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1

Estimating social group size of Eurasian badgers Meles meles by genotyping remotely plucked single hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the Eurasian badger's Meles meles role as an agricultural pest, its potential role in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis and other man- agement problems, accurate estimation of badger abundance is required. At present, no censusing method exists that is accurate, cost-effective and relatively non-invasive. In this article, we test the feasibility of estimating badger social group and population

Thomas L. J. Scheppers; Timothy J. Roper; Alain C. Frantz; Michel Schaul; Edmée Engel; Peter Breyne; Laurent Schley

2007-01-01

2

Protection of Eurasian badgers ( Meles meles) from tuberculosis after intra-muscular vaccination with different doses of BCG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis infection is widespread in Eurasian badger (Meles meles) populations in Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland where they act as a wildlife reservoir of infection for cattle. Removal of infected badgers can significantly reduce the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in local cattle herds. However, control measures based on culling of native wildlife are contentious and may

Sandrine Lesellier; Si Palmer; Sonya Gowtage-Sequiera; Roland Ashford; Deanna Dalley; Dipesh Davé; Ute Weyer; F. Javier Salguero; Alejandro Nunez; Timothy Crawshaw; Leigh A. L. Corner; R. Glyn Hewinson; Mark A. Chambers

2011-01-01

3

Helminth parasites of the eurasian badger (Meles meles L.) in Spain: a biogeographic approach.  

PubMed

Eighty-five Eurasian badgers, Meles meles (Linnaeus, 1758), from four mainland biogeographic Spanish areas were analysed for helminths. Seventeen helminth species were found: Brachylaima sp., Euparyphium melis and Euryhelmis squamula (Trematoda), Atriotaenia incisa and Mesocestoides sp. (Cestoda) and Aelurostrongylus pridhami, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aonchotheca putorii, Crenosoma melesi, Mastophorus muris, Molineus patens, Pearsonema plica, Physaloptera sibirica, Strongyloides sp., Trichinella sp., Uncinaria criniformis and Vigisospirura potekhina hugoti (Nematoda). In the Mediterranean area, Aonchotheca putorii, M. patens, Strongyloides sp., and U. criniformis were more prevalent in the occidental part, whereas Atriotaenia incisa and Mesocestoides sp. cestodes showed higher values on the continental slope. Metastrongyloid species (Aelurostrongylus pridhami, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma melesi) were only detected in the occidental Mediterranean area. In contrast, spirurid species (Mastophorus muris and Vigisospirura potekhina hugoti) were almost restricted to the continental Mediterranean area. Helminthological differences between areas may result from the badger diet, abiotic factors and biocenosis present in each biogeographic area. PMID:11355672

Torres, J; Miquel, J; Motjé, M

2001-04-01

4

How many Eurasian badgers Meles meles L. are there in the Republic of Ireland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ireland, the badger Meles meles L is a reservoir species for Mycobacterium bovis and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. A previous estimate of the badger population\\u000a in the Republic was 200,000 badgers. In the current study, we obtained data on badger numbers from a large-scale badger removal\\u000a project (the Four-Area project). The removal

D. P. Sleeman; J. Davenport; S. J. More; T. A. Clegg; J. D. Collins; S. W. Martin; D. H. Williams; J. M. Griffin; I. O’Boyle

2009-01-01

5

Physiological stress in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles): Effects of host, disease and environment.  

PubMed

A method for monitoring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) to stressors was validated by measuring cortisol excretion in serum and faeces. Serum and faecal samples were collected under anaesthesia from live-captured, wild badgers and fresh faeces was collected from latrines at 15 social groups in County Down, Northern Ireland. Variation in levels of cortisol in wild badgers was investigated relative to disease status, season, age, sex, body mass, body condition and reproductive status and environmental factors that might influence stress. Faecal cortisol levels were significantly higher in animals testing culture-positive for Mycobacterium bovis. Prolonged elevation of cortisol can suppress immune function, which may have implications for disease transmission. There was a strong seasonal pattern in both serum cortisol, peaking in spring and faecal cortisol, peaking in summer. Cortisol levels were also higher in adults with poor body condition and low body mass. Faecal samples collected from latrines in grassland groups had significantly higher cortisol than those collected from woodland groups, possibly as a result of greater exposure to sources of environmental stress. This study is the first to investigate factors influencing physiological stress in badgers and indicates that serological and faecal excretion are valid indices of the HPA response to a range of stressors. PMID:24607571

George, Sheila C; Smith, Tessa E; Mac Cana, Pól S S; Coleman, Robert; Montgomery, William I

2014-05-01

6

Performance of TB immunodiagnostic tests in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) of different ages and the influence of duration of infection on serological sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In parts of Great Britain and Ireland, Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) constitute a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection and a potential source of infection for cattle. In vitro diagnostic tests for live badgers are an important component of strategies to control TB in this species. Immunological tests have been developed for badgers, although little is known about the influence

Mark A Chambers; Sue Waterhouse; Konstantin Lyashchenko; Richard Delahay; Robin Sayers; R Glyn Hewinson

2009-01-01

7

Food digestibility of an Eurasian badger Meles meles with special reference to the Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding trials were carried out with a captive adult badgerMeles meles (Linnaeus, 1758) to establish relationships (digestibility coefficients) between the biomass of freshly consumed food and\\u000a the dry undigested remnants recovered from scats (bone, teeth, hair, feathers, exoskeleton parts, seeds, etc). The foods studied\\u000a were those revealed by our research to be the principal components of badger diet in a

Luís M. Rosalino; Filipa Loureiro; David W. Macdonald; Margarida Santos-Reis

2003-01-01

8

Infection of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria.  

PubMed

There are few reports of infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria in badgers. In this study archive data relating to the isolation of MAC organisms from badgers in the UK is presented, and information derived from recent cases of such infection in Spain is used to illustrate the associated pathology and to characterise strain types. Tissue samples were cultured for mycobacteria and, in the case of Spanish badgers, were examined both histopathologically and using immunohistochemistry, and DNA typing of M. avium isolates was also carried out. A total of 5 (7.35%) and 281 (0.51%) isolates of M. avium spp. were recovered from badgers from the studies in Spain and the UK, respectively. DNA typing of the isolates from Spain identified the sub-species M. avium hominissuis and M. avium avium. These findings provide new information on the prevalence of MAC organisms in badgers in the UK and Spain. The extent to which infected badgers may be involved in the epidemiology of M. avium in other wild or domestic hosts remains unknown. PMID:20605496

Balseiro, Ana; Merediz, Isabel; Sevilla, Iker A; García-Castro, Carmen; Gortázar, Christian; Prieto, José M; Delahay, Richard J

2011-05-01

9

Exploitation of food resources by the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) at the altitudinal limit of its alpine range (NW Italy).  

PubMed

Food availability has been suggested to be the main factor shaping the altitudinal limits of species distributions. We analyzed the badger (Meles meles) diet in the western Italian Alps and, particularly, at the altitudinal limit of its range, with the main aim of highlighting any reduction in earthworm availability with altitude which could act as a limiting factor for badgers. Earthworms were by far the main food resource of badgers, followed by fruit. The two-month importance of these two items in badger diet was inversely correlated. Earthworm consumption was negatively correlated with air temperature. The seasonal pattern of earthworm use by badgers seemed to be influenced by the reproduction and estivation times of some epigeic species, rather than by climatic conditions per se. The eating of fruit by badgers was at least in part independent from the availability of earthworms. The badgers' efficacy in preying upon earthworms also in adverse conditions and their reliance on a wide variety of food resources suggest that worm availability might play a minor role in shaping the altitudinal limit of the species on the Alps. PMID:19968469

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2009-12-01

10

Mating system of the Eurasian badger, Meles meles , in a high density population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Badgers are facultatively social, forming large groups at high density. Group-living appears to have high reproductive costs for females, and may lead to increased levels of inbreeding. The extent of female competition for reproduction has been estimated from field data, but knowledge of male reproductive success and the extent of extra-group paternity remains limited. Combining field data with genetic data

PETRA J. C ARPENTER; LISA C. P OPE; CAROLYN GREIG; DEBORAH A. D AWSON; LUCY M. R OGERS; KRISTIEN ERVEN; GAVIN J. W ILSON; RICHARD J. D ELAHAY; CHRIS L. C HEESEMAN; TERRY BURKE

11

Haematological and biochemical measurements in a population of wild Eurasian badgers (Meles meles).  

PubMed

Blood samples were collected from a high density population of wild badgers in Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, England, where animals were routinely captured and examined as part of a long-term ecological study, and a selection of haematological and biochemical variables were measured. The badger cubs had lower red blood cell counts and haemoglobin concentrations than the adults, consistent with physiological anaemia, and lower serum protein concentrations. Growth of muscle and active bone formation in the cubs probably accounted for their higher serum concentrations of creatinine and calcium, and higher activities of alkaline phosphatase. Only triglyceride concentrations varied between the sexes. The serum concentration of urea was higher than observed in other mustelids, consistent with a protein-rich diet and possibly related to the consumption of earthworms. PMID:18441351

Winnacker, H; Walker, N J; Brash, M G I; MacDonald, J A; Delahay, R J

2008-04-26

12

Mating system of the Eurasian badger, Meles meles, in a high density population.  

PubMed

Badgers are facultatively social, forming large groups at high density. Group-living appears to have high reproductive costs for females, and may lead to increased levels of inbreeding. The extent of female competition for reproduction has been estimated from field data, but knowledge of male reproductive success and the extent of extra-group paternity remains limited. Combining field data with genetic data (16 microsatellite loci), we studied the mating system of 10 badger social groups across 14 years in a high-density population. From 923 badgers, including 425 cubs, we were able to assign maternity to 307 cubs, with both parents assigned to 199 cubs (47%) with 80% confidence, and 14% with 95% confidence. Age had a significant effect on the probability of reproduction, seemingly as a result of a deficit of individuals aged two years and greater than eight years attaining parentage. We estimate that approximately 30% of the female population successfully reproduced in any given year, with a similar proportion of the male population gaining paternity across the same area. While it was known there was a cost to female reproduction in high density populations, it appears that males suffer similar, but not greater, costs. Roughly half of assigned paternity was attributed to extra-group males, the majority of which were from neighbouring social groups. Few successful matings occurred between individuals born in the same social group (22%). The high rate of extra-group mating, previously unquantified, may help reduce inbreeding, potentially making philopatry a less costly strategy. PMID:15643970

Carpenter, Petra J; Pope, Lisa C; Greig, Carolyn; Dawson, Deborah A; Rogers, Lucy M; Erven, Kristien; Wilson, Gavin J; Delahay, Richard J; Cheeseman, Chris L; Burke, Terry

2005-01-01

13

A survey of helminth infection in Eurasian badgers ( Meles meles ) in relation to their foraging behaviour in a Mediterranean environment in southwest Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the Eurasian badger in the southwestern edge of its range (Grândola Mountain, Portugal) and interprets the results in relation to badger diet and feeding behaviour. By examination of 163 badger faecal samples, faecal developmental stages (eliminative forms) of four helminth species and one genus were identified: one cestode (Atriotaenia

Luís Miguel Rosalino; Jordi Torres; Margarida Santos-Reis

2006-01-01

14

Evaluation of a method to detect Mycobacterium bovis in air samples from infected Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and their setts.  

PubMed

Environmental air sampling was evaluated as a method to detect the presence of M. bovis in the vicinity of infected badgers and their setts. Airborne particles were collected on gelatine filters using a commercially available air sampling instrument and tested for the presence of M. bovis using bacteriological culture and real-time PCR. The sensitivity of bacteriological culture was broadly similar to that of real-time PCR when testing samples artificially spiked with M. bovis. Sampling was undertaken from directly under the muzzles of badgers which had been experimentally infected with M. bovis (37 samples), within enclosures housing the experimentally infected animals (50 samples), and in the vicinity of setts with resident infected wild badgers (52 samples). The methods employed did not detect M. bovis from either infected badgers or artificial or natural setts known to contain infected animals. However, samples taken at four of the six natural setts were positive for Mycobacterium gordonae. PMID:23384280

Jones, R M; Ashford, R; Cork, J; Palmer, S; Wood, E; Spyvee, P; Parks, S; Bennett, A; Brewer, J; Delahay, R; Chambers, M; Sawyer, J

2013-05-01

15

Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): Implications for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes.  

PubMed

In the present study, to further understand the phylogenetic relationships among the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora), which are distributed widely in the Palearctic, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (539-545 base-pairs) as a maternal genetic marker, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome gene (SRY: 1052-1058 base-pairs), as a paternal genetic marker, were examined. The present study revealed ten SRY haplotypes from 47 males of 112 individuals of the Eurasian Continent and Japan. In addition, 39 mtDNA haplotypes were identified from those animals. From the phylogeography of both the uniparentally inherited genes, four lineages were recognized as Japanese, eastern Eurasian, Caucasian, and western Eurasian. The distribution patterns of the mtDNA lineages showed the existence of a sympatric zone between the eastern and western Eurasian lineages around the Volga River in western Russia. Furthermore, the present study suggested that in the Japanese badgers, the larger genetic differentiation of the Shikoku population was attributable to geographic history in the Japanese islands. PMID:21466348

Tashima, Sara; Kaneko, Yayoi; Anezaki, Tomoko; Baba, Minoru; Yachimori, Shuuji; Abramov, Alexei V; Saveljev, Alexander P; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-04-01

16

Systematic Palaeontology (Vertebrate Palaeontology) Meles iberica n. sp., a new Eurasian badger (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Fonelas P-1 (Plio-Pleistocene boundary, Guadix Basin, Granada, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a new species of ancient badger - Meles iberica n. sp. - discovered at the Fonelas P-1 Plio-Pleistocene site (Cuenca de Guadix, Granada, Spain). The anatomical features of its fossils, which identify it as a new species of Meles, include: the great robustness and small size of the specimens found, orbits nearly closed by well-developed zygomatic processes

Alfonso Arribas; Guiomar Garrido

2007-01-01

17

Meles iberica n. sp., a new Eurasian badger (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Fonelas P-1 (Plio-Pleistocene boundary, Guadix Basin, Granada, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a new species of ancient badgerMeles iberica n. sp. – discovered at the Fonelas P-1 Plio-Pleistocene site (Cuenca de Guadix, Granada, Spain). The anatomical features of its fossils, which identify it as a new species of Meles, include: the great robustness and small size of the specimens found, orbits nearly closed by well-developed zygomatic processes of

Alfonso Arribas; Guiomar Garrido

2007-01-01

18

Vaccinating badgers ( Meles meles) against Mycobacterium bovis: the ecological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a serious zoonotic disease, which despite a largely successful test and slaughter programme has persisted in cattle herds in parts of the UK. The badger (Meles meles) is widely considered to represent a significant wildlife reservoir for the transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to cattle, and has been the subject of a variety of culling strategies since

R. J. Delahay; G. J. Wilson; G. C. Smith; C. L. Cheeseman

2003-01-01

19

Comparing Badger (Meles meles) Management Strategies for Reducing Tuberculosis Incidence in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, continues to be a serious economic problem for the British cattle industry. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is partly responsible for maintenance of the disease and its transmission to cattle. Previous attempts to manage the disease by culling badgers have been hampered by social perturbation, which in some situations is associated with increases in the cattle herd incidence of bTB. Following the licensing of an injectable vaccine, we consider the relative merits of management strategies to reduce bTB in badgers, and thereby reduce cattle herd incidence. We used an established simulation model of the badger-cattle-TB system and investigated four proposed strategies: business as usual with no badger management, large-scale proactive badger culling, badger vaccination, and culling with a ring of vaccination around it. For ease of comparison with empirical data, model treatments were applied over 150 km2 and were evaluated over the whole of a 300 km2 area, comprising the core treatment area and a ring of approximately 2 km. The effects of treatment were evaluated over a 10-year period comprising treatment for five years and the subsequent five year period without treatment. Against a background of existing disease control measures, where 144 cattle herd incidents might be expected over 10 years, badger culling prevented 26 cattle herd incidents while vaccination prevented 16. Culling in the core 150 km2 plus vaccination in a ring around it prevented about 40 cattle herd breakdowns by partly mitigating the negative effects of culling, although this approach clearly required greater effort. While model outcomes were robust to uncertainty in parameter estimates, the outcomes of culling were sensitive to low rates of land access for culling, low culling efficacy, and the early cessation of a culling strategy, all of which were likely to lead to an overall increase in cattle disease.

Smith, Graham C.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Wilkinson, David

2012-01-01

20

Use of human buildings by Eurasian badgers in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains, Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inspection of human buildings used by Eurasian badgersMeles meles (Linnaeus, 1758) in 28 sites in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains, Czech Republic, was carried out in 2001. The buildings\\u000a inhabited or visited by badgers were as follows: wooden barns (18 cases), masonry buildings used for residential purposes\\u000a (4), abandoned buildings (1), wooden sheds (2), wooden beehouses (2) and a non-residential

Lukáš Pavlaèík; Ivan Literák; Ji?í Klimeš; Martina Bojková

2004-01-01

21

Evaluation of attractant flavours for use in oral vaccine baits for badgers ( Meles meles )  

Microsoft Academic Search

European badgers (Meles meles) are a wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis infection (tuberculosis) in Ireland and the UK and are implicated in the transmission of infection to livestock. Vaccination\\u000a of badgers with the human BCG vaccine (Bacille Calmette Guerin) is considered as an important strategy to reduce the burden\\u000a of disease in this species, and a pragmatic approach is likely

David J. Kelly; Leigh A. L. Corner; Eamonn Gormley; Denise Murphy; Eamon Costello; Frank E. Aldwell; Nicola M. Marples

22

Heterogeneity in the risk of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badger (Meles meles) cubs.  

PubMed

The behaviour of certain infected individuals within socially structured populations can have a disproportionately large effect on the spatio-temporal distribution of infection. Endemic infection with Mycobacterium bovis in European badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland is an important source of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Here we quantify the risk of infection in badger cubs in a high-density wild badger population, in relation to the infection status of resident adults. Over a 24-year period, we observed variation in the risk of cub infection, with those born into groups with resident infectious breeding females being over four times as likely to be detected excreting M. bovis than cubs from groups where there was no evidence of infection in adults. We discuss how our findings relate to the persistence of infection at both social group and population level, and the potential implications for disease control strategies. PMID:23522097

Tomlinson, A J; Chambers, M A; Carter, S P; Wilson, G J; Smith, G C; McDonald, R A; Delahay, R J

2013-07-01

23

Detection and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum in a German badger (Meles meles) by ITS sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis.  

PubMed

A wild badger (Meles meles) with a severe nodular dermatitis was presented for post mortem examination. Numerous cutaneous granulomas with superficial ulceration were present especially on head, dorsum, and forearms were found at necropsy. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed a severe granulomatous dermatitis with abundant intralesional round to spherical yeast-like cells, 2-5 ?m in diameter, altogether consistent with the clinical appearance of histoplasmosis farciminosi. The structures stained positively with Grocott's methenamine silver and Periodic acid-Schiff stains, but attempts to isolate the etiologic agent at 25 and 37°C failed. DNA was directly extracted from tissue samples and the ribosomal genes ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were partially sequenced. This revealed 99% identity to sequences from Ajellomyces capsulatus, the teleomorph of Histoplasma capsulatum, which was derived from a human case in Japan, as well as from horses from Egypt and Poland. Phylogenetic multi-locus sequence analysis demonstrated that the fungus in our case belonged to the Eurasian clade which contains members of former varieties H. capsulatum var. capsulatum, H. capsulatum var. farciminosum. This is the first study of molecular and phylogenetic aspects of H. capsulatum, as well as evidence for histoplasmosis farciminosi in a badger, further illuminating the role of this rare pathogen in Central Europe. PMID:23035880

Eisenberg, Tobias; Seeger, Helga; Kasuga, Takao; Eskens, Ulrich; Sauerwald, Claudia; Kaim, Ute

2013-05-01

24

Use of cattle farm resources by badgers (Meles meles) and risk of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) transmission to cattle.  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal observations, radio telemetry and time-lapse camera surveillance were used to investigate visits by badgers (Meles meles L.) to two cattle farms. During 59 half-nights (ca. 295 h) of observation and 17 nights (ca. 154 h) of camera surveillance, 139 separate visits to farm buildings, by at least 26 individually identifiable badgers from two social groups, were recorded. The badgers, which included three individuals infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), used cowsheds, feedsheds, barns, haystacks, slurry pits, cattle troughs and farmyards to exploit a range of food resources, including cattle feed and silage. Cattle feed was contaminated with badger faeces and badgers also came into close contact with cattle. The minimum number of badgers visiting farm buildings per night was negatively correlated with local 24 h rainfall. We conclude that exploitation by badgers of resources provided by cattle farms constitutes a potentially important mechanism for tuberculosis transmission from badgers to cattle.

