between the sedimentary bulk and the OC-Fe. The OC-Fe is much younger than the OC-bulk in the eastern East Siberian Sea and older in the Laptev Sea. The same offsets were observed using a dual-carbon endmember mixing model showing that the iron fraction is mainly composed by young marine plankton organic carbon in the eastern East Siberian Sea and pre-aged thawing permafrost in the Laptev Sea. Overall, it seems that (i) some of this pre-aged organic carbon still remains bound to iron oxides after permafrost thawing and (ii) the iron oxides are transferring dissolved organic carbon to the sediment. This study presents the first analyses of ?14C ever done in the OC-Fe fraction to start progressing on what organic matter components are prone to entrapment by iron oxides. References Vonk, J.E., Sánchez-García L., van Dongen B.E., Alling V., Kosmach D., Charkin A., Semiletov I.P., Dudarev O.V., Shakhova N., Roos P., Eglinton T.I., Andersson A., Gustafsson Ö. Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia. Nature 489, 137-140 (2012). Lalonde K., Mucci A., Ouellet A., Gélinas Y. Preservation of organic matter in sediments promoted by iron. Nature 483, 198-200 (2012).

  20. Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The trade-off between current and future parental investment is often different between males and females. This difference may lead to sexual conflict between parents over care provisioning in animals that breed with multiple mates. One of the most obvious manifestations of sexual conflict over care is offspring desertion whereby one parent deserts the young to increase its reproductive success at the expense of its mate. Offspring desertion is a wide-spread behavior, and its frequency often varies within populations. We studied the consistency of offspring desertion in a small passerine bird, the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus, that has an extremely variable breeding system. Both males and females are sequentially polygamous, and a single parent (either the male or the female) incubates the eggs and rears the young. About 28–40% of offspring are abandoned by both parents, and these offspring perish. Here we investigate whether the variation in offspring desertion in a population emerges either by each individual behaving consistently between different broods, or it is driven by the environment. Results Using a three-year dataset from Southern Hungary we show that offspring desertion by females is consistent between nests. Male desertion, however, depends on ambient environment, because all males desert their nests early in the season and some of them care late in the season. Therefore, within-population variation in parental care emerges by sexually different mechanisms; between-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern of offspring desertion in females, whereas within-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern in males. Conclusion To our knowledge, our study is the first that investigates repeatability of offspring desertion behavior in nature. The contrasting strategies of the sexes imply complex evolutionary trajectories in breeding behavior of penduline tits. Our results raise an intriguing question whether the sexual difference in caring/deserting decisions explain the extreme intensity of sexual conflict in penduline tits that produces a high frequency of biparentally deserted (and thus wasted) offspring. PMID:18761745

  1. Structure and variability of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew C.; Janout, Markus; Rabe, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) transports a vast amount of mass and heat around cyclonic gyres of the deep basins, acting as a narrow, topographically-controlled flow, confined to the continental margins. Current observations during 2002-2011 at seven moorings along the major Atlantic Water (AW) pathway, complemented by an extensive collection of measured temperatures and salinities as well as results of state-of-the-art numerical modeling, have been used to examine the spatial structure and temporal variability of the ACBC within the Eurasian Basin (EB). These observations and modeling results suggest a gradual, six-fold decrease of boundary current speed (from 24 to 4 cm/s) on the route between Fram Strait and the Lomonosov Ridge, accompanied by a transformation of the vertical flow structure from mainly barotropic in Fram Strait to baroclinic between the area north of Spitsbergen and the central Laptev Sea continental slope. The relative role of density-driven currents in maintaining AW circulation increases with the progression of the ACBC eastward from Fram Strait, so that baroclinic ACBC forcing dominates over the barotropic in the eastern EB. Mooring records have revealed that waters within the AW and the cold halocline layers circulate in roughly the same direction in the eastern EB. The seasonal signal, meanwhile, is the most powerful mode of variability in the EB, contributing up to ~70% of the total variability in currents (resolved by moorings records) within the eastern EB. Seasonal signal amplitudes for current speed and AW temperature both decrease with the eastward progression of AW flow from source regions, and demonstrate strong interannual modulation. In the 2000s, the state of the EB (e.g., circulation pattern, thermohaline conditions, and freshwater balance) experienced remarkable changes. Results showing anomalous circulation patterns for an extended period of 30 months in 2008-2010 for the eastern EB, and a two-core AW temperature structure that emerged in this region of the Arctic Ocean in the most recent decade, suggest a shift of the EB toward a new, more dynamic state. This also likely suggests that the EB interior will become more susceptible to future climate change. Evaluating properties of the ACBC, its temporal variability at time scales from a season to several years, and possible governing mechanisms, this study contributes to a better understanding of Arctic Ocean circulation.

  2. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire events. Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and in contrast, a normal fire season burned in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the fire season (April - September) for 1999, 2002, and 2004. We assess these data sets for evidence of relationships between the net radiative fluxes and fire onset as well as evidence for residual influence of the fires upon the radiative budgets.

  3. Genetic adaptation of the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway to oxygen pressure among eurasian human populations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lin-Dan; Qiu, Yu-Qing; Xu, Jin; Irwin, David M; Tam, Siu-Cheung; Tang, Nelson L S; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2012-11-01

    Research into the mechanisms of human adaptation to the hypoxic environment of high altitude is of great interest to the fields of human physiology and clinical medicine. Recently, the gene EGLN1, from the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway, was identified as being involved in the hypoxic adaptation of highland Andeans and Tibetans. Both highland Andeans and Tibetans have adapted to an extremely hypoxic habitat and less attention has been paid to populations living in normoxic conditions at sea level and mild-hypoxic environments of moderate altitude, thus, whether a common adaptive mechanism exists in response to quantitative variations of environmental oxygen pressure over a wide range of residing altitudes is unknown. Here, we first performed a genome-wide association study of 35 populations from the Human Genome Diversity-CEPH Panel who dwell at sea level to moderate altitude in Eurasia (N?=?691; 0-2,500 m) to identify the genetic adaptation profile of normoxic and mild-hypoxic inhabitants. In addition, we systematically compared the results from the present study to six previously published genome-wide scans of highland Andeans and Tibetans to identify shared adaptive signals in response to quantitative variations of oxygen pressure. For normoxic and mild-hypoxic populations, the strongest adaptive signal came from the mu opioid receptor-encoding gene (OPRM1, 2.54?×?10(-9)), which has been implicated in the stimulation of respiration, while in the systematic survey the EGLN1-DISC1 locus was identified in all studies. A replication study performed with highland Tibetans (N?=?733) and sea level Han Chinese (N?=?748) confirmed the association between altitude and SNP allele frequencies in OPRM1 (in Tibetans only, P?Eurasian human populations residing at different altitudes with different oxygen pressures. PMID:22628534

  4. Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-01

    Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can improve the characterization of emission locations, magnitudes and trends over sparsely monitored areas such as seas or oceans.

  5. Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

  6. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n?=?99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n?=?19), stone marten (Martes foina, n?=?3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n?=?3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n?=?4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

  7. Comparative performance of renewable and nonrenewable energy source on economic growth and CO2 emissions of Europe and Eurasian countries: A PVAR approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aviral Kumar Tiwari

    2011-01-01

    In the study, we analyzed the relative performance of RES and NRES on economic growth in European and Eurasian countries in a panel framework. The dynamics of these variables are also analyzed in relation to CO2 emissions. We used PVAR approach for analysis for the period 1965 to 2009 and find that growth rate of NRES has negative impact on

  8. Distribution and Abundance of Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and Curly-leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.) in Shawano Lake, Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chetta S. Owens; William F. James; John G. Skogerboe; R. Michael Smart

    INTRODUCTION: Shawano Lake, Wisconsin has a history of invasive aquatic plant problems, specifically curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). In addition to problems associated with invasive plant species, Shawano Lake has been experiencing declining water quality associated with phosphorus (P) loading potentially due to summer senescence of curly-leaf pondweed (James and Owens 2006). Located in

  9. -Broad-scale vegetation-environment relationships in Eurasian high-latitude areas -519 Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 519-528, 2006

    E-print Network

    Oksanen, Lauri

    . Introduction Circumpolar tundra is one of the main biomes of the northern hemisphere, covering at least 7.virtanen@oulu.fi Abstract Question: How is tundra vegetation related to climatic, soil chemical, geological variables of the Eurasian tundra. Clus- tering and ordination techniques were used for analysing compositional patterns

  10. On behalf of the president of KASS, Professor Duckjoon Chang, I am delighted to announce this most recent news on our East Asian Conference on Slavic Eurasian

    E-print Network

    Ishii, Hitoshi

    -making Policies and Security Issues in East Asian Countries 3) Theory and Politics in Social Sciences with a special reference to East Asian Countries 4) Eurasian Network: Theories, Frameworks, and Other Feasible submission should be included: #12;1) name and title 2) identifying information (email addresses

  11. Revised and synthetic apparent polar wander paths of the African, Eurasian, North American and Indian plates, and true polar wander since 200 Ma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Besse; Vincent Courtillot

    1991-01-01

    We have reviewed paleomagnetic data available for the Eurasian, African, North American and Indian plates over the last 200 Ma. Selection criteria are those generally accepted, with an emphasis on evidence for lack of remagnetization, accurate dating and proper structural analysis. This results in 23, 35, 51 and 2 poles for Eurasia, Africa, North America and India, respectively. We believe

  12. Reassortant highly pathogenic influenza A H5N2 virus containing gene segments related to Eurasian H5N8 in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    In late November 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. This virus, composed of 5 gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, M and NS) related to Eurasian HPAI H5N8 and the remaining gene segments (PB1, NP and NA) related to North American lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first HPAI outbreak in North American poultry due to a virus with Eurasian lineage genes. Since its first appearance in Korea in January 2014, HPAI H5N8 spread to Western Europe in November 2014. These European outbreaks happened to temporally coincide with migratory waterfowl movements. The fact that the British Columbia outbreaks also occurred at a time associated with increased migratory waterfowl activity along with reports by the USA of a wholly Eurasian H5N8 virus detected in wild birds in Washington State, strongly suggest that migratory waterfowl were responsible for bringing Eurasian H5N8 to North America where it subsequently reassorted with indigenous viruses. PMID:25804829

  13. Seasonal Changes in Chemical Composition of Eurasian Watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and Water Temperature at Two Sites in Northern California: Implications for Herbivory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID F. SPENCER; GREGORY G. KSANDER

    We compared seasonal changes in Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) characteristics and water tempera- ture for a shallow pond in Davis, CA, and the Truckee River, near Tahoe City, CA. Tissue C and N were 15% lower in plants from the Truckee River than in plants from the Davis pond. Seasonal fluctuations in tissue N were also different. Mean

  14. Willow ( Salix spp.) and aspen ( Populus tremula ) regrowth after felling by the Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber ): implications for riparian woodland conservation in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEVIN JONESa; David Gilvear; Nigel Willby; Martin Gaywood

    2009-01-01

    A proposed trial reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber L.) to Scotland was recently rejected by the Scottish Executive, partly over the perceived risks to woodland within a Special Area of Conservation. 2. This paper presents data on two years of willow (Salix spp.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) regrowth following tree felling by captive beavers within two large

  15. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2005, 46, No. 3, pp. 165-184. Copyright 2005 by V. H. Winston & Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    for cartographic assistance. T #12;166 EURASIAN GEOGRAPHY AND ECONOMICS second half of the empirical analysis migration flows are based on the gravity approach. Also referred to as spatial interaction models, and the distance between the origin and destination, based on the principle that the frequency and interaction

  16. Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?

    PubMed Central

    Ostoji?, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W.; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans. PMID:24671829

  17. Rapid courtship evolution in grouse (Tetraonidae): contrasting patterns of acceleration between the Eurasian and North American polygynous clades

    PubMed Central

    Spaulding, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is thought to be a powerful diversifying force, based on large ornamental differences between sexually dimorphic species. This assumes that unornamented phenotypes represent evolution without sexual selection. If sexual selection is more powerful than other forms of selection, then two effects would be: rapid divergence of sexually selected traits and a correlation between these divergence rates and variance in mating success in the ornamented sex. I tested for these effects in grouse (Tetraonidae). For three species pairs, within and among polygynous clades, male courtship characters had significantly greater divergence than other characters. This was most pronounced for two species in Tympanuchus. In the Eurasian polygynous clade, relative courtship divergence gradually increased with nucleotide divergence, suggesting a less dramatic acceleration. Increase in relative courtship divergence was associated with mating systems having higher variance in male mating success. These results suggest that sexual selection has accelerated courtship evolution among grouse, although the microevolutionary details appear to vary among clades. PMID:17284413

  18. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers. PMID:20582437

  19. Fluctuating feather asymmetry in relation to corticosterone levels is sex-dependent in Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) nestlings

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Samuli; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been widely used as a stress-related phenotypic marker of developmental instability. However, previous studies relating FA to various stressful conditions have produced inconsistent results and we still lack quantitative individual-level evidence that high FA is related to stress in wild vertebrate species. We studied how baseline plasma levels of corticosterone predicted FA of wing and tail feathers in free-living Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) nestlings. We found a sex-specific association between corticosterone levels and FA: high corticosterone levels were related to an increased FA in male but not in female nestlings. These results suggest that in treecreepers, FA may correlate with individual stress hormone levels, male developmental trajectory being potentially more sensitive to stress than that of the female. PMID:20129951

  20. Evolution of endogenous retroviruses in the Suidae: evidence for different viral subpopulations in African and Eurasian host species

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent remnants of an exogenous form that have become integrated in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) genome. Although they are usually inactive, the capacity of ?1 ERVs to infect human cells in vitro has raised concerns about xenotransplantation because the viruses could cross the species barrier to humans. Here we have analyzed the evolution of ?1 ERVs in ten species of Suidae (suids, pigs and hogs) from Eurasia and Africa using DNA sequences for their coding domains (gag, pro/pol and env genes). For comparison with ?1 PERVs, we have also analysed ?2 ERVs which in domestic pigs are known to be inactive and do not pose a risk to xenotransplantation. Results Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference showed that ?1 and ?2 ERVs have distinctive evolutionary histories. Firstly, two different viral lineages of ?1 ERVs were found and a coevolutionary analysis demonstrated that they correspond broadly to their host phylogeny, one of Eurasian and another of African species, and show no evidence of horizontal transmission. ?2 ERVs, however, show a bush-like evolution, suggesting a rapid viral radiation from a single common ancestor with no correspondence between host and viral evolutionary trees. Furthermore, though ?1 ERV env genes do not possess frequent stop codons, ?2 env genes do. To understand whether ?1 suid ERVs may be still replicating, we have also evaluated their likely mechanism of proliferation by statistically testing internal to terminal branches using nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitution ratios. Our results suggest that ?1 ERVs are increasing in copy number by reinfection, which requires the translocation of the virus from one cell to another. Conclusions Evidence of at least two viral subpopulations was observed in ?1 ERVs from Eurasian and African host species. These results should be taken into account in xenotransplantation since ?1 ERVs appear to be codiverging with their host and maintaining ongoing capacity to infect somatic and germ cells. PMID:21609472

  1. Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, Miguel; Muñoz, Joaquin; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) hosts the most polymorphic genes ever described in vertebrates. The MHC triggers the adaptive branch of the immune response, and its extraordinary variability is considered an evolutionary consequence of pathogen pressure. The last few years have witnessed the characterization of the MHC multigene family in a large diversity of bird species, unraveling important differences in its polymorphism, complexity, and evolution. Here, we characterize the first MHC class II B sequences isolated from a Rallidae species, the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. A next-generation sequencing approach revealed up to 265 alleles that translated into 251 different amino acid sequences (? chain, exon 2) in 902 individuals. Bayesian inference identified up to 19 codons within the presumptive peptide-binding region showing pervasive evidence of positive, diversifying selection. Our analyses also detected a significant excess of high-frequency segregating sites (average Tajima's D = 2.36, P < 0.05), indicative of balancing selection. We found one to six different alleles per individual, consistent with the occurrence of at least three MHC class II B gene duplicates. However, the genotypes comprised of three alleles were by far the most abundant in the population investigated (49.4%), followed by those with two (29.6%) and four (17.5%) alleles. We suggest that these proportions are in agreement with the segregation of MHC haplotypes differing in gene copy number. The most widespread segregating haplotypes, according to our findings, would contain one single gene or two genes. The MHC class II of the Eurasian Coot is a valuable system to investigate the evolutionary implications of gene copy variation and extensive variability, the greatest ever found, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a non-passerine bird. PMID:24683452

  2. Plant-substrate interactions and below substrate biomass dynamics: a continuation of studies concerning potential restriction of the introduced aquatic weed 'Myriophyllum spicatum' l. (Eurasian water milfoil) II

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, A.L.; Amundsen, C.C.

    1982-04-01

    From the study's data analysis, it was concluded that the prediction of nuisance growth of Eurasian watermilfoil depends not only on sediment phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen, but potassium levels as well. Higher water temperatures, together with non-exposure to wave action and water stream flow, likely accounts for the development of the larger standing crop of Eurasian water milfoil within the study of the Melton Hill Reservoir. Myriophyllum spicatum was collected monthly from five study sites. Whole plant samples were collected from similar bottom contour plots via SCUBA. Sediment samples were collected using a Ponar Grab, and water column measurements were taken with a YSI temperature and conductivity meter. Sediment samples were air dried and sieved. Organic matter, available phosphorus, potassium and sediment pH, and sediment nitrate were determined. Sediment texture was determined gravimetrically.