Garnett, B T; Delahay, R J; Roper, T J

2002-01-01

25

Development and evaluation of a gamma-interferon assay for tuberculosis in badgers (Meles meles).  

PubMed

In this paper we report the development of a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) in European badgers (Meles meles), based on the stimulation of lymphocytes in whole-blood culture and the subsequent detection of gamma-interferon (IFNgamma) by sandwich ELISA. The comparative levels of IFNgamma produced to bovine and avian tuberculin (B-A) was used as the basis of determining the TB status of badgers, resulting in a more sensitive test than that based on the defined Mycobacterium bovis antigens ESAT6 and CFP10. The assay was evaluated using 235 badgers. The IFNgamma EIA (enzyme immunoassay) based on a monoclonal pair (mEIA) was more sensitive than one using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (pEIA). At a specificity of 93.6%, the mEIA was 80.9% sensitive, compared to a sensitivity of 74.5% for the pEIA. At the same specificity as the EIA, the current serological ELISA test for TB in badgers (Brock test) had a sensitivity of 48.9%. Only one of the culture positive badgers missed by the mEIA was correctly diagnosed by the Brock test, suggesting that the combination of both a T-cell and serological test has little diagnostic advantage. PMID:18083067

Dalley, Deanna; Davé, Dipesh; Lesellier, Sandrine; Palmer, Simonette; Crawshaw, Timothy; Hewinson, R Glyn; Chambers, Mark

2008-05-01

26

Estimates of regional population densities of badger Meles meles , fox Vulpes vulpes and hare Lepus europaeus using walked distance sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walked spotlight transect surveys with distance sampling were used to estimate regional population densities of badger (Meles meles), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in south-west England (Cornwall, Devon, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire) and Wales (Pembrokeshire, Borders, North Wales).\\u000a All regions were surveyed during spring 2006 with English regions re-surveyed in autumn 2006. In each region, surveys were\\u000a conducted in

Dave Parrott; Anthony Prickett; Stéphane Pietravalle; Thomas R. Etherington; Mark Fletcher

27

Reproductive skew and relatedness in social groups of European badgers, Meles meles.  

PubMed

Reproductive skew is a measure of the proportion of individuals of each sex that breed in a group and is a valuable measure for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sociality. Here, we provide the first quantification of reproductive skew within social groups of European badgers Meles meles, throughout an 18-year study in a high-density population. We used 22 microsatellite loci to analyse within-group relatedness and demonstrated that badger groups contained relatives. The average within-group relatedness was high (R = 0.20) and approximately one-third of within-group dyads were more likely to represent first-order kin than unrelated pairs. Adult females within groups had higher pairwise relatedness than adult males, due to the high frequency of extra-group paternities, rather than permanent physical dispersal. Spatial clustering of relatives occurred among neighbouring groups, which we suggest was due to the majority of extra-group paternities being attributable to neighbouring males. Reproductive skew was found among within-group candidate fathers (B = 0.26) and candidate mothers (B = 0.07), but not among breeding individuals; our power to detect skew in the latter was low. We use these results to evaluate reproductive skew models. Although badger society best fits the assumptions of the incomplete-control models, our results were not consistent with their predictions. We suggest that this may be due to female control of paternity, female-female reproductive suppression occurring only in years with high food availability resulting in competition over access to breeding sites, extra-group paternity masking the benefits of natal philopatry, and/or the inconsistent occurrence of hierarchies that are linear when established. PMID:18371017

Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Johnson, Paul J; Burke, Terry

2008-04-01

28

Evolution of MHC class I genes in the European badger (Meles meles)  

PubMed Central

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune system and provides a good model with which to understand the evolutionary processes underlying functional genes. Trans-species polymorphism and orthology are both commonly found in MHC genes; however, mammalian MHC class I genes tend to cluster by species. Concerted evolution has the potential to homogenize different loci, whereas birth-and-death evolution can lead to the loss of orthologs; both processes result in monophyletic groups within species. Studies investigating the evolution of MHC class I genes have been biased toward a few particular taxa and model species. We present the first study of MHC class I genes in a species from the superfamily Musteloidea. The European badger (Meles meles) exhibits moderate variation in MHC class I sequences when compared to other carnivores. We identified seven putatively functional sequences and nine pseudogenes from genomic (gDNA) and complementary (cDNA) DNA, signifying at least two functional class I loci. We found evidence for separate evolutionary histories of the ?1 and ?2/?3 domains. In the ?1 domain, several sequences from different species were more closely related to each other than to sequences from the same species, resembling orthology or trans-species polymorphism. Balancing selection and probable recombination maintain genetic diversity in the ?1 domain, evidenced by the detection of positive selection and a recombination event. By comparison, two recombination breakpoints indicate that the ?2/?3 domains have most likely undergone concerted evolution, where recombination has homogenized the ?2/?3 domains between genes, leading to species-specific clusters of sequences. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing MHC domains separately.

Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

2012-01-01

29

Climate and the individual: inter-annual variation in the autumnal activity of the European badger (Meles meles).  

PubMed

We establish intra-individual and inter-annual variability in European badger (Meles meles) autumnal nightly activity in relation to fine-scale climatic variables, using tri-axial accelerometry. This contributes further to understanding of causality in the established interaction between weather conditions and population dynamics in this species. Modelling found that measures of daylight, rain/humidity, and soil temperature were the most supported predictors of ACTIVITY, in both years studied. In 2010, the drier year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, RAIN, and 30cmTEMP (w?=?0.557), while in 2012, a wetter year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, and the RAIN*10cmTEMP (w?=?0.999). ACTIVITY also differed significantly between individuals. In the 2012 autumn study period, badgers with the longest per noctem activity subsequently exhibited higher Body Condition Indices (BCI) when recaptured. In contrast, under drier 2010 conditions, badgers in good BCI engaged in less per noctem activity, while badgers with poor BCI were the most active. When compared on the same calendar dates, to control for night length, duration of mean badger nightly activity was longer (9.5 hrs ±3.3 SE) in 2010 than in 2012 (8.3 hrs ±1.9 SE). In the wetter year, increasing nightly activity was associated with net-positive energetic gains (from BCI), likely due to better foraging conditions. In a drier year, with greater potential for net-negative energy returns, individual nutritional state proved crucial in modifying activity regimes; thus we emphasise how a 'one size fits all' approach should not be applied to ecological responses. PMID:24465376

Noonan, Michael J; Markham, Andrew; Newman, Chris; Trigoni, Niki; Buesching, Christina D; Ellwood, Stephen A; Macdonald, David W

2014-01-01

30

Social organization and movement influence the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in an undisturbed high-density badger Meles meles population.  

PubMed

1. The culling of European badgers Meles meles has been a central part of attempts to control bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle for many years. Recent results, however, indicate that this approach could in practice enhance disease spread. 2. This paper looks at the relationship between TB incidence and badger ecology in a high-density population in south-west England, which has been the subject of a long-term intensive study. The principal aims were to relate the probability of TB incidence, as detected by culture of clinical samples (i.e. excretion of bacilli), at the level of the individual and of the social group to demographic processes, movement, social organization and disease dynamics. 3. The probability of an individual being an incident case was greater in groups where TB was already present, although this was less influential in groups that were subject to some instability in numbers. Both individuals and groups were more likely to be incident cases where the social group was diminishing in size, although no relationship was observed with group size itself. This suggests that the process of group size reduction rather than group size per se has most influence on disease dynamics. The likelihood that either an individual or a group was an incident case was positively correlated with both individual and group-level movement. When the proportion of females in a social group was high, the positive association between movement and incidence was found to be more pronounced and there was a significantly higher probability of incident cases among males. 4. These relationships highlight the importance of social structure in driving TB transmission dynamics in this stable, high-density badger population. The results support the idea that a stable social structure mitigates against new incident cases of disease, and are consistent with the contention that badger culling may create the social circumstances for enhanced transmission of TB. PMID:17302842

Vicente, J; Delahay, R J; Walker, N J; Cheeseman, C L

2007-03-01

31

Estimating population size by genotyping remotely plucked hair: the Eurasian badger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Size is a basic attribute of any population but it is often difficult to estimate, especially if the species under investigation is rare or cryptic. For example, there is currently no cheap and robust way of estimating the abundance of the European badger Meles meles , despite the species' role as an agricultural pest and carrier of bovine

ALAIN C. FRANTZ; MICHEL SCHAUL; LISA C. POPE; FRED FACK; LAURENT SCHLEY; CLAUDE P. MULLER; TIMOTHY J. ROPER

32

Movement of badgers (Meles meles) in a high-density population: individual, population and disease effects.  

PubMed Central

The movement of 1763 badgers trapped between 36 social groups in Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, over 18 years was analysed to determine the frequency and duration of moves, the factors associated with a predisposition to move and the spatial pattern of movements. Of those badgers whose capture history could be categorized, nearly half had moved. Of these, 73.1% were classified as 'occasional movers', 22.1% as 'permanent movers' and 4.8% as 'frequent movers'. Most adult badgers that moved made occasional moves (78.8%, n = 67). Cubs made all types of move including permanent moves (29%, n = 10). Seventy per cent of females were non-movers compared with 37% of males. Badgers were significantly more likely to move to smaller groups, whereas male badgers were significantly more likely to move to groups with a greater proportion of females. The spatial pattern of movement differed from the distribution of groups with bovine tuberculosis in the study area. However, temporal changes in movement were significantly related to the incidence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the following year, indicating that as the movement of badgers between groups varies so does the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the population. This finding is of central importance in the formulation of badger control policy.

Rogers, L M; Delahay, R; Cheeseman, C L; Langton, S; Smith, G C; Clifton-Hadley, R S

1998-01-01

33

Movement of badgers (Meles meles) in a high-density population: individual, population and disease effects.  

PubMed

The movement of 1763 badgers trapped between 36 social groups in Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, over 18 years was analysed to determine the frequency and duration of moves, the factors associated with a predisposition to move and the spatial pattern of movements. Of those badgers whose capture history could be categorized, nearly half had moved. Of these, 73.1% were classified as 'occasional movers', 22.1% as 'permanent movers' and 4.8% as 'frequent movers'. Most adult badgers that moved made occasional moves (78.8%, n = 67). Cubs made all types of move including permanent moves (29%, n = 10). Seventy per cent of females were non-movers compared with 37% of males. Badgers were significantly more likely to move to smaller groups, whereas male badgers were significantly more likely to move to groups with a greater proportion of females. The spatial pattern of movement differed from the distribution of groups with bovine tuberculosis in the study area. However, temporal changes in movement were significantly related to the incidence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the following year, indicating that as the movement of badgers between groups varies so does the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the population. This finding is of central importance in the formulation of badger control policy. PMID:9718736

Rogers, L M; Delahay, R; Cheeseman, C L; Langton, S; Smith, G C; Clifton-Hadley, R S

1998-07-22

34

The effectiveness of barriers to badger Meles meles immigration in the Irish Four Area project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study’s objective was to estimate the permeability of barriers to badger immigration during the Irish Four Area project.\\u000a These barriers were at the boundaries of removal areas, where there was proactive culling of badgers. Data from the last 3 years\\u000a of the study were used. Each length of barrier was allocated a space within the removal area. These were further

D. P. Sleeman; J. Davenport; S. J. More; T. A. Clegg; J. M. Griffin; I. O’Boyle

2009-01-01

35

Advances and prospects for management of TB transmission between badgers and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is the most serious endemic disease facing the livestock industry in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (RoI), where its management has been confounded by the presence of persistent infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles). Field evidence suggests that the social structure of badger populations can have an important influence on disease dynamics, and

Gavin J. Wilson; Stephen P. Carter; Richard J. Delahay

2011-01-01

36

Population Estimation and Trappability of the European Badger (Meles meles): Implications for Tuberculosis Management  

PubMed Central

Estimates of population size and trappability inform vaccine efficacy modelling and are required for adaptive management during prolonged wildlife vaccination campaigns. We present an analysis of mark-recapture data from a badger vaccine (Bacille Calmette–Guérin) study in Ireland. This study is the largest scale (755 km2) mark-recapture study ever undertaken with this species. The study area was divided into three approximately equal–sized zones, each with similar survey and capture effort. A mean badger population size of 671 (SD: 76) was estimated using a closed-subpopulation model (CSpM) based on data from capturing sessions of the entire area and was consistent with a separate multiplicative model. Minimum number alive estimates calculated from the same data were on average 49–51% smaller than the CSpM estimates, but these are considered severely negatively biased when trappability is low. Population densities derived from the CSpM estimates were 0.82–1.06 badgers km?2, and broadly consistent with previous reports for an adjacent area. Mean trappability was estimated to be 34–35% per session across the population. By the fifth capture session, 79% of the adult badgers caught had been marked previously. Multivariable modelling suggested significant differences in badger trappability depending on zone, season and age-class. There were more putatively trap-wary badgers identified in the population than trap-happy badgers, but wariness was not related to individual’s sex, zone or season of capture. Live-trapping efficacy can vary significantly amongst sites, seasons, age, or personality, hence monitoring of trappability is recommended as part of an adaptive management regime during large–scale wildlife vaccination programs to counter biases and to improve efficiencies.

Byrne, Andrew W.; O'Keeffe, James; Green, Stuart; Sleeman, D. Paddy; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Gormley, Eamonn; Murphy, Denise; Martin, S. Wayne; Davenport, John

2012-01-01

37

DNA Typing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Badgers (Meles meles) Culled from Areas in Ireland with Different Levels of Tuberculosis Prevalence  

PubMed Central

Badgers (Meles meles) have been implicated in the transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection to cattle in Ireland and UK. Recent studies in Ireland have shown that although the disease is endemic in badgers, the prevalence of disease is not uniform throughout the country and can vary among subpopulations. The extent to which the prevalence levels in badgers impact on the prevalence in cattle is not known. Previously, DNA fingerprinting has shown that M. bovis strain types are shared between badgers and cattle, and that there are a large number of strain types circulating in the two species. In this study we have carried out spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis of M. bovis isolates from two groups of badgers, representing a wide geographic area, with different tuberculosis prevalence levels. The results of the typing show that there is no geographic clustering of strain types associated with prevalence. However, two VNTR profiles were identified that appear to be associated with high- and low-prevalence M. bovis infection levels, respectively. In addition, spoligotyping and VNTR analysis has provided evidence, for the first time, of multiple infections of individual badgers with different M. bovis strains.

Furphy, Claire; Costello, Eamon; Murphy, Denise; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Gormley, Eamonn

2012-01-01

38

The Effect of Reduction in Badger Density on the Spatial Organisation and Activity of Badgers Meles meles L. in Relation to Farms in Central Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship and overlap between farms and territories of badger social groups were determined in an area of central Ireland which has a chronically high incidence of tuberculosis in cattle. Badger territorial boundaries were determined by the bait-marking technique, and all signs of badger activity, setts, latrines and paths were mapped in an area of 16km². Farms were highly fragmented

G. O'Corry-Crowe; R. Hammond; J. Eves; T. J. Hayden

1996-01-01

39

Oral vaccination of badgers (Meles meles) against tuberculosis: Comparison of the protection generated by BCG vaccine strains Pasteur and Danish.  

PubMed

Vaccination of badgers by the subcutaneous, mucosal and oral routes with the Pasteur strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has resulted in significant protection against experimental infection with virulent M. bovis. However, as the BCG Danish strain is the only commercially licensed BCG vaccine for use in humans in the European Union it is the vaccine of choice for delivery to badger populations. As all oral vaccination studies in badgers were previously conducted using the BCG Pasteur strain, this study compared protection in badgers following oral vaccination with the Pasteur and the Danish strains. Groups of badgers were vaccinated orally with 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) BCG Danish 1331 (n?=?7 badgers) or 10(8) CFU BCG Pasteur 1173P2 (n?=?6). Another group (n?=?8) served as non-vaccinated controls. At 12 weeks post-vaccination, the animals were challenged by the endobronchial route with 6?×?10(3) CFU M. bovis, and at 15 weeks post-infection, all of the badgers were euthanased. Vaccination with either BCG strain provided protection against challenge compared with controls. The vaccinated badgers had significantly fewer sites with gross pathology and significantly lower gross pathological severity scores, fewer sites with histological lesions and fewer sites of infection, significantly lower bacterial counts in the thoracic lymph node, and lower bacterial counts in the lungs than the control group. No differences were observed between either of the vaccine groups by any of the pathology and bacteriology measures. The ELISPOT analysis, measuring production of badger interferon - gamma (IFN-?), was also similar across the vaccinated groups. PMID:24792450

Murphy, Denise; Costello, Eamon; Aldwell, Frank E; Lesellier, Sandrine; Chambers, Mark A; Fitzsimons, Tara; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn

2014-06-01

40

The occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle in and around an area subject to extensive badger (Meles meles) control.  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle herds during the period 1966-92 in two geographically related areas in South-West England is compared. In one area comprising 104 km2 all badgers were systematically destroyed from 1975-81, after which recolonization was allowed; in the other, comprising 116 km2, small scale, statutory badger removal operations were undertaken from 1975 onwards where specific herds were detected with M. bovis infection. In the area with total clearance, no further incidents with M. bovis isolation occurred from 1982-92. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression indicated that the risk of herds being identified with infection was less once badgers had been cleared from their neighbourhood, whereas it was greater in herds with 50 or more animals, and once cattle in a herd had responded positively to the tuberculin skin test, even though infection with M. bovis was not confirmed subsequently. The study provides further evidence that badgers represent an important reservoir of M. bovis infection for cattle and that badger control is effective in reducing incidents of cattle infection with M. bovis if action is thorough and recolonization is prevented.

Clifton-Hadley, R. S.; Wilesmith, J. W.; Richards, M. S.; Upton, P.; Johnston, S.

1995-01-01

41

A dose–response trial with ziram-treated maize and free-ranging European badgers Meles meles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are increasing demands for non-lethal methods of resolving foraging conflict between people and a wide range of wildlife species. Badgers make good models for studying human–wildlife conflict resolution, and they epitomise the circumstances driving research in this field; they cause millions of pounds worth of crop damage each year in England and Wales, and yet they are protected legally

Sandra E. Baker; Stephen A. Ellwood; Richard W. Watkins; David W. Macdonald

2005-01-01

42

Polygynandry, extra-group paternity and multiple-paternity litters in European badger (Meles meles) social groups.  

PubMed

The costs and benefits of natal philopatry are central to the formation and maintenance of social groups. Badger groups, thought to form passively according to the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), are maintained through natal philopatry and delayed dispersal; however, there is minimal evidence for the functional benefits of such grouping. We assigned parentage to 630 badger cubs from a high-density population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, born between 1988 and 2005. Our methodological approach was different to previous studies; we used 22 microsatellite loci to assign parent pairs, which in combination with sibship inference provided a high parentage assignment rate. We assigned both parents to 331 cubs at > or = 95% confidence, revealing a polygynandrous mating system with up to five mothers and five fathers within a social group. We estimated that only 27% of adult males and 31% of adult females bred each year, suggesting a cost to group living for both sexes. Any strong motivation or selection to disperse, however, may be reduced because just under half of the paternities were gained by extra-group males, mainly from neighbouring groups, with males displaying a mixture of paternity strategies. We provide the strongest evidence to date for multiple-paternity litters, and for the first time show that within-group and extra-group males can sire cubs in the same litter. We investigate the factors that may play a role in determining the degree of delayed dispersal and conclude that the ecological constraints hypothesis, benefits of philopatry hypothesis, and life history hypothesis may all play a part, as proposed by the broad constraints hypothesis. PMID:17971085

Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry

2007-12-01

43

Bovine Tuberculosis in Badger (Meles meles) Populations in Southwest England: An Assessment of Past, Present and Possible Future Control Strategies Using Simulation Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to compare the efficacy of different badger control policies and to determine the theoretical requirements for the control of endemic bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in southwest England. Culling-based strategies for controlling endemic disease were compared with strategies employing a yet-to-be-developed oral vaccine which would provide uninfected badgers with immunity to the infection.