  3. Badger Mail Lists General Information

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Center, the name NFC will move to on July 1, 2013. · mnclist-resistcoat · mnclist-exposure · mnclist address does not contain @umn.edu, please send an email to nfc@umn.edu with a list of the groups to which

  4. Blood lead levels and ?-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl ( Bubo bubo ) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gómez-Ramírez; E. Martínez-López; P. María-Mojica; M. León-Ortega; A. J. García-Fernández

    2011-01-01

    In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl\\u000a chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations.\\u000a However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site (“Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union”)

  5. Kentish versus snowy Plover: PhenotyPic and Genetic analyses of Charadrius alexandrinus reveal diverGence of eurasian and american subsPecies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens Küpper; Jordi Figuerola; Bath BA

    Many shorebird species have widespread geographic distributions comprising several continents. Because shorebirds are excellent flyers and can migrate large distances, it is often unclear whether reproductive barriers between subspecies and populations from different continents exist. Kentish-Snowy Plovers ( Charadrius alexandrinus) are cosmopolitan shorebirds. Whether the American and Eurasian subspecies—Snowy Plover and Kentish Plover, respectively—constitute a single species is the subject

  6. Genetic structure of the Far Eastern population of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope inferred from sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Kulikova; Yu. N. Zhuravlev

    2010-01-01

    Sequence variation of the 5? end of the mitochondrial DNA control region (600 bp) was examined in the population samples of\\u000a Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope from Anadyr’ and Primorye. A total of 11 different mtDNA haplotypes were identified, with one of these belonging to American\\u000a wigeon Anas americana. The presence of the mtDNA haplotype from the species closely relative to

  7. Eurasian-Origin Gene Segments Contribute to the Transmissibility, Aerosol Release, and Morphology of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawala, Seema S.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Wang, Weijia; Santos, Celia P.; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindsley, William G.; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiological success of pandemic and epidemic influenza A viruses relies on the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplet (RD) transmission of influenza viruses requires efficient replication and release of infectious influenza particles into the air. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus originated by reassortment of a North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) virus with a Eurasian swine virus that contributed the neuraminidase (NA) and M gene segments. Both the TRS and Eurasian swine viruses caused sporadic infections in humans, but failed to spread from person-to-person, unlike the pH1N1 virus. We evaluated the pH1N1 and its precursor viruses in a ferret model to determine the contribution of different viral gene segments on the release of influenza virus particles into the air and on the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. We found that the Eurasian-origin gene segments contributed to efficient RD transmission of the pH1N1 virus likely by modulating the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air. All viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of infected ferrets, suggesting that factors other than viral replication are important for the release of influenza virus particles and transmission. Our studies demonstrate that the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air correlates with increased NA activity. Additionally, the pleomorphic phenotype of the pH1N1 virus is dependent upon the Eurasian-origin gene segments, suggesting a link between transmission and virus morphology. We have demonstrated that the viruses are released into exhaled air to varying degrees and a constellation of genes influences the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. PMID:22241979

  8. The Use of 2,4-D for Selective Control of an Early Infestation of Eurasian Watermilfoil in Loon Lake, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JENIFER K. PARSONS; KATHY S. HAMEL; JOHN D. MADSEN; KURT D. GETSINGER

    A patchy distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyl- lum spicatum L.) in Loon Lake was treated with the herbicide 2,4-D during July 1998. Aquatic plant biomass and frequency data were collected before treatment, and six weeks and one year after treatment. Aqueous concentrations of 2,4-D in- creased to 1 to 2 mg\\/l within one day of treatment, and were below detection

  9. Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: The eurasian collared-dove streptopelia decaocto in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bled, F.; Royle, J.A.; Cam, E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the spread direction consistent with empirical observations. Site persistence probability exhibits a quadratic response to density. We also succeeded at detecting differences in the relationship between density and initial colonization vs. recolonization probabilities. We provide a map of sites that may be colonized in the future as an example of possible practical application of our work. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: the Eurasian Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the spread direction consistent with empirical observations. Site persistence probability exhibits a quadratic response to density. We also succeeded at detecting differences in the relationship between density and initial colonization vs. recolonization probabilities. We provide a map of sites that may be colonized in the future as an example of possible practical application of our work. PMID:21516906

  11. DUPAL anomaly in the Sea of Japan: Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic variations at the eastern Eurasian continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic rocks from the eastern Eurasian plate margin (southwestern Japan, the Sea of Japan, and northeastern China) show enriched (EMI) component signatures. Volcanic rocks from the Ulreung and Dog Islands in the Sea of Japan show typical DUPAL anomaly characteristics with extremely high ??208/204 Pb (up to 143) and enriched Nd and Sr isotopic compositions (??{lunate}Nd = -3 to -5, 87Sr 86Sr = ~0.705). The ??208/204 Pb values are similar to those associated with the DUPAL anomaly (up to 140) in the southern hemisphere. Because the EMI characteristics of basalts from the Sea of Japan are more extreme than those of southwestern Japan and inland China basalts, we propose that old mantle lithosphere was metasomatized early (prior to the Proterozoic) with subduction-related fluids (not present subduction system) so that it has been slightly enriched in incompatible elements and has had a high Th/U for a long time. The results of this study support the idea that the old subcontinental mantle lithosphere is the source for EMI of oceanic basalts, and that EMI does not need to be stored at the core/ mantle boundary layer for a long time. Dredged samples from seamounts and knolls from the Yamato Basin Ridge in the Sea of Japan show similar isotopic characteristics to basalts from the Mariana arc, supporting the idea that the Yamato Basin Ridge is a spreading center causing separation of the northeast Japan Arc from Eurasia. ?? 1991.

  12. Effect of Incubation on Bacterial Communities of Eggshells in a Temperate Bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Young; Kim, Mincheol; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Choe, Jae Chun; Lee, Sang-im

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica). We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent) bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce. PMID:25089821

  13. Novel Reassortment of Eurasian Avian-Like and Pandemic/2009 Influenza Viruses in Swine: Infectious Potential for Humans ? †

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huachen; Zhou, Boping; Fan, Xiaohui; Lam, Tommy T. Y.; Wang, Jia; Chen, Antony; Chen, Xinchun; Chen, Honglin; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Smith, David K.; Guan, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts and “mixing vessels,” facilitating the genesis of pandemic influenza viruses, as demonstrated by the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pdm/09) virus. The prevalence and repeated introduction of the pdm/09 virus into pigs raises the possibility of generating novel swine influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. To address this, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted with slaughtered pigs in abattoirs in southern China. Over 50% of the pigs tested were found to be seropositive for one or more H1 influenza viruses, most commonly pdm/09-like viruses. Out of 36 virus isolates detected, one group of novel reassortants had Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 surface genes and pdm/09 internal genes. Animal experiments showed that this virus transmitted effectively from pig to pig and from pig to ferret, and it could also replicate in ex vivo human lung tissue. Immunization against the 2009 pandemic virus gave only partial protection to ferrets. The continuing prevalence of the pdm/09 virus in pigs could lead to the genesis of novel swine reassortant viruses with the potential to infect humans. PMID:21849442

  14. Topographic Constraints on Deviatoric Stress Field in the Indo-Eurasian Collision Region: Seismo-Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Reddy, C. D.; Prajapati, Sanjay K.

    2013-04-01

    The deviatoric stress field are computed from the inversion of Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) for the Indo-Eurasian plate collision region including the Himalaya and the Tibet Plateau. The resulting stress pattern in combination with stress and strain rates obtained by inverting, respectively, the focal mechanism solution of large earthquakes and GPS derived plate motions are used to study the nature of the present-day deformations. A narrow belt bordering the Himalayan collision zone from the south is characterized by strong compressive stresses. The variations in stress pattern along this belt coincide with arc-normal ridges extending into the Himalaya and are able to explain arc-parallel segmentation of seismicity. Gravitational collapse seems to play an important role in the southeastern Tibet Plateau. Depth sensitivity of the seismic derived stresses and GPS derived surface strain rates coupled with evidence of arcuate shaped high electrical conductivity favour strong ductile flow around the Eastern Himalaya Syntaxis (EHS) at mid-crustal depth. The deflection of crustal flow indicted by the viscous resistance offered by the rigid Sichuan basin adds to the traction stresses to cause clockwise rotation of the block around EHS.

  15. Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.

    PubMed

    Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

  16. Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.

    PubMed Central

    Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

    2002-01-01

    Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year. PMID:12061951

  17. Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species

    PubMed Central

    Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

  18. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  19. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin. PMID:22363811

  20. Complete mitochondrial DNA analysis of eastern Eurasian haplogroups rarely found in populations of northern Asia and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin. PMID:22363811

  1. Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37–0.47 and 0.14–0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

  2. Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

    2013-11-01

    We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37-0.47 and 0.14-0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

  3. Use of water exchange information to improve chemical control of eurasian watermilfoil in Pacific Northwest rivers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Getsinger, K.D.; Sisneros, D.; Tumer, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The submersed plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), continues to adversely impact areas in the high water exchange environment of the Columbia River system. Studies designed to characterize water movement and to evaluate a slow release matrix device (SRMD) for improving the chemical control of that target plant were conducted in the Pend Oreille and Columbia Rivers, Washington, in August 1990. A series of rhodamine WT dye treatments were applied (using conventional, liquid application techniques) to 4-ha plots representing milfoil-dominated riverine and cove sites to estimate potential herbicide contact time. In addition, dye-impregnated SRMDs were deployed in 0.4-ha plots and evaluated for their potential as slow-release herbicide carriers. Dye dissipation data were used to calculate water-exchange half-lives in plots treated with conventional application techniques. Mean half-lives ranged from 8.8 to 12.2 hr in riverine plots, to 36.3 hr in a plot situated in a protected embayment. Half-lives from these 4-ha plots were two to four times longer than half-lives measured in smaller plots (0.4 ha) from previous dye studies conducted in similar locations. In most cases, dye release rates from SRMDs provided water concentrations near the target level of 10 micrograms/L through 7 days after deployment (DAD). Dye concentrations peaked at 105 to 130 micrograms/L at 2 DAD in Plot I (main channel plot) and 4.5 to 82 micrograms/L at I DAD in Plot 2 (side channel plot).

  4. Color Tells a Story: Evidence of Megafloods into the Black Sea when the Alpine/Eurasian Ice Sheets Collapsed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamoros, E. P.; Yanchilina, A. G.; Ryan, W. B.; Kenna, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Core KN134-GC01 was extracted from the floor of the Black Sea. Discrete intervals of the core can be classified by their color. Dark gray belongs to the late glacial stage of the Pleistocene, red to the interval of rapid melting of the Eurasian and Alpine Ice Sheets, jet black to the Older Dryas, light gray to the Bolling/Allerod warm interstadials, and finely laminated olive green to dark green to the Holocene after the entry of salt water from the Mediterranean. X-Ray Fluorescence scanning revealed the elemental composition and allowed for correlation between color, bulk density, carbonate and lithology. Titanium identifies the detrital components that are abundant in red clays and immediately below the transition from fresh to marine. Bromide and Molybdenum identified the salt water green sediments. Calcium is high in the light gray layers and Manganese is more abundant in the dark gray glacial sediments. Many layers appear to have been deposited in pulses. Such layers begin with a thin sand/silt base and fine upwards into homogeneous clay. The base has the highest bulk density. CaCO3 is abundant only in the light gray clay with values exceeding 60%, the dark gray averages 12%, the red clays 8%, and the green <1%. There are nine discrete pulses of the red, each forming a layer of about 10cm in thickness. From the examination of other Black Sea cores, the red clay is found in an area of approximately 60,000km2. These pulses are interpreted as deposits from Megafloods. The detrital layers at the transition of the Mediterranean flooding into the Black Sea can be interpreted as earthquakes triggered by the rapid 75m change in water level.

  5. Trichomonosis in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean and description of ITS-1 region genotypes.

    PubMed

    Stimmelmayr, R; Stefani, L M; Thrall, M A; Landers, K; Revan, F; Miller, A; Beckstead, R; Gerhold, R

    2012-06-01

    We report the first documented occurrence of an outbreak of trichomonosis in a free-ranging small flock of Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean. In total, 18 birds were examined, including six African collared dove x Eurasian collared dove hybrids and 12 Eurasian collared doves. The affected age class consisted of adults. Sex distribution was equal. With a flock population size of 200 birds, mortality rate for the outbreak was estimated at 15-20%. Living birds were weak, showing evidence of mucus-stained beaks and open-mouth breathing. Caseous ulcerative yellow lesions were restricted to the upper gastrointestinal tract, with the exception of one bird, which had lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract and in the liver. Ninety-four percent (17/18) of the affected birds had multiple extensive lesions. Lesions located on the roof of the oral cavity extended in 33% (6/18) into the orbit and in 11% (2/18) into the braincase. Using wet-mount microscopy, we were able to confirm Trichomonas gallinae in 22% (4/18) of the sampled animals. Fifteen samples submitted for PCR analysis tested positive. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) revealed two distinct genotypes of Trichomonas. One sequence had 100% identity to the prototype T. gallinae isolate, whereas the other sequences had 98-100% identity to recently described Trichomonas-like parabasalid. On the basis of gross and histologic findings, along with the sequence results from the columbids in this report, it is likely that this Trichomonas-like parabasalid is pathogenic. PMID:22856210

  6. Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole on climate variations in the southern part of the Eurasian Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, T.; Pourasghar, F.; Tozuka, T.; Yuan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in 1999, various regional climate variations have been identified as outcomes of IOD rather than El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, based on recent studies, we show two typical examples in the southern part of the Eurasian Continent. Using reanalysis data and snow cover data derived from satellite observations, respective influences of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Tibetan snow cover in early winter are investigated. It is found that the snow cover shows a significant positive partial correlation with IOD. In the pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrences of El Nino, negative geopotential height anomalies north of India are associated with warm and humid southwesterlies to enter the plateau from the Bay of Bengal after rounding cyclonically and supply more moisture. This leads to more precipitation, more snow cover, and resultant lower surface temperature over the plateau. These negative geopotential height anomalies north of India are related to the equivalent barotropic stationary Rossby waves in the South Asian wave guide. The waves can be generated by the IOD-related convection anomalies over the western/central Indian Ocean. Using monthly data during 1974-2005 from 183 meteorological stations in the southern part of Iran, the interannual variation of precipitation are also examined. The precipitation in this region occurs during the rainy season from October to May. The interannual variation in fall and early winter during the first part of the rainy season shows an apparently significant positive correlation with both IOD and ENSO. However, a partial correlation analysis used to extract the respective influence of IOD and ENSO shows a significant positive correlation only with the IOD and not with ENSO. The southeasterly moisture flux anomaly over the Arabian Sea turns anticyclonically and transport more moisture to the southern part of Iran from the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf during the positive IOD. During the latter part of the rainy season in late winter and spring, however, the interannual variation of precipitation is more strongly influenced by modes of variability over the Mediterranean Sea. The induced largescale atmospheric circulation anomaly controls moisture supply from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Identification of the true cause of regional climate variations is very important for societal applications of climate forecast information.

  7. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with specificity being 100% (95%CI 79.2–100%). For laparoscopy alone sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 34.2–100%), with specificity also being 100% (95% CI 77.2–100%). Further immunoblotting, PCR and histopathological examination revealed one individual positive for E. multilocularis, whilst the other individual was positive for Taenia martis. PMID:26167927

  8. Variabilita slo?ení potravy vydry ?í?ní (Lutra lutra) na rybnících ?esko- moravské vrchoviny Variability in the diet of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) at fi shponds in ?esko- moravská vrchovina (Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas KRANZ

    Diet of the Eurasian otter was studied using the analysis of 2701 spraints collected along banks of 40 ponds in ?eskomoravská vrchovina (Bohemian-Moravian Highlands) in 2003-2004. Fish dominated the diet (80%, expressed as the relative number of individuals), with 19 different species identifi ed. The proportion of fi sh in the diet varied signifi cantly at different ponds, ranging from

  9. ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 284291. Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009. Original Russian Text E.V. Shein, 2009, published in Pochvovedenie, 2009, No. 3, pp. 309317.

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    284 ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 284­291. © Pleiades Publishing application in many fields of soil science and in neighboring sciences. Any quantita- tive characterization. Shein Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia Received February 13, 2008

  10. Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian ( Lynx lynx), the Iberian ( L. pardinus), the Canada lynx ( L. canadensis) and the bobcat ( L. rufus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dehnhard; K. Fanson; A. Frank; S. V. Naidenko; A. Vargas; K. Jewgenow

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal

  11. MORRIS ROSSABI EURASIAN INFLUENCES

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    fascinating. In this volume of wide-ranging essays, scholars from the United States, China and Europe present of agency-- Mongol, Chinese, and other-- and in so doing offer up a wealth of fascinating detail about.' By providing a fascinating array of articles ­ ranging from Muslim maritime semi-colonialism to Chinese

  12. [Genetic structure of the Far Eastern population of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope inferred from sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, I V; Zhuravlev, Iu N

    2010-08-01

    Sequence variation of the 5' end of the mitochondrial DNA control region (600 bp) was examined in the population samples of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope from Anadyr' and Primorye. A total of 11 different mtDNA haplotypes were identified, with one of these belonging to American wigeon Anas americana. The presence of the mtDNA haplotype from the species closely relative to A. penelope in the Anadyr' sample can be considered as the genetic evidence in favor of interspecific hybridization. This suggestion is in the good agreement with ornithological data. Genetic differentiation of the Primorye and Anadyr' populations was low (phi(ST) = 0.096). The phylogeographic structure was not pronounced. PMID:20873206

  13. Persistence of 2,4-D and its effects on benthic macroinvertebrates following spring treatment of Eurasian Watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum L. in two lakes in southeastern Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Harrahy, E A; Edwards, D S; Hedman, C J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the persistence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) applied to two lakes (one mesotrophic and one eutrophic) for the control of Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM), and to determine the impacts of 2,4-D on benthic macroinvertebrates in one of the lakes. One lake was treated with a liquid formulation, and the other with a slow release granular formulation of 2,4-D. Concentrations of 2,4-D in the water column were highest 1 and 2 days post-treatment and declined to below detection limits by 7 and 10 days post-treatment. We observed negative correlations between days post-treatment and taxa richness, and between days post-treatment and abundance of three of 12 taxonomic groups of macroinvertebrates. Lake managers need to balance control of EWM with possible impacts of 2,4-D to nontarget organisms. PMID:24458246

  14. A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain†

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H. Charles J.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Kao, Rowland R.; Macdonald, David W.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L. N.; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B.; McLean, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material. PMID:23926157

  15. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. PMID:23611846

  16. Characterization of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds (mandarin duck and Eurasian eagle owl) in 2010 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-04-01

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. PMID:23611846

  17. Residue 41 of the Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A Virus Matrix Protein Modulates Virion Filament Length and Efficiency of Contact Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Patricia J.; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Marshall, Nicolle; Suppiah, Suganthi; Seladi-Schulman, Jill; Danzy, Shamika; Lowen, Anice C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Position 41 of the influenza A virus matrix protein encodes a highly conserved alanine in human and avian lineages. Nonetheless, strains of the Eurasian avian-like swine (Easw) lineage contain a change at this position: position 41 of A/swine/Spain/53207/04 (H1N1) (SPN04) encodes a proline. To assess the impact of this naturally occurring polymorphism on viral fitness, we utilized reverse genetics to produce recombinant viruses encoding wild-type M1 41P (rSPN04-P) and consensus 41A (rSPN04-A) residues. Relative to rSPN04-A, rSPN04-P virus displayed reduced growth in vitro. In the guinea pig model, rSPN04-P was transmitted to fewer contact animals than rSPN04-A and failed to infect guinea pigs that received a low-dose inoculum. Moreover, the P41A change altered virion morphology, reducing the number and length of filamentous virions, as well as reducing the neuraminidase activity of virions. The lab-adapted human isolate, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8), is nontransmissible in the guinea pig model, making it a useful background in which to identify certain viral factors that enhance transmissibility. We assessed transmission in the context of single-, double-, and triple-reassortant viruses between PR8 and SPN04; PR8/SPN04 M, PR8/SPN04 M+NA, and PR8/SPN04 M+NA+HA, encoding either matrix 41 A or P, were generated. In each case, the virus possessing 41P transmitted less well than the corresponding 41A-encoding virus. In summary, we have identified a naturally occurring mutation in the influenza A virus matrix protein that impacts transmission efficiency and can alter virion morphology and neuraminidase activity. IMPORTANCE We have developed a practical model for examining the genetics underlying transmissibility of the Eurasian avian-like swine lineage viruses, which contributed M and NA segments to the 2009 pandemic strain. Here, we use our system to investigate the impact on viral fitness of a naturally occurring polymorphism at matrix (M1) position 41 in an Easw isolate. Position 41 has been implicated previously in adaptation to laboratory substrates and to mice. Here we show that the polymorphism at M1 41 has a limited effect on growth in vitro but changes the morphology of the virus and impacts growth and transmission in the guinea pig model. PMID:24760887

  18. Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.

    PubMed

    Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie

    2010-05-01

    Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak. PMID:20414255

  19. Effects of forest patch size on physiological stress and immunocompetence in an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris): an experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Suorsa, Petri; Helle, Heikki; Koivunen, Vesa; Huhta, Esa; Nikula, Ari; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2004-01-01

    We manipulated the primary brood size of Eurasian treecreepers (Certhia familiaris) breeding in different sized forest patches (0.5-12.8 ha) in moderately fragmented landscapes. We examined the effects of brood size manipulation (reduced, control, enlarged) and forest patch size on physiological stress (heterophil-lymphocyte ratios; H/L), body condition and cell-mediated immunocompetence (phytohaemagglutinin test). Nestlings' H/L ratios were negatively related to forest patch area in control and enlarged broods, whereas no effects were found in reduced broods. The effects of forest patch area were strongest in enlarged broods, which had, in general, twofold higher H/L ratios than control and reduced broods. The elevated H/L ratios were positively related to nestling mortality and negatively correlated with body-condition indices suggesting that the origin of stress in nestlings was mainly nutritional. Cell-mediated immunity of nestlings was not related to brood manipulation or to forest patch size. Also, the H/L ratios of adults were not related to brood manipulation or forest patch size. In addition, parental H/L ratios and body condition were not related to nestling H/L ratios. Our results suggest that during the breeding period the deleterious effects of habitat loss are seen explicitly in growing young. PMID:15101703

  20. Estimation of normal tear production in free-living Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus) and griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Dadia National Park, Greece.

    PubMed

    Komnenou, Anastasia T; Thomas, Angelos L N; Danika, Stefania E; Skartsi, Theodora; Vasilakis, Dimitris P; Cárcamo, Beatriz; Ofri, Ron

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to record the Schirmer tear test I (STT I) measurements in free-living vultures in order to estimate normal values. The Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus), which breeds in the Mediterranean region and Asia, is listed as near threatened; it is also classified as vulnerable at the European level and endangered in Greece. The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), once widespread across the continent, has undergone a dramatic decline which has led to its extinction in many regions. Sixty-two animals were examined in total including 54 black vultures and 8 griffon vultures. The birds were classified into five age groups while four age groups were then combined into one large group: free-flying. STT I measurements and complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. Mean STT I value for black vultures was 10.9 +/- 3.3 mm/min (right eye, oculus dexter, OD) and 11.9 +/- 3.3 mm/min (left eye, oculus sinister, OS) and for griffon vultures was 6.4 +/- 1.8 mm/min OD and 6.5 +/- 1.8 mm/min OS. In both eyes, STT I values in black vultures were significantly higher than those recorded in griffon vultures. Intraspecific comparisons yielded a significant difference between eyes of black vultures but not between those of griffon vultures, with OS producing higher STT I readings than did OD. When STT I was compared between OD and OS for each age group separately, a statistically significant difference was detected in the immature and free-flying black vultures. In addition, black vulture hatchlings had a significantly higher tear production than did free-flying juveniles, immatures, subadults, and adults. STT I values in black vultures are similar to those reported in other Accipitriformes but are lower in griffon vultures. This difference is probably related to anatomic, evolutionary, and feeding factors and requires further investigation. PMID:23805550

  1. Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5?±?2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6?±?25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8?±?12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

  2. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet.

    PubMed

    Mañosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

    2003-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn. PMID:12547524

  3. Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing <0.5 m. We deduce that temperature influences beavers at the landscape scale via effects on spring green-up phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and topography on forage growth are instructive, and consequently warrant examination when developing conservation management strategies for populations of medium to large herbivores. PMID:23504905

  4. Non-Invasive Genetic Mark-Recapture as a Means to Study Population Sizes and Marking Behaviour of the Elusive Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra)

    PubMed Central

    Lampa, Simone; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Gruber, Bernd; Klenke, Reinhard; Henle, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying population status is a key objective in many ecological studies, but is often difficult to achieve for cryptic or elusive species. Here, non-invasive genetic capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods have become a very important tool to estimate population parameters, such as population size and sex ratio. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is such an elusive species of management concern and is increasingly studied using faecal-based genetic sampling. For unbiased sex ratios or population size estimates, the marking behaviour of otters has to be taken into account. Using 2132 otter faeces of a wild otter population in Upper Lusatia (Saxony, Germany) collected over six years (2006–2012), we studied the marking behaviour and applied closed population CMR models accounting for genetic misidentification to estimate population sizes and sex ratios. We detected a sex difference in the marking behaviour of otters with jelly samples being more often defecated by males and placed actively exposed on frequently used marking sites. Since jelly samples are of higher DNA quality, it is important to not only concentrate on this kind of samples or marking sites and to invest in sufficiently high numbers of repetitions of non-jelly samples to ensure an unbiased sex ratio. Furthermore, otters seemed to increase marking intensity due to the handling of their spraints, hence accounting for this behavioural response could be important. We provided the first precise population size estimate with confidence intervals for Upper Lusatia (for 2012: N^ = 20 ± 2.1, 95% CI = 16–25) and showed that spraint densities are not a reliable index for abundances. We further demonstrated that when minks live in sympatry with otters and have comparably high densities, a non-negligible number of supposed otter samples are actually of mink origin. This could severely bias results of otter monitoring if samples are not genetically identified. PMID:25973884

  5. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Luísa; ?erný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vašíková, Alžb?ta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdi?ka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than ?9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening ?10?000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at ?6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area. PMID:20234393

  6. Rheology and strength of the Eurasian continental lithosphere in the foreland of the Taiwan collision belt: Constraints from seismicity, flexure, and structural styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouthereau, FréDéRic; Petit, Carole

    2003-11-01

    Deformation in western Taiwan is characterized by variable depth-frequency distribution of crustal earthquakes which are closely connected with along-strike variations of tectonic styles (thin or thick skinned) around the Peikang High, a major inherited feature of the Chinese margin. To fit the calculated high crustal geotherm and the observed distribution of the crustal seismic activity, a Qz-diorite and granulite composition for the upper and the lower crust is proposed. We then model the plate flexure, through Te estimates, using brittle-elastic-ductile plate rheology. Flexure modeling shows that the best fit combination of Te-boundary condition is for thrust loads acting at the belt front. The calculated Te vary in the range of ˜15-20 km. These values are primarily a reflection of the thermal state of the rifted Chinese margin inherited from the Oligocene spreading in the South China Sea. However, other mechanical properties such as the degree of crust/mantle coupling and the thickness of the mechanically competent crust and mantle are considered. South of the Peikang High, flexure modeling reveals lower Te associated with thinner mechanically strong layers. Variable stress/strain distribution associated with a higher degree of crust/mantle decoupling is examined to explain plate weakening. We first show that plate curvature cannot easily explain strength reduction and observed seismic activity. Additional plate-boundary forces arising from the strong coupling induced by more frontal subduction of a buoyant crustal asperity, i.e., the Peikang High, with the overriding plate are required. Favorably oriented inherited features in the adjacent Tainan basin produce acceleration of strain rates in the upper crust and hence facilitate the crust/mantle decoupling as attested by high seismic activity and thick-skinned deformation. The relative weakening of the lower crust and mantle then leads to weaken the lithosphere. By contrast, to the north, more oblique collision and the lack of inherited features keep the lithosphere stronger. This study suggests that when the Eurasian plate enters the Taiwan collision, tectonic inheritance of the continental margin exerts a strong control on the plate deformation by modifying its strength.

  7. ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 12041217. Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009. Original Russian Text M.P. Lebedeva (Verba), D.L. Golovanov, S.A. Inozemtsev, 2009, published in Pochvovedenie, 2009, No. 11, pp. 12941307.

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    1204 ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 1204­1217. © Pleiades University, Moscow, 119991 Russia c Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia E for various (includ- ing soil) indicators of this phenomenon, and the prob- lem of reversibility

  8. Animal behaviour Eurasian jays (Garrulus

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    * Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK *Author for correspondence (nsc22@cam.ac.uk). Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms

  9. Circulation and transformation of Atlantic water in the Eurasian Basin and the contribution of the Fram Strait inflow branch to the Arctic Ocean heat budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudels, Bert; Korhonen, Meri; Schauer, Ursula; Pisarev, Sergey; Rabe, Benjamin; Wisotzki, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The inflows of Atlantic water from the Nordic Seas to the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait and over the Barents Sea are examined and their pathways and transformations in the Eurasian Basin are described based primarily on hydrographic observations from two cruises with RV Polarstern in 2007 and 2011. The contrast between the high salinity Atlantic water core in the Nansen Basin and the lower Atlantic water salinity in the Amundsen Basin, combined with a salinity minimum below the Atlantic layer, suggest that the Fram Strait branch mainly remains in the Nansen Basin, while the Barents Sea branch continues along the continental slope, enters the Amundsen Basin and provides most of the Atlantic water in the Makarov and Canada basins. To examine the consequences of such a circulation pattern recently published estimates of the in- and outflows of volume and liquid freshwater through the Barents Sea, Bering Strait and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago as well as river runoff, net precipitation and ice export are reviewed and added together. To achieve volume and freshwater balances net outflows through Fram Strait of 2.3 Sv and 100 mSv respectively are required. This is reasonably close to the recently reported Fram Strait transport estimates. The net outflows are separated into two parts, upper layer transports, less dense than the entering Atlantic water, and lower layer transports, as dense as or denser than the Atlantic water. The largest net volume outflow occurs in the lower layer, 1.65 Sv, while the liquid freshwater is almost exclusively exported in the 0.64 Sv net outflow in upper layer, leading to unrealistically low salinities in the upper layer compared with observations. Atlantic water is north of Svalbard transformed into less saline surface water through melting of sea ice, which can supply the necessary higher salinity (halocline) water to the upper layer. 1.23 Sv of halocline water of salinity 34.2 must be added to obtain a more realistic salinity of 33.1, leading to a total export of 1.84 Sv upper layer water in the East Greenland Current. Existing observations of the net transports into and out of the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in different temperature classes are used to estimate the heat loss of the Atlantic water entering the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait. About 10 TW are supplied to the atmosphere in addition to the loss of 24 TW occurring in connection with the formation of the halocline water. If the hypothesis that the Fram Strait branch remains in the Nansen Basin is true, it implies a heat loss between 5 and 15 W m-2 in the Nansen Basin, depending upon how much heat is temporarily stored in the water column. This is high compared to the 2 W m-2 commonly cited as the ocean heat flux to the atmosphere in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the ?stanbul Terrane (Bak?rl?k?ran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kas?mlar Formations; Bey?ehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kas?mlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kas?mlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution of Triassic or Carboniferous (Variscan) arc sources, in marked contrast to those of the Triassic Karakaya subduction complex. In comparison, the ages of the analysed zircons in the Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane range from 294 Ma to 3.1 Ga. Triassic zircons are again absent, while Variscan-aged zircons (294 to 339 Ma) dominate the zircon population. Additional zircon populations are dated at 554 to 655 Ma, 0.9 to 1.2 Ga, 1.5 Ga, 1.65 Ga, 2.0 to 2.15 and 2.5 to 2.8 Ga. The Precambrian zircon age spectra are compatible with derivation from an Avalonian/Amazonian/Baltic crustal provenance. In summary, there is no evidence in either the Triassic sandstones of the ?stanbul Terrane or of the Taurides of the Triassic magmatic arc source that dominates the Triassic Karakaya subduction-accretion complex. Where then was the source of the Karakaya arc detritus? A likely option is that the Karakaya subduction-accretion complex is an exotic terrane that was detached from a source magmatic arc and displaced to its present location, probably prior the initial deposition of the Early Jurassic cover sediments. This study was supported by TUBITAK, Project No: 111R015

  11. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the Western Mediterranean and especially on Morocco. Exploiting parameters of positions and dispersions of these stations within the 1997-2003 period, the motion and the interaction types of interaction between African and Eurasian tectonic plates can be estimated. Similarly, the crustal dynamic parameters of tension of these sites will be computed. The time occupation on repeated observations sites is at least 72 hours. The measurements are continuous on permanent stations. The precise ephemerides are used in GPS computations. The post-treatments are done using commercial and scientific softwares. The coordinates obtained for two consecutive periods to and t within a period of 8 years will be used by programs established for this purpose to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension as well as to evaluate the appropriate movements. Even crustal dynamic parameters will be determined on each sites of the GPS-Geodynamics network, whose interest of seismic investigations is very important. This will allow best knowledge of substantial seismic activities of the surrounding zones. It can be deduced by measuring the motions and their parameter tensions using GPS. These estimations will contribute on the earthquake prediction by supervising the strain accumulation and its release in the active areas. For the geodetically aspect the GPS-Geodynamics sites computed in the ITRF frame can be used with other similar ounces' of Africa country and some well selected and convenient IGS, EUREF stations..to determine first the NAFREF and the AFRER frames.

  12. Testing the role of intraguild predation in regulating hedgehog populations.

    PubMed

    Doncaster, C P

    1992-07-22

    Potential competitors that eat each other can engender patterns of spatial segregation similar to those produced by competition, and distinguishable only by field manipulation. This paper reports the results of a perturbation experiment to test the factors responsible for small-scale discontinuities in the distribution of a common insectivore. Populations of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were monitored following their introductions into an area where they had been absent, and into a neighbouring area where they were known to persist. The two sites had a similar availability of preferred habitat, and the growth rates of introduced hedgehogs were similar. The density of badgers (Meles meles), larger members of the same guild, appears to produce differences in mortality and dispersal, which returned the populations close to their original levels within 2 months of the transplant. PMID:1359546

  13. Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2015-07-22

    Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime remains elusive. Here, we show using a 35 year study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), that (i) males show higher body mass senescence rates than females and (ii) this sex difference is largely attributable to sex-specific downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual competition experienced during early adulthood. Our findings provide rare support for the view that somatic maintenance costs arising from intra-sexual competition can cause both individual variation and sex differences in senescence. PMID:26156771

  14. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-28

    The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

  15. Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian (Lynx lynx), the Iberian (L. pardinus), the Canada lynx (L. canadensis) and the bobcat (L. rufus).

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, M; Fanson, K; Frank, A; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Jewgenow, K

    2010-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal samples collected before, during, and after pregnancy from individual females of each lynx species. Gestagens and estrogens revealed three similar classes of immunoreactive faecal metabolites: (1) polar metabolites which were enzyme-hydrolysable and thus may be designated as conjugates, (2) non-hydrolysable polar metabolites, and (3) non-polar metabolites or free steroids. For both hormones, strong similarities in the HPLC immunograms across species suggests that steroid metabolism is relatively conserved among Lynx species. Gestagens were primarily excreted as polar conjugates or unknown metabolites, whereas estrogen metabolism revealed a huge proportion (approximately 50%) consisting of 17beta-estradiol and estrone. These results are consistent with patterns of steroid metabolism in other felid species. Only two minor species-specific patterns emerged. In bobcats, we observed an exceptionally high proportion of gestagen conjugates, and in Iberian lynx, there was an exceptionally high proportion of estrone. The comparison of HPLC immunograms within individuals revealed that intra-individual variations in steroid metabolite composition are considerably high. However, changes in metabolite composition did not correlate with specific reproductive stages; rather, they seemed to occur at random. We assume that these differences may reflect changes in liver metabolism and/or qualitative and quantitative variations in gut bacteria composition, resulting in differences in faecal metabolite composition. PMID:20346945

  16. Badger History, Vol. 29, No. 3, January 1976. Wisconsin Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanetzke, Howard W., Ed.

    This document focuses on the physical environment of Wisconsin and describes how movement of glaciers during the Ice Ages formed Wisconsin's present topography. The journal contains short reading selections, stories, word lists, and activities designed to help elementary school students understand the causes and effects of glacial drift. Nine…

  17. FOOD HABITS AND ENERGY UTILIZATION OF BADGERS GRANT K. JENSE

    E-print Network

    ;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I express sincere appreciation to Dr. Raymond L. Linder, my major advisor, and Robert B. Dahlgren of this manuscript. Sincere appreciation is due to Drs. Donald R. Progulske and Kieth E. Severson for reviewing the manuscript. Sincere thanks are due to Dr. Leslie D. Kamstra for suggestions, use of equipment and in other

  18. BADGER & ROSEN CENTER Monday, July 5 Monday, July 12, 2010

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    :15am ­ 5:15pm Open 5:15pm ­ 6:30pm Closed: HipHop Basics 6:30pm ­ 7:30pm Closed: HipHop Practice 7:30pm ­ 8:45pm Closed: HipHop 101/201 8:45pm ­ 9:00pm Open Friday 6:00am ­ 4:15pm Open Saturday - Sunday

  19. Eurasian surface wave tomography: Group velocities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Ritzwoller; Anatoli L. Levshin

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the dispersion characteristics of broadband fundamental surface waves propagating across Eurasia. The study is broader band, displays denser and more uniform data coverage, and demonstrates higher resolution than previous studies of Eurasia performed on this scale. In addition, the estimated group velocity maps reveal the signatures of geological and tectonic features

  20. Uzbekistan: A regional player in Eurasian geopolitics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svante E. Cornell

    2000-01-01

    Recently there has been a trend towards the development of two rival sets of alliances in Eurasia: in effect, one Western?oriented alignment led by the United States and Turkey, including Israel, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. On the other hand, a group of states resisting American and Turkish influence in the Caucasus and Central Asia is developing, led by Russia and Iran,

  1. Eurasian land use impacts on rangeland productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Dennis S.; Chuluun, Togtohyn; Bolortsetseg, Boldyn; Tucker, Compton J.; Hicke, Jeff

    Dramatic changes have occurred in pastoral systems of East and Central Asia covering the steppe ecosystems of Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, and Russia over the past several decades. The socio-economic changes over the past decades have markedly shaped the land use patterns in the region. Evaluation of these pastoral systems is the focus of this paper. These pastoral systems have existed for thousands of years; however, in recent decades a decline in nomadic movements has led to greater vulnerability of the pastoralists. The nomadic pastoral systems developed to cope with arid or semi-arid climate variability. Interactions between ecosystems and nomadic land use systems co-shaped them in mutually adaptive ways for hundreds of years, thus making both the Mongolian rangeland ecosystem and nomadic pastoral system resilient and sustainable. The pervasive role of demographic, political and economic driving forces during the past 50 years has greatly altered the pastoral systems. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of range utilization. This set of drivers is orthogonal to the described climate drivers. Thus we expect climate-land use interactions to be modified by socio-economic forces. Nevertheless, the complex relationship between climate variability and pastoral exploitation patterns will still form the environmental framework for overall patterns of land use change. Integration of knowledge and delivery of this knowledge to scientists, policy makers and land users is critical for regionally sustainable development.