Piran C. L. White; Stephen Harris

1995-01-01

44

Fertility control as a means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in badger (Meles meles) populations in south-west England: predictions from a spatial stochastic simulation model.  

PubMed Central

A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to assess the potential of fertility control, based on a yet-to-be-developed oral bait-delivered contraceptive directed at females, for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in south-west England. The contraceptive had a lifelong effect so that females rendered sterile in any particular year remained so for the rest of their lives. The efficacy of fertility control alone repeated annually for varying periods of time was compared with a single culling operation and integrated control involving an initial single cull followed by annually repeated fertility control. With fertility control alone, in no instance was the disease eradicated completely while a viable badger population (mean group size of at least one individual) was still maintained. Near eradication of the disease (less than 1% prevalence) combined with the survival of a minimum viable badger population was only achieved under a very limited set of conditions, either with high efficiency of control (95%) over a short time period (1-3 years) or a low efficiency of control (20%) over an intermediate time period (10-20 years). Under these conditions, it took more than 20 years for the disease to decline to such low levels. A single cull of 80% efficiency succeeded in near eradication of the disease (below 1% prevalence) after a period of 6-8 years, while still maintaining a viable badger population. Integrated strategies reduced disease prevalence more rapidly and to lower levels than culling alone, although the mean badger group size following the onset of control was smaller. Under certain integrated strategies, principally where a high initial cull (80%) was followed by fertility control over a short (1-3 year) time period, the disease could be completely eradicated while a viable badger population was maintained. However, even under the most favourable conditions of integrated control, it took on average more than 12 years following the onset of control for the disease to disappear completely from the badger population. These results show that whilst fertility control would not be a successful strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badgers if used alone, it could be effective if used with culling as part of an integrated strategy. This type of integrated strategy is likely to be more effective in terms of disease eradication than a strategy employing culling alone. However, the high cost of developing a suitable fertility control agent, combined with the welfare and conservation implications, are significant factors which should be taken into account when considering its possible use as a means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in the UK.

White, P C; Lewis, A J; Harris, S

1997-01-01

45

Fertility control as a means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in badger (Meles meles) populations in south-west England: predictions from a spatial stochastic simulation model.  

PubMed

A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to assess the potential of fertility control, based on a yet-to-be-developed oral bait-delivered contraceptive directed at females, for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in south-west England. The contraceptive had a lifelong effect so that females rendered sterile in any particular year remained so for the rest of their lives. The efficacy of fertility control alone repeated annually for varying periods of time was compared with a single culling operation and integrated control involving an initial single cull followed by annually repeated fertility control. With fertility control alone, in no instance was the disease eradicated completely while a viable badger population (mean group size of at least one individual) was still maintained. Near eradication of the disease (less than 1% prevalence) combined with the survival of a minimum viable badger population was only achieved under a very limited set of conditions, either with high efficiency of control (95%) over a short time period (1-3 years) or a low efficiency of control (20%) over an intermediate time period (10-20 years). Under these conditions, it took more than 20 years for the disease to decline to such low levels. A single cull of 80% efficiency succeeded in near eradication of the disease (below 1% prevalence) after a period of 6-8 years, while still maintaining a viable badger population. Integrated strategies reduced disease prevalence more rapidly and to lower levels than culling alone, although the mean badger group size following the onset of control was smaller. Under certain integrated strategies, principally where a high initial cull (80%) was followed by fertility control over a short (1-3 year) time period, the disease could be completely eradicated while a viable badger population was maintained. However, even under the most favourable conditions of integrated control, it took on average more than 12 years following the onset of control for the disease to disappear completely from the badger population. These results show that whilst fertility control would not be a successful strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badgers if used alone, it could be effective if used with culling as part of an integrated strategy. This type of integrated strategy is likely to be more effective in terms of disease eradication than a strategy employing culling alone. However, the high cost of developing a suitable fertility control agent, combined with the welfare and conservation implications, are significant factors which should be taken into account when considering its possible use as a means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in the UK. PMID:9447730

White, P C; Lewis, A J; Harris, S

1997-12-22

46

Fertility control as a means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in badger (Meles meles) populations in south-west England: predictions from a spatial stochastic simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to assess the potential of fertility control, based on a yet-to- be-developed oral bait-delivered contraceptive directed at females, for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in south-west England.The contraceptive had a lifelong e¡ect so that females rendered sterile in any particular year remained so for the rest of their lives.

PIRAN C. L. WHITE; ALEX J. G. LEWIS; STEPHEN HARRIS

1997-01-01

47

Fertility Control as a Means of Controlling Bovine Tuberculosis in Badger (Meles meles) Populations in South-West England: Predictions from a Spatial Stochastic Simulation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to assess the potential of fertility control, based on a yet-to-be-developed oral bait-delivered contraceptive directed at females, for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in south-west England. The contraceptive had a lifelong effect so that females rendered sterile in any particular year remained so for the rest of their lives. The

Piran C. L. White; Alex J. G. Lewis; Stephen Harris

1997-01-01

48

Effects of culling on badger abundance: implications for tuberculosis control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culling is often considered as a tool for controlling wildlife diseases that can also infect people or livestock. Culling European badgers Meles meles can cause both positive and negative effects on the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. One factor likely to influence the outcome of different badger-culling strategies for cattle TB is the reduction in badger population density

R. Woodroffe; P. Gilks; W. T. Johnston; A. M. Le Fevre; D. R. Cox; C. A. Donnelly; F. J. Bourne; C. L. Cheeseman; G. Gettinby; J. P. McInerney; W. I. Morrison

2007-01-01

49

Culling and cattle controls influence tuberculosis risk for badgers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. In Britain, European badgers (Meles meles) are implicated in transmitting Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), to cattle. Badger culling has therefore been a component of British TB control policy for many years. However, large-scale field trials have recently shown that badger

Rosie Woodroffe; Christl A. Donnelly; Helen E. Jenkins; W. Thomas Johnston; David R. Cox; F. John Bourne; Chris L. Cheeseman; Richard J. Delahay; Richard S. Clifton-Hadley; George Gettinby; Peter Gilks; R. Glyn Hewinson; John P. McInerney; W. Ivan Morrison

2006-01-01

50

Estimating the extent of spatial association of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis infects the wildlife species badgers Meles meles who are linked with the spread of the associated disease tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. Control of livestock infections depends in part on the spatial and social structure of the wildlife host. Here we describe spatial association of M. bovis infection in a badger population using data from the first year of

G. E. Kelly; G. E. McGrath; S. J. More

2010-01-01

51

The Duration of the Effects of Repeated Widespread Badger Culling on Cattle Tuberculosis Following the Cessation of Culling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by persistent infection of wild badger (Meles meles) populations. A large-scale field trial—the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT)—previously showed that widespread badger culling produced modest reductions in cattle TB incidence during culling, which were offset by elevated TB risks for cattle on adjoining lands. Once culling was halted,

Helen E. Jenkins; Rosie Woodroffe; Christl A. Donnelly

2010-01-01

52

The Duration of the Effects of Repeated Widespread Badger Culling on Cattle Tuberculosis Following the Cessation of Culling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by persistent infection of wild badger (Meles meles) populations. A large-scale field trial—the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT)—previously showed that widespread badger culling produced modest reductions in cattle TB incidence during culling, which were offset by elevated TB risks for cattle on adjoining lands. Once culling was halted, beneficial

Helen E. Jenkins; Rosie Woodroffe; Christl A. Donnelly; Igor Mokrousov

2010-01-01

53

Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers in localized culling areas.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease that can have serious consequences for cattle farming and, potentially, for public health. In Britain, failure to control bovine TB has been linked to persistent infection of European badger (Meles meles) populations. However, culling of badgers in the vicinity of recent TB outbreaks in cattle has failed to reduce the overall incidence of cattle TB. Using data from a large-scale study conducted in 1998-2005, we show that badgers collected on such localized culls had elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine TB, suggesting that infections in cattle and badgers were indeed associated. Moreover, there was a high degree of similarity in the M. bovis strain types isolated from cattle and associated badgers. This similarity between strain types appeared to be unaffected by time lags between the detection of infection in cattle and culling of badgers, or by the presence of purchased cattle that might have acquired infection elsewhere. However, localized culling appeared to prompt an increase in the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers, probably by disrupting ranging and territorial behavior and hence increasing intraspecific transmission rates. This elevated prevalence among badgers could offset the benefits, for cattle, of reduced badger densities and may help to explain the failure of localized culling to reduce cattle TB incidence. PMID:19204342

Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Cox, D R; Gilks, Peter; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; Le Fevre, Andrea M; Bourne, F John; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Gettinby, George; Hewinson, R Glyn; McInerney, John P; Mitchell, A P; Morrison, W Ivan; Watkins, Gavin H

2009-01-01

54

Culling and cattle controls influence tuberculosis risk for badgers  

PubMed Central

Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. In Britain, European badgers (Meles meles) are implicated in transmitting Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), to cattle. Badger culling has therefore been a component of British TB control policy for many years. However, large-scale field trials have recently shown that badger culling has the capacity to cause both increases and decreases in cattle TB incidence. Here, we show that repeated badger culling in the same area is associated with increasing prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers, especially where landscape features allow badgers from neighboring land to recolonize culled areas. This impact on prevalence in badgers might reduce the beneficial effects of culling on cattle TB incidence, and could contribute to the detrimental effects that have been observed. Additionally, we show that suspension of cattle TB controls during a nationwide epidemic of foot and mouth disease, which substantially delayed removal of TB-affected cattle, was associated with a widespread increase in the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers. This pattern suggests that infection may be transmitted from cattle to badgers, as well as vice versa. Clearly, disease control measures aimed at either host species may have unintended consequences for transmission, both within and between species. Our findings highlight the need for policymakers to consider multiple transmission routes when managing multihost pathogens.

Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A.; Jenkins, Helen E.; Johnston, W. Thomas; Cox, David R.; Bourne, F. John; Cheeseman, Chris L.; Delahay, Richard J.; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S.; Gettinby, George; Gilks, Peter; Hewinson, R. Glyn; McInerney, John P.; Morrison, W. Ivan

2006-01-01

55

Positive and negative effects of widespread badger culling on tuberculosis in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. For three decades, European badgers (Meles meles) have been culled by the British government in a series of attempts to limit the spread of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), to cattle. Despite these efforts, the incidence of TB in cattle has

Christl A. Donnelly; Rosie Woodroffe; D. R. Cox; F. John Bourne; C. L. Cheeseman; Richard S. Clifton-Hadley; Gao Wei; George Gettinby; Peter Gilks; Helen Jenkins; W. Thomas Johnston; Andrea M. Le Fevre; John P. McInerney; W. Ivan Morrison

2006-01-01

56

Impacts of Removing Badgers on Localised Counts of Hedgehogs  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence of the interactions among mammalian predators that eat or compete with one another is rare, due to the ethical and logistical challenges of managing wild populations in a controlled and replicated way. Here, we report on the opportunistic use of a replicated and controlled culling experiment (the Randomised Badger Culling Trial) to investigate the relationship between two sympatric predators: European badgers Meles meles and western European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus. In areas of preferred habitat (amenity grassland), counts of hedgehogs more than doubled over a 5-year period from the start of badger culling (from 0.9 ha?1 pre-cull to 2.4 ha?1 post-cull), whereas hedgehog counts did not change where there was no badger culling (0.3–0.3 hedgehogs ha?1). This trial provides experimental evidence for mesopredator release as an outcome of management of a top predator.

Trewby, Iain D.; Young, Richard; McDonald, Robbie A.; Wilson, Gavin J.; Davison, John; Walker, Neil; Robertson, Andrew; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Delahay, Richard J.

2014-01-01

57

Impacts of removing badgers on localised counts of hedgehogs.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence of the interactions among mammalian predators that eat or compete with one another is rare, due to the ethical and logistical challenges of managing wild populations in a controlled and replicated way. Here, we report on the opportunistic use of a replicated and controlled culling experiment (the Randomised Badger Culling Trial) to investigate the relationship between two sympatric predators: European badgers Meles meles and western European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus. In areas of preferred habitat (amenity grassland), counts of hedgehogs more than doubled over a 5-year period from the start of badger culling (from 0.9 ha-1 pre-cull to 2.4 ha-1 post-cull), whereas hedgehog counts did not change where there was no badger culling (0.3-0.3 hedgehogs ha-1). This trial provides experimental evidence for mesopredator release as an outcome of management of a top predator. PMID:24736454

Trewby, Iain D; Young, Richard; McDonald, Robbie A; Wilson, Gavin J; Davison, John; Walker, Neil; Robertson, Andrew; Doncaster, C Patrick; Delahay, Richard J

2014-01-01

58

The Effect of Badger Culling on Breakdown Prolongation and Recurrence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle Herds in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in cattle herds in Great Britain, with a substantial economic impact. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis within the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) population is thought to have hindered disease control. Cattle herd incidents, termed breakdowns, that are either ‘prolonged’ (lasting ?240 days) or ‘recurrent’ (with another breakdown within a specified time period) may be important foci for onward spread of infection. They drain veterinary resources and can be demoralising for farmers. Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) data were re-analysed to examine the effects of two culling strategies on breakdown prolongation and recurrence, during and after culling, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Separate effect estimates were obtained for the ‘core’ trial areas (where culling occurred) and the ‘buffer’ zones (up to 2 km outside of the core areas). For breakdowns that started during the culling period, ‘reactive’ (localised) culling was associated with marginally increased odds of prolongation, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.7 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.1–2.4) within the core areas. This effect was not present after the culling ceased. There was no notable effect of ‘proactive’ culling on prolongation. In contrast, reactive culling had no effect on breakdown recurrence, though there was evidence of a reduced risk of recurrence in proactive core areas during the culling period (ORs and 95% CIs: 0.82 (0.64–1.0) and 0.69 (0.54–0.86) for 24- and 36-month recurrence respectively). Again these effects were not present after the culling ceased. There seemed to be no effect of culling on breakdown prolongation or recurrence in the buffer zones. These results suggest that the RBCT badger culling strategies are unlikely to reduce either the prolongation or recurrence of breakdowns in the long term, and that reactive strategies (such as employed during the RBCT) are, if anything, likely to impact detrimentally on breakdown persistence.

Karolemeas, Katerina; Donnelly, Christl A.; Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Mitchell, Andrew P.; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S.; Upton, Paul; Wood, James L. N.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.

2012-01-01

59

Physaloptera sibirica in foxes and badgers from the Western Alps (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the presence of Physaloptera sibirica and its distribution as well as the association among the parasite, host (i.e. mange due to Sarcoptes scabiei) and environmental factors (i.e. altitudes) in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and badgers (Meles meles) from the North-West of Italy. From 1996 to 2008 a total of 608 foxes, culled by hunters or road killed, and 39

E. Ferroglio; C. Ragagli; A. Trisciuoglio

2009-01-01

60

BCG Vaccination Reduces Risk of Tuberculosis Infection in Vaccinated Badgers and Unvaccinated Badger Cubs  

PubMed Central

Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles). Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio?=?0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.52) the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio?=?0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.88) in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio?=?0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.76; P?=?0.03). When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio?=?0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.81; P?=?0.02).

Carter, Stephen P.; Chambers, Mark A.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Schuchert, Pia; Pietravalle, Stephane; Murray, Alistair; Rogers, Fiona; Gettinby, George; Smith, Graham C.; Delahay, Richard J.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; McDonald, Robbie A.

2012-01-01

61

Badger responses to small-scale culling may compromise targeted control of bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Where wildlife disease requires management, culling is frequently considered but not always effective. In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by infection in wild badger (Meles meles) populations. Large-scale badger culling can reduce the incidence of confirmed cattle TB, but these benefits are undermined by culling-induced changes in badger behavior (termed perturbation), which can increase transmission among badgers and from badgers to cattle. Test-vaccinate/remove (TVR) is a novel approach that entails testing individual badgers for infection, vaccinating test-negative animals, and killing test-positive animals. Imperfect capture success, diagnostic sensitivity, and vaccine effectiveness mean that TVR would be expected to leave some infected and some susceptible badgers in the population. Existing simulation models predict that TVR could reduce cattle TB if such small-scale culling causes no perturbation, but could increase cattle TB if considerable perturbation occurs. Using data from a long-term study, we show that past small-scale culling was significantly associated with four metrics of perturbation in badgers: expanded ranging, more frequent immigration, lower genetic relatedness, and elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of TB. Though we could not reject the hypothesis that culling up to three badgers per social group might avoid perturbation, we also could not reject the hypothesis that killing a single badger prompted detectable perturbation. When considered alongside existing model predictions, our findings suggest that implementation of TVR, scheduled for 2014, risks exacerbating the TB problem rather than controlling it. Ongoing illegal badger culling is likewise expected to increase cattle TB risks. PMID:24927589

Bielby, Jon; Donnelly, Christl A; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry; Woodroffe, Rosie

2014-06-24

62

Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km-2 (95% confidence interval 0.449-0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400-76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985-88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2-2.9%), equating to an 88% (70-105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83-123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (-25 to +49%).

Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; MacArthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

2014-01-01

63

Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds  

PubMed Central

Background The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only). Methodology/Principal Findings New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. Conclusions/Significance The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission.

Vial, Flavie; Johnston, W. Thomas; Donnelly, Christl A.

2011-01-01

64

Evidence for a Role of the Host-Specific Flea (Paraceras melis) in the Transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European Badger  

PubMed Central

We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers.

Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W.; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

2011-01-01

65

The Duration of the Effects of Repeated Widespread Badger Culling on Cattle Tuberculosis Following the Cessation of Culling  

PubMed Central

Background In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by persistent infection of wild badger (Meles meles) populations. A large-scale field trial—the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT)—previously showed that widespread badger culling produced modest reductions in cattle TB incidence during culling, which were offset by elevated TB risks for cattle on adjoining lands. Once culling was halted, beneficial effects inside culling areas increased, while detrimental effects on adjoining lands disappeared. However, a full assessment of the utility of badger culling requires information on the duration of culling effects. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored cattle TB incidence in and around RBCT areas after culling ended. We found that benefits inside culled areas declined over time, and were no longer detectable by three years post-culling. On adjoining lands, a trend suggesting beneficial effects immediately after the end of culling was insignificant, and disappeared after 18 months post-culling. From completion of the first cull to the loss of detectable effects (an average five-year culling period plus 2.5 years post-culling), cattle TB incidence was 28.7% lower (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.7 to 35.8% lower) inside ten 100 km2 culled areas than inside ten matched no-culling areas, and comparable (11.7% higher, 95% CI: 13.0% lower to 43.4% higher, p ?=? 0.39) on lands ?2 km outside culled and no-culling areas. The financial costs of culling an idealized 150 km2 area would exceed the savings achieved through reduced cattle TB, by factors of 2 to 3.5. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that the reductions in cattle TB incidence achieved by repeated badger culling were not sustained in the long term after culling ended and did not offset the financial costs of culling. These results, combined with evaluation of alternative culling methods, suggest that badger culling is unlikely to contribute effectively to the control of cattle TB in Britain.

Jenkins, Helen E.; Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A.

2010-01-01

66

USE OF RECOMBINANT VACCINIA-RABIES GLYCOPROTEIN VIRUS FOR ORAL VACCINATION OF WILDLIFE AGAINST RABIES: INNOCUITY TO SEVERAL NONTARGET BAIT CONSUMING SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathiogenicity of a vaccimiia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (\\\\'VTGgRAB) was tested in several wild amiimal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) ins comisuming vaccine baits in Europe. The following species were included in this study: wild boar (Sus scrofa), Eurasian badger (Meles meles), wood mouse (Apodenius sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse

Bernard Brochier; Jean Blancou; Isabelle Thomas; Bernard Languet; Marc Artois; Marie-Paule Kieny; Jean-Pierre Lecocq; Philippe Desmettre; Paul-Pierre Pastoret

67

Oral Vaccination of Guinea Pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccine in a Lipid Matrix Protects against Aerosol Infection with Virulent M. bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobac- terium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

Simon Clark; Martin L. Cross; Allan Nadian; Julia Vipond; Pinar Court; Ann Williams; R. Glyn Hewinson; Frank E. Aldwell; Mark A. Chambers

2008-01-01

68

Badger--an accessible genome exploration environment  

PubMed Central

Summary: High-quality draft genomes are now easy to generate, as sequencing and assembly costs have dropped dramatically. However, building a user-friendly searchable Web site and database for a newly annotated genome is not straightforward. Here we present Badger, a lightweight and easy-to-install genome exploration environment designed for next generation non-model organism genomes. Availability: Badger is released under the GPL and is available at http://badger.bio.ed.ac.uk/. We show two working examples: (i) a test dataset included with the source code, and (ii) a collection of four filarial nematode genomes. Contact: mark.blaxter@ed.ac.uk

Elsworth, Ben; Jones, Martin; Blaxter, Mark

2013-01-01

69

The BADGER Inline Equation of State Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex multiphysics capabilities of radiation hydrodynamics codes require detailed equation of state (EOS) data. These EOS data need to accurately describe the behavior of materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. This is particularly true for integrated high-gain target explosion --- reaction chamber response simulations where conditions ranging from thermonuclear to solid-state are present throughout the simulation. The models employed to facilitate representing the desired material(s) need to represent solid, liquid, gas and plasma states of matter. Each of these states of matter have unique physical phenomena that must be described in an EOS model. In addition to pure material phase information, an ideal EOS model will incorporate phase-change and chemical reaction information. The BADGER Fortran EOS library was created to meet the needs of these multiphysics simulation codes. BADGER incorporates the most recently published ion EOS, electron EOS and ionization models. It was written as a software library with the express intent of being directly linked into external codes to eliminate the requirement of generating tabular data. The library accepts an arbitrary material composition of natural elements or isotopes and calculates the EOS variables and mean ionization based on the density, temperature and plasma condition (local thermodynamic equilibrium or non-LTE). The results are stored in a data array that is accessible to the external code. When an EOS calculation is requested, the material is broken down into individual isotopes and the EOS/ionization calculation is performed on each isotope. BADGER assumes a thermodynamically consistent average atom model, so the final material result is simply the sum of the isotopic constituents. The BADGER ion and electron EOS models have been verified against SESAME tabulated EOS data from Los Alamos National Laboratory for aluminum and tungsten and the ionization model was verified against FLYCHK tabulated mean ionization data from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The BADGER EOS library will allow for the first time modeling of integrated ICF target and chamber systems using a single, consistent EOS and ionization model throughout.

Heltemes, Thad A.

70

Trial design to estimate the effect of vaccination on tuberculosis incidence in badgers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in Ireland is the European badger. Studies in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) have shown that badgers culled in association with cattle herd tuberculosis breakdowns (focal culling) have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger population at large. This observation is one rationale for the medium term national strategy of focal badger

Inma Aznar; Guy McGrath; Denise Murphy; Leigh A. L. Corner; Eamonn Gormley; Klaas Frankena; Simon J. More; Wayne Martin; James O’Keeffe; Mart C. M. De Jong

2011-01-01

71

Predicting the status of wild deer as hosts of Mycobacterium bovis infection in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of livestock diseases can become complicated when wild animals are involved. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is considered the principle wildlife host of Mycobacterium bovis (which causes bovine tuberculosis, bTB) in Great Britain and Ireland, but wild deer have also been implicated. Whether wild\\u000a deer are likely to perpetuate bTB in cattle depends on the exposure risks they pose,

Alastair I. Ward; Graham C. Smith

72

75 FR 43556 - Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Sourcepoint Staffing, Seek, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [TA-W-73,666] Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased...2010, applicable to workers of Badger Meter, Inc., including on-site leased...Milwaukee, Wisconsin location of Badger Meter, Inc. The Department has...

2010-07-26

73

75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS, and Service First...workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee Falls...workers from Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek, QPS, and Service...

2010-04-26

74

Direction of Association between Bite Wounds and Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers: Implications for Transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Badgers are involved in the transmission to cattle of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a serious problem for the UK farming industry. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between bite wounds and TB infection in badgers which may have implications for M. bovis transmission and control, although the sequence of these two events is unclear. Transmission during aggressive encounters could potentially reduce the effectiveness of policies which increase the average range of a badger and thus its opportunities for interaction with other social groups. Methods Data were obtained on badgers captured during a long term study at Woodchester Park, UK (1998–2006). Many badgers had multiple observations. At each observation, the badger was assigned a “state” depending on presence of bite wounds and/or TB infection. Hence each badger had a “transition” from the previous state to the current state. We calculated the numbers of each type of transition and the time spent in each state. Transition rates were calculated for each transition category, dividing the number of such transitions by the total time at risk. We compared the rate of bite wound acquisition in infected badgers with that for uninfected badgers and the rate of positive M.bovis test results in bitten badgers with that in unbitten badgers. Results The rate of bite wound acquisition in infected badgers (0.291 per year) was 2.09 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.08) times that in uninfected badgers (0.139 per year). The rate of positive M.bovis test results in bitten badgers (0.097 per year) was 2.45 (95% CI: 1.29, 4.65) times that in unbitten badgers (0.040 per year). Conclusions We found strong evidence of both potential sequences of events consistent with transmission via bite wounds and distinctive behaviour in infected badgers. The complex relationship between behaviour and infection must be considered when planning TB control strategies.

Jenkins, Helen E.; Cox, D. R.; Delahay, Richard J.

2012-01-01

75

Simple model for tuberculosis in cattle and badgers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an aid to the study of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a simple model has been developed of an epidemic involving two species, cattle and badgers. Each species may infect the other. The proportion of animals affected is assumed relatively small so that the usual nonlinear aspects of epidemic theory are avoided. The model is used to study the long-run and

D. R. Cox; Christl A. Donnelly; F. John Bourne; George Gettinby; John P. McInerney; W. Ivan Morrison; Rosie Woodroffe

2005-01-01

76

Magnetic impurities in the Kane-Mele model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization of the spin-Hall effect in quantum wells has led to a plethora of studies regarding the properties of the edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator. These edge states constitute a class of one-dimensional liquids, called the helical liquid, where an electron's spin quantization axis is tied to its momentum. In contrast to one-dimensional conductors, magnetic impurities—below the Kondo temperature—cannot block transport and one expects the current to circumvent the impurity. To study this phenomenon, we consider the single-impurity Anderson model embedded into an edge of a Kane-Mele ribbon with up to 512×80 sites and use the numerically exact continuous time quantum Monte Carlo method to study the Kondo effect. We present results on the temperature dependence of the spectral properties of the impurity and the bulk system that show the behavior of the system in the various regimes of the Anderson model. A view complementary to the single-particle spectral functions can be obtained using the spatial behavior of the spin-spin correlation functions. Here we show the characteristic, algebraic decay in the edge channel near the impurity.

Goth, Florian; Luitz, David J.; Assaad, Fakher F.

2013-08-01

77

The Contribution of Badgers to Confirmed Tuberculosis in Cattle in High-Incidence Areas in England  

PubMed Central

The role of badgers in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle is widely debated as part of the wider discussions on whether badger culling and/or badger vaccination should play a role in the government’s strategy to eradicate cattle TB. The key source of information on the contribution from badgers within high-cattle-TB-incidence areas of England is the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT), with two analyses providing estimates of the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB in these areas. A dynamical model characterizing the association between the estimated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine TB) among badgers culled in the initial RBCT proactive culls and the incidence among sympatric cattle herds prior to culling is used to estimate the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed TB herd breakdowns among proactively culled areas. The resulting estimate based on all data (52%) has considerable uncertainty (bootstrap 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-100%). Separate analyses of experimental data indicated that the largest estimated reduction in confirmed cattle TB achieved inside the proactive culling areas was 54% (overdispersion-adjusted 95% CI: 38-66%), providing a lower bound for the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB. Thus, taking into account both results, the best estimate of the average overall contribution of badgers is roughly half, with 38% being a robustly estimated lower bound. However, the dynamical model also suggested that only 5.7% (bootstrap 95% CI: 0.9-25%) of the transmission to cattle herds is badger-to-cattle with the remainder of the average overall contribution from badgers being in the form of onward cattle-to-cattle transmission. These estimates, confirming that badgers do play a role in bovine TB transmission, inform debate even if they do not point to a single way forward.

Donnelly, Christl A.; Nouvellet, Pierre

2013-01-01

78

The prevalence, distribution and severity of detectable pathological lesions in badgers naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The Randomized Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) began in 1998 to determine the impact of badger culling in controlling bovine tuberculosis in cattle. A total of 1166 badgers (14% of total) proactively culled during the RBCT were found to be tuberculous, offering a unique opportunity to study the pathology caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a large sample of badgers. Of these, 39% of adults (~6% of all adults culled) had visible lesions (detectable at necropsy) of bovine tuberculosis; cubs had a lower prevalence of infection (9%) but a higher percentage of tuberculous cubs (55·5%) had visible lesions. Only ~1% of adult badgers had extensive, severe pathology. Tuberculous badgers with recorded bite wounds (~5%) had a higher prevalence of visible lesions and a different distribution of lesions, suggesting transmission via bite wounds. However, the predominance of lesions in the respiratory tract indicates that most transmission occurs by the respiratory route.

JENKINS, H. E.; MORRISON, W. I.; COX, D. R.; DONNELLY, C. A.; JOHNSTON, W. T.; BOURNE, F. J.; CLIFTON-HADLEY, R. S.; GETTINBY, G.; McINERNEY, J. P.; WATKINS, G. H.; WOODROFFE, R.

2008-01-01

79

The Characterization of Topological Properties in Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of the Kane-Mele Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators present a bulk gap, but allow for dissipationless spin transport along the edges. These exotic states are characterized by the Z2 topological invariant and are protected by time-reversal symmetry. The Kane-Mele model is one model to realize this topological class in two dimensions, also called the quantum spin Hall state. In this brief review article, we provide a pedagogical introduction to the influence of correlation effects in the quantum spin Hall states, with special focus on the half-filled Kane-Mele-Hubbard model, solved by means of unbiased determinant quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. We explain the idea of identifying the topological insulator via ?-flux insertion, the Z2 invariant and the associated behavior of the zero-frequency Green's function, as well as the spin Chern number in parameter-driven topological phase transitions. The examples considered are two descendants of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model, the generalized and dimerized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. From the Z2 index, spin Chern numbers and the Green's function behavior, one can observe that correlation effects induce shifts of the topological phase boundaries. Although the implementation of these topological quantities has been successfully employed in QMC simulations to describe the topological phase transition, we also point out their limitations as well as suggest possible future directions in using numerical methods to characterize topological properties of strongly correlated condensed matter systems.

Meng, Zi Yang; Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lang, Thomas C.

2014-01-01

80

Simple model for tuberculosis in cattle and badgers  

PubMed Central

As an aid to the study of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a simple model has been developed of an epidemic involving two species, cattle and badgers. Each species may infect the other. The proportion of animals affected is assumed relatively small so that the usual nonlinear aspects of epidemic theory are avoided. The model is used to study the long-run and transient effect on cattle of culling badgers and the effect of a period without routine testing for TB, such as occurred during the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Great Britain. Finally, by examining the changes in cattle TB over the last 15 years, and with some other working assumptions, it is estimated that the net reproduction number of the epidemic is ?1.1. The implications for controlling the disease are discussed.

Cox, D. R.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Bourne, F. John; Gettinby, George; McInerney, John P.; Morrison, W. Ivan; Woodroffe, Rosie

2005-01-01

81

Evaluating seasonal bait delivery to badgers using rhodamine B  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK and Ireland, research on the control of bovine tuberculosis in badgers includes the development of a palatable bait\\u000a for oral delivery of a vaccine and a means of its deployment in the field. In the present study, we carried out field deployment\\u000a of bait according to the established method of bait marking in early spring and early

Kate L. Palphramand; Neil Walker; Robbie A. McDonald; Richard J. Delahay

2011-01-01

82

The effect of varying levels of population control on the prevalence of tuberculosis in badgers in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of varying levels of badger population control on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers in four counties of Ireland. In the ‘Removal’ and ‘Buffer’ areas, proactive culling was conducted to substantially reduce and subsequently maintain badger populations at a low level for five years. In the ‘Reference’ areas, localised reactive culling was conducted in

L. A. L. Corner; T. A. Clegg; S. J. More; D. H. Williams; I. O’Boyle; E. Costello; D. P. Sleeman; J. M. Griffin

2008-01-01

83

Dynamic interactions among badgers: implications for sociality and disease transmission.  

PubMed

1. Direct interactions between individuals play an important part in the sociality of group-living animals, their mating system and disease transmission. Here, we devise a methodology to quantify relative rates of proximity interaction from radio-tracking data and highlight potential asymmetries within the contact network of a moderate-density badger population in the north-east of England. 2. We analysed radio-tracking data from four contiguous social groups, collected over a 3-year period. Dynamic interaction analysis of badger dyads was used to assess the movement of individuals in relation to the movement of others, both within and between social groups. Dyads were assessed with regard to season, sex, age and sett use pattern of the badgers involved. 3. Intragroup separation distances were significantly shorter than intergroup separation distances, and interactions between groups were rare. Within groups, individuals interacted with each other more often than expected, and interaction patterns varied significantly with season and sett use pattern. Non-mover dyads (using the main sett for day-resting on > 50% of occasions) interacted more frequently than mover dyads (using an outlier sett for day-resting on > 50% of occasions) or mover-non-mover dyads. Interactions between group members occurred most frequently in winter. 4. Of close intragroup interactions (< 50 m separation distance), 88.6% were associated with a main sett and only 4.4% with outlier setts. Non-mover dyads and non-mover-mover dyads interacted significantly more often at the main sett than mover-only dyads. These results highlight the importance of the main sett to badger sociality and support the suggestion that badger social groups are comprised of different subgroups, in our case based on differential sett use patterns. 5. Asymmetries in contact structure within a population will affect the way in which diseases are transmitted through a social network. Assessment of these networks is essential for understanding the persistence and spread of disease within populations which do not mix freely or which exhibit heterogeneities in their spatial or social behaviour. PMID:18355241

Böhm, Monika; Palphramand, Kate L; Newton-Cross, Geraldine; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

2008-07-01

84

A cost–benefit analysis of culling badgers to control bovine tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important economic problem. The incidence of TB in cattle herds has steadily risen in the UK, and badgers are strongly implicated in spreading disease. Since the mid-1970s the UK government has adopted a number of badger culling strategies to attempt to reduce infection in cattle. In this report, an established model has been used to

G. C. Smith; R. Bennett; D. Wilkinson; R. Cooke

2007-01-01

85

Efficacy of trapping during the initial proactive culls in the randomised badger culling trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The randomised badger culling trial (rbct) has shown that widespread badger culling in predefined areas of approximately 100 km2 led to a reduction in the number of cattle herds testing positive for bovine tuberculosis (tb) (‘herd breakdowns’), but was associated with an increase in cattle tb in surrounding areas. This study has tried to estimate the trapping efficacy and the

G. C. Smith; C. L. Cheeseman

2007-01-01

86

Does reactive badger culling lead to an increase in tuberculosis in cattle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion from the randomised badger culling trial was that localised badger culling not only fails to control but can actually increase the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Professor Simon More and colleagues from University College Dublin question that conclusion, arguing that the data do not provide sufficient evidence to rule out alternative hypotheses.

S. J. More; T. A. Clegg; G. McGrath; J. D. Collins; L. A. L. Corner; E. Gormley

2007-01-01

87

Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Methodology Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; “Control”, “Feed Storage”, “Cattle Housing” and “Both”, whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Results Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A.; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J.

2011-01-01

88

Quantum spin liquid in interacting Kane-Mele model with staggered on-site potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we mainly study the magnetic properties of the interacting Kane-Mele model with staggered on-site potential. Due to the absence of spin rotation symmetry, there exists a spin anisotropic energy term in the effective nonlinear ? model (NL ?M). Based on the NL ?M with spin anisotropic energy term, we derive a complex phase diagram and find that there exist quantum spin liquid states at the moderate coupling region.

Zong, Yan-Hua; He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng

2013-01-01

89

Edge superconducting correlation in attractive-U-Kane-Mele Hubbard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional Kane-Mele model with attractive Hubbard interaction U is studied by using a self-consistent mean-field theory. At U=0, the ground state is a topological insulator. At U larger than a critical value Uc, the ground state is a bulk superconductor. At 0

Yuan, Jie; Gao, Jinhua; Chen, Weiqiang; Ye, Fei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Fuchun

2013-03-01

90

Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans.  

PubMed

One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual "Neandertal" features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

2014-07-22

91

Assessing spatiotemporal associations in the occurrence of badger–human conflict in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples from a variety of taxa demonstrate that under certain circumstances, the exclusion or translocation of ‘problem’\\u000a animals is ineffective in resolving human–wildlife conflicts and may even elicit new problems elsewhere. Damage caused by\\u000a badger setts (burrows) is an important source of human–wildlife conflict in the UK and is commonly managed by excluding badgers\\u000a from all or part of problem

John Davison; Timothy J. Roper; Charles J. Wilson; Matthew J. Heydon; Richard J. Delahay

2011-01-01

92

Controlling edge states in the Kane-Mele model via edge chirality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dependence of band dispersion of the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) edge states in the Kane-Mele model on crystallographic orientation of the edges. Band structures of the one-dimensional honeycomb lattice ribbons show the presence of the QSHE edge states at all orientations of the edges given sufficiently strong spin-orbit interactions. We find that the Fermi velocities of the QSHE edge-state bands increase monotonically when the edge orientation changes from zigzag (chirality angle $\\theta = 0^\\circ$) to armchair ($\\theta = 30^\\circ$). We propose a simple analytical model to explain the numerical results.

Autès, Gabriel; Yazyev, Oleg V.

2013-02-01

93

Pathogen and rodenticide exposure in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in California.  

PubMed

Urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. American badgers (Taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in California, USA, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. As such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to control nuisance wildlife on agricultural lands. We evaluated free-ranging badgers in California for exposure to pathogens and anticoagulant rodenticides that pose a risk to wildlife, domestic animals, or public health. We found serologic evidence of badger exposure to Francisella tularensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, canine distemper virus, and three Bartonella species: B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Badger tissues contained anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum and bromadiolone, commonly used to control periurban rodent pests. These data provide a preliminary investigation of pathogen and toxicant exposure in the wild badger population. PMID:22493124

Quinn, Jessica H; Girard, Yvette A; Gilardi, Kirsten; Hernandez, Yvette; Poppenga, Robert; Chomel, Bruno B; Foley, Janet E; Johnson, Christine K

2012-04-01

94

Efficacy of trapping during the initial proactive culls in the randomised badger culling trial.  

PubMed

The randomised badger culling trial (RBCT) has shown that widespread badger culling in predefined areas of approximately 100 km2 led to a reduction in the number of cattle herds testing positive for bovine tuberculosis (TB) ('herd breakdowns'), but was associated with an increase in cattle tb in surrounding areas. This study has tried to estimate the trapping efficacy and the level of reduction of the badger population during the initial proactive culls in the RBCT. For seven triplets trapping efficacy was estimated between 71 per cent and 85 per cent, and for three triplets between 35 per cent and 46 per cent. Two of the latter triplets had trapping coinciding with harsh climatic conditions. Badger population removal was estimated at 64 per cent to 77 per cent in the former and 32 per cent to 39 per cent in the latter triplets. In most of the treatment areas there was therefore a consistent and substantial reduction in the number of badgers at the end of the initial cull. All the proactive treatment areas were subjected to further culls, and it is therefore likely that greater reductions would have occurred by the end of 2005, when the analysis of cattle herd breakdowns took place. PMID:17526893

Smith, G C; Cheeseman, C L

2007-05-26

95

Localized reactive badger culling increases risk of bovine tuberculosis in nearby cattle herds  

PubMed Central

Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle is complicated by the maintenance of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bTB) in badgers, acting as reservoirs of infection. Although over 20 000 badgers were culled to control bTB between 1975 and 1997, the incidence of bTB in cattle has substantially increased in parts of Great Britain in recent decades. Our case-control study, involving 1208 cattle herds, provides further evidence of the detrimental effect of localized reactive badger culling in response to the disclosure of a confirmed bTB herd breakdown in cattle. The presence of any reactive badger culling activity and increased numbers of badgers culled in the vicinity of a herd were associated with significantly increased bTB risk, even after adjusting for other important local risk factors. Such findings may partly explain why some earlier localized approaches to bTB control were ineffective.