  2. Cross the Eurasian Continent: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passe, Jeff; D'Arcangelis, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Provides a simulation based on Marco Polo's journey. Demonstrates the hardships of 13th century travel by presenting students with difficult choices under challenging and primitive environmental conditions. Includes suggestions for class activities prior to using the simulation. (LS)

  3. Performance of Proximity Loggers in Recording Intra- and Inter-Species Interactions: A Laboratory and Field-Based Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stephen P.; Bearhop, Stuart; Harrison, Xavier A.; Dall, Sasha R. X.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Delahay, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the way in which animals interact through social networks can help to address questions surrounding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of social organisation, and to understand and manage the spread of infectious diseases. Automated proximity loggers are increasingly being used to record interactions between animals, but the accuracy and reliability of the collected data remain largely un-assessed. Here we use laboratory and observational field data to assess the performance of these devices fitted to a herd of 32 beef cattle (Bos taurus) and nine groups of badgers (Meles meles, n ?=?77) living in the surrounding woods. The distances at which loggers detected each other were found to decrease over time, potentially related to diminishing battery power that may be a function of temperature. Loggers were highly accurate in recording the identification of contacted conspecifics, but less reliable at determining contact duration. There was a tendency for extended interactions to be recorded as a series of shorter contacts. We show how data can be manipulated to correct this discrepancy and accurately reflect observed interaction patterns by combining records between any two loggers that occur within a 1 to 2 minute amalgamation window, and then removing any remaining 1 second records. We make universally applicable recommendations for the effective use of proximity loggers, to improve the validity of data arising from future studies. PMID:22745704

  4. Use of Protein AG in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening for Antibodies against Parapoxvirus in Wild Animals in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shinya; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Hirai, Katsuya; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. PMID:10225841

  5. Use of protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening for antibodies against parapoxvirus in wild animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoshima, Y; Shimizu, S; Minamoto, N; Hirai, K; Sentsui, H

    1999-05-01

    Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. PMID:10225841

  6. Independent nonframeshift deletions in the MC1R gene are not associated with melanistic coat coloration in three mustelid lineages.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, T; Sato, J J; Shimada, T; Campbell, K L; Suzuki, H

    2005-01-01

    Sequence variation within the 5' flanking (about 240 bp) and exon regions (426 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene was examined to determine the potential role of this protein in the melanistic coat coloration of 17 mustelid species in four genera: Gulo (wolverines), Martes (martens), Mustela (weasels), and Meles (badgers). Members of the genera Mustela and Meles, together with Martes flavigula and Martes pennanti, were shown to have intact gene sequences. However, several "in frame" deletions of the MC1R gene region implicated in melanism of other species were detected within members of the genera Martes and Gulo. For instance, Gulo gulo possessed a 15 bp deletion in the second transmembrane domain coding region, while Martes americana, Martes melampus, Martes zibellina, and Martes martes shared a 45 bp deletion overlapping this area. In addition, Martes foina was found to possess a 10 bp insertion followed closely by a 28 bp deletion immediately downstream of the deletion found in other martens. Notably, none of these indels was associated with a melanistic phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of these nonrandomly distributed deletions arose independently during the evolution of this family. Specific indel-neighboring motifs appear to largely account for the biased and repeated occurrence of deletion events in the Martes/Gulo clade. PMID:16135707

  7. A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Peter; Golden, Olwen; Zintl, Annetta; de Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; McCarthy, Elaine; Lawton, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) samples (n = 91) were positive for Uncinaria stenocephala (38%), Eucoleus aerophilus (26%), Toxocara canis (20%), Trichuris vulpis (4%) and Isospora-like oocysts (9%). Badger (Meles meles) samples (n = 50) were positive for Uncinaria criniformis (40%), E. aerophilus (6%) and Isospora-like oocysts (16%). No parasites were observed in pine marten (n = 48; Martes martes) faeces. Approximately 5% of American mink (Mustela vison) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium by polymerase chain reaction (identified as Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 3) and 'mink' genotype (n = 1)). The results suggest that wild carnivores in Ireland have a range of parasites, although it is unclear from the present study to what extent these infections are associated with morbidity. While it can be expected that, via their faeces, wild carnivores contribute to the spread of these parasites, they are unlikely the primary source of environmental contamination. Therefore, they should not always be the principal target of control measures. PMID:23900557

  8. Investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Peter; Zintl, Annetta; De Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Hawkins, Conall; Lawton, Colin

    2013-03-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. The only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. This study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. A sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: American mink (Mustela vison), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pine martens (Martes martes), badgers (Meles meles), stoats (Mustela erminea), otters (Lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (Mustela putorius). Approximately 1% of mink and 1% of fox samples were positive by IFAT. According to PCR analysis of DNA extracted from brain tissue, 3% of the mink, 4% of the otters and 6% of the foxes examined were infected with N. caninum. All fecal samples tested negative for N. caninum DNA (n = 311), suggesting that the species that tested positive were intermediate not definitive hosts. This is the first time that tissues from mustelids have tested positive for N. caninum. The need to test 2 relatively large (~200 mg) targeted parts of the brain to avoid false negatives was also identified. The relatively low prevalence of N. caninum in Irish carnivores suggests that the local ecology of a species has an important influence on its epidemiological role. PMID:23068142

  9. Seasonal abundance and control of the clover head weevil, Hypera meles (Fabr.) 

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Roy Lee

    1968-01-01

    in the check plots. Spray application of GS 13005, methyl parathion, azinphosmethyl, Imidan, parathion, and carbaryl signif icantly reduced the population of weevils over that found in olots treated with diazinon, methoxychlor, malathion, carbophenothion...- phenyl)ethane dimethyl (2, 2, 2-trichloro-l-hydroxy- ethyl)phosphonate O, O-dimethyl S-4-oxo-l, 2, 3-b nzotriaz'n- 3(4H)-dimethyl ohosphorodithioate Diazinon Carbophenotnion Ncthl 1 Parathion O, O-diethyl 0-(2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4- pyrimidinyl...

  10. Angry Badgers: The Protests in Wisconsin Have Helped Revive an Old Progressive State of Being: "Badgerness" Has Been Reinvented for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhle, Mari Jo; Buhle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The events in Wisconsin during February and March 2011 will long be considered remarkable in many ways. That includes the documenting of the protests. Perhaps at no previous time have so many journalists--paid and unpaid--gathered so much information about a protest movement and dispersed it in so many formats so quickly. Ubiquitous, touching, and…

  11. Eurasian snow cover variability and Northern Hemisphere climate predictability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judah Cohen; Dara Entekhabi

    1999-01-01

    We present observational evidence demonstrating dynamic interactions and feedbacks between multi-seasonal snow cover and winter-time circulation anomalies over mid-high latitudes. The cooling effect of snow cover is associated with a strengthened and more expansive Siberian high with more frequent, topographically constrained intrusions west and north. Early-season snow cover variability leads to altered general circulation patterns consistent with the dominant mode

  12. Resurrection: The History and Reconstitution of the Eurasian Idea

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Matthew J.

    2002-05-14

    , quoted in Peter J.S. Duncan, Russian Messianism: Third Rome, Revolution, Communism and After, (London: Routeldege, 2000), 19-21. 11 In comparison to the older British and French empires, the Russian empire had arisen late. But in Chaadeav's mind... Danilevskii's call in this passage continued the messianic chorus of many ofthe earlier Slavophiles, including Aleksei Khomiakov, who believed that, "History calls Russia to be at the forefront of universal enlightenment. It gives her this right because...

  13. CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN REINTRODUCED EURASIAN LYNX IN SWITZERLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Schmidt-Posthaus; Christine Breitenmoser-Wursten; Horst Posthaus; Luca Bacciarini; Urs Breitenmoser

    Seventy-two lynx, found dead in the Swiss Alps and the Jura Mountains (Switzerland) from 1987-99, were evaluated to determine the cause of death. Seventy-two per cent (52\\/72) of all animals died because of noninfectious diseases or causes such as vehicular collision and poach- ing. Eighteen percent (13\\/72) died from infectious diseases, including some which could have been transferred to the

  14. Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zhang; G. Jiang; Z. Jia; R. Gao; R. Fu

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of

  15. INTRODUCTION The continental promontory of the Eurasian plate in SE

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    , backarc extension, subduction rollback, strike-slip faulting, mantle plume activity, and differential crustal flow in response to changing forces at the plate edges. Deformation produced by this dynamic model during the Cenozoic, including the South China Sea whose origin remains controversial. To the west

  16. DNA content in Eurasian sturgeon species determined by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Birstein, V J; Poletaev, A I; Goncharov, B F

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear DNA content in 10 species of chondrostean fishes was measured by flow cytometry. The sterlet Acipenser ruthenus blood cells were used as an internal standard. The sterlet DNA content was calculated on the basis of comparison with the Xenopus laevis blood cells, 2C = 6.30 pg. In the tetraploid A. ruthenus and A. stellatus the DNA content comprises 3.74 pg/nucleus and is practically invariant; in Huso dauricus it is almost the same, 3.74-3.81 pg; and in A. nudiventris it is a little higher, 3.88-4.04 pg. In the oldest chondrostean, Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni, the nuclear DNA content is slightly lower, 2C = 3.46-3.48 pg, and in the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula it is lower still, 3.17 pg. In two octoploid sturgeons, A. baeri and A. gueldenstaedti, the DNA content is twice as high as that of the sterlet, 8.29-8.31 and 7.86-7.88 pg, respectively; a very similar amount, 8.24-8.42 pg, was determined in the hybrid Huso huso x A. ruthenus. In the Sakhalin sturgeon, A. medirostris (= A. mikadoi), the DNA content is two times higher than in the octoploids, 13.93-14.73 pg; therefore its ploidy may be 16n and the number of chromosomes could be 500. PMID:8513694

  17. [Phylogeography of pacific herring Clupea pallasii from Eurasian seas].

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, V V; Chernoivanova, L A; Panfilova, P N; Trofimov, I K; Batanov, R L; Chikilev, V G; Bonk, A A; Nekhaev, I O; Solovenchuk, L L; Vakatov, A V

    2012-09-01

    Eleven samples of Pacific herring from the four seas of Eurasia (Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, and White Sea), and one sample of Atlantic herring were analyzed. Complete and partial sequences of the mtDNA control region with the sizes up to 1071 bp were used. To verify the haplogroups identified, additional sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was performed. It was demonstrated that Pacific herring from the seas of Eurasia belonged to one mitochondrial haplogroup. The gene flow between the localities from different parts of the Far Eastern sea basins was about 11% per locality, per generation, which led to constant leveling of herring intraspecific differentiation. The data presented gave no reasons for subdivision of the herring populations in accordance to ecological characters (lacustrine and marine). Analysis of global molecular variance (global AMOVA) demonstrated that in Asian water basins, more than 98% of molecular polymorphism was found within the samples at the low level of significance (p < 0.05). PMID:23113337

  18. Impact of localized badger culling on tuberculosis incidence in British cattle 

    E-print Network

    Donnelly, Christl A; Woodroffe, Rosie; Cox, D R; Bourne, John; Gettinby, George; Le Fevre, Andrea M; McInerney, John P; Morrison, W. Ivan

    2003-12-18

    Pathogens that are transmitted between wildlife, livestock and humans present major challenges for the protection of human and animal health, the economic sustainability of agriculture, and the conservation of wildlife. ...

  19. Badger History, Vol. 31, No. 2, November 1977. Tracing Your Roots [And] Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanetzke, Howard W., Ed.

    Elementary school pupils are introduced to a genealogical approach to state and local history. Although the examples in the booklet pertain to Wisconsin, the format can be easily adapted for classroom use by teachers in other locations. A teacher's supplement accompanies the booklet and offers a bibliography, background information, additional…

  20. Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  1. Adhesion of human and animal Escherichia coli strains in association with their virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic origins.

    PubMed

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  2. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in Finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, A; Aaltonen, K; Virtala, A-M K; Henttonen, H; Isomursu, M; Leimann, A; Maran, T; Saarma, U; Timonen, P; Vapalahti, O; Sironen, T

    2015-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in American mink. AMDV has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. A molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of AMDV strains in Finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. The presence of anti-AMDV antibodies and/or AMDV DNA was tested from 308 samples representing eight mustelid species and 17 administrative regions. Positive samples were detected across Finland, and in 54?% (31/57) of feral American mink, 27?% (7/26) of European badgers and 7?% (1/14) of European polecats. Samples from Eurasian otters, European pine martens, least weasels, stoat and wolverine were negative. Major risk factors for infection were the species American mink with 335 and badger with 74 times higher odds than other species, and the years 2006-2009 with five times higher odds than the years 2010-2014. No clustering according to species, geographical origin or year was evident in phylogeny, except for four divergent sequences from Estonian badgers that formed a separate phylogroup distinct from other AMDV strains. This study showed that AMDV was prevalent in certain species of Finnish free-ranging mustelids and widely distributed across Finland. Furthermore, the free-ranging mustelids carried both strains similar to those found in farmed mink, but also distinct strains that may represent novel amdoparvoviruses. PMID:25667324

  3. Learning from the Land: Wisconsin Land Use. The New Badger History Series. Teacher's Guide and Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Bobbie; Fajardo, Anika

    This teaching guide seeks to add to and enhance the teaching of Wisconsin history and culture in public and private schools. Designed with the fourth-grade classroom in mind, studying state history with this guide becomes a real investigation that demonstrates the dynamic relationship Wisconsin's inhabitants share with the past. The activities in…

  4. Effects of Grazing on the Hydrology and Biology of the Badger Wash Basin in Western Colorado, 1953-66

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusby, Gregg C.; Knipe, O.D.

    1971-01-01

    An intensive study of the effect of grazing on the hydrologic and biotic characteristics of small drainage basins on the Colorado Plateau was begun in the fall of 1953. This report presents data obtained during the first 13 years of the proposed 20-year study. For the period of record 1954-66, runoff from grazed watersheds has averaged about 33 acre-feet per square mile per year. Runoff from ungrazed watersheds averaged from 71 to 76 percent of that from grazed watersheds. During the last 6 years of the period, however, ungrazed watersheds produced 69 to 71 percent as much runoff as grazed watersheds. The sediment yield frown grazed watersheds during the same period was about 3 acre-feet per square mile per year. Sediment yield from ungrazed watersheds ranged from 51 to 75 percent of that from grazed watersheds and averaged 66 percent. The largest change in these relations occurred about 2 years after livestock were excluded from certain watersheds. The causative factors for changes in the runoff and sediment yield relations are not entirely clear. At the end of 13 years, a significant change had occurred in the amount of bare soil and rock. in the ground-cover index, and in the litter and moss on the grazed watersheds. These items remained essentially unchanged on ungrazed watersheds. The changes in ground-cover factors were not of large magnitude and did not occur at the same rate as the changes in runoff and sediment yield. A large part of the difference appears to have been caused by a change in the structure of surface soil. which was brought about by the elimination of trampling by livestock. Deer mice were the most common rodent present on the experimental watersheds, but even their population was not great enough to affect the composition of range vegetation. Deer mice populations remained comparable on grazed and ungrazed watersheds during the study. Other rodents were not present in sufficient numbers to allow their comparison on grazed and ungrazed range. Desert cottontail rabbits and black-tailed jackrabbits were more plentiful in ungrazed watersheds but were not present in large enough numbers to affect range vegetation.

  5. Sterilization as an alternative strategy to control wildlife diseases: bovine tuberculosis in European badgers as a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. M. Tuyttens; D. W. Macdonald

    1998-01-01

    Sterilization has rarely been considered as an alternative to culling or vaccination to control wildlife diseases. Disease control by sterilization, as by culling, has most promise when the host'ss ability for compensatory growth following the removal of density-dependent inhibitions is limited, and when moderate reductions in population density cause disproportionately large reductions in disease prevalence, or even eliminate the disease.

  6. emergent phenomena in flat worlds Kai P. Schmidt

    E-print Network

    Kierfeld, Jan

    phenomena high-temperature superconductivity Geim/Novoselov, nobel price (2010) Kane/Mele, Science (2006-temperature superconductivity Geim/Novoselov, nobel price (2010) Kane/Mele, Science (2006) Bernevig/Hughes/Zhang, Science (2006

  7. The concept of superfetation: a critical review on a 'myth' in mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Superfetation is understood as another conception during an already ongoing pregnancy. This implies the existence of young of different developmental stages within the female reproductive tract during certain periods of pregnancy. Nevertheless, a clear definition of the term as well as distinct criteria to identify the occurrence of superfetation in a species is missing. The variable anatomy of mammalian reproductive tracts seems to make the occurrence of superfetation more or less likely but impedes the simple evaluation of whether it is present or not. Additionally, adequate determination methods are missing or are difficult to apply at the right time. Superfetation or rather superfetation-like pregnancies are reported for numerous species including humans, livestock and rodents. The usual criteria to assume a case of superfetation include the finding of discordantly developed young within the uterus during post mortem or parturition of young after a birth interval shorter than the assumed pregnancy length. Often the occurrence of superfetation is concluded because other explanations of reproductive artifacts are missing. Even severe reproductive pathologies are often confused with superfetation. True superfetation or superfetation as a reproductive strategy may exist in some mammals. In the American mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison) and the European badger (Meles meles) superfetation occurs in combination with embryonic diapause. In the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), superfetation has long been assumed to exist but evidence is still controversial. Superfetation definitely occurs in certain species of poeciliid and zenarchopterid fish, some of which also exhibit viviparity and maternal care. In mammals, the evolution of such a reproductive mechanism poses many interesting evolutionary, endocrine, microbial and immunological questions that require further investigation. Here we review the scant and at times ancient literature on this poorly understood topic. The different manifestations of superfetation are defined and reliable criteria to detect superfetation are outlined. Also, the differentiation of superfetation into a reproductive strategy or as a disrupted, abnormal reproductive function is discussed. Due to the different discussed functional aspects of superfetation, it is appropriate to establish a more detailed scheme to classify the true natural superfetation cases into superfertilization, superconception and superfetation proper. To date, there is no mammal species known for which superfetation proper in terms of finding discordantly developed fetuses has been conclusively demonstrated to be not only a rare occurence but an evolved reproductive strategy. PMID:20394608

  8. Power Control in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: An Architectural Solution for a Melee of Multiple Agents, Cost Criteria, and Information Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swetha Narayanaswamy; Vikas Kawadia; R. S. Sreenivas; P. R. Kumar

    \\u000a Wireless networking is a fertile source of problematical situations with multiple agents, multiple cost criteria, and multiple\\u000a information patterns. It offers an arena for imaginative solutions for a range of problems.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a One example is the power control problem. Choosing the optimal transmit power level of a node in a system as complex as a\\u000a wireless ad hoc network is an

  9. 78 FR 45593 - Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (EUR) Request for Proposals for the Fundraising...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...at Universal Expo Milan Italy 2015, Hereafter Referred to as Milan...to ``EUR/PD-Milan Expo 2015'' when making your request...Deadline Date: Midnight, Sunday, September 15. Reference: EUR/PD-Milan Expo 2015. Submitting Applications...

  10. From East to West: patterns of genetic diversity of populations living in four Eurasian regions.

    PubMed

    Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Karunas, A; Yunusbayev, B; Fedorova, S; Lebedev, Y; Hunsmann, G; Khusnutdinova, E

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the distribution and patterns of the genetic diversity of eight Alu loci (ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25, NBC27, NBC102, NBC148, and NBC182) in 1,049 individuals representing 16 populations of the Volga-Ural region (Bashkirs, Tatars, Komis, Maris, Mordvins, and Udmurts), Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs), the North Caucasus (Karachays, Kumyks, Kuban Nogays, and Karanogays), and Central South Siberia (Yakuts, Kalmyks and Evenks). Geographic divide between Europe and Asia, e.g. the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea, can also be considered as a genetic boundary. The data indicates that the populations of the two boundary regions between Europe and Asia, the Volga-Ural region of Russia, and populations of the North Caucasus are more similar to European than to Asian populations. Finally, Siberian and Central Asian populations are genetically closely related to each other. PMID:16465065

  11. Are Vegetative Reproduction Capacities the Cause of Widespread Invasion of Eurasian Salicaceae in Patagonian River Landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Lisa K.; Tölle, Lena; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Leyer, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, invasive willows and poplars (Salicaceae) have built dense floodplain forests along most of the rivers in Patagonia, Argentina. These invasion processes may affect Salix humboldtiana as the only native floodplain tree species in this region. It is assumed, that the property to reproduce vegetatively can play an important role in the establishment of invasive species in their new range. Thus, in order to contribute to a better understanding of willow and poplar invasions in riparian systems and to assess the potential impacts on S. humboldtiana the vegetative reproduction capacities of native and invasive Salicaceae were analysed. In a greenhouse experiment, we studied cutting survival and growth performance of the three most dominant invasive Salicaceae of the Patagonian Río Negro region (two Salix hybrids and Populus spec.), as well as S. humboldtiana, taking into account three different moisture and two different soil conditions. In a subsequent experiment, the shoot and root biomass of cuttings from the former experiment were removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to re-sprout. The two invasive willow hybrids performed much better than S. humboldtiana and Populus spec. under all treatment combinations and tended to re-sprout more successfully after repeated biomass loss. Taking into account the ecology of vegetative and generative recruits of floodplain willows, the results indicate that the more vigorous vegetative reproduction capacity can be a crucial property for the success of invasive willow hybrids in Patagonia being a potential threat for S. humboldtiana. PMID:23226531

  12. A genetic analysis of taoyuan pig and its phylogenetic relationship to eurasian pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuan-Yi; Li, Kuang-Ti; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hsuan; Hung, Chien-Yi; Ju, Yu-Ten

    2015-04-01

    Taoyuan pig is a native Taiwan breed. According to the historical record, the breed was first introduced to Taiwan from Guangdong province, Southern China, around 1877. The breed played an important role in Taiwan's early swine industry. It was classified as an indigenous breed in 1986. After 1987, a conserved population of Taoyuan pig was collected and reared in isolation. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences and 18 microsatellite markers were used to investigate maternal lineage and genetic diversity within the Taoyuan pig population. Population differentiation among Taoyuan, Asian type, and European type pig breeds was also evaluated using differentiation indices. Only one D-loop haplotype of the Taoyuan pig was found. It clustered with Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds. Based on the polymorphism of microsatellite markers, a positive fixation index value (FIS) indicates that the conserved Taoyuan population suffers from inbreeding. In addition, high FST values (>0.2105) were obtained, revealing high differentiation among these breeds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed a clear geometric structure among 7 breeds. Together these results indicate that maternally Taoyuan pig originated in the Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China; however, since being introduced to Taiwan differentiation has occurred. In addition, Taoyuan pig has lost genetic diversity in both its mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25656199

  13. Individuals' diet diversity influences gut microbial diversity in two freshwater fish (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch).