Vial, Flavie; Donnelly, Christl A.

2012-01-01

96

Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing stations networks in the Northern Pan-Eurasian region.

Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

2014-05-01

97

Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 2012–2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the RABV affecting the Taiwan ferret badgers (RABV-TWFB) is a distinct lineage within the group of lineages from Asia and that it has been differentiated from its closest lineages, China I (including isolates from Chinese ferret badgers) and the Philippines, 158–210 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of RABV-TWFB originated 91–113 years ago. Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host.

Chiou, Hue-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chan, Fang-Tse; Wang, Hurng-Yi

2014-01-01

98

Tuberculosis in East Sussex. IV. A systematic examination of wild mammals other than badgers for tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

A detailed investigation of the possible role of wild mammals, other than badgers, in the maintenance of Mycobacterium bovis in an area on the South Downs of East Sussex was carried out over 3 years. Estimates of population sizes were made where possible and minimum sample sizes were selected to be 95% certain of including at least one infected animal if the prevalence was at least 5%. Samples of wild mammals were taken from populations which had the highest potential direct or indirect contact rate with known infected badgers. M. bovis was not isolated from any of the 15 species of wild mammals. It was concluded that badgers are able to maintain M. bovis in an area independently of other species, and that in the area studied other species were not a source of infection for the cattle herds.

Wilesmith, J. W.; Sayers, P. E.; Little, T. W.; Brewer, J. I.; Bode, R.; Hillman, G. D.; Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.

1986-01-01

99

Molecular characterization of cryptically circulating rabies virus from ferret badgers, taiwan.  

PubMed

After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 2012-2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the RABV affecting the Taiwan ferret badgers (RABV-TWFB) is a distinct lineage within the group of lineages from Asia and that it has been differentiated from its closest lineages, China I (including isolates from Chinese ferret badgers) and the Philippines, 158-210 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of RABV-TWFB originated 91-113 years ago. Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host. PMID:24751120

Chiou, Hue-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chan, Fang-Tse; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Pang, Victor Fei

2014-05-01

100

European Transmission Interconnection; Eurasian power grid  

SciTech Connect

Systems and philosophies perceived on a grand scale, encompassing new ideas, are often characterized as a dream. But in fact, such dreams often lead to the first step to fruitful development. This article is based on a preliminary study of the existing electrical high-tension networks of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union - which, as explained herein, may be merged into a multinational energy supply system. Such a system would constitute a completely interconnected Eurasian Power Grid. The idea of a Eurasian super grid, spanning from the Atlantic to the Ural and Siberia, is not new. Various studies have been conducted by both western Europe and the Soviet Union on this topic. Our world is currently in an era of extra high voltage (EHV) and ultra high voltage (UHV) electrical systems. This translates into existing UHV lines of 1150 kV which have already been proven in successful operation. Such UHV systems are capable of transmitting thousands of megawatts over a distance of a 1000 miles. Furthermore, national boundaries are not more a hindrance than the challenge of interconnecting complete networks into an overall synchronized working system with load exchange capabilities in all directions.

Posch, J. (Fichtner USA, Inc. (US))

1991-09-01

101

Tuberculosis in East Sussex. III. Comparison of post-mortem and clinical methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in badgers.  

PubMed Central

Following epidemiological and ecological studies of a defined badger population in an area of East Sussex, removal of all badgers by cage trapping was attempted. Trapping was incomplete due to the activities of protesters. Forty-seven badgers were caught from the eight social groups. All badgers were examined clinically and samples of faeces, urine and tracheal aspirate were taken, together with swabs from any bite wounds, for bacteriological examinations. Forty-five animals were skin tested using whole killed cells of Mycobacterium bovis strain AN5, bovine PPD Weybridge and new human tuberculin. Skin test results were recorded after 24 and 72 h. All badgers were killed and subjected to a post-mortem and bacteriological examination. M. bovis was detected in 10 (21.3%) badgers at post-mortem and in 2 badgers from clinical samples. Four social groups were infected. Positive skin test results were recorded at 72 h with bovine PPD (2 micrograms and 20 micrograms/ml), strain AN5 (1 mg/ml) and human tuberculin (2 micrograms/ml), but not with human tuberculin at 20 micrograms/ml. Histological sections of the skin test reactions showed the cellular types typical of delayed-type hypersensitivity. The skin test reactions observed were neither sensitive nor specific enough to be of practical value.

Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.; Wilesmith, J. W.; Cheeseman, C. L.; Brewer, J. I.; Bode, R.; Sayers, P. E.

1986-01-01

102

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hard; Morner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2011-01-01

103

Comparison of a standard and a detailed postmortem protocol for detecting Mycobacterium bovis in badgers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard postmortem protocol, consisting of gross pathology, culture for mycobacteria and limited selective histopathology, was used in the randomised badger culling trial in Great Britain to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection. This standard protocol was compared with a more detailed protocol in which more tissues were examined grossly, more tissues were cultured, more culture slopes were seeded, the culture period

T. R. Crawshaw; I. B. Griffiths; R. S. Clifton-Hadley

2008-01-01

104

Public attitudes towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, a questionnaire survey was conducded to evaluate public preferences towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Three alternative treatments were considered: (1) widespread culling, (2) the current experimental trials, and (3) no culling. One hundred residents from Glastonbury and York were interviewed in person and asked to give preference ratings to each of the three treatments.

P. C. L. White; S. J. Whiting

2000-01-01

105

Anisotropic spatial clustering of TB in cattle - the implications for control policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine TB is a disease that affects cattle and the wildlife badger, species Meles meles, in Ireland and the UK, and badgers have been implicated in the spread of the disease in cattle. Efforts to eradicate the disease that have included localized badger culling, have not been successful. In a study to understand how the disease spreads, Kelly and More

Gabrielle E. Kelly

2011-01-01

106

Investigation of Two Insect Species for Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the evaluation of two species of insects for the biological control of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). One of the species is a native weevil, Litodactylus leucogaster (Marsh.), which attacks the flower...

G. R. Buckingham C. A. Bennett B. M. Ross

1981-01-01

107

Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) In TVA Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed action is a continuing annual program to control growth of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) in the TVA reservoir system to a degree that permits full utilization of water resources of the system. The environmental impact of th...

1972-01-01

108

Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Microbiological Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cellulolytic and pectinolytic microorganisms were isolated from the microbial populations naturally resident in the phyllosphere of Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum and of M. heterophyllum. The yield of their respective operative enzymes was m...

H. B. Gunner

1983-01-01

109

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa.  

PubMed

The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter-gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter-gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger-Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ?900-1,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe-Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ?2,700-3,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. PMID:24550290

Pickrell, Joseph K; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Reich, David

2014-02-18

110

Optimising and Evaluating the Characteristics of a Multiple Antigen ELISA for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Badger Vaccine Field Trial  

PubMed Central

A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU) obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%), while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation.

Aznar, Inma; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J.; Whelan, Clare; Martin, Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Murphy, Denise; De Jong, Mart C. M.

2014-01-01

111

Zero-temperature phase diagram of the classical Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model is obtained using three complementary methods: Luttinger-Tisza, variational minimization, and the iterative minimization method. Six distinct phases were obtained in the space of the couplings. Three phases are commensurate with long-range ordering: planar Néel states in horizontal plane (phase I), planar states in the plane vertical to the horizontal plane (phase VI), and collinear states normal to the horizontal plane (phase II). However, the other three are infinitely degenerate due to the frustrating competition between the couplings, and they are characterized by a manifold of incommensurate wave vectors. These phases are planar helical states in a horizontal plane (phase III), planar helical states in a vertical plane (phase IV), and non-coplanar states (phase V). Employing the linear spin-wave analysis, it is found that the quantum fluctuations select a set of symmetrically equivalent states in phase III through the quantum order-by-disorder mechanism. Based on some heuristic arguments, it is argued that the same scenario may also occur in the other two frustrated phases VI and V.

Zare, Mohammad H.; Fazileh, Farhad; Shahbazi, Farhad

2013-06-01

112

Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian wild rodents.  

PubMed

The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating. PMID:21453121

Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

2011-08-01

113

Modelled impacts of badger culling on cattle TB in a real area with geographic boundaries.  

PubMed

As a part of bovine tuberculosis eradication strategy, the Welsh Government has proposed a badger cull in a defined area in and around North Pembrokeshire, and has published information on herd densities and incidence levels within and close to the area. In the present study, three sets of previously published data relating the impact of badger culling inside and around previous culling areas to distances from culling area boundaries have been used to model possible impacts of the proposed cull, taking account of three possible scenarios in which geographic boundaries reduce, to varying extents, adverse effects caused by increased badger movements. For the scenarios considered, the results predict average changes in confirmed herd incidences (CHIs) in the range -15.7 (-29.1 to 1.6 per cent) to -25.3 per cent (-52.2 to 46.1 per cent) over a period of 10 years, comprising average changes in the culling area in the range -26.1 (-34.8 to -14.8 per cent) to -32.6 per cent (-59.6 to 47.6 per cent), and average changes on adjoining land in the range 4.5 (-21.8 to 39.8 per cent) to 7.8 per cent (-16.1 to 38.5 per cent). The overall impacts equate to average reductions in the number of CHIs of between 122 (37 to 187) and 158 (-254 to 304). PMID:22158270

Fenwick, N I D

2012-02-01

114

A Decline of Eurasian Watermilfoil in Minnesota Associated with the Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native milfoil weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei Dietz, is a candidate biological control agent for the exotic Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) in northern North America. Declines of Eurasian watermilfoil populations have been associated with the weevil but many of these examples are poorly documented. We report the first documented de- cline of Eurasian watermilfoil in Minnesota due to the milfoil

RAYMOND M. NEWMAN; DAVID D. BIESBOER

115

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian

Jin-Won Song; Se Hun Gu; Shannon N Bennett; Satoru Arai; Maria Puorger; Monika Hilbe; Richard Yanagihara

2007-01-01

116

Eurasian Watermilfoil Biomass Associated with Insect Herbivores in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of aquatic plant biomass within Cayuga Lake, New York spans twelve years from 1987-1998. The exotic Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) decreased in the northwest end of the lake from 55% of the total biomass in 1987 to 0.4% in 1998 and within the southwest end from 50% in 1987 to 11% in 1998. Concurrent with the watermil-

ROBERT L. JOHNSON; PETER J. VAN JASON; NELSON G. HAIRSTON

117

The Effect of Eurasian Snow Cover on the Indian Monsoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors successfully model and simulate the observed evidence that anomalously high winter\\/spring Eurasian snow cover is linked to weak rainfall in the following summer Indian monsoon. It is shown that excessive snow cover in February reduces June to September precipitation over India. The excessive snow cover is associated with a weak monsoon characterized by higher sea level pressure over

A. D. Vernekar; J. Zhou; J. Shukla

1995-01-01

118

Understanding Higher Education Admissions Reforms in the Eurasian Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the twenty years since independence, new Eurasian nation-states of the former Soviet Union have introduced major changes to the way students are admitted to institutions of higher education. Azerbaijan (1992), Uzbekistan (1993), Kazakhstan (1999), Russia (2001), Kyrgyzstan (2002), Ukraine (2004), and Georgia (2005) have all created new state or…

Drummond, Todd W.; Gabrscek, Sergij

2012-01-01

119

Hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks Artificial-Recharge Project : Morgan County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks artificial-recharge project in Morgan County, Colo., was made with the aid of three digital computer models: A canal-distribution model, a ground-water flow model, and a stream-aquifer model. Statistical summaries of probable diversions from the South Platte River based on a 27-year period of historical flows indicate that an average-annual diversion of 96,000 acre-feet and a median-annual diversion of 43,000 acre-feet would be available. Diversions would sustain water in ponds for waterfowl habitat for an average of about five months per year, with a miximum pond surface area of about 300 acres with the median diversions and a maximum pond surface area of about 1,250 acres at least one-half of the years with the historic diversions. If the annual diversion were 43,000 acre-feet, recharge to the two alluvial aquifers would raise water levels sufficiently to create flowing streams in the channels of Beaver and Badger Creeks while allowing an increase in current ground-water pumping. The only area of significant waterlogging would be along the proposed delivery canal on the west edge of Badger Creek valley. If the total water available were diverted, the aquifer system could not transmit the water fast enough to the irrigation areas to avoid considerable waterlogging in the recharge areas. The impact of the proposed project on the South Platte River basin would be minimal once the ground-water system attained steady-state conditions, but that may take decades with a uniform diversion of the 43,000 acre-feet annually. (USGS)

Burns, Alan W.

1980-01-01

120

Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or comparable procedures. It will prove a basis for the long-term continuation of advanced measurements on aerosols, clouds, GHGs and trace gases in Northern Pan- Eurasian area to be operated by PEEX educated technical staff.

Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

2014-05-01

121

Topological phase transition in a generalized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model: A combined quantum Monte Carlo and Green's function study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a generalized Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with third-neighbor hopping, an interacting two-dimensional model with a topological phase transition as a function of third-neighbor hopping, by means of the determinant projector quantum Monte Carlo method. This technique is essentially numerically exact on models without a fermion sign problem, such as the one we consider. We determine the interaction dependence of the Z2 topological insulator/trivial insulator phase boundary by calculating the Z2 invariants directly from the single-particle Green's function. The interactions push the phase boundary to larger values of third-neighbor hopping, thus, stabilizing the topological phase. The observation of boundary shifting entirely stems from quantum fluctuations. We also identify qualitative features of the single-particle Green's function which are computationally useful in numerical searches for topological phase transitions without the need to compute the full topological invariant.

Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Wang, Lei; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Fiete, Gregory A.

2013-03-01

122

Effects of short-ranged interactions on the Kane-Mele model without discrete particle-hole symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of short-ranged interactions on the Z2 topological insulator phase, also known as the quantum spin Hall phase, in the Kane-Mele model at half-filling with staggered potentials, which explicitly breaks the discrete particle-hole symmetry. Within Hartree-Fock mean-field analysis, we conclude that the on-site repulsive interactions help stabilize the topological phase (quantum spin Hall) against the staggered potentials by enlarging the regime of the topological phase along the axis of the ratio of the staggered potential strength and the spin-orbit coupling. In sharp contrast, the on-site attractive interactions destabilize the topological phase. We also examine the attractive interaction case by means of the unbiased determinant projector quantum Monte Carlo and the results are qualitatively consistent with the Hartree-Fock picture.

Lai, Hsin-Hua; Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan

2014-04-01

123

The Developmental Performance of the Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Northern Watermilfoil, Eurasian Watermilfoil, and Hybrid (Northern x Eurasian) Watermilfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic milfoil weevil (Euhrychiopsis lecontei) has expanded its range from the native northern watermilfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum) to the non-native Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Previous studies show that it prefers M. spicatum over M. sibiricum for feeding and oviposition and that weevils that develop on M. spicatum are larger and have shorter development times. Eurasian and northern watermilfoil have hybridized,

S. S. Roley; R. M. Newman

2005-01-01

124

THE COLONIZATION AND FORMATION OF EQUILIBRIUM PLANT SPECIES ASSOCIATIONS ON BADGER DISTURBANCES IN A TALL-GRASS PRAIRIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Badger disturbances in a tall-grass prairie were used to study colonization patterns and the formation of equilibrium plant species associations in a complex mainland community. Colonization processes were described from field observations over a 4-yr period. A qualitative colonization model was developed to predict noninteractive species equilibria. Predicted colonization rates were based upon relative immigration rates determined by interactions among

WILLIAM J. PLATT

1975-01-01

125

Public attitudes towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle.  

PubMed

In 1999, a questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate public preferences towards badger culling to control bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Three alternative treatments were considered: (1) widespread culling, (2) the current experimental trials, and (3) no culling. One hundred residents from Glastonbury and York were interviewed in person and asked to give preference ratings to each of the three treatments. The single most preferred treatment was no culling, and the least preferred was the widespread cull. Respondents who favoured either the widespread cull or the experimental trials tended to be more knowledgeable about the problem and cited the level of tuberculosis in cattle as the primary factor guiding their preferences. Respondents who favoured the no culling option tended to be less knowledgeable, and cited the conservation and welfare impacts on badger populations as the most important factors. Analysis of the distribution of preference scores suggested that although it was not necessarily the most preferred treatment the experimental trial may be a relatively acceptable alternative. PMID:10985460

White, P C; Whiting, S J

2000-08-12

126

Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used extensively to determine origin and diversity of taurine cattle (Bos taurus) but global surveys of paternally inherited Y-chromosome diversity are lacking. Here, we provide mtDNA information on previously uncharacterised Eurasian breeds and present the most comprehensive Y-chromosomal microsatellite data on domestic cattle to date. The mitochondrial haplogroup T3 was the most frequent,

J Kantanen; C J Edwards; D G Bradley; H Viinalass; S Thessler; Z Ivanova; T Kiselyova; M ?inkulov; R Popov; S Stojanovi?; I Ammosov; J Vilkki

2009-01-01

127

Studies on Southeast Asian Haemaphysalis Ticks (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae). Redescription of Type Material of H. (Rhipistoma) Heinrichi Schulze, a Parasite of the Ferret-Badger in Burma and Vietnam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The male and female of Haemaphysalis (Rhipistoma) heinrichi Schulze, 1939, are redescribed from material in the type series, from a ferret-badger, Melogale p. personata Geoffrey, near Mandalay, Burma. This poorly known species, which was also recorded par...

H. Hoogstraal G. M. Kohls

1968-01-01

128

Numerical reconstructions of the Eurasian Ice Sheet and climate during the Late Weichselian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological investigations undertaken through the Quaternary Environments of the Eurasian North programme established ice-sheet limits for the Eurasian Arctic at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), sedimentary records of palaeo-ice streams and uplift information relating to ice-sheet configuration and the pattern of deglaciation. Ice-sheet numerical modelling was used to reconstruct a history of the Eurasian Ice Sheet compatible with these geological

Martin J. Siegert; Julian A. Dowdeswell

2004-01-01

129

BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BADGER equation of state library was developed to enable inertial confinement fusion plasma codes to more accurately model plasmas in the high-density, low-temperature regime. The code had the capability to calculate 1- and 2-T plasmas using the Thomas-Fermi model and an individual electron accounting model. Ion equation of state data can be calculated using an ideal gas model or via a quotidian equation of state with scaled binding energies. Electron equation of state data can be calculated via the ideal gas model or with an adaptation of the screened hydrogenic model with ?-splitting. The ionization and equation of state calculations can be done in local thermodynamic equilibrium or in a non-LTE mode using a variant of the Busquet equivalent temperature method. The code was written as a stand-alone Fortran library for ease of implementation by external codes. EOS results for aluminum are presented that show good agreement with the SESAME library and ionization calculations show good agreement with the FLYCHK code. Program summaryProgram title: BADGERLIB v1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEND_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEND_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 41 480 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 904 451 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90. Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, or Mac. Operating system: Windows, Linux, MacOS X. RAM: 249.496 kB plus 195.630 kB per isotope record in memory Classification: 19.1, 19.7. Nature of problem: Equation of State (EOS) calculations are necessary for the accurate simulation of high energy density plasmas. Historically, most EOS codes used in these simulations have relied on an ideal gas model. This model is inadequate for low-temperature, high-density plasma conditions; the gaseous and liquid phases; and the solid phase. The BADGER code was developed to give more realistic EOS data in these regimes. Solution method: BADGER has multiple, user-selectable models to treat the ions, average-atom ionization state and electrons. Ion models are ideal gas and quotidian equation of state (QEOS), ionization models are Thomas-Fermi and individual accounting method (IEM) formulation of the screened hydrogenic model (SHM) with l-splitting, electron ionization models are ideal gas and a Helmholtz free energy minimization method derived from the SHM. The default equation of state and ionization models are appropriate for plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The code can calculate non-LTE equation of state (EOS) and ionization data using a simplified form of the Busquet equivalent-temperature method. Restrictions: Physical data are only provided for elements Z=1 to Z=86. Multiple solid phases are not currently supported. Liquid, gas and plasma phases are combined into a generalized "fluid" phase. Unusual features: BADGER divorces the calculation of average-atom ionization from the electron equation of state model, allowing the user to select ionization and electron EOS models that are most appropriate to the simulation. The included ion ideal gas model uses ground-state nuclear spin data to differentiate between isotopes of a given element. Running time: Example provided only takes a few seconds to run.