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Snowberg, Lisa K; Hirsch, Philipp E; Lauber, Christian L; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates' diets profoundly influence the composition of symbiotic gut microbial communities. Studies documenting diet-microbiota associations typically focus on univariate or categorical diet variables. However, in nature individuals often consume diverse combinations of foods. If diet components act independently, each providing distinct microbial colonists or nutrients, we expect a positive relationship between diet diversity and microbial diversity. We tested this prediction within each of two fish species (stickleback and perch), in which individuals vary in their propensity to eat littoral or pelagic invertebrates or mixtures of both prey. Unexpectedly, in most cases individuals with more generalised diets had less diverse microbiota than dietary specialists, in both natural and laboratory populations. This negative association between diet diversity and microbial diversity was small but significant, and most apparent after accounting for complex interactions between sex, size and diet. Our results suggest that multiple diet components can interact non-additively to influence gut microbial diversity. PMID:24847735

  14. Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ákos Pogány; István Szentirmai; Jan Komdeur; Tamás Székely

    2008-01-01

    Background  The trade-off between current and future parental investment is often different between males and females. This difference\\u000a may lead to sexual conflict between parents over care provisioning in animals that breed with multiple mates. One of the most\\u000a obvious manifestations of sexual conflict over care is offspring desertion whereby one parent deserts the young to increase\\u000a its reproductive success at

  15. First report of the Eurasian poplar leaf rust fungus, Melampsora larici-populina, in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Newcombe, G.; Chastagner, G.A. (Washington State Univ., Puyallup (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Melampsora larici-populina, native to Eurasia, was found in October 1991 in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa X P. deltoides) plantations along the Columbia River near Woodland, Washington, and Scapposse, Oregon. Clavate to broadly ellipsoid urediniospores measured 30--49 X 13--16 [mu]M and were echinulate except for an apical smooth patch. Telia were exclusively epiphyllous. Detached leaf inoculations were used to investigate the telial (poplar) host range of three different monouredinial isolates in the laboratory. Clones known to be susceptible in Europe and Australia to M. larici-populina (i.e., P. nigra var. italica and P. X euramericana cv. I-488) were susceptible in these tests, as were 20 clones of P. trichocarpa, the native black cottonwood of the Pacific Northwest. In general, the pattern of susceptibility among 50 clones representing many poplar taxa, including interspecific hybrid classes, was in accord with what is known of the host range of M. larici-populina in Europe and Australia. Pathogenic variation among the three isolates was not observed. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Human influence on distribution and extinctions of the late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna.

    PubMed

    Pushkina, Diana; Raia, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Late Pleistocene extinctions are of interest to paleontological and anthropological research. In North America and Australia, human occupation occurred during a short period of time and overexploitation may have led to the extinction of mammalian megafauna. In northern Eurasia megafaunal extinctions are believed to have occurred over a relatively longer period of time, perhaps as a result of changing environmental conditions, but the picture is much less clear. To consider megafaunal extinction in Eurasia, we compare differences in the geographical distribution and commonness of extinct and extant species between paleontological and archaeological localities from the late middle Pleistocene to Holocene. Purely paleontological localities, as well as most extinct species, were distributed north of archaeological sites and of the extant species, suggesting that apart from possible differences in adaptations between humans and other species, humans could also have a detrimental effect on large mammal distribution. However, evidence for human overexploitation applies only to the extinct steppe bison Bison priscus. Other human-preferred species survive into the Holocene, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus ferus, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Equus hemionus, Saiga tatarica, and Sus scrofa. Mammuthus primigenius and Megaloceros giganteus were rare in archaeological sites. Carnivores appear little influenced by human presence, although they become rarer in Holocene archaeological sites. Overall, the data are consistent with the conclusion that humans acted as efficient hunters selecting for the most abundant species. Our study supports the idea that the late Pleistocene extinctions were environmentally driven by climatic changes that triggered habitat fragmentation, species range reduction, and population decrease, after which human interference either by direct hunting or via indirect activities probably became critical. PMID:18199470

  17. Increased Eurasian-tropical temperature amplitude difference in recent centuries: Implications for the Asian monsoon

    E-print Network

    for the Asian monsoon Rosanne D'Arrigo,1 Rob Wilson,1,2 and Jinbao Li1 Received 9 July 2006; revised 26 this interval, and with other temperature and precipitation- sensitive proxies from the Asian monsoon regime contributed to an intensified Asian monsoon system over recent centuries, and to a decoupling of the monsoon

  18. A Eurasian and North African Crust and Upper Mantle Model for Regional Seismic Location

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Myers; S. Ballard; C. Rowe; G. Wagner; M. Antolik; K. Hutchenson; W. S. Phillips; A. Ramirez; M. Begnaud; M. Pasyanos; D. Dodge; M. Flanagan; J. Dwyer; D. Russell

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a velocity model of the crust and upper mantle across Eurasia and North Africa to reduce event location error by improving regional travel-time prediction accuracy. The model includes both P and S velocities, enabling prediction of Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases. Here, we report on the Pn travel-time prediction effort. The model parameterization is a global

  19. Movement pattern and home range use by the Eurasian lynx in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wlodzimierz Jedrzejewski; Krzysztof Schmidt; Henryk Okarma; Rafal Kowalczyk

    The movement patterns of free-living lynx, Lynx lynx, were studied by radio- telemetry in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Eighteen lynx were fitted with radio-collars and their movements were recorded by continuous 24-h sequences and daily relocations. On average, lynx moved 7.2 km per day, and males covered longer distances than females (9.0 and 6.8 km, respectively). In males, the daily

  20. [Comparative phylogenetic study of native north Eurasian populations from a panel of autosomal microsatellite loci].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, V A; Spiridonova, M G; Puzyrev, V P

    2003-11-01

    Genetic relationships among eighth Siberian and Central Asian ethnic groups were examined using autosomal microsatellite loci. Genetic similarity of Buryats and Evenks, as well as close relationships between Tuvinians and Kyrgyzes, most likely resulting from the Altai-Slavic co-ancestry of their gene pools, was demonstrated. Studies of gene flow in these populations demonstrated that, in general, Turkic ethnic groups of Southern Siberia (Altaians and Tuvinians) were the recipients of more intense gene flow compared to Eastern Siberian populations belonging to Altaic family. The local Buryat populations displayed substantial differences in the direction and the level of deviation of the observed gene diversity from the expected one, which was probably caused by the differences in the degree of isolation and/or in effective population sizes. PMID:14714470

  1. Genomic groups, morphology, and sectional delimitation in Eurasian Elymus ( Poaceae, Triticeae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Salomon; B.-R. Lu

    1992-01-01

    Seven tetraploid species ofElymus, viz.E. sibiricus, E. caninus, E. gmelinii, E. semicostatus, E. caucasicus, E. parviglume, andE. longearistatus subsp.canaliculatus, representing five sections were studied morphologically and used in interspecific hybridizations. The aim was to investigate whether the present sectional delimitation of the genus was in agreement with genomic data and if there was a correlation between genome constitution and morphology.

  2. The Columbia Center for International History presents Late Imperial Epistemologies: A Eurasian Studies Workshop

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    Decline in East-Central Europe: Hungarian Eugenics and Turanism in the First Decades of the Twentieth the Late Habsburg Empire to Early Interwar Poland and Hungary" Chair: Tarik Amar (Columbia) 2 in the rapidly shifting geopolitical context of the later Qing period, and analyzes how the fact emerged

  3. A Eurasian and North African Crust and Upper Mantle Model for Regional Seismic Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S. C.; Ballard, S.; Rowe, C.; Wagner, G.; Antolik, M.; Hutchenson, K.; Phillips, W. S.; Ramirez, A.; Begnaud, M.; Pasyanos, M.; Dodge, D.; Flanagan, M.; Dwyer, J.; Russell, D.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a velocity model of the crust and upper mantle across Eurasia and North Africa to reduce event location error by improving regional travel-time prediction accuracy. The model includes both P and S velocities, enabling prediction of Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases. Here, we report on the Pn travel-time prediction effort. The model parameterization is a global tessellation, which allows extensibility beyond the current focus area, with node spacing of approximately 1°. The model is defined on a WGS84 ellipsoid that includes topography, thus eliminating the need for conventional corrections to base model travel-time calculations. A velocity profile with depth is defined at each node that includes a crustal stack, mantle velocity at the Moho (Pn velocity), and a linear mantle gradient term. Parameterizing mantle velocity structure with a linear term allows computation of Pn and Sn travel times in approximately one millisecond, which is needed for real-time seismic location. Velocity and mantle gradient at arbitrary points can be calculated by interpolating values at nodes. The starting model is a geophysical compilation that constrains Moho depth and depths of crustal layers, as well as best estimates for crust and mantle velocities. The starting model itself is demonstrated to improve travel-time prediction over iasp91, and we use a tomographic method to further refine Pn velocity, mantle gradient, and a node-specific crustal slowness. Our tomographic data set consists of approximately 3.5 million regional arrivals from events that meet criteria that ensure location accuracy. Non-seismic constraints on event location are used when available. Each datum is tested to meet strict quality control standards that include comparison with established distance-dependent travel-time residual populations relative to the iasp91 model. In addition to bulletin measurements, nearly 12,000 arrival measurements were made at the national laboratories. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  4. Evaluation of North Eurasian snow-off dates in the ECHAM5.4 atmospheric GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Järvinen, H.; Takala, M.; Jylhä, K.; Bulygina, O. N.; Riihelä, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Koskinen, J.; Pulliainen, J.

    2014-06-01

    The timing of springtime end of snow melt (snow-off date) in Northern Eurasia in version 5.4 of the ECHAM5 atmospheric GCM is evaluated through comparison with a snow-off date dataset based on space-borne microwave radiometer measurements and with Russian snow course data. ECHAM5 reproduces well the observed gross geographical pattern of snow-off dates, with earliest snow-off (in March) in the Baltic region and latest snow-off (in June) in the Taymyr Peninsula and in northeastern parts of the Russian Far East. The primary biases are (1) a delayed snow-off in southeastern Siberia (associated with too low springtime temperature and too high surface albedo, in part due to insufficient shielding by canopy); and (2) an early bias in the western and northern parts of Northern Eurasia. Several sensitivity experiments were conducted, where biases in simulated atmospheric circulation were corrected through nudging and/or the treatment of surface albedo was modified. While this alleviated some of the model biases in snow-off dates, 2 m temperature and surface albedo, especially the early bias in snow-off in the western parts of the Northern Eurasia proved very robust and was actually larger in the nudged runs. A key issue underlying the snow-off biases in ECHAM5 is that snow melt occurs at too low temperatures. Very likely, this is related to the treatment of the surface energy budget. On one hand, the surface temperature Ts is not computed separately for the snow-covered and snow-free parts of the grid cells, which prevents Ts from rising above 0 °C before all snow has vanished. Consequently, too much (too little) of the surface net radiation is consumed in melting snow (heating the air). On the other hand, ECHAM5 does not include a canopy layer. Thus, while the albedo reduction due to canopy is accounted for, the shielding of snow on ground by the overlying canopy is not considered, which leaves too much solar radiation available for melting snow.

  5. The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Spencer Wellsa; Nadira Yuldashevaa; Ruslan Ruzibakievc; Peter A. Underhilld; Jason Blue-Smithd; Bing Suf; Nathaniel M. Pearsoni; Walter F. Bodmera; Headington OX

    The nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of population history. The maintenance of extended haplotypes characteristic of partic- ular geographic regions, despite extensive admixture, allows com- plex demographic events to be deconstructed. In this study we report the frequencies of 23 Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphism haplotypes in 1,935 men from

  6. Hydrostatic pressure as the controlling factor in the depth distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Dale

    1981-01-01

    These experimental studies have shown that this plant will grow successfully at pressures encountered in water at depths as great as 17 m. When there were suitable levels of light, temperature, nutrients and aeration, the plants grown under constant hydrostatic pressure for three weeks showed variations in the measured amounts of new growth but no measure could be associated with

  7. Pliocene and Pleistocene diversification and multiple refugia in a Eurasian shrew ( Crocidura suaveolens group)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Dubey; Mikhail Zaitsev; Jean-François Cosson; Ablimit Abdukadier; Peter Vogel

    2006-01-01

    We sequenced 998 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and 799bp of nuclear gene BRCA1 in the Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens group) over its geographic range from Portugal to Japan. The aims of the study were to identify the main clades within the group and respective refugia resulting from Pleistocene glaciations. Analyses revealed the Asian lesser white-toothed

  8. Pliocene and Pleistocene diversiWcation and multiple refugia in a Eurasian shrew (Crocidura suaveolens group)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Dubey; Mikhail Zaitsev; Jean-François Cosson; Ablimit Abdukadier; Peter Vogel

    We sequenced 998 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and 799 bp of nuclear gene BRCA1 in the Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens group) over its geographic range from Portugal to Japan. The aims of the study were to identify the main clades within the group and respective refugia resulting from Pleistocene glaciations. Analyses revealed the Asian lesser

  9. Eurasian Reindeer Pastoralism in a Changing Climate: Indigenous Knowledge and NASA Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. G.; Burgess, P.; Oskal, P.; Turi, A.; Mathiesen, J. M.; Gaup, I. G. E.; Yurchak, B.; Etylin, V.; Gebelein, J.

    2008-01-01

    It is intended that Reindeer Mapper/EALAT will be able to provide reindeer herders with an efficient tool for managing the real-time movements and migrations of their herds through enabling improved efficiency in linking different members of the herder settlements or communities and providing real-time local, satellite or other data (e.g., ice melt in lakes and rivers, weather events), thus enabling real time adjustments to herd movements to avoid problems such as changing weather/climate conditions, freeze-thaw "lock-out" problems, or take advantage of availability of better pasturelands along migration routes. The system is being designed to incorporate local data to allow users to bring their own data into the system for analysis in addition to the data provided by the system itself. With the local information of the population, up to date environmental data and habitat characteristics, the system could generate maps depicting important features of interest for reindeer managers. One of the products derived from the planned Reindeer Mapper system will be a web-based graphic display that allows analysts to quickly pinpoint areas of interest such as those with large concentrations of reindeer and provide surrounding environmental information. The system could be automatically updated with near-real-time information such as hourly precipitation and snowfall rate and accumulation, daily surface and air temperatures, and vegetation cover conditions. The system could bring attention to the proximity of human and animal populations as part of the need for control response. A local GIS will bring these many layers together with several supporting models, showing only a straightforward graphic of the real-time situation in the field. Because the system proposed will be operating in the Internet environment, it should be virtually accessible from any network computers and wireless remote access from the field. The International Center for Reindeer Husbandry in Kautokeino, Norway, is providing regional and international coordination of and access to data sets and expertise, and will act as overall clearinghouse for EALAT information.

  10. First detection of Arcobacter sp. in Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto).

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Delogu, Mauro; Giacometti, Federica; Stancampiano, Laura; Grilli, Ester; Guarniero, Ilaria; Serraino, Andrea

    2014-12-29

    Data about the presence of Arcobacter in wild birds are currently lacking. In this study cloacal swabs from 95 collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto), submitted to the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (Bologna, Italy) between 2011 and 2013 from various urban and suburban areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), were tested for the presence of Arcobacter sp. by a rRNA 23S nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Eighteen out of 95 (19%) samples showed the expected PCR product. Further cultural and molecular studies are needed to assess the Arcobacter prevalence in wild birds and elucidate their potential epidemiological role as source of animal and human infections. PMID:25546070

  11. Are vegetative reproduction capacities the cause of widespread invasion of Eurasian Salicaceae in Patagonian river landscapes?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lisa K; Tölle, Lena; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Leyer, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, invasive willows and poplars (Salicaceae) have built dense floodplain forests along most of the rivers in Patagonia, Argentina. These invasion processes may affect Salix humboldtiana as the only native floodplain tree species in this region. It is assumed, that the property to reproduce vegetatively can play an important role in the establishment of invasive species in their new range. Thus, in order to contribute to a better understanding of willow and poplar invasions in riparian systems and to assess the potential impacts on S. humboldtiana the vegetative reproduction capacities of native and invasive Salicaceae were analysed. In a greenhouse experiment, we studied cutting survival and growth performance of the three most dominant invasive Salicaceae of the Patagonian Río Negro region (two Salix hybrids and Populus spec.), as well as S. humboldtiana, taking into account three different moisture and two different soil conditions. In a subsequent experiment, the shoot and root biomass of cuttings from the former experiment were removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to re-sprout. The two invasive willow hybrids performed much better than S. humboldtiana and Populus spec. under all treatment combinations and tended to re-sprout more successfully after repeated biomass loss. Taking into account the ecology of vegetative and generative recruits of floodplain willows, the results indicate that the more vigorous vegetative reproduction capacity can be a crucial property for the success of invasive willow hybrids in Patagonia being a potential threat for S. humboldtiana. PMID:23226531

  12. GENETIC VARIATION IN EURASIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN YELLOW STARTHISTLE (CENTAUREA SOLSTITIALIS L.) POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Centaurea solstitialis is a widespread invasive plant species in the Western US, for which biocontrol development is ongoing. Understanding similarity of populations is important in predicting effectiveness of biological control agents for invasive organisms, such as noxious weeds. Microsatellite ...

  13. Geodynamics and metallogeny of the central Eurasian porphyry and related epithermal mineral systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Reimar; Porter, T. Mike; Pirajno, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Major porphyry Cu-Au and Cu-Mo deposits are distributed across almost 5000 km across central Eurasia, from the Urals Mountains in Russia in the west, to Inner Mongolia in north-eastern China. These deposits were formed during multiple magmatic episodes from the Ordovician to the Jurassic. They are associated with magmatic arcs within the extensive subduction-accretion complex of the Altaid and Transbaikal-Mongolian orogenic collages that developed from the late Neoproterozoic, through the Palaeozoic, to the Jurassic intracratonic extension. The arcs formed predominantly on the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean margin of the proto-Asian continent, but also within two back-arc basins. The development of the collages commenced when slivers of an older Proterozoic subduction complex were rifted from an existing cratonic mass and accreted to the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean margin of the combined Eastern Europe and Siberian cratons. Subduction of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean beneath the Karakum and Altai-Tarim microcontinents and the associated back-arc basin produced the overlapping late Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic Tuva-Mongol and Kipchak magmatic arcs. Contemporaneous intra-oceanic subduction within the back-arc basin from the Late Ordovician produced the parallel Urals-Zharma magmatic arc, and separated the main Khanty-Mansi back-arc basin from the inboard Sakmara marginal sea. By the Late Devonian, the Tuva-Mongol and Kipchak arcs had amalgamated to form the Kazakh-Mongol arc. By the mid Palaeozoic, the two principal cratonic elements, the Siberian and Eastern European cratons, had begun to rotate relative to each other, "drawing-in" the two sets of parallel arcs to form the Kazakh Orocline between the two cratons. During the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean began subducting below the Siberian craton to form the Sayan-Transbaikal arc, which expanded by the Permian to become the Selanga-Gobi-Khanka arc. By the Middle to Late Permian, as the Kazakh Orocline continued to develop, both the Sakmara and Khanty-Mansi back-arc basins were closed and the collage of cratons and arcs were sutured by accretionary complexes. During the Permian and Triassic, the North China craton approached and docked with the continent, closing the Mongol-Okhotsk Sea, an embayment on the Palaeo-Pacific margin, to form the Mongolian Orocline. Subduction and arc-building activity on the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean margin continued to the mid Mesozoic as the Indosinian and Yanshanian orogens.