Heltemes, T. A.; Moses, G. A.

2012-12-01

130

The phylogeography of Eurasian Fraxinus species reveals ancient transcontinental reticulation.  

PubMed

To investigate the biogeographical history of ashes species of the Eurasian section Fraxinus and to test the hypothesis of ancient reticulations, we sequenced nuclear DNA (nETS and nITS, 1075bp) for 533 samples and scored AFLP for 63 samples of Eurasian ashes within the section Fraxinus. The nITS phylogeny retrieved the classical view of the evolution of the section, whereas nETS phylogeny indicated an unexpected separation of F. angustifolia in two paraphyletic groups, respectively found in southeastern Europe and in the other parts of the Mediterranean basin. In the nETS phylogeny, the former group was closely related to F. excelsior, whereas the later was closely related to F. mandshurica, a species which is restricted nowadays to northeastern Asia. This topological incongruence between the two loci indicated the occurrence of an ancient reticulation between European and Asian ash species. Several other ancient reticulation events between the two European species and the other species of the section were supported by the posterior predictive checking method. Some of these reticulation events would have occurred during the Miocene, when climatic variations may have lead these species to expand their distribution range and come into contact. The recurrent reticulations observed among Eurasian ash species indicate that they should be considered as conspecific taxa, with subspecific status for some groups. Altogether, the results of the present study provide a rare documented evidence for the occurrence of multiple ancient reticulations within a group of temperate tree taxa with modern disjunct distributions in Eurasia. These ancient reticulation events indicate that the speciation process is slow in ashes, necessitating long periods of geographical isolation. The implications for speciation processes in temperate trees with similar life history and reproductive biology are discussed. PMID:24795215

Hinsinger, Damien D; Gaudeul, Myriam; Couloux, Arnaud; Bousquet, Jean; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

2014-08-01

131

Late Quaternary paleoceanography of the Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconstructed late Quaternary deep (3000-4100 m) and intermediate depth (1000-2500 m) paleoceanographic history of the Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean from ostracode assemblages in cores from the Lomonosov Ridge, Gakkel Ridge, Yermak Plateau, Morris Jesup Rise, and Amundsen and Makarov Basins obtained during the 1991 Polarstern cruise. Modern assemblages on ridges and plateaus between 1000 and 1500 m are characterized by abundant, relatively species-rich benthic ostracode assemblages, in part, reflecting the influence of high organic productivity and inflowing Atlantic water. In contrast, deep Arctic Eurasian basin assemblages have low abundance and low diversity and are dominated by Krithe and Cytheropteron reflecting faunal exchange with the Greenland Sea via the Fram Strait. Major faunal changes occurred in the Arctic during the last glacial/interglacial transition and the Holocene. Low-abundance, low-diversity assemblages from the Lomonosov and Gakkel Ridges in the Eurasian Basin from the last glacial period have modern analogs in cold, low-salinity, low-nutrient Greenland Sea deep water; glacial assemblages from the deep Nansen and Amundsen Basins have modern analogs in the deep Canada Basin. During Termination 1 at intermediate depths, diversity and abundance increased coincident with increased biogenic sediment, reflecting increased organic productivity, reduced sea-ice, and enhanced inflowing North Atlantic water. During deglaciation deep Nansen Basin assemblages were similar to those living today in the deep Greenland Sea, perhaps reflecting deepwater exchange via the Fram Strait. In the central Arctic, early Holocene faunas indicate weaker North Atlantic water inflow at middepths immediately following Termination 1, about 8500-7000 year B.P., followed by a period of strong Canada Basin water overflow across the Lomonosov Ridge into the Morris Jesup Rise area and central Arctic Ocean. Modern perennial sea-ice cover evolved over the last 4000-5000 years. Late Quaternary faunal changes reflect benthic habitat changes most likely caused by changes in the import of cold, deepwater of Greenland Sea origin and warmer and middepth Atlantic water to the Eurasian Basin through the Fram Strait, and export of Arctic Ocean deepwater. Appendix Tables Al-A4 are available on microfiche. Orderfrom the American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue,N.W., Washington, DC 20009. Document P94-002; $2.50.Payment must accompany order.

Cronin, T. M.; Holtz, T. R.; Stein, R.; Spielhagen, R.; Fütterer, D.; Wollenburg, J.

1995-04-01

132

Euhrychiopsis lecontei Distribution, Abundance, and Experimental Augmentations for Eurasian Watermilfoil Control in Wisconsin Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specialist aquatic herbivore Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Dietz) is currently being researched as a potential biological control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). Our research in Wisconsin focused on 1) determining mil- foil weevil distribution across lakes, 2) assessing limnological characteristics associated with their abundance, and 3) evalu- ating milfoil weevil augmentation as a practical management tool for controlling Eurasian

LAURA L. JESTER; MICHAEL A. BOZEK; DANIEL R. HELSEL; SALLIE P. SHELDON

133

Modelling the Eurasian Ice Sheet through a full (Weichselian) glacial cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently acquired glacial geological and oceanographic datasets provide information on the Weichselian glaciations of Scandinavia and the Eurasian Arctic. A numerical ice-sheet model, forced by global sea level and solar insolation changes, was run to reconstruct ice sheets compatible with these data. A ‘maximum’ reconstruction assumes that the modern-type temperature distribution across the Eurasian Arctic is reduced by 10 °C

Martin J. Siegert; Julian A. Dowdeswell; Morten Hald; John-Inge Svendsen

2001-01-01

134

Vaccination against tuberculosis in badgers and cattle: an overview of the challenges, developments and current research priorities in Great Britain.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a significant threat to the cattle industry in England and Wales. It is widely acknowledged that a combination of measures targeting both cattle and wildlife will be required to eradicate bovine TB or reduce its prevalence until European official freedom status is achieved. Vaccination of cattle and/or badgers could contribute to bovine TB control in Great Britain, although there are significant gaps in our knowledge regarding the impact that vaccination would actually have on bovine TB incidence. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that vaccination with BCG can reduce the progression and severity of TB in both badgers and cattle. This is encouraging in terms of the prospect of a sustained vaccination programme achieving reductions in disease prevalence; however, developing vaccines for tackling the problem of bovine TB is challenging, time-consuming and resource-intensive, as this review article sets out to explain. PMID:25059963

Chambers, M A; Carter, S P; Wilson, G J; Jones, G; Brown, E; Hewinson, R G; Vordermeier, M

2014-07-26

135

The effect of Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon  

SciTech Connect

More than a century ago, Blanford suggested the inverse relation between Himalayan winter and spring snow accumulation and subsequent summer monsoon rainfall over India. This relation was later substantiated with additional data by Walker. Because of an inadequate observational network to obtain the spatial variation of snow cover over the Himalayan region, little progress was made until the availability of satellite measurements. Snow cover data derived from satellite observations was used to show that the correlation between winter Eurasian snow cover south of 52{degrees}N and the following Indian summer monsoon rainfall is negative and statistically significant. This result was further supported by additional research. The relationship between snow cover and monsoon circulation is consistent with a suggestion that the Indian monsoon circulation is a dynamically stable system and its interannual variations are largely determined by slowly varying surface boundary conditions. 64 refs., 22 figs.

Vernekar, A.D.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shukla, J. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

1995-02-01

136

Hepatocellular adenoma in a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

A 7-year-old female Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) at the Seoul Grand Park, Korea, died after displaying depression, anorexia, weight loss and rough skin for several days. At necropsy, a solitary friable round mass, which was approximately 12 x 9 x 5 cm and mottled dark red and yellow, was found bulging from the right hepatic lobe. Microscopically, the nonencapsulated, poorly circumscribed mass was composed of solid sheets of neoplastic hepatocytes. In addition, numerous small tan foci, ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 cm in diameter, were evenly scattered throughout the pancreatic tissue. These foci were found to be nonencapsulated, well-demarcated hyperplastic nodules of the exocrine pancreatic gland. We observed neither intrahepatic nor extrahepatic metastases. Based on the gross and microscopic changes, we diagnosed the animal as having a hepatocellular adenoma accompanied by exocrine pancreatic nodular hyperplasia. PMID:17322782

Bae, Il Hong; Pakhrin, Bidur; Jee, Hyang; Shin, Nam Shik; Kim, Dae Yong

2007-03-01

137

Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the connection between forces on the Eurasian plate, the plate's motion and the intraplate stress field. Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In this study we analyse the forces along the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate, presently the most prominent suture zone on Earth, resulting from the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate the force distribution along the Tethyan boundary as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We evaluate force distributions obeying this mechanical law on the basis of their ability to reproduce observed stress orientations. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Our investigation is structured according to two research objectives, pursued in a corresponding step-wise approach: (1) a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of Eurasia's stress field to the distribution of all acting forces; and (2) a quantification of collision-related forces along the southern boundary of Eurasia, including their relation to observed plate boundary structure, in particular plateau height. Intraplate stress observations as compiled in the World Stress Map project are used to constrain the distribution of forces acting on Eurasia. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and normal pressure from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.2 - 10.5 T N/m and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3 - 2.3 T N/m. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0 - 2.1 and 0 - 0.8 T N/m, respectively. The inferred collision forces are part of the best-fitting overall set of forces acting on the Eurasian plate, satisfying constraints from basic mechanics, absolute plate motion and stress field. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. We find that for both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateau, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force, thus confirming the hypothesis of balanced topography.

Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

2013-04-01

138

Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils: Russia and contiguous countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils is a challenge necessitated by the intensive and exhaustive use of soil resources. The long-term strategy of interaction between humans and the environment should be directed towards the creation of favorable conditions for the development of society and saving of nature via application of new legislative norms aimed at preservation of pedodiversity and especially valuable soils. It is important to develop pedology as a fundamental science and to harmonize the relation-ships between humans and nature. The 30-year-long experience of Russia in the development of the Red Data Books of Soils is analyzed, and several conclusions aimed at improving the efficiency of special protection of soils in Russia and contiguous countries are made.

Nikitin, E. D.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Sabodina, E. P.

2014-03-01

139

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. III. The prevalence of tuberculosis in mammals other than badgers and cattle.  

PubMed Central

A large sample of the wild mammals found on a farm in South Dorset were trapped and examined for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis following the discovery of widespread infection in cattle and badgers. M. bovis was isolated from the lymph nodes of two out of 90 rats (rattus norvegicus) and one out of seven foxes (Vulpes vulpes) but no lesions of tuberculosis were observed. It was concluded that the badger was the only species of wild mammal which was a reservoir of M. bovis in this area.

Little, T. W.; Swan, C.; Thompson, H. V.; Wilesmith, J. W.

1982-01-01

140

Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland  

PubMed Central

Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta D?utowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews.

2013-01-01

141

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

PubMed Central

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian common shrew, captured in October 2006 in Graubünden, Switzerland. Pair-wise analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments of SWSV indicated approximately 55%–72% similarity with hantaviruses harbored by Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae rodents. Phylogenetically, SWSV grouped with other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses. Intensified efforts are underway to clarify the genetic diversity of SWSV throughout the geographic range of the Eurasian common shrew, as well as to determine its relevance to human health.

Song, Jin-Won; Gu, Se Hun; Bennett, Shannon N; Arai, Satoru; Puorger, Maria; Hilbe, Monika; Yanagihara, Richard

2007-01-01

142

On regular wintering of Eurasian Penduline Tits Remiz pendulinus in northern Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus was until recently considered to be an accidental winter visitor to Morocco. Regular wintering was suspected in the north-west of the country but had been poorly documented. The ringing data collected in the Smir marshes (north-west Morocco) during the period 2004–2008 indicate that Eurasian Penduline Tits regularly winter in Morocco. During the study period,

Mohamed Amezian; Ian Thompson; Keith Bensusan; John Cortes; Anass Louah; Abdeljebbar Qninba

2011-01-01

143

Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 1. Feasibility study report  

SciTech Connect

This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferred alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.

NONE

1994-08-01

144

Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Feasibility study report  

SciTech Connect

This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferred alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.

NONE

1994-08-01

145

Tyzzer's disease in a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Scotland.  

PubMed

A Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) cub found in weak condition on the Isle of Harris, Scotland, developed bilateral corneal oedema 16 days after being admitted to a rehabilitation centre. It died unexpectedly on day 26. On postmortem examination, there was excess clear fluid in the body cavities and the liver was swollen with numerous pale focal lesions and petechial haemorrhages throughout. Histopathological examination revealed bundles of bacilli morphologically typical of Clostridium piliforme within hepatocytes. Comparative analysis of the nucleotide base sequence of a 16S rdna fragment amplified from the infected liver tissue revealed that it was identical to a C piliforme 16S rdna sequence. The possibility of concurrent infection with canine adenovirus type 1 was considered but none of the characteristic histopathological lesions was observed and examination of the liver by transmission electron microscopy was negative for virus particles. This appears to be the first record of Tyzzer's disease in an otter and the first in a wild animal in Britain. PMID:18978367

Simpson, V R; Hargreaves, J; Birtles, R J; Marsden, H; Williams, D L

2008-11-01

146

Individual trade-offs between nutrition and risk of interspecific transmission of disease by grazing: cows, badger latrines and bovine tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. We examine whether various measures of herbivore current physiological state (age, breed- ing and immune status) and genetic potential can be used as indicators of exposure to and risk from disease. We use dairy cattle and the risks of tuberculosis (TB) transmission posed to them by pasture contaminated with badger excreta (via the fecal-oral route) as a model

M. Scantlebury; S. Harris; D. J. Allcroft; M. R. Hutchings

2006-01-01

147

Experimental oral immunization of ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) with a recombinant canine adenovirus vaccine CAV-2-E3?-RGP and an attenuated rabies virus SRV9.  

PubMed

Ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) are a major reservoir of rabies virus in southeastern China. Oral immunization has been shown to be a practical method for wildlife rabies management in Europe and North America. Two groups of 20 ferret badgers were given a single oral dose of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3?-RGP, or an experimental attenuated rabies virus vaccine, SRV9. At 21 days, all ferret badgers had seroconverted, with serum virus-neutralizing antibodies ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 IU/mL. Titers were >0.50 IU/mL (an acceptable level) in 17/20 and 16/20 animals receiving CAV-2-E3?-RGP or SRV9, respectively. The serologic results indicate that the recombinant CAV-2-E3?-RGP is at least as effective as the attenuated rabies virus vaccine. Both may be considered for additional research as oral rabies vaccine candidates for ferret badgers. PMID:24506428

Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fang, Lijun; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

2014-04-01

148

The Eurasian Ice Sheet and the deglaciation of western Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New time-slice reconstructions of the Eurasian Ice Sheet limits reveal that the timing of both the maximum ice sheet extent and the subsequent retreat were spatially variable. This variability most likely reflects regional contrasts in geographic setting, internal ice sheet dynamics and the forcing mechanisms. Here we report fresh results from an ongoing field campaign in southern Norway. The inferred ice sheet history is based on a number of radiocarbon dates from various geological contexts as well cosmogenic nuclide (CN) dating of glacially transported boulders. We discuss the ice-recession along the western flank of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and until the final deglaciation of the fjords. One important conclusion is that the ice stream that occupied the Norwegian Trough, and that was active during the LGM, broke up extremely rapid at around 20 ka leaving the islands Utsira and Karmøy permanently ice free. The adjacent areas of the Norwegian mainland remained ice covered for another 4 thousand years until about 16 ka when the ice margin along the coast gradually started to retreat eastwards. However, this second stage of ice sheet retreat was interrupted by several re-advances. The largest advance probably peaked at the very end of the Younger Dryas stadial (11.6 ka) forming a system of prominent end moraines along the coast. The outlet glaciers that filled the main fjord troughs during this event started to break up very rapidly by means of calving at the onset of the Holocene warming, evidently a climatic response. The main fjords became totally ice free not later than 500 years into the Holocene, and a thousand years later the remaining part of the ice sheet was gone. It is calculated that the melting during the early Holocene (11.6-10.0 ka) was more than ten times faster than at Greenland today.

Svendsen, John Inge; Mangerud, Jan; Briner, Jason; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Lohne, Øystein S.; Goehring, Brent M.; Gyllencreutz, Richard

2013-04-01

149

Traces of Early Eurasians in the Mansi of Northwest Siberia Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as “Vogul”) of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragment–length polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups.

Derbeneva, Olga A.; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Sukernik, Rem I.

2002-01-01

150

Developmental Rates of the Native Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, and Damage to Eurasian Watermilfoil at Constant Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native aquatic weevil Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Dietz) is a potential biological control agent of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). The weevil reduces the viability of milfoil by mining plant stems. We determined the influence of temperature on the developmental rates of the weevil and damage to Eurasian watermilfoil stems. Single E. lecontei eggs were laid on rooted plants in individual

Kristine C. Mazzei; Raymond M. Newman; Alyson Loos; David W. Ragsdale

1999-01-01

151

Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats  

PubMed Central

Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic – cattle, sheep and goat – and other wildlife – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) – hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe.

2013-01-01

152

Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n?=?42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores.

2014-01-01

153

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (Canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (Martes foina), 4 of 4 pine martens (Martes martes), 6 of 6 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 4 of 4 polecats (Mustela putorius), 1 of 1 ferret (Mustela putorius furo), 13 of 21 (61.9%) European genets (Genetta genetta), and 13 of 22 (59.1%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon). Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among wild carnivores in Spain. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in Iberian lynx and the European wildcat reported here may be of epidemiologic significance because seropositive cats might have shed oocysts. PMID:17689869

Sobrino, R; Cabezón, O; Millán, J; Pabón, M; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C; Dubey, J P; Almeria, S

2007-09-30

154

Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

Several authors have suggested that contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitutes one of the major causes of the decline of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in large parts of Europe. This chapter provides an overview of available information regarding PCBs in European otters. Data on PCB concentrations in European otter tissues differ qualitatively among authors. Variations may be found in the organs used for analysis, the analytical method, and format of reported data (lipid weight vs. fresh weight, total PCB vs. congener-specific), which complicates a comparison of all data. Further, concentrations may be highly variable within an otter population, or even among individuals inhabiting the same area. Generally, average PCB levels in otters appear to be highest in areas where the species is in decline (mean levels ranging from 50 to 180 mg/kg fat) and thriving otter populations are correlated with low mean PCB tissue concentrations (mean levels less than 30 mg/kg fat). However, high levels have recently been found in thriving otter populations in Scotland, especially Shetland, leading some researchers to the conclusion that the alleged role of PCBs in the decline of the otter is likely to have been exaggerated. However, it is neither possible to dismiss the role of PCBs in the otter's decline as exaggerated nor to assume their important role as proven. The data presented in this review include information in support of both views. Most studies on PCBs in otters report total PCBs only, congener-specific data being quite rare. Information on levels of non-ortho congeners, the most toxic PCBs, is even more limited. Because congener patterns may vary between different otters, the total PCB concentration may not always be an accurate estimator of toxicity. To make a proper assessment of the impact of environmental PCB levels on the performance of otter populations and to establish "safe PCB levels" in sediment and fish, a number of toxicokinetic processes have to be elucidated. In general, the following chain of effects should be studied: concentrations in sediment-->concentrations in prey organisms-->concentrations in otter-->physiological effects-->population effects. Recommendations are made regarding possible areas of research. PMID:9666742

Smit, M D; Leonards, P E; de Jongh, A W; van Hattum, B G

1998-01-01

155

Propagation of the MIS4 Eurasian Meltwater Event in the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment records from the Arctic Ocean indicate multiple Pleistocene meltwater events from Eurasian and North American ice sheets. These events may have affected both the Arctic climate and the North Atlantic deep-water formation, and are important for understanding the stability of Pleistocene ice sheets. We investigate the distribution of meltwater during the discharge of large Eurasian proglacial lakes at the end of Marine Isotope Stage 4, approximately 50-60 ka, using stable isotope records in planktic and benthic foraminifers. Studies focused on lithological and radiogenic isotope proxies suggest that this meltwater pulse affected sedimentation in the Eurasian Basin all the way to the Lomonosov Ridge and at least part of the Amerasian Basin (Mendeleev Ridge). The analysis of stable-isotope data provides further insights. The spatial distribution of planktonic oxygen-18, with the lightest values in the Mendeleev Ridge area, reveals a strong cyclonic circulation extending into the western Arctic Ocean, similar to the negative Arctic Oscillation mode. This circulation pattern differs from that inferred from lithostratigraphy and neodymium isotopes indicating a stronger effect of Eurasian discharge on the Lomonosov Ridge. We propose that this discrepancy resulted from a decoupling of surface and deep-water circulation, where deep waters had a significant contribution of brines carrying deglacial sediments (hyperpicnal flows). The propagation of proglacial brines as far as the Amerasian Basin, suggested earlier from neodymium isotope data, is confirmed by benthic stable isotope records.