  14. Expansion of Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water milfoil) into Lake Nasser, Egypt: Invasive capacity and habitat stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdi M. Ali; Mohamed A. Soltan

    2006-01-01

    The invasion of Myriophyllum spicatum into Lake Nasser, and its impact on submerged macrophyte communities are quantitatively documented. Samples of macrophytes, water and hydrosoil were collected from 17 sites, in October and November 2002. The average dry weight standing crop of each species per grapnel haul was determined at each depth zone (sampling site). Twenty-one environmental variables were measured (12

  15. Fossil midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as palaeoclimatic indicators for the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Stephen J.

    2006-08-01

    Chironomids (non-biting midges) have been used in palaeoenvironmental studies in Eurasia since the 1920s. Initially changes in chironomid assemblages were largely interpreted as a response to changes in trophic status or water depth. It was only with the advent of chironomid-temperature inference models in the early 1990s that their potential as palaeoclimatic indicators was fully exploited. This paper provides a brief review of the pioneering studies but focuses on the most recent advances. Better taxonomic resolution of fossil midges, expansion of modern training sets, use of air temperature data derived from meteorological stations rather than surface-water temperature data, and Bayesian statistical approaches have lead to improvements in the performance of chironomid-temperature transfer functions. Applications of these transfer functions to derive chironomid-inferred temperature estimates from Lateglacial (ca 15,000-11,200 cal. yr BP) and Holocene (11,200 cal. yr BP to Present) sequences from throughout Eurasia are reviewed in this paper. Chironomid-inferred Lateglacial reconstructions closely reflect oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores. Holocene reconstructions are less consistent. Some closely follow instrumental records or corroborate other proxy data, while other reconstructions are less successful. As a result of soil development during the Holocene, changes in pH, nutrients, DO and DOC had a greater influence than temperature on the composition of some midge assemblages. One way to mitigate this is through consensus temperature reconstructions from several sites in the same region. The challenge for future workers is for further improvement in taxonomic resolution of sub-fossil chironomid larvae, to improve further the performance of chironomid-temperature inference models, to develop training sets for southern Europe and Russia and to improve our understanding of the ecological responses of chironomids.

  16. Original article Presence of the deleted hobo element Th in Eurasian

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    naturally occurring strains throughout the continent. Materials and Methods Southern blot analyses were et al., 1982). All Southern blots were hybridized and washed atIx SSC; 0.1 % SDS at 65°C. Genomic DNA techniques were used for DNA extraction, gel electrophoresis, blotting, hybridization, and ligation (Maniatis

  17. 76 FR 537 - Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...for refineries, gas processing and petrochemical plants; Seismic processing and interpretation...activities and pipelines, new refinery and petrochemical plants are planned over the next decade...Drilling equipment and services, 5. Petrochemical processing equipment and...

  18. Re-Discussion on Motion of Shanghai VLBI Station Relative to Eurasian Plate From VLBI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigen Yang; Wenyao Zhu; Yongqing Xiong; Qiang Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Since 1988, the Shanghai VLBI station, located a Sheshan, in the suburbs of Shanghai, about 30 km away from the downtown, has participated in near 200 international geodetic VLBI experiments which since 1991, have also been the part of content of research project named \\

  19. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the Barents Sea ice retreat and Eurasian coldness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    Abnormal winter sea-ice retreat over the Barents Sea has been considered as a leading clue to the recent midlatitude severe winters. Barents Sea is considered as a hot spot for the rapid Arctic climate change due to the intense air-sea interaction induced by the sea-ice decrease; however, the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain, in particular causal relation of sea-ice retreat and atmospheric forcing and response. To understand this causality, we selected typical cases, defined as averaged warm and averaged cold years of December using the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The composite analysis, revealed that anticyclonic anomaly is obvious over the northwestern Eurasia. The western Barents Sea and Sbarvard locates at the strong pressure gradient zone, prevailing southerly winds. Over the Barents Sea, the difference in daily mean air temperature between warm and cold winters is more than 10°, suggesting that warm advection prevails during warm years. Therefore, during warm years, decrease in sea-ice cover is induced by southerly warm advection. The positive anomalies of precipitation from the southeast of Greenland to Barents Sea and negative anomalies of them from Nordic Sea to western Eurasia means the poleward shift of cyclone tracks, suggesting that the moisture transport is also changed poleward. Because the cyclones tend to shift poleward in less sea ice year over the Barents Sea, it is natural that the snow depth over the sea ice near the Fram Strait shows a positive anomaly during warm winters. Here we show that the poleward shift of sea surface temperature over the Gulf Stream, where is situated upstream from the Barents Sea, modifies the horizontal distribution of tropospheric condensational heating resulted from change in convection over the warm current, likely acting as a bridge to the Barents Sea by forcing planetary waves. This remote atmospheric response modifies cyclone tracks poleward, resulting in anomalous warm advection over the Barents Sea sector.

  20. Anthropogenic heavy metals in the environment of Eurasian Arctic Nature Reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Anna; Ivanova, Yulia; Karpov, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    The Russian Arctic Nature Reserves are situated far from the main industrial regions. In spite of this, there are anthropogenic constituents (for example, heavy metals - HM) in the environmental objects (air, water, etc.) and in food chains (plants, birds, and so on). We studied the long-range atmospheric transport of some heavy metals (such as nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, and so on) to four Nature Reserves situated near the shore of the Arctic Ocean - in the Deltas of the Pechora River (Nenets reserve), the Ob River (Gydansky reserve), the Lena River (Ust-Lensky reserve), and at Wrangel Island. The air mass trajectories to each reserve were calculated with the help of the site (www.arl.noaa.gov/ready) for each day of January, April, July, and October for the period of 2001-2010. Analyzing the spatial distributions of these trajectories we studied seasonal variations in air transport of pollution to different Russian Arctic points. Modeling the HM transport in the atmosphere was as in [1]. The main assumption is that HM are transported with submicron aerosol particles. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The main important source-regions were found for each point. Mean anthropogenic HM concentrations in air and precipitations, as well as HM fluxes onto the surface were estimated at different arctic regions. The spatial distributions of so called "potential function of pollution" were calculated and presented on the maps. These results allow to analyze the role of a real pollution source or of a planned source for each reserve. So, the influence of northern oil and gas industry may be of great importance because of its proximity to the reserves under investigation. The work was partly supported by RFBR, grant No. 14-05-00059. Authors thank the NOAA service for possibility to use their data and products. ________________ 1. Vinogradova A.A. and Ponomareva T.Ya. Atmospheric Transport of Anthropogenic Impurities to the Russian Arctic (1986-2010) // Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics. 2012. V. 25. No. 6. P. 414-422. (Engl. Transl.)

  1. Eurasian origin of Alismatidae inferred from statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Yun; Chen, Jin-Ming; Gituru, Robert Wahiti; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2013-04-01

    Alismatidae is a wetland or aquatic herb lineage of monocots with a cosmopolitan distribution. Although considerable progress in systematics and biogeography has been made in the past several decades, geographical origin of this group remains unresolved. In this study, we used statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis implemented in program RASP to investigate the biogeography of Alismatidae. Six areas of endemism were used to describe the distribution: North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Southeast Asia and Australia. 18,000 trees retained from Bayesian inference of rbcL served as a framework to reconstruct the ancestral areas. The results suggested that the most recent common ancestor of Alismatidae most probably occurred in Eurasia, followed by a split into two major clades. The clade comprising Hydrocharitaceae, Butomaceae and Alismataceae mainly diversified in Eurasia and Africa. The other clade comprising the remaining families dispersed to southern hemisphere. Australia played an important role in diversification of this clade. Several families were suggested to have occurred in Australia, such as Ruppiaceae, Cymodoceaceae, Posidoniaceae and Zosteraceae. PMID:23333736

  2. Interspecific competition between native Eurasian red squirrels and alien grey squirrels: does resource partitioning occur?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc A. Wauters; John Gurnell; Adriano Martinoli; Guido Tosi

    2002-01-01

    In heterogeneous environments, differential niche selection by two competing species will result in niche partitioning so that individuals of each species can maximise their fitness under different sets of environmental variables. Thus, niche partitioning is considered essential to allow co-existence of ecologically related species. To assess whether niche partitioning was occurring between native red squirrels and alien grey squirrels living

  3. Physiological ecology and functional traits of North American native and Eurasian introduced Phragmites australis lineages

    PubMed Central

    Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Brisson, Jacques; Hazelton, Eric L. G.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological ecology and plant functional traits are often used to explain plant invasion. To gain a better understanding of how traits influence invasion, studies usually compare the invasive plant to a native congener, but there are few conspecific examples in the literature. In North America, the presence of native and introduced genetic lineages of the common reed, Phragmites australis, presents a unique example to evaluate how traits influence plant invasion. We reviewed the literature on functional traits of P. australis lineages in North America, specifically contrasting lineages present on the Atlantic Coast. We focused on differences in physiology between the lineage introduced from Eurasia and the lineage native to North America, specifically seeking to identify the causes underlying the recent expansion of the introduced lineage. Our goals were to better understand which traits may confer invasiveness, provide predictions of how these lineages may respond to interspecific competition or imminent global change, and provide guidance for future research. We reviewed published studies and articles in press, and conducted personal communications with appropriate researchers and managers to develop a comparative dataset. We compared the native and introduced lineages and focused on plant physiological ecology and functional traits. Under both stressful and favourable conditions, our review showed that introduced P. australis consistently exhibited greater ramet density, height and biomass, higher and more plastic relative growth rate, nitrogen productivity and specific leaf area, higher mass specific nitrogen uptake rates, as well as greater phenotypic plasticity compared with the native lineage. We suggest that ecophysiological and other plant functional traits elucidate potential mechanisms for the introduced lineage's invasiveness under current and predicted global change conditions. However, our review identified a disconnect between field surveys, experiments, natural competition and plant ecophysiology that must be addressed in future field studies. Given the likelihood of hybridization between lineages, a better understanding of plant traits in native, non-native and hybrid lineages is needed to manage current invasions and to predict the outcome of interactions among novel genotypes. Comparative physiology and other plant functional traits may provide additional tools to predict the trajectory of current and potential future invasions.

  4. An Assessment of a Ka-Band Radar Interferometer Mission Accuracy Over Eurasian Rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien M. Enjolras; Ernesto Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    The Water Elevation Recovery satellite mission is dedicated to the determination of land surface water extent, elevation, and slope using a Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) as its primary instrument. Determining these parameters to the accuracy desired for hydrologic applications is challenging. The scientific objectives of the mission have been set up to 10 cm for the height budget and 10

  5. Supplementary information for: Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    of analyzed samples 1.1.1 Affymetrix data The main southern African dataset in this paper is from Pickrell et al. [2012] (the dataset before filtering for outlier individuals). We genotyped an additional 32). As with the original dataset [Pickrell et al., 2012], these additional samples were obtained as part

  6. China and the emerging Eurasian agenda: From special interests to strategic cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. James Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    [extract] China remains a multinational and multi-ethnic state with diverse relations across its southern, northern and western borders. From the third century B.C. onwards trade contacts were made westwards along the ancient Silk Road, while by the Tang Dynasty China had established strong influence in Central Asia. Today a 'new Silk Road' is being developed, this time based on oil

  7. Neo-seismotectonic Evolution in the Far-eastern Eurasian Plate around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.; Choi, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula and its neighboring regions are intraplate regions that comprise the far-eastern Eurasia plate. These regions have experienced complex tectonic evolutions including continental collisions and a rifting. The ambient stress fields around the Korean Peninsula are induced from nearby plate boundaries against to the Pacific, Philippine Sea, and Indian plates. Historically dozens of devastating earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 6 occurred around the Korean Peninsula. Strike-slip faulting is typically expected in such intraplate regions. Unusual major thrustal earthquakes occur in the East Sea, and normal-faulting earthquakes in the Yellow Sea. We investigate the neo-seismotectonics from geological features, seismicity, fault-plane solutions and seismic tomography. The compressional-axis directions in the East Sea rapidly change from NE to SE in the East Sea. High seismicity of reverse-faulting events is observed in the marginal regions of the East Sea. The regions correspond to rigid continental margins associated with the paleo-rifting. We suggest that the current compressional stress field causes reverse activation of the paleo-normal faults in the East Sea. East-west directional normal-faulting earthquakes are observed in central Yellow Sea between the Shandong Peninsula and the central Korean Peninsula. The E-W directional zoning and striking suggest a N-S directional collision and post-collisional delamination. This normal-faulting region is interpreted to be the northern margin of collision belt and the eastern extent of the Dabie-Sulu belt in the Yellow Sea. The observation suggests that the Dabie-Sulu belt is connected to the Korean Peninsula crossing the Yellow Sea.

  8. Cross-amplification and sequence variation of microsatellite loci in Eurasian hard pines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. González-Martínez; J. J. Robledo-Arnuncio; C. Collada; A. Díaz; C. G. Williams; R. Alía; M. T. Cervera

    2004-01-01

    Microsatellite transfer across coniferous species is a valued methodology because de novo development for each species is costly and there are many species with only a limited commodity value. Cross-species amplification of orthologous microsatellite regions provides valuable information on mutational and evolutionary processes affecting these loci. We tested 19 nuclear microsatellite markers from Pinus taeda L. (subsection Australes) and three

  9. Geological and Paleoecological Events of the Late Pleistocene along Eurasian Coastal Areas of the Arctic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Levitan; Yu Lavrushin

    In the Late Pleistocene and Holocene a number of important geological-paleoecological events took place that were related\\u000a to significant global climatic changes, relationships of land and sea areas, specific terrestrial sedimentation, and different\\u000a types of natural phenomena some which had a catastrophic character and, accordingly, geoecological effect.

  10. Regional patterns in recent trends in sediment yields of Eurasian and Siberian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovitskaya, Nelly N.; Kokorev, Alexander V.; Lemeshko, Nataly A.

    2003-10-01

    A multipurpose hydrological and statistical analysis of long-term changes in suspended sediment yield has been made for large Russian rivers discharging to the Arctic Ocean. Factors affecting sediment yield formation, e.g., snow pack duration, mean air temperature and mean water discharge, have been analyzed as well. The duration of observations at 13 selected meteorological stations varies from 56 to 113 years and covers the period from 1883 to 1995. The duration of water discharge measurements at 22 hydrological stations varies from 20 to 120 years; measurements were made from 1881 to 2000. The duration of sediment yield observations is shorter (from 1936 to 2000) and varies from 14 to 62 years. The air temperature rise is evident for 10 stations while temperature fall is observed at 3 stations (Dickson Island, Narjan Mar, Kiusiur). These three stations are established in the coastal area of the Arctic Ocean. The most impressive coincidence of trends towards an increase of mean air temperature and mean annual water discharge is observed in the Pechora, Angara, Lena, Aldan, Yana and Indugirka river basins, and in the lower reaches of the Ob and Yenisei river basins. A decrease of water discharge is observed in the Severnaya Dvina river, probably refracting by the effect of cut forest on water availability in the river. The decrease of water discharges in the upper parts of the Ob and Yenisei river basins refracts reservoirs. Changes in suspended sediment yield depend more on man's activity than on climate change. Construction of reservoirs in the upper reaches of the Ob and Yenisei rivers explains the decreased sediment yield. An increase of sediment yield in the Kolyma river basin has been observed due to the gold mining there.

  11. Regional patterns in recent trends in sediment yields of Eurasian and Siberian rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelly N Bobrovitskaya; Alexander V Kokorev; Nataly A Lemeshko

    2003-01-01

    A multipurpose hydrological and statistical analysis of long-term changes in suspended sediment yield has been made for large Russian rivers discharging to the Arctic Ocean. Factors affecting sediment yield formation, e.g., snow pack duration, mean air temperature and mean water discharge, have been analyzed as well. The duration of observations at 13 selected meteorological stations varies from 56 to 113

  12. New estimates of annual and seasonal variability in river discharge across the Eurasian pan-Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.; Golovanov, O. Ph.; Rawlins, M. A.; Tretjaykov, M.

    2009-04-01

    River runoff is an important integrator of hydrological behavior across large regions and it plays a significant role in the fresh-water budget of the Arctic Ocean. Ocean salinity and sea ice formation are critically affected by river input. Changes in the fresh water flux to the Arctic Ocean may slow down global ocean circulation by affecting North Atlantic deep water formation. Eurasia contributes 75% of the total terrestrial runoff to the Arctic Ocean and has three of the four major arctic rivers. Observations of combined river discharge from the six largest Russian arctic rivers (N.Dvina, Pechora, Ob, Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma) have demonstrated an increase of 7% over the period 1936-1999. Our more recent estimates have shown this increase has continued into the 21st Century with a new historical maximum observed in 2007 when a record minimum in Arctic Ocean sea ice was observed. Analysis of the long-term sea-ice and discharge records showed a significant correlation between sea ice minimum extent and Russian river discharge (r = -0.7), which suggests an increase in atmospheric moisture transport to land surface due to extension of ice free Arctic Ocean during summer-fall. To better understand the physical mechanisms driving the observed runoff changes we explore alterations due to both global climate change and local anthropogenic influences. To estimate the contribution of each of these factors we used reconstructions of naturalized hydrographs with a newly developed Hydrograph Transformation Model. A combined analysis of observed and naturalized river discharge characteristics showed a significant redistribution of seasonal discharge along the Yenisei River due to reservoir regulation. However, naturalized discharge records also demonstrate a significant increase during the winter. This suggests that natural causes such as permafrost changes, increasing number and magnitude of winter snowmelt events, and an increase in the ground water table may be important contributing factors to the winter discharge change.

  13. Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context

    PubMed Central

    Balanovsky, Oleg; Rootsi, Siiri; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Kivisild, Toomas; Churnosov, Michail; Evseeva, Irina; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Boldyreva, Margarita; Yankovsky, Nikolay; Balanovska, Elena; Villems, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Progress in the mapping of population genetic substructure provides a core source of data for the reconstruction of the demographic history of our species and for the discovery of common signals relevant to disease research: These two aspects of enquiry overlap in their empirical data content and are especially informative at continental and subcontinental levels. In the present study of the variation of the Y chromosome pool of ethnic Russians, we show that the patrilineages within the pre-Ivan the Terrible historic borders of Russia have two main distinct sources. One of these antedates the linguistic split between West and East Slavonic-speaking people and is common for the two groups; the other is genetically highlighted by the pre-eminence of haplogroup (hg) N3 and is most parsimoniously explained by extensive assimilation of (or language change in) northeastern indigenous Finno-Ugric tribes. Although hg N3 is common for both East European and Siberian Y chromosomes, other typically Siberian or Mongolian hgs (Q and C) have negligible influence within the studied Russian Y chromosome pool. The distribution of all frequent Y chromosome haplogroups (which account for 95% of the Y chromosomal spectrum in Russians) follows a similar north-south clinal pattern among autosomal markers, apparent from synthetic maps. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots comparing intra ethnic and interethnic variation of Y chromosome in Europe show that although well detectable, intraethnic variation signals do not cross interethnic borders, except between Poles, Ukrainians, and central-southern Russians, thereby revealing their overwhelmingly shared patrilineal ancestry. PMID:18179905

  14. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of management according to the degree of urbanization. PMID:23741495

  15. Distribution of Wild Mammal Assemblages along an Urban–Rural–Forest Landscape Gradient in Warm-Temperate East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban–rural–forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban–rural–forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of management according to the degree of urbanization. PMID:23741495

  16. Hydrologic and biotic characteristics of grazed and ungrazed and watersheds of the Badger Wash basin in western Colorado, 1953-58

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusby, Gregg C.; Lusby, George C.; Turner, George T.; Thompson, J.R.; Reid, Vincent H.