Polyak, L. V.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Norgaard-Pedersen, N.; Curry, W. B.

2013-12-01

156

Aleksandr Dugin and the ideology of national revival: Geopolitics, Eurasianism and the conservative revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the emergence of Aleksandr Dugin as the leader of the Eurasian Movement and later Party in Russia. For much of the 1990s Dugin was a prominent intellectual among the Russian nationalist?communist opposition, moving from the position of ideologue of a fringe political party ? Edvard Limonov's National Bolsheviks — to advisor to the communist speaker of the

Jacob W. Kipp

2002-01-01

157

DWARFS AND CRANES. BALTIC-FINNISH MYTHOLOGIES IN EURASIAN AND AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE (70 YEARS AFTER YRJÖ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tales about the struggle between dwarfs and birds are widespread across Eurasia and the Americas. About half of them were known to Toivonen (1937), but a large part of the American and some of the Asian materials re- mained beyond the scope of his research. The southernmost Eurasian version is from Nagaland. The closest parallels are between Ancient Greek, Fennoscandian,

Yuri Berezkin

158

Northern Eurasian Wetlands and the Carbon Cycle: Model Estimates of Carbon Storage and Methane Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian Arctic drainage constitutes over ten percent of the global land area, and stores a substantial fraction of the terrestrial carbon pool in its soils and boreal forests. Specifically, boreal forests in this region constitute an estimated carbon sink of 0.5 Pg\\/y. However, assessments of carbon storage and fluxes in this region, and their role in climate change, vary

T. J. Bohn; D. P. Lettenmaier; K. Sathulur; L. C. Bowling; K. C. McDonald

2006-01-01

159

Biological Control of Eurasian watermilfoil by Euhrychiopsis lecontei : Assessing Efficacy and Timing of Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The milfoil weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei Dietz, is a biological control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.), a nuisance aquatic macrophyte. EnviroScience, Inc. (Stow, OH) rears and stocks E. lecontei for management of EWM infestations. Here, we analyze data collected by Enviro- Science, Inc. from treatment (weevil-stocked) and control (unstocked) EWM beds in 30 Michigan and Wisconsin lakes over

JUSTIN L. REEVES; P. D. LORCH; M. W. KERSHNER; M. A. HILOVSKY

160

Fish predation on Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) herbivores and indirect effects on macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of fish predation on native and naturalized insect herbivores of the invasive aquatic plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) using manipulative field experiments within lakes and a field survey across lakes. For the field experiments, we manipulated sunfish (Lepomis spp.) density in cages in the littoral plant beds of two contrasting lakes: one with many sunfish, few

Darren M. Ward; Raymond M. Newman

2006-01-01

161

Species-specific and shared features in vocal repertoires of three Eurasian ground squirrels (genus Spermophilus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along to alarm calls, Eurasian ground squirrels of the genus Spermophilus also produce other call types toward potential predators and rival conspecifics. Individually identified 50 speckled (Spermophilus suslicus), 18 European (S. citellus) and 59 yellow (S. fulvus) ground squirrels were examined for interspecies differences in their vocal repertoires. A separate sample of 116 (90 adult\\u000a and 26 juvenile) S. suslicus

Vera A. Matrosova; Irena Schneiderová; Ilya A. Volodin; Elena V. Volodina

162

Invasion genetics of the Eurasian spiny waterflea: evidence for bottlenecks and gene flow using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian spiny waterflea ( Bythotrephes longimanus ) is a predacious zooplankter that has increased its range in Europe and is rapidly invading inland water-bodies throughout North America's Great Lakes region. To examine the genetics of these invasions, we iso- lated five microsatellite DNA loci with between 5 and 19 alleles per locus. We sampled three populations where B. longimanus

ROBERT I. COLAUTTI; MARINA MANCA; MARKKU VILJANEN; HENK A. M. KETELAARS; HANSRUDOLF BÜRGI; HUGH J. M ACISAAC; DANIEL D. H EATH

2005-01-01

163

Evolution of overwintering strategies in Eurasian species of the Drosophila obscura species group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian species of the Drosophila obscura species group remains ambiguous in spite of intensive analyses based on morphology, allozymes and DNA sequences. The present analysis based on sequence data for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and ?-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (Gpdh) suggests that the phylogenetic position of D. alpina is also ambiguous. These ambiguities have been considered to

SHIN G GOTO; TAKAO YOSHIDA; KATSURA BEPPU; MASAHITO T KIMURA

1999-01-01

164

Eurasian Snow Cover versus Indian Monsoon Rainfall--An Extension of the Hahn-Shukla Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent inverse relationship between Eurasian mean winter snow cover extent and the following warm season Indian monsoon rainfall, described by Hahn and Shukla for the 1967-75 period, is substantiated by the addition of five subsequent years of data if known deficiencies in satellite snow observations are accommodated. In this respect, elimination of a bias due to under-observation of snow

Robert R. Dickson

1984-01-01

165

Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, August 20-21, 2012)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents a diverse collection written by a well-respected group of speakers and authors which includes government leaders, policy makers, education experts and administrators from all over the higher education world. The papers collected hereunder represent the conference proceedings of the Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum…

Reagan, Timothy, Ed.; Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.

2013-01-01

166

Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the Oden 91 expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oden 91 North Pole expedition obtained oceanographic measurements on four sections in the Nansen and Amundsen basins of the Eurasian Basin and in the Makarov Basin of the Canadian Basin, thereby proving the feasibility of carrying out a typical oceanographic program using an icebreaker in the Arctic Ocean. The data show greater spatial variability in water structure and circulation

L. G. Anderson; G. Björk; O. Holby; E. P. Jones; G. Kattner; K. P. Koltermann; B. Liljeblda; R. Lindegren; B. Rudels; J. Swift

1994-01-01

167

Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and the Extinction of European Great Apes  

PubMed Central

Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M.; Moya-Sola, Salvador

2014-01-01

168

Respiration Rates of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis and Ruffe: Lower Energy Costs in Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of group size on the routine metabolic rate and activity of the two shoaling percids, Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, was studied by using twin-flow intermittent respirometry and time-lapse video techniques. In both species, we found a clear group effect. In isolated fish, oxygen consumption was as much as twice that in groups of eight

Diana Schleuter; Susanne Haertel-Borer; Philipp Fischer; Reiner Eckmann

2007-01-01

169

Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu

C. Torres-Rouff; L. T. Yablonsky

2005-01-01

170

Relative abundance of American badger (Taxidea taxus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in landscapes with high and low rodenticide poisoning levels.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, extensive poisoning campaigns have been conducted in southern Saskatchewan to control Richardson's ground squirrel Spermophilus richardsonii (Sabine, 1822) populations. Such campaigns might impact on predator abundance by decreasing prey levels, and also through secondary poisoning. Using spotlighting, we investigated the relative abundance of American badgers Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) and red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) in 2 study areas with road access and crops, but with different levels of poisoning. In the study area with relatively low poisoning (19.6% of the area traversed by roads), there were 2.2 times more American badgers per km of road and 6.4 times more red foxes per km than in the study area with high poisoning (89.7% of the area). It is recommended that an Integrated Pest Management program be developed to conserve natural predators across landscapes. PMID:22405447

Proulx, Gilbert; MacKenzie, Neil

2012-03-01

171

New reconstructions of Eurasian Ice Sheet build up and deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a series of new time-slice reconstructions from the DATED Project documenting the changing limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation (40-10 ka BP). Reconstructions are based on a compiled chronology of over 3000 dates representing the accumulated sum of knowledge on the timing of advance and retreat of the Scandinavian-British-Irish-Barents-Kara Sea Ice Sheets. The timing of both maximum extent and retreat were spatially variable across the ice sheet complex likely reflecting regional contrasts in forcing mechanisms and geographical setting. For example, maximum ice extent in the west occurs ~3000 years earlier than in the northeast sector. We expect the time-slices and derived area and volume estimates to be particularly useful for numerical and isostatic modelling requiring regional scale empirical constraints on past ice sheet extent, and design the reconstructions for this purpose. The ice sheet margin is delineated every 1000 years for the last 25 ka BP. Additional intervening snapshots are reconstructed when necessary to capture significant rapid changes in the ice margin. We also present some reconstructions at uneven intervals for earlier periods, reflecting the preservation bias of the chronological record. Uncertainty estimates (represented by maximum, minimum, preferred positions) are given for each time-slice. The ice sheet scale approach highlights instances of conflicting evidence and gaps in the ice sheet chronology. Greatest gaps are found along the western marine margins, in the Barents Sea and western Russia, and the inland areas glaciated during the Younger Dryas. The database and reconstructions will be updated as new information is published and made publically available via the project webpages. Future versions will extend the spatial coverage to include the Icelandic Ice Sheet and additionally include landform evidence to constrain ice sheet geometry (e.g. ice stream locations and thickness) and retreat patterns. In the database, each date is classified on the basis of stratigraphic information to facilitate interpretation of the ice sheet evolution, attributed to the source publication, fully documented with information relevant to its interpretation and searchable by: location, dated material, dating technique, stratigraphic position or setting, derived age and associated errors, pertinent comments from the source publication and sample elevation or depth, core name, laboratory id and/or sample name as applicable. For internal consistency all radiocarbon ages have been recalibrated using the most recent calibration curve (INTCAL09) and all terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure ages are reported using the same production rate and scaling model. The uncalibrated 14C and TCN ages as reported in the source publications are also given. TCN results are additionally reported with all the necessary details required to re-calculate the ages with different production rate and scaling models.

Hughes, A. L.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, O. S.

2012-12-01

172

A long-term observational study of the impact of badger removal on herd restrictions due to bovine TB in the Irish midlands during 1989-2004  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY An observational study was carried out, using data collected from four areas in the Irish midlands, between 1989 and 2004, to critically evaluate the long-term effects of proactive badger culling and to provide insights into reactive badger culling tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in cattle. Confirmed cattle herd TB incidence is the outcome measure used throughout. Relative to reactive culling, proactive badger culling was associated with a decrease in incidence in each of the 16 years of observation, which encompassed periods of both intensive and less-intensive badger removal. By 2004, we observed a decrease of 22% [95% confidence interval (CI) 15–29, P<0·001] in the entire proactive and 37% (95% CI 25–47, P<0·001), in the inner proactive removal areas. The size of the decrease increased with time (P=0·055). There was a decrease (constant over time) of at least 14% (95% CI 76–97, P=0·013) in incidence in the inner compared to the outer control area (herds ?2 km, >2 km, from proactive removal area boundaries, respectively). Incidence in the outer proactive removal area (herds <1·6 km from the proactive removal boundary) was similar to the inner control area (P=0·890). Incidence in the outer control area and total control area, compared to a neighbouring area some distance away, increased over the course of the study. Differences with the total control area were not statistically significant but the outer control area was 11% higher than the neighbouring area by 2004 (borderline significance P=0·057).

KELLY, G. E.; CONDON, J.; MORE, S. J.; DOLAN, L.; HIGGINS, I.; EVES, J.

2008-01-01

173

Leptospirosis in wild and domestic carnivores in natural areas in Andalusia, Spain.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Carnivores are at the top of the feeding chain, thus being exposed to pathogens through their preys. From June 2004 to April 2007, we analyzed for evidences of contact with 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans Sensu Lato serum (analyzed by indirect Microscopic Agglutination Test) and urine or kidney samples (analyzed by microscopic observation, immunostaining and culture) collected from 201 wild and domestic carnivores, including 26 free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 33 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 25 common genets (Genetta genetta), two Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and one Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), and 53 free-roaming cats and 28 rural dogs in protected areas in Andalusia (southern Spain). Twenty-three percent of the animals presented evidences of contact, being the prevalence similar among wild (23.5%) and domestic species (22.2%). Contact with Lesptospira was detected in all the species but the otter. Prevalence was: lynx (11% by bacteriological detection, 32% by serology), fox (0%, 47%), mongoose (5%, 20%), genet (0%, 12%), badger (0%, 50%), cat (20%, 14%), dog (only serology: 36%). Serovar Icterohemorragiae accounted for 2/3 of the cases. Serovar Canicola was detected in half of the positive dogs and one lynx. Other serovars detected were Ballum, Sejroë, and Australis. No macroscopic lesions were observed in necropsied animals that showed evidence of contact with the agent, although histopathologic lesions (chiefly chronic interstitial nephritis) were observed in 7 out of the 11 microscopically analyzed individuals. Thus, L. interrogans may cause previously unrecorded disease in wild carnivores in Spain. Wild and free-roaming carnivores may not act as reservoir of L. interrogans but as a dead-end hosts, though the dog may act as reservoir of serovar Canicola. Carnivores are apparently good sentinels for the epidemiological monitorization of leptospirosis. PMID:18973450

Millán, Javier; Candela, Mónica G; López-Bao, José Vicente; Pereira, Marian; Jiménez, María Angeles; León-Vizcaíno, Luis

2009-10-01

174

Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in wild animals: report of new host species and ecological implications.  

PubMed

Thelazia callipaeda infects the eyes of carnivores and humans in Far Eastern Asiatic and European countries. Studies have demonstrated the occurrence of T. callipaeda in foxes from areas where canine thelaziosis is endemic. However, there is little information on the role of wild carnivores as hosts of this nematode. From May 2003 to May 2009, a total of 130 carcasses of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes; n=75), wolves (Canis lupus; n=2), beech martens (Martes foina; n=22), brown hares (Lepus europaeus; n=13), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles; n=10), and wild cats (Felis silvestris; n=8) were examined in an area of southern Italy where canine thelaziosis is highly prevalent. At necropsy, animals were examined and nematodes were collected from the conjunctival sacs of both eyes. All nematodes were morphologically identified and at least five specimens from each of the five host species were molecularly processed by PCR amplification and sequencing of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Five out of the six wild animal species examined were found to be infected with eyeworms. The overall infection rate, excluding the Eurasian badgers that were all negative, was 39.1%. All the 189 adult nematodes collected (intensity of infection=4+/-2.2) were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda. The molecular analysis confirmed that the only haplotype of T. callipaeda circulating in Europe (i.e., haplotype 1) is present in that area. The competence of red foxes, wolves, beech martens, brown hares, and wild cats as definitive hosts for T. callipaeda is discussed in relationship to their ecology and their likely exposure to the vector Phortica variegata in the study area. The role the wild fauna plays in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals is also discussed. PMID:19782474

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; DiGeronimo, Peter M; Brianti, Emanuele; Testini, Gabriella; Traversa, Donato; Lia, Riccardo P

2009-12-23

175

Presence of Bartonella species in wild carnivores of northern Spain.  

PubMed

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R A; Barral, Marta

2012-02-01

176

Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles).

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; Garcia-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

2012-01-01

177

A mathematical model for the control of diseases in wildlife populations: culling, vaccination and fertility control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances have permitted the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) to be vaccinated against rabies in order to control the European epidemic. Vaccination is also the preferred long-term strategy for controlling bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) (TB) in the European badger (Meles meles) in England. We discuss a model to compare the efficacy of various disease control strategies, including temporary and permanent

G. C. Smith; C. L. Cheeseman

2002-01-01

178

Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin: An apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian Basin upper ocean was appreciably fresher in 2010 than in 2007–2008Change in salinity due to local melt cannot account for the anomalyObserved fresh water attributed to a 2009 shift in the atmospheric circulation

M.-L. Timmermans; A. Proshutinsky; R. A. Krishfield; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; T. P. Stanton; J. M. Toole

2011-01-01

179

Deep water changes in the Eurasian Basin and in the Greenland Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decades, not only upper waters but also the deepest layers of the Arctic Ocean have been warming. Observations show that he rate of warming varies largely in the different basins with the fastest warming in the deep Greenland Sea (ca. 10-1°C per decade) and the Eurasian Basin featuring an intermediate rate of ca. 10-2°C per decade. While the warming in the Greenland Sea is due to ongoing export of warm deep waters from the Arctic Ocean and in the same time cease of deep convection of cold water, the reason of Eurasian Basin deep warming is less clear. We discuss possible causes as changes in the waters involved in slope convection or geothermal heating.

Schauer, Ursula; Somavilla, Raquel; Budéus, Gereon; Behrendt, Axel; Rabe, Benjamin

2014-05-01

180

Repository of Eurasian influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase reverse genetics vectors and recombinant viruses  

PubMed Central

Reverse genetics can be used to produce recombinant influenza A viruses containing virtually every desired combination of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using the virus backbone of choice. Here, a repository of plasmids and recombinant viruses representing all contemporary Eurasian HA and NA subtypes, H1–H16 and N1–N9, was established. HA and NA genes were selected based on sequence analyses of influenza virus genes available from public databases. Prototype Eurasian HA and NA genes were cloned in bidirectional reverse genetics plasmids. Recombinant viruses based on the virus backbone of A/PR/8/34, and containing a variety of HA and NA genes were produced in 293T cells. Virus stocks were produced in MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. These plasmids and viruses may be useful for numerous purposes, including influenza virus research projects, vaccination studies, and to serve as reference reagents in diagnostic settings.

Keawcharoen, J.; Spronken, M.I.J; Vuong, O.; Bestebroer, T.M.; Munster, V.J.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E; Rimmelzwaan, G.F; Fouchier, R.A.M.

2010-01-01

181

Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions; EU-FP-7 e-infra ENVRI "Common Operations of Environmental Research Infrastructures" project. New Siberian research infrastructure and data products should be developed in line with the ACTRIS, ICOS and ENVRI approaches. Furthermore, The Pan-Eurasian Experiment will be supported iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem - Atmosphere Processes Study) bringing the PEEX under umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The permafrost regions and boreal forests of the Pan Eurasian area can be identified as a hot spot of climate change research in a global scale. PEEX experiment can be considered as a crucial part of the strategic aims of several international and national roadmaps for climate change research and the development of next-generation research infrastructures. In this work we present the overall Science Plan for the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and report on the progress made in two PEEX science workshops organized in Helsinki in October 2012 and in Moscow in February 2013.

Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

2013-04-01

182

Eurasian and Sub-Saharan African mitochondrial DNA haplogroup influences pseudoexfoliation glaucoma development in Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have a role on the development of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG) in the Saudi Arab population. Methods The mtDNA regulatory region and coding regions comprising mtDNA haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms were sequenced in patients with PEG (n=94), healthy matched controls (free of PEG; n=112) and a healthy Saudi Arab population group (n=810). Results The Eurasian haplogroup T and the Sub-Saharan African Haplogroup L2 confer susceptibility to PEG, whereas the Eurasian haplogroup N1 was associated with reduced risk to develop PEG in the Saudi Arab population. Conclusions Mitochondrial haplogroups T and L2 may play a role in the development of PEG in the Saudi Arabian population.

Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, Jose M.; Osman, Essam A.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.