    1964-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the hydrologic and biotic characteristics of small drainage basins on the Colorado Plateau and the effect of grazing on these characteristics vas begun in 1953. This report presents data obtained during the first 5 years of the proposed 20-year study. Periodic observations were made at permanent transects in 8 paired fenced and unfenced watersheds to characterize plant and ground cover, determine degree of use by livestock and measure changes in watershed cover. Results after 5 years of study indicate that changes in watershed cover have been relatively small on both grazed and ungrazed areas. Changes that did take place were mainly on shale and mixed type .soil. Ground-cover index on mixed type soil was significantly higher, 4 percent, on ungrazed ,areas than on grazed areas at the end of 5 years. Plot records were obtained using the Rocky Mountain Infiltrameter at 12 plots in each of the 8 study watersheds to determine the effect of livestock exclusion on infiltration and sheet erosion. Infiltration rates for the last 20 minutes of both the wet .and dry runs were significantly higher in 1958 than they were 5 years before, but this difference was not associated with treatment because rates on both grazed and ungrazed plots increased about .the same amount. The initial water-absorbing capacity increased significantly on ungrazed plots. No change in erosion rates was observed. Rainfall was variable and below normal during 4 of the first 5 years of study. Runoff was produced mainly by thunderstorms during the summer months and was characterized by high rates of flow for short periods. Comparison of runoff in grazed and ungrazed watersheds indicates a change in the relation between precipitation and runoff because of exclusion of livestock. More sediment per unit area was produced during the 5 years of study from grazed .areas than from ungrazed areas. No definite trend in small mammal population on grazed and ungrazed water- sheds has yet been determined. Results of preliminary studies on rabbit population indicates that rabbits prefer to inhabit ungrazed areas, but populations were judged to be not high in any area.

  17. Estimating epidemiological parameters for bovine tuberculosis in British cattle using a Bayesian partial-likelihood approach

    PubMed Central

    O'Hare, A.; Orton, R. J.; Bessell, P. R.; Kao, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Fitting models with Bayesian likelihood-based parameter inference is becoming increasingly important in infectious disease epidemiology. Detailed datasets present the opportunity to identify subsets of these data that capture important characteristics of the underlying epidemiology. One such dataset describes the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle, which is also an important exemplar of a disease with a wildlife reservoir (the Eurasian badger). Here, we evaluate a set of nested dynamic models of bTB transmission, including individual- and herd-level transmission heterogeneity and assuming minimal prior knowledge of the transmission and diagnostic test parameters. We performed a likelihood-based bootstrapping operation on the model to infer parameters based only on the recorded numbers of cattle testing positive for bTB at the start of each herd outbreak considering high- and low-risk areas separately. Models without herd heterogeneity are preferred in both areas though there is some evidence for super-spreading cattle. Similar to previous studies, we found low test sensitivities and high within-herd basic reproduction numbers (R0), suggesting that there may be many unobserved infections in cattle, even though the current testing regime is sufficient to control within-herd epidemics in most cases. Compared with other, more data-heavy approaches, the summary data used in our approach are easily collected, making our approach attractive for other systems. PMID:24718762

  18. Estimating epidemiological parameters for bovine tuberculosis in British cattle using a Bayesian partial-likelihood approach.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, A; Orton, R J; Bessell, P R; Kao, R R

    2014-05-22

    Fitting models with Bayesian likelihood-based parameter inference is becoming increasingly important in infectious disease epidemiology. Detailed datasets present the opportunity to identify subsets of these data that capture important characteristics of the underlying epidemiology. One such dataset describes the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle, which is also an important exemplar of a disease with a wildlife reservoir (the Eurasian badger). Here, we evaluate a set of nested dynamic models of bTB transmission, including individual- and herd-level transmission heterogeneity and assuming minimal prior knowledge of the transmission and diagnostic test parameters. We performed a likelihood-based bootstrapping operation on the model to infer parameters based only on the recorded numbers of cattle testing positive for bTB at the start of each herd outbreak considering high- and low-risk areas separately. Models without herd heterogeneity are preferred in both areas though there is some evidence for super-spreading cattle. Similar to previous studies, we found low test sensitivities and high within-herd basic reproduction numbers (R0), suggesting that there may be many unobserved infections in cattle, even though the current testing regime is sufficient to control within-herd epidemics in most cases. Compared with other, more data-heavy approaches, the summary data used in our approach are easily collected, making our approach attractive for other systems. PMID:24718762

  19. Turnip Mosaic Potyvirus Probably First Spread to Eurasian Brassica Crops from Wild Orchids about 1000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy D.; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Duchêne, Sebastián; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef; Lesemann, Dietrich; Walsh, John A.; Gibbs, Adrian J.; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2013-01-01

    Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) is probably the most widespread and damaging virus that infects cultivated brassicas worldwide. Previous work has indicated that the virus originated in western Eurasia, with all of its closest relatives being viruses of monocotyledonous plants. Here we report that we have identified a sister lineage of TuMV-like potyviruses (TuMV-OM) from European orchids. The isolates of TuMV-OM form a monophyletic sister lineage to the brassica-infecting TuMVs (TuMV-BIs), and are nested within a clade of monocotyledon-infecting viruses. Extensive host-range tests showed that all of the TuMV-OMs are biologically similar to, but distinct from, TuMV-BIs and do not readily infect brassicas. We conclude that it is more likely that TuMV evolved from a TuMV-OM-like ancestor than the reverse. We did Bayesian coalescent analyses using a combination of novel and published sequence data from four TuMV genes [helper component-proteinase protein (HC-Pro), protein 3(P3), nuclear inclusion b protein (NIb), and coat protein (CP)]. Three genes (HC-Pro, P3, and NIb), but not the CP gene, gave results indicating that the TuMV-BI viruses diverged from TuMV-OMs around 1000 years ago. Only 150 years later, the four lineages of the present global population of TuMV-BIs diverged from one another. These dates are congruent with historical records of the spread of agriculture in Western Europe. From about 1200 years ago, there was a warming of the climate, and agriculture and the human population of the region greatly increased. Farming replaced woodlands, fostering viruses and aphid vectors that could invade the crops, which included several brassica cultivars and weeds. Later, starting 500 years ago, inter-continental maritime trade probably spread the TuMV-BIs to the remainder of the world. PMID:23405136

  20. Data for estimating eaten prey masses from Eurasian lynx Lynx Lynx scats in Central and East Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinand Rühe; Thomas Burmester; Michael Ksinsik

    2007-01-01

    To derive a model which allows estimating eaten prey masses from lynxLynx lynx Linnaeus, 1758 scats, we fed 3 roe deerCapreolus capreolus, 2 wild boarsSus scrofa, 1 fallow deerDama dama, 1 mouflonOvis ammon musimon, 1 European hareLepus europaeus and 1 daily diet of miceMus musculus to two adult lynx. The percentage of prey use decreased with an increase in the

  1. Effects of dietary factors, stocking biomass and domestication on the nutritional and technological quality of the Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Mairesse; Marielle Thomas; Jean-Noël Gardeur; Jean Brun-Bellut

    2007-01-01

    The ante mortem determinism of the quality components in fish is multivariate. Among the various influencing factors, the effects of (i) rearing biomass, (ii) dietary features and (iii) domestication process on the technological and nutritional variables in perch Perca fluviatilis here were studied using two-levels fractional factorial design 24–1 (resolution IV). This work allowed identifying two main factors, i.e. domestication

  2. A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François-X Ricaut; Harilanto Razafindrazaka; Murray P Cox; Jean-M Dugoujon; Evelyne Guitard; Clement Sambo; Maru Mormina; Marta Mirazon-Lahr; Bertrand Ludes; Eric Crubézy

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current models propose that mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroups M and N evolved from haplogroup L3 soon after modern humans left Africa. Increasingly, however, analysis of isolated populations is filling in the details of, and in some cases challenging, aspects of this general model. RESULTS: Here, we present the first comprehensive study of three such isolated populations from Madagascar: the Mikea

  3. A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Current models propose that mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroups M and N evolved from haplogroup L3 soon after modern humans left Africa. Increasingly, however, analysis of isolated populations is filling in the details of, and in some cases challenging, aspects of this general model. Results Here, we present the first comprehensive study of three such isolated populations from Madagascar: the Mikea hunter-gatherers, the neighbouring Vezo fishermen, and the Merina central highlanders (n = 266). Complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequences reveal several unresolved lineages, and a new, deep branch of the out-of-Africa founder clade M has been identified. This new haplogroup, M23, has a limited global distribution, and is restricted to Madagascar and a limited range of African and Southwest Asian groups. Conclusions The geographic distribution, phylogenetic placement and molecular age of M23 suggest that the colonization of Madagascar was more complex than previously thought. PMID:20003445

  4. Breeding dispersal of eurasian Hoopoes (UpUpa epops) witHin and Between Years in relation to reproductive success,

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    en Relación con el Éxito Reproductivo, el Sexo y la Edad Resumen.--La dispersión reproductiva por lo general se ve afectada por el éxito reproductivo previo, la edad y el sexo. Las aves que crían múltiples años, en relación con la edad, el sexo y el rendimiento reproductivo mediante modelos multiestado de

  5. A flyway perspective on food resource abundance in a long-distance migrant, the Eurasian teal ( Anas crecca )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Arzel; Johan Elmberg; Matthieu Guillemain; Michel Lepley; Fabrice Bosca; Pierre Legagneux; Jean-Baptiste Nogues

    2009-01-01

    Two frequent assumptions about the evolution of long-distance migration in birds are that they travel long distances annually\\u000a to reach food-rich areas for breeding, and that they time their migratory journey to be at staging sites when the latter provide\\u000a the best feeding conditions. These assumptions have rarely been properly tested, and there is no study in which a species’

  6. Considerations of Socio-Economic and Global Change Effects on Eurasian Steppes Ecosystem and Land-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Chuluun, T.; Temirbekov, S. S.; Mahowald, N.; Hicke, J.

    2004-12-01

    Dramatic changes occurred in pastoral systems of Eurasia ranging from Mongolia, China and Central Asia for the past decades. Recently, evaluation of the pastoral systems has been conducted in the region. Pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock, exist largely in arid or semi-arid ecosystems where climate is highly variable. Interaction between ecosystems and nomadic land use systems co-shaped them in mutual adaptive ways for hundreds of years, thus making both the Mongolian rangeland ecosystem and nomadic pastoral system resilient and sustainable. Current changes in environmental conditions are affecting land-atmosphere interactions. Regional dust events, changes in hydrological cycle, and land use changes contribute to changing interactions between ecosystem and landscape processes which affect regional climate. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. This set of drivers is orthogonal to the above described climate drivers. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the socio-economic forces.

  7. Patterns and significance of bite wounds in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in southern and south-west England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Simpson

    2006-01-01

    Postmortem examinations were carried out on 379 otters found dead in southern and south-west England between 1988 and 2003. Most (81 per cent) were road casualties, but many had open bite wounds and in some cases these had proved fatal. Mortality was strongly seasonal and was positively correlated with night length. Although numbers decreased in the summer months, the prevalence

  8. Turnip mosaic potyvirus probably first spread to Eurasian brassica crops from wild orchids about 1000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy D; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Ho, Simon Y W; Duchêne, Sebastián; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef; Lesemann, Dietrich; Walsh, John A; Gibbs, Adrian J; Ohshima, Kazusato

    2013-01-01

    Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) is probably the most widespread and damaging virus that infects cultivated brassicas worldwide. Previous work has indicated that the virus originated in western Eurasia, with all of its closest relatives being viruses of monocotyledonous plants. Here we report that we have identified a sister lineage of TuMV-like potyviruses (TuMV-OM) from European orchids. The isolates of TuMV-OM form a monophyletic sister lineage to the brassica-infecting TuMVs (TuMV-BIs), and are nested within a clade of monocotyledon-infecting viruses. Extensive host-range tests showed that all of the TuMV-OMs are biologically similar to, but distinct from, TuMV-BIs and do not readily infect brassicas. We conclude that it is more likely that TuMV evolved from a TuMV-OM-like ancestor than the reverse. We did Bayesian coalescent analyses using a combination of novel and published sequence data from four TuMV genes [helper component-proteinase protein (HC-Pro), protein 3(P3), nuclear inclusion b protein (NIb), and coat protein (CP)]. Three genes (HC-Pro, P3, and NIb), but not the CP gene, gave results indicating that the TuMV-BI viruses diverged from TuMV-OMs around 1000 years ago. Only 150 years later, the four lineages of the present global population of TuMV-BIs diverged from one another. These dates are congruent with historical records of the spread of agriculture in Western Europe. From about 1200 years ago, there was a warming of the climate, and agriculture and the human population of the region greatly increased. Farming replaced woodlands, fostering viruses and aphid vectors that could invade the crops, which included several brassica cultivars and weeds. Later, starting 500 years ago, inter-continental maritime trade probably spread the TuMV-BIs to the remainder of the world. PMID:23405136

  9. The Homo habitat niche: using the avian fossil record to depict ecological characteristics of Palaeolithic Eurasian hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Clive; Carrión, José; Brown, Kimberly; Finlayson, Geraldine; Sánchez-Marco, Antonio; Fa, Darren; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Fernández, Santiago; Fierro, Elena; Bernal-Gómez, Marco; Giles-Pacheco, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Although hardly applied to human palaeoecology, bird fossils offer a unique opportunity for quantitative studies of the hominin habitat. Here we reconstruct the Homo habitat niche across a large area of the Palaearctic, based on a database of avian fauna for Pleistocene sites. Our results reveal a striking association between Homo and habitat mosaics. A mix of open savannah-type woodland, wetlands and rocky habitats emerges as the predominant combination occupied by Homo across a wide geographical area, from the earliest populations of the Lower Palaeolithic to the latest hunter-gatherer communities of the Upper Palaeolithic. This observation is in keeping with the view that such landscapes have had long standing selective value for hominins.

  10. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2006, 47, No. 6, pp. 708723. Copyright 2006 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    principles and major quantitative targets for the five-year period. In the second half of the paper, because the failure of the Great Leap Forward necessitated eco- nomic adjustments. O #12;C. CINDY FAN 709's guiding principles and major targets, especially those related to inequality. In the second half

  11. Evaluation of North Eurasian snow-off dates in the ECHAM5.4 atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Järvinen, H.; Takala, M.; Jylhä, K.; Bulygina, O. N.; Luojus, K.; Riihelä, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Koskinen, J.; Pulliainen, J.

    2014-12-01

    The timing of springtime end of snowmelt (snow-off date) in northern Eurasia in version 5.4 of the ECHAM5 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is evaluated through comparison with a snow-off date data set based on space-borne microwave radiometer measurements and with Russian snow course data. ECHAM5 reproduces well the observed gross geographical pattern of snow-off dates, with earliest snow-off (in March) in the Baltic region and latest snow-off (in June) in the Taymyr Peninsula and in northeastern parts of the Russian Far East. The primary biases are (1) a delayed snow-off in southeastern Siberia (associated with too low springtime temperature and too high surface albedo, in part due to insufficient shielding by canopy); and (2) an early bias in the western and northern parts of northern Eurasia. Several sensitivity experiments were conducted, where biases in simulated atmospheric circulation were corrected through nudging and/or the treatment of surface albedo was modified. While this alleviated some of the model biases in snow-off dates, 2 m temperature and surface albedo, especially the early bias in snow-off in the western parts of northern Eurasia proved very robust and was actually larger in the nudged runs. A key issue underlying the snow-off biases in ECHAM5 is that snowmelt occurs at too low temperatures. Very likely, this is related to the treatment of the surface energy budget. On one hand, the surface temperature Ts is not computed separately for the snow-covered and snow-free parts of the grid cells, which prevents Ts from rising above 0 °C before all snow has vanished. Consequently, too much of the surface net radiation is consumed in melting snow and too little in heating the air. On the other hand, ECHAM5 does not include a canopy layer. Thus, while the albedo reduction due to canopy is accounted for, the shielding of snow on ground by the overlying canopy is not considered, which leaves too much solar radiation available for melting snow.

  12. The sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 ka) and LGM (21 ka) Eurasian ice sheets to sea surface conditions

    E-print Network

    Jakobsson, Martin

    to the climatic cooling effect from the large ice sheet topography. Late Saalian SST are simulated using an AGCM-hemispheric asymmetry caused by the larger ice-albedo feedback, cooling climate. The resulting Late Saalian ice sheet the thickness (Peyaud 2006; Lambeck et al. 2006; Peltier 2004). This raises the question: Why did the Late

  13. Evolution of the Arctic Ocean salinity, 2007-2008: Contrast between the Canadian and the Eurasian basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camille Lique; Anne-Marie Treguier; Gilles Garric; Bernard Barnier; Fanny Girard-Ardhuin; Nicolas Ferry; Charles-Emmanuel Testut

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the variability of the freshwater budget in the Arctic Ocean and in the Nordic and Labrador Seas over recent years, to see how the freshwater balance in the Arctic and the exchanges with the North Atlantic have been affected by the recent important sea ice melting, especially during the 2007 sea ice extent minimum. An assimilated global coupled

  14. Instructions for use Eurasian J. For. Res. 15-1: 19-30 , 2012 Hokkaido University Forests, EFRC

    E-print Network

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved forests using NCAR/LSM simulations under two climatic in the deciduous broad-leaved forest showed that GPP and NEP increased by 12.7% and 48.0%, respectively, when we and September in the deciduous broad-leaved forest. The different seasonal patterns of NEP between the two

  15. Experimental infection of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with Eurasian bat lyssaviruses Aravan, Khujand, and Irkut virus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G J; Kuzmin, I V; Schmitz, A; Blanton, J; Manangan, J; Murphy, S; Rupprecht, C E

    2006-10-01

    Here we describe the results of experimental infections of captive big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with three newly isolated bat lyssaviruses from Eurasia (Aravan, Khujand, and Irkut viruses). Infection of E. fuscus was moderate (total, 55-75%). There was no evidence of transmission to in-contact cage mates. Incubation periods for Irkut virus infection were significantly shorter (p < 0.05) than for either Aravan or Khujand virus infections. In turn, quantification of viral RNA by TaqMan PCR suggests that the dynamics of Irkut virus infection may differ from those of Aravan/Khujand virus infection. Although infectious virus and viral RNA were detected in the brain of every rabid animal, dissemination to non-neuronal tissues was limited. Levels of viral RNA in brain of Aravan/Khujand virus-infected bats was significantly correlated with the number of other tissues positive by TaqMan PCR (p < 0.05), whereas no such relationship was observed for Irkut virus infection (where viral RNA was consistently detected in all tissues other than kidney). Infectious virus was isolated sporadically from salivary glands, and both infectious virus and viral RNA were obtained from oral swabs. The detection of viral RNA in oral swabs suggests that viral shedding in saliva occurred <5 days before the onset of clinical disease. PMID:16705370

  16. Jurassic rifting at the Eurasian Tethys margin: Geochemical and geochronological constraints from granitoids of North Makran, southeastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Daniela; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Bouilhol, Pierre; Quadt, Albrecht

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on an east-west trending belt of granitic to intermediate intrusions and their volcanic cover in the northern Dur Kan Complex, a continental slice outcropping to the north of the exposed Makran accretionary wedge in southeastern Iran. Field observations, petrographic descriptions, trace element, and isotope analyses combined with U-Pb zircon geochronology are presented to determine the time frame of magmatism and tectonic setting during the formation of these rocks. Results document three magmatic episodes with different melt sources for (1) granites, (2) a diorite-trondhjemite-plagiogranite sequence, and (3) diabases and lavas. Granites, dated at 170-175 Ma, represent crystallized melt with a strong continental isotopic contribution. The diorite-trondhjemite-plagiogranite sequence is 165-153 Ma old and derives from a mantle magma source with minor continental contribution. East-west trending diabase dikes and bodies intruded the granitoids, which were eroded and then covered by Valanginian (140-133 Ma) alkaline lavas and sediments. Alkaline dikes and lavas have a mantle isotopic composition. Temporal correlation with plutonites of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone to the northwest defines a narrow, NW-SE striking and nearly 2000 km long belt of Jurassic intrusions. The increasing mantle influence in the magma sources is explained by thinning of continental lithosphere and related mantle upwelling/decompression melting. Accordingly, the formation of the studied igneous rocks is related to the extension of the Iranian continental margin, which ultimately led to the formation of the Tethys-related North Makran Ophiolites.

  17. Instructions for use Eurasian J. For. Res. 15-1: 53-61 , 2012 Hokkaido University Forests, EFRC

    E-print Network

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    are the most essential factors for the establishment and growth of plants. This study firstly investigated and seedlings on all the soil substrates showed higher germination rate, germination speed or germination index to germinate 4-8 hours earlier and greater germination rate. In the comparison among the soil substrates, seeds

  18. Increased prevalence of a rare mutant of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in a Eurasian region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Ting Yang; Zhao-Guo Wang; Shan-Peng Li; Xiao-Lin Liu; Ying Yi; Yu Yang; Ping Yu; Ji-Ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus sparked an influenza pandemic. The emergence of mutations in the viral genome is therefore of ongoing concern. In this study, the hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of 3444 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses reported to the GenBank database and the sequences of 48 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses detected in the Chinese city of Qingdao

  19. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL DORMANCY IN SEEDS OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN AND ONE EURASIAN SPECIES OF SAMBUCUS (CAPRIFOLIACEAE) WITH UNDERDEVELOPED SPATULATE EMBRYOS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SITI N. HIDAYATI; JERRY M. BASKIN; CAROL C. BASKIN

    In contrast to previous reports, the endocarps (''seed coats'') of Sambucus species are not impermeable to water; thus, the seeds do not have physical dormancy. Seeds of the North American species Sambucus canadensisand S. pubens and of the European species S. racemosa have spatulate shaped embryos that are ;60% fully developed (elongated) at seed maturity. The embryo has to extend

  20. Morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of two North American and one Eurasian species of Sambucus (Caprifoliaceae) with underdeveloped spatulate embryos.

    PubMed

    Hidayati, S N; Baskin, J M; Baskin, C C

    2000-11-01

    In contrast to previous reports, the endocarps ("seed coats") of Sambucus species are not impermeable to water; thus, the seeds do not have physical dormancy. Seeds of the North American species Sambucus canadensis and S. pubens and of the European species S. racemosa have spatulate shaped embryos that are ?60% fully developed (elongated) at seed maturity. The embryo has to extend to the full length of the seed to germinate. Embryos in freshly matured seeds of S. canadensis and in those of S. pubens grew better at 25°/15°C than at 5°C, whereas the rate of embryo growth in S. racemosa was higher at 5°C than at 25°/15°C. Seeds of all three species germinated to significantly higher percentages in light (14-h photoperiod) than in darkness. Fresh seeds of neither species germinated during 2 wk of incubation over a range of thermoperiods. Warm followed by cold stratification broke dormancy in seeds of S. canadensis and in those of S. pubens. Thus, seeds of these two North American species have deep simple morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). In comparison, seeds of the European species S. racemosa required a cold stratification period only for dormancy break, and thus they have intermediate complex MPD. GA(3) was much more effective in breaking dormancy in seeds of S. racemosa than it was in those of S. canadensis or S. pubens. PMID:11080118

  1. Defining the key wintering habitats in the Sahel for declining African-Eurasian migrants using expert assessment

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Philip W.; Adams, William M.; Brouwer, Joost; Buchanan, Graeme; Cheke, Robert A.; Cresswell, Will; Hewson, Chris M.; Hulme, Mark F.; Manvell, Adam; Sheehan, Danaë K.; Small, Robert D. S.; Sutherland, William J.; Vickery, Juliet A.

    2014-02-24

    from temperate North Africa to sub-Saharan Africa, 103 but which do not have a western European breeding population (e.g. Cream-coloured 104 Courser Cursorius cursor, Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus, Eastern 105 Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais... with shrubs and trees Terrestrial habitats with shrubs and trees Open country – grassland and farmland Open water Rocks / villages Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Golden Oriole Great Reed Warbler Iberian...

  2. Schools for European and Eurasian Children in India: Making of the Official Policy in Colonial India and Its Contemporary Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhabra, Heeral

    2015-01-01

    The history of education in India has been looked into with a view which has been narrow in its expanse, often missing out on many social categories which had a relatively limited, yet important, presence in colonial India. Sufficient attention has been paid to the official policies of the British Indian government (starting from Macaulay's…

  3. Survivability of Eurasian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in water varies between strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic habitats play critical role in the transmission and maintenance of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in wild waterfowl; however the importance of these environments in the ecology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is unknown. In laboratory-based studies, L...

  4. Climate, season, and social status modulate the functional response of an efficient stalking predator: the Eurasian lynx.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar

    2009-07-01

    1. Predation plays a major role in shaping the structure and dynamics of ecological communities, and the functional response of a predator is of crucial importance to the dynamics of any predator-prey system by linking the trophic levels. For large mammals, there is a dearth of field studies documenting functional responses, and observations at low prey density are particularly scarce. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding about how variables such as season, social status and climate modulate the functional response curves. 2. We analysed kill rate data collected over a 10-year period based on radio-marked lynx (Lynx lynx) mainly preying on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) along a steep prey density gradient in south-eastern Norway. 3. The asymptotic kill rate was reached at a very low prey density for both solitary individuals and family groups (i.e. females with their dependent kittens), indicative of an efficient predator. This highlights the importance of understanding the interplay between predator and prey at low prey densities. 4. A purely prey-dependent functional response was a poor descriptor of the data, as the curve was strongly modulated by season and differences between lynx of different social status. In addition, there was a clear effect of abiotic climatic factors (indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation) on observed kill rates in the more snow-rich portion of our study area. 5. Our analysis suggests that simple functional response curves might be poor descriptors of predator consumption rates in complex natural system, and that auxiliary factors are likely to induce complexity into any predator-prey systems that would not be captured by simple deterministic approaches. PMID:19486380

  5. Experimental infection of big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) with Eurasian bat lyssaviruses Aravan, Khujand, and Irkut virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Hughes; I. V. Kuzmin; A. Schmitz; J. Blanton; J. Manangan; S. Murphy; C. E. Rupprecht

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Here we describe the results of experimental infections of captive big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with three newly isolated bat lyssaviruses from Eurasia (Aravan, Khujand, and Irkut viruses). Infection of E. fuscus was moderate (total, 55–75%). There was no evidence of transmission to in-contact cage mates. Incubation periods for Irkut\\u000a virus infection were significantly shorter (p?

  6. First report of early Triassic A-type granite and syenite intrusions from Taimyr: product of the northern Eurasian superplume?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valery A Vernikovsky; Victoria L Pease; Antonina E Vernikovskaya; Andrey P Romanov; David G Gee; Alexey V Travin

    2003-01-01

    Ion-microprobe U–Th–Pb analyses of zircon from three high-level syenite–granite stocks in the western part of the Taimyr fold-and-thrust belt have yielded early Triassic ages of 249–241 Ma. Those syenite–granite bodies intrude unmetamorphosed late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic terrigenous and volcanic supracrustal rocks, including the early Triassic Siberian traps. 40Ar–39Ar isotopic ages of 245–233 Ma correlate well with the ion-microprobe data

  7. The Emerging Tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: A Synthesis of Control-Region Sequences and RFLPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Macaulay; Martin Richards; Eileen Hickey; Emilce Vega; Fulvio Cruciani; Valentina Guida; Rosaria Scozzari; Batsheva Bonné-Tamir; Bryan Sykes; Antonio Torroni

    1999-01-01

    Summary Variation in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is now routinely described and used to infer the histories of peoples, by means of one of two procedures, namely, the assaying of RFLPs throughout the genome and the sequencing of parts of the control region (CR). Using 95 samples from the Near East and northwest Caucasus, we present an analysis based

  8. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Howard; Steven E. Travis; Benjamin A. Sikes

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive\\u000a properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance\\u000a to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may\\u000a affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence

  9. have been affected by their sparse population coverage. The median line of the Eurasian genetic landscape appears

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shuhua

    ­15, 2008, Philadelphia. Available at the following URL: http://www.ashg.org/2008meeting/abstracts/ fulltext Genetics I, No. 60]. Presented at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics, November 11

  10. MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 721, pp. 18, 3 figs. Mellivora capensis. By Jana M. Vanderhaar and Yeen Ten Hwang

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    . Meles: Thunberg, 1811:306. Part, not Meles Linnaeus (vide Sclater 1900). Gulo Desmarest, 1820:176. Type species Gulo capensis ( Gulo mellivora Smith). Ratellus Gray, 1827:118. Based on Viverra capensis Schreber). Gulo capensis Desmarest, 1820:176. Type locality ``Vicinity of Cape of Good Hope.'' Gulo mellivora

  11. Ticks collected from wild and domestic animals and natural habitats in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baek-Jun; Kim, Hyewon; Won, Sohyun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Seo, Hong-Yul; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Ticks were collected from 35 animals from 5 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities during 2012. Ticks also were collected by tick drag from 4 sites in Gyeonggi-do (2) and Jeollabuk-do (2) Provinces. A total of 612 ticks belonging to 6 species and 3 genera were collected from mammals and a bird (n=573) and by tick drag (n=39). Haemaphyalis longicornis (n=434) was the most commonly collected tick, followed by H. flava (158), Ixodes nipponensis (11), Amblyomma testudinarium (7), H. japonica (1), and H. formosensis (1). H. longicornis and H. flava were collected from all animal hosts examined. For animal hosts (n>1), the highest Tick Index (TI) was observed for domestic dogs (29.6), followed by Siberian roe deer (17.4), water deer (14.4), and raccoon dogs (1.3). A total of 402 H. longicornis (adults 86, 21.4%; nymphs 160, 39.8%; larvae 156, 38.9%) were collected from wild and domestic animals. A total of 158 H. flava (n=158) were collected from wild and domestic animals and 1 ring-necked pheasant, with a higher proportion of adults (103, 65.2%), while nymphs and larvae only accounted for 12.7% (20) and 22.2% (35), respectively. Only 7 A. testudinarium were collected from the wild boar (6 adults) and Eurasian badger (1 nymph), while only 5 I. nipponensis were collected from the water deer (4 adults) and a raccoon dog (1 adult). One adult female H. formosensis was first collected from vegetation by tick drag from Mara Island, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do Province. PMID:25031468

  12. Ticks Collected from Wild and Domestic Animals and Natural Habitats in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Baek-Jun; Kim, Hyewon; Won, Sohyun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Seo, Hong-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Ticks were collected from 35 animals from 5 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities during 2012. Ticks also were collected by tick drag from 4 sites in Gyeonggi-do (2) and Jeollabuk-do (2) Provinces. A total of 612 ticks belonging to 6 species and 3 genera were collected from mammals and a bird (n=573) and by tick drag (n=39). Haemaphyalis longicornis (n=434) was the most commonly collected tick, followed by H. flava (158), Ixodes nipponensis (11), Amblyomma testudinarium (7), H. japonica (1), and H. formosensis (1). H. longicornis and H. flava were collected from all animal hosts examined. For animal hosts (n>1), the highest Tick Index (TI) was observed for domestic dogs (29.6), followed by Siberian roe deer (17.4), water deer (14.4), and raccoon dogs (1.3). A total of 402 H. longicornis (adults 86, 21.4%; nymphs 160, 39.8%; larvae 156, 38.9%) were collected from wild and domestic animals. A total of 158 H. flava (n=158) were collected from wild and domestic animals and 1 ring-necked pheasant, with a higher proportion of adults (103, 65.2%), while nymphs and larvae only accounted for 12.7% (20) and 22.2% (35), respectively. Only 7 A. testudinarium were collected from the wild boar (6 adults) and Eurasian badger (1 nymph), while only 5 I. nipponensis were collected from the water deer (4 adults) and a raccoon dog (1 adult). One adult female H. formosensis was first collected from vegetation by tick drag from Mara Island, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do Province. PMID:25031468

  13. 2/17/2014 Why We Should be Worried About the Rapid Growth in Global Households -Emily Badger -The Atlantic Cities http://www.theatlanticcities.com/housing/2014/02/worlds-ticking-household-bomb/8389/ 1/4

    E-print Network

    - The Atlantic Cities http://www.theatlanticcities.com/housing/2014/02/worlds-ticking-household-bomb/8389/ 1 the prospect of a population bomb, a scenario where so many people come to populate the planet that we exhaust - The Atlantic Cities http://www.theatlanticcities.com/housing/2014/02/worlds-ticking-household-bomb/8389/ 2

  14. Contrasting lipid biomarker composition of terrestrial organic matter exported from across the Eurasian Arctic by the five great Russian Arctic rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Bart E.; Semiletov, Igor; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2008-03-01

    Surface sediments outside the great Russian Arctic rivers (GRARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, and Kolyma) were investigated for their lipid biomarker composition to elucidate compositional distinctions of the exported organic matter (OM) across this continent-scale climosequence of the Siberian Arctic. The lipid biomarker composition is dominantly terrestrial (high molecular weight (HMW) n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanes; branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), ?-sitosterol, other sterols, and triterpenoids) with only minor marine contributions (e.g., the ratio of terrigenous-to-aquatic n-alkanes was 17-80, the TOC/TN ratio was 10-16, and the branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index >0.88). There is a large contribution of C23 and C25 homologues relative to other long-chained n-alkanes, suggesting substantial contribution of probably Sphagnum-derived OM. The C23 and C25 contribution decreases eastward, signaling either a decrease in the potential contribution of Sphagnum or a shift within the n-alkane distribution of Sphagnum species or increased aeolian input, due to more arid conditions in the east. Other distinctions in molecular OM composition across the climosequence include increased concentrations of both HMW n-alkanoic acids and ?-sitosterol relative to HMW n-alkanes in the eastern sediments. This suggests that the OM exported by the eastern GRARs is, despite their higher bulk radiocarbon ages, less degraded, which is consistent with increasing permafrost and a shorter annual thaw period in eastern Siberia. Taken together, this benchmark study of the current composition of terrestrially exported OM suggests distinguishing continent-scale trends in molecular composition of the OM across the west-east set of GRARs, which reflects both differences in vegetation and climate. If the climate in the eastern Russian Arctic region becomes more like the current state in the western part, these results would predict a greater degree of decomposition of the old terrestrial OM released by the eastern GRARs and thus greater remineralization and release as CO2 and methane.

  15. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta), in northern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago Palazón i Miñano; J. Ruiz-Olmo; Joaquim Gosàlbez i Noguera

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta) in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%), fish (30.9%) and birds (16.7%). Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals,

  16. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian Wild Birds: A phylogenetic and phylogeographic study of whole-genome sequence data

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Nicola S.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Russell, Colin A.; Lexmond, Pascal; Westgeest, Kim B.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Ransier, Amy; Fedorova, Nadia B.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Olsen, Björn; Smith, Gavin; Bahl, Justin; Wentworth, David E.; Waldenström, Jonas; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; de Graaf, Miranda

    2015-04-22

    and threat to food security. It also provides a means by which AIV might be brought into closer 55 proximity to humans (Newman et al., 2012). For Eurasia, waterbird migration can be broadly 56 divided in five flyways; East Atlantic flyway, Black Sea-Mediterranean... Eurasia lies within the East Atlantic flyway, Central Eurasia lies within the 139 Black Sea-Mediterranean and Central Asian flyway, and East Eurasia and Oceania represent the 140 East Asian-Australasian flyways. Despite overlap in migratory flyways among...

  17. CENTER FOR RUSSIAN, EAST EUROPEAN AND EURASIAN STUDIES CLASS OF ______________________ SAMPLE FOUR-YEAR PLAN, BACHELOR OF ARTS (WITHOUT CREDIT BY EXAMINATION)

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    3 * Visual & Performing Arts 3 * Social and Behavioral Sciences 3 REE 301 3 14-15 14-15 Second Year 3 * Social Science 3 * Science & Technology ­ Part II 3 * Math 3 REE 3 15-16 15-16 Third Year Apply Science 3 * American History 3 REE (UD) 2 3 REE (UD) 3 Minor 3 Minor 3 Elective (UD) 3 Elective (UD) 3 (6

  18. CENTER FOR RUSSIAN, EAST EUROPEAN AND EURASIAN STUDIES CLASS OF ______________________ SAMPLE FOUR-YEAR PLAN, BACHELOR OF ARTS (WITHOUT CREDIT BY EXAMINATION)

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    A 3 * RHE 306 3 * Visual & Performing Arts 3 * Social and Behavioral Sciences 3 REE 301 3 14-15 14 * GOV 310L 3 * GOV 312L 3 * Social Science 3 * Natural Science ­ Part II 3 * Math 3 REE 3 15-16 15 Science 3 ** Natural Science 3 * American History 3 REE (UD) 2 3 REE (UD) 3 Minor 3 Minor 3 Elective (UD

  19. Contrasting lipid biomarker composition of terrestrial organic matter exported from across the Eurasian Arctic by the five great Russian Arctic rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart E. van Dongen; Igor Semiletov; Johan W. H. Weijers; Örjan Gustafsson

    2008-01-01

    Surface sediments outside the great Russian Arctic rivers (GRARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, and Kolyma) were investigated for their lipid biomarker composition to elucidate compositional distinctions of the exported organic matter (OM) across this continent-scale climosequence of the Siberian Arctic. The lipid biomarker composition is dominantly terrestrial (high molecular weight (HMW) n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanes; branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers

  20. A complete species-level molecular phylogeny for the "Eurasian" starlings (Sturnidae: Sturnus, Acridotheres, and allies): recent diversification in a highly social and dispersive avian group.

    PubMed

    Lovette, Irby J; McCleery, Brynn V; Talaba, Amanda L; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2008-04-01

    We generated the first complete phylogeny of extant taxa in a well-defined clade of 26 starling species that is collectively distributed across Eurasia, and which has one species endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Two species in this group-the European starling Sturnus vulgaris and the common Myna Acridotheres tristis-now occur on continents and islands around the world following human-mediated introductions, and the entire clade is generally notable for being highly social and dispersive, as most of its species breed colonially or move in large flocks as they track ephemeral insect or plant resources, and for associating with humans in urban or agricultural landscapes. Our reconstructions were based on substantial mtDNA (4 kb) and nuclear intron (4 loci, 3 kb total) sequences from 16 species, augmented by mtDNA NDII gene sequences (1 kb) for the remaining 10 taxa for which DNAs were available only from museum skin samples. The resulting mitochondrial gene tree embedded within a multilocus framework shows that the well-studied taxa S. vulgaris/unicolor are the sister lineage to the remaining members of the radiation, from which other relatively early lineages gave rise to forms that are now nomadic or locally migrant in Africa (Creatophora) and western Asia (Pastor). The remaining taxa form a clade with a complicated biogeographic history primarily in central and eastern Asia; this group contains a range of sedentary to highly migratory taxa, as well as widely distributed species and single-island endemics such as the highly endangered Bali myna (Leucopsar). Several groups of species in the genus Acridotheres have low magnitudes of within-group divergence and likely diversified via their respective colonization of islands. The taxonomy of this entire group has remained highly volatile over the past century; we propose dividing these 26 species among 11 reciprocally monophyletic genera (Acridotheres, Poliopsar, Temenuchus, Sturnornis, Leucopsar, Gracupica, Agropsar, Pastor, Creatophora, and Sturnus). PMID:18321732