2011-01-01

183

Nest desertion is not predicted by cuckoldry in the Eurasian penduline tit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engagement in extra-pair copulations is an example of the abundant conflicting interests between males and females over reproduction.\\u000a Potential benefits for females and the risk of cuckoldry for males are expected to have important implications on the evolution\\u000a of parental care. However, whether parents adjust parental care in response to parentage remains unclear. In Eurasian penduline\\u000a tits Remiz pendulinus, which

René E. van Dijk; Lidia A. Mészáros; Marco van der Velde; Tamás Székely; Ákos Pogány; János Szabad; Jan Komdeur

2010-01-01

184

Present-day intra-plate deformation of the Eurasian plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We build on the results of two recent, yet independent, studies. In the first (Warners-Ruckstuhl et al., 2013) the forces on, and stresses within the Eurasian plate were established. In the second (Tesauro et al., 2012) the distribution of mechanically strong and weak parts of the Eurasian plate was found. The aim of our work is to predict lithospheric deformation of the Eurasian plate and to compare it with observations. This constitutes a test of both the force/stress results and of the strength results. Specific questions are to which extent stresses localize in specific regions and whether micro-plates as identified by geodesists arise naturally from the results. Importantly, Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2013) found an ensemble of mechanically consistent force models based on plate interaction forces, lithospheric body forces and convective tractions. Each of these force sets is in mechanical equilibrium. A subset drives Eurasia in the observed direction of absolute motion and generates a stress field in a homogeneous elastic plate that fits observed horizontal stress directions to first order. Deformation models constitute a further test and a possibility to discriminate between the remaining force sets. Following Tesauro et al. (2012) we assume five different compositions for the upper and lower crust. We use their geotherms and crustal thickness maps to estimate vertical distributions of strength at any location within the Eurasian plate. Based on the assumption that horizontal strain rates do not vary with depth allows us to estimate the vertically averaged viscosity of each point. We include major active faults in our mechanical model. We compare our results with GPS velocities, InSAR, seismic, and paleomagnetic observations, which capture present-day and long-term deformation. We discuss various causes for differences.

Garcia-Sancho, Candela; Govers, Rob; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Tesauro, Magdala

2014-05-01

185

Selected di- and tetranucleotide microsatellites from chromosomes 7, 12, 14, and Y in various Eurasian populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite polymorphisms of nine Eurasian populations (>1200 chromosomes) were analyzed for the following loci: i) intronic (gt)n stretches of three T cell receptor (TCR) B loci on chromosome 7 (TCRBV6S1, TCRBV6S3, TCRBV6S7); ii) an intergenic (gt)n repeat in the region between the TCRDV3 and TCRAJ61 elements on chromosome 14; iii) two tetranucleotide simple repeats (D12S66, D12S67), not linked to known

Maria Gomolka; Joachim Hundrieser; Peter Niirnberg; Lutz Roewer; JiJrg T. Epplen; Cornelia Epplen

1994-01-01

186

Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

2013-01-01

187

Veterinary assessment for free-ranging Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) chicks in southeastern Mongolia.  

PubMed

Working as a veterinarian in remote field locations can be physically and intellectually challenging. A collaborative multi-disciplinary approach is often required for successful data collection. Technologies and methodologies frequently need to be modified to work in these harsh field environments. This article will describe a collaboration in southeastern Mongolia collecting blood for sera analytes and physiologic data from Eurasian Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) chicks during a tagging operation. PMID:24331554

Kenny, David E; Bickel, Cynthia L; Reading, Richard P

2013-11-01

188

Influence of Eurasian snow on Indian summer monsoon in NCEP CFSv2 freerun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest version of the state-of-the-art global land-atmosphere-ocean coupled climate forecast system of NCEP has shown considerable improvement in various aspects of the Indian summer monsoon. However, climatological mean dry bias over the Indian sub-continent is further increased as compared to the previous version. Here we have attempted to link this dry bias with climatological mean bias in the Eurasian winter/spring snow, which is one of the important predictors of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). Simulation of interannual variability of the Eurasian snow and its teleconnection with the ISMR are quite reasonable in the model. Using composite analysis it is shown that a positive snow anomaly, which is comparable to the systematic bias in the model, results into significant decrease in the summer monsoon rainfall over the central India and part of the Equatorial Indian Ocean. Decrease in the summer monsoon rainfall is also found to be linked with weaker northward propagation of intraseasonal oscillation (ISO). A barotropic stationary wave triggered by positive snow anomaly over west Eurasia weakens the upper level monsoon circulation, which in turn reduces the zonal wind shear and hence, weakens the northward propagation of summer monsoon ISOs. A sensitivity experiment by reducing snow fall over Eurasian region causes decrease in winter and spring snow depth, which in turn leads to decrease in Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Results from the sensitivity experiment corroborate with those of composite analysis based on long free run. This study suggests that further improvements in the snow parametrization schemes as well as Arctic sea ice are needed to reduce the Eurasian snow bias during winter/spring, which may reduce the dry bias over Indian sub-continent and hence predictability aspect of the model.

Saha, Subodh K.; Pokhrel, Samir; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.

2013-10-01

189

Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta.  

PubMed

The living hyena species (spotted, brown, striped and aardwolf) are remnants of a formerly diverse group of more than 80 fossil species, which peaked in diversity in the Late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma). The fossil history indicates an African origin, and morphological and ancient DNA data have confirmed that living spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) of Africa were closely related to extinct Late Pleistocene cave hyenas from Europe and Asia. The current model used to explain the origins of Eurasian cave hyena populations invokes multiple migrations out of Africa between 3.5-0.35 Ma. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from radiocarbon-dated Chinese Pleistocene hyena specimens to examine the origin of Asian populations, and temporally calibrate the evolutionary history of spotted hyenas. Our results support a far more recent evolutionary timescale (430-163 kya) and suggest that extinct and living spotted hyena populations originated from a widespread Eurasian population in the Late Pleistocene, which was only subsequently restricted to Africa. We developed statistical tests of the contrasting population models and their fit to the fossil record. Coalescent simulations and Bayes Factor analysis support the new radiocarbon-calibrated timescale and Eurasian origins model. The new Eurasian biogeographic scenario proposed for the hyena emphasizes the role of the vast steppe grasslands of Eurasia in contrast to models only involving Africa. The new methodology for combining genetic and geological data to test contrasting models of population history will be useful for a wide range of taxa where ancient and historic genetic data are available. PMID:24320717

Sheng, Gui-Lian; Soubrier, Julien; Liu, Jin-Yi; Werdelin, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Thomson, Vicki A; Tuke, Jonathan; Wu, Lian-Juan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Chen, Quan-Jia; Lai, Xu-Long; Cooper, Alan

2014-02-01

190

The Carpatho-Balkanides and adjacent area: a sector of the Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt (TEMB) was formed during Mesozoic and post-Mesozoic times in the area of the former\\u000a Tethyan ocean on the southern margin of Eurasia, with the Afro-Arabian and Indian plates to the south. It extends from western\\u000a Mediterranean via the Alps and southeastern Europe through the Lesser Caucasus, the Hindu Kush, and the Tibet Plateau to Burma

S. Jankovic

1997-01-01

191

Large-scale geographic patterns of genetic variation in Melica nutans , a widespread Eurasian woodland grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The geographic distribution of allozyme variation within the Eurasian boreo-nemoreal woodland grass Melica nutans L. has been investigated together with a minor subset of other Melica species. Twenty alleles were found at nine polymorphic loci in M. nutans. Allelic richness was highest in areas central in the species' European distribution, i.e. in southern Fennoscandia. High\\u000a population densities, reducing the effects

2002-01-01

192

Russia as a ‘virtual great power’: Implications for its declining role in European and Eurasian security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of analyzing just some recent developments of Russia's domestic, foreign and security policies, this article focuses in particular on mid? and long?term strategic trends and the consequences of Russia's decline for European and Eurasian Security. It argues that Russia is still in a long?term socio?economic decline and it is unrealistic to expect that Moscow will regain its former status

Frank Umbach

2000-01-01

193

Use of winter habitat by roe deer at a northern latitude where Eurasian lynx are present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter climate at northern latitudes is a challenge to small-bodied ungulates, and they modify behaviour to save energy and to increase the likelihood of survival. Also, the ongoing expansion of large carnivores in several European countries can lead to the recovery of (potentially energetically costly) anti-predator behaviours. In an area recently recolonized by Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx, we snow-tracked radio-collared

I. I. Ratikainen; M. Panzacchi; A. Mysterud; J. Odden; J. Linnell; R. Andersen

2007-01-01

194

Detection of a novel and highly divergent coronavirus from asian leopard cats and Chinese ferret badgers in Southern China.  

PubMed

Since an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was averted in 2004, many novel coronaviruses have been recognized from different species, including humans. Bats have provided the most diverse assemblages of coronaviruses, suggesting that they may be the natural reservoir. Continued virological surveillance has proven to be the best way to avert this infectious disease at the source. Here we provide the first description of a previously unidentified coronavirus lineage detected from wild Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis) and Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) during virological surveillance in southern China. Partial genome analysis revealed a typical coronavirus genome but with a unique putative accessory gene organization. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the envelope, membrane, and nucleoprotein structural proteins and the two conserved replicase domains, putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase, of these novel coronaviruses were most closely related to those of group 3 coronaviruses identified from birds, while the spike protein gene was most closely related to that of group 1 coronaviruses from mammals. However, these viruses always fell into an outgroup phylogenetic relationship with respect to other coronaviruses and had low amino acid similarity to all known coronavirus groups, indicating that they diverged early in the evolutionary history of coronaviruses. These results suggest that these viruses may represent a previously unrecognized evolutionary pathway, or possibly an unidentified coronavirus group. This study demonstrates the importance of systematic virological surveillance in market animals for understanding the evolution and emergence of viruses with infectious potential. PMID:17459938

Dong, B Q; Liu, W; Fan, X H; Vijaykrishna, D; Tang, X C; Gao, F; Li, L F; Li, G J; Zhang, J X; Yang, L Q; Poon, L L M; Zhang, S Y; Peiris, J S M; Smith, G J D; Chen, H; Guan, Y

2007-07-01

195

Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2014-01-01

196

Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pal; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-01-01

197

Mortality factors and diseases in free-ranging Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) in Germany.  

PubMed

Detailed postmortem examinations were performed on 167 free-ranging Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) from Germany, collected between September 1998 and December 2008 to evaluate causes of death and diseases. The most common causes of mortality were traumatic injuries (n=105, 62.9%) from collisions with power lines (n=39, 23.4%) and wire fences (n=12, 7.2%). A group of 28 Eurasian Cranes (16.8%) died from organophosphate intoxication. Predation by White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) occurred in four cases (2.4%). Pathologic changes due to infectious diseases were associated with Aspergillus spp. (n=7, 4.2%), endoparasites (n=7, 4.2%), avian poxvirus (n=6, 3.6%), Mycobacterium spp. (n=2, 1.2%), and adenovirus infection (n=1, 0.6%). A severe Strigea spp. infection (n=1, 0.6%) and a leiomyosarcoma (n=1, 0.6%) were newly recognized diseases in Eurasian Cranes in this study. PMID:21719827

Fanke, Jane; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Krone, Oliver

2011-07-01

198

Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) - implications for future reintroductions  

PubMed Central

Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487–489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction.

Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syruckova, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

2014-01-01

199

Active faults, stress field and plate motion along the Indo-Eurasian plate boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active faults of the Himalayas and neighboring areas are direct indicators of Recent and sub-Recent crustal movements due to continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The direction of the maximum horizontal shortening or horizontal compressive stress axes deduced from the strike and type of active faulting reveals a characteristic regional stress field along the colliding boundary. The trajectories of the stress axes along the transcurrent faults and the Eastern Himalayan Front, are approximately N-S, parallel to the relative motion of the two plates. However, along the southern margin of the Eurasian plate, they are NE-SW in the Western Himalayan Front and NW-SE to E-W in the Kirthar-Sulaiman Front, which is not consistent with the direction of relative plate motion. A simple model is proposed in order to explain the regional stress pattern. In this model, the tectonic sliver between the transcurrent faults and the plate margin, is dragged northward by the oblique convergence of the Indian plate. Thus, the direction of relative motion between the tectonic sliver and the Indian plate changes regionally, causing local compressive stress fields. Judging from the long-term slip rates along the active faults, the relative motion between the Indian and Eurasian plates absorbed in the colliding zone is about one fourth of its total amount; the rest may be consumed along the extensive strike-slip faults in Tibet and China.

Nakata, Takashi; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Khan, S. H.

1990-09-01

200

Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 3. Feasibility study report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferred alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.

NONE

1994-08-01

201

Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001 and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1). NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant ( p?0.05) positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface. LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes; cropland, grassland, and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic. Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC, we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant ( p?0.05) negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought. In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case, represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland, and also associated with statistically significant ( p?0.05) negative NDVI trends. Relatively small clusters of statistically significant ( p?0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region. Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe, Russia, and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets. Here, we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt, involving both broader climatic forcing, and narrower anthropogenic impacts, than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

Wright, Christopher K.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

2012-06-01

202

Ancient mitochondrial DNA and the genetic history of Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in Europe.  

PubMed

After centuries of human hunting, the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber had disappeared from most of its original range by the end of the 19th century. The surviving relict populations are characterized by both low genetic diversity and strong phylogeographical structure. However, it remains unclear whether these attributes are the result of a human-induced, late Holocene bottleneck or already existed prior to this reduction in range. To investigate genetic diversity in Eurasian beaver populations during the Holocene, we obtained mitochondrial control region DNA sequences from 48 ancient beaver samples and added 152 modern sequences from GenBank. Phylogeographical analyses of the data indicate a differentiation of European beaver populations into three mitochondrial clades. The two main clades occur in western and eastern Europe, respectively, with an early Holocene contact zone in eastern Europe near a present-day contact zone. A divergent and previously unknown clade of beavers from the Danube Basin survived until at least 6000 years ago, but went extinct during the transition to modern times. Finally, we identify a recent decline in effective population size of Eurasian beavers, with a stronger bottleneck signal in the western than in the eastern clade. Our results suggest that the low genetic diversity and the strong phylogeographical structure in recent beavers are artefacts of human hunting-associated population reductions. While beaver populations have been growing rapidly since the late 19th century, genetic diversity within modern beaver populations remains considerably reduced compared to what was present prior to the period of human hunting and habitat reduction. PMID:24795996

Horn, Susanne; Prost, Stefan; Stiller, Mathias; Makowiecki, Daniel; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Benecke, Norbert; Pucher, Erich; Hufthammer, Anne K; Schouwenburg, Charles; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

2014-04-01

203

Virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

Enterococci are ubiquitous microorganisms found as part of the normal intestinal microbiota of many animals such as the free-ranging Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758). In this work, twenty-nine enterococci isolated from fecal samples of Eurasian otters free-living in reservoirs and associated river stretches in South Portugal were identified and typed by conventional/molecular methods and screened for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Identification allocated the isolates to the species Enterococcus faecalis (19), E. faecium (9) and E. durans (1) and PCR-fingerprinting revealed their high genomic diversity. Regarding virulence factors, three isolates produced cytolysin and six were gelatinase-positive. Genes ace and acm were detected in five enterococci each, ebpABC in seventeen, gelE in fourteen and cylA in three. All isolates showed resistance patterns and antibiotic resistance genes tet(M) and pbp5 were detected in seventeen isolates each, whereas vanB and vanD were identified in thirteen and five, respectively, being most van-harboring isolates members of E. faecium. The aac(6')-Ie-aph (2?) gene, encoding for gentamicin resistance, was observed in all gentamicin-resistant enterococci. Since all isolates harbor virulence and/or antibiotic resistance traits, the role of free-living Eurasian otters in the dissemination of virulent/resistant enterococci among other animals sharing the same ecological niche cannot be disregarded, as well as the health risk they may represent for humans directly interacting with them or their habitat. PMID:23375652

Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Nóbrega, Cláudia Silva; Ribeiro, Tânia; Pedroso, Nuno M; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tenreiro, Rogério; Tavares, Luís; Vilela, Cristina Lobo; Oliveira, Manuela

2013-05-01

204

Large-scale serosurvey of Besnoitia besnoiti in free-living carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

The disease bovine besnoitiosis is responsible for severe economic losses caused by the protozoan Besnoitia besnoiti. The identity of the definitive host (DH) of this parasite has yet to be determined, although it is presumed to be a carnivore. With the aim of advancing in the identification of B. besnoiti DH, a necessary step in implementing control strategies, the contact rate of 205 free-roaming carnivores with this parasite in Spain was studied. The study included 16 wolves (Canis lupus), 41 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 21 pine martens (Martes martes), eight stone martens (M. foina), 12 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 18 common genets (Genetta genetta), five Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 28 European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), 43 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus), and 13 other animals belonging to five other species. Serum samples were analysed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by two western immunoblots (WB, one with tachyzoite and the other with bradyzoite antigen). Twelve individuals (eight of which were cats) seroconverted by one or other of these techniques but no individual showed seroconversion by IFAT and one of the WBs. The results provided no evidence to support the idea that within the geographical regions covered by the analysis wild carnivores are implicated in the transmission of B. besnoiti in Spain. PMID:22770702

Millán, Javier; Sobrino, Raquel; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Oleaga, Alvaro; Gortazar, Christian; Schares, Gereon

2012-11-23

205

Phylogenetic inference and comparative evolution of a complex microsatellite and its flanking regions in carnivores.  

PubMed

We sequenced locus Mel 08, with complex short repetitive motifs, in 24 carnivore species belonging to five different families in order to explore mutational changes in the region in the context of locus and species evolution. This non-coding locus includes up to four different parts or repetitive motifs showing size variability. The variability consists of repeat additions and deletions; substitutions, insertions and/or deletions creating interruptions in the repeat; and substitutions, insertions and deletions in the flanking regions. The locus has different repeat expansions in different carnivore subfamilies. We hypothesize that the complexity of this locus is due to a high mutation rate at an ancestral DNA sequence and, thus, prompts the emergence of repeats at mutational hotspots. High levels of homoplasy were evident, with nine electromorphs representing 28 haplotypes never shared across species. The variability in flanking regions was informative for phylogenetic inference and their evolutionary content. Tree topologies were congruent with relevant hypotheses on current conflicts in carnivore phylogenies, such as: (i) the monophyly of Lutrinae, (ii) the paraphyly of Mustelinae, (iii) the basal position of the Eurasian badger, Meles meles , in the Mustelidae, (iv) the classification of skunks as a separate family, Mephitidae, and (v) the placement of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens , as a monotypic family, Ailuridae, at a basal position in the Musteloidea. PMID:16174341

Domingo-Roura, Xavier; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Saeki, Midori; Marmi, Josep

2005-06-01

206

[Distribution of the male lineages of Genghis Khan's descendants in northern Eurasian populations].  

PubMed

Data on the variation of 12 microsatellite loci of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3 were used to screen lineages included in the cluster of Genghis Khan's descendants in 18 northern Eurasian populations (Altaian Kazakhs, Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Khakassians, Shorians, Tyvans, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Buryats, Khamnigans, Evenks, Mongols, Kalmyks, Tajiks, Kurds, Persians, and Russians; the total sample size was 1437 people). The highest frequency of haplotypes from the cluster of the Genghis Khan's descendants was found in Mongols (34.8%). In Russia, this cluster was found in Altaian Kazakhs (8.3%), Altaians (3.4%), Buryats (2.3%), Tyvans (1.9%), and Kalmyks (1.7%). PMID:17486763

Derenko, M V; Maliarchuk, B A; Wozniak, M; Denisova, G A; Dambueva, I K; Dorzhu, C M; Grzybowski, T; Zakharov, I A

2007-03-01

207

The DATED Chronology and Reconstruction of the Deglaciation of the Eurasian Ice Sheets (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled a database and a GIS with dates and geomorphologic features that are relevant for the Eurasian ice sheets through the Last Glacial Maximum and the following deglaciation. All elements incorporated in the database are from published sources. Based on this database (called DATED), we made time-slice reconstructions of the Eurasian ice sheet configuration at thousand-year intervals between 25 and 10 thousand calendar years ago. To facilitate the handling of error estimates in ice sheet modeling using our reconstructions, we made three reconstructions for every time slice: a maximum, a “probable”, and a minimum ice sheet configuration, based on the limitations of the data. These limitations include dating uncertainty, as well as uncertainty in geographic and stratigraphic correlations, and lack of data. All these various types of uncertainty had to be translated into a pure location uncertainty of the ice margin at the fixed time of each time slice. Therefore, the maximum and minimum reconstructions do not represent quantitative error margins (such as standard deviations), but give a reasonable indication of the magnitude of uncertainty for each reconstruction. The total ice sheet area was calculated for the Eurasian ice sheets in each time slice, done separately for the max, probable and min reconstructions. The results indicate that the maximum glaciated area, of about 5 million km2, occurred between 22 and 19 thousand years ago. The uncertainty for the reconstructions amounts to about 1 million km2 (about 1/5 of the maximum area) for most of the record before the Younger Dryas, indicating significant gaps in the knowledge of the Eurasian ice sheet configuration. DATED offers several new, important features: 1) Data and reconstructions are stored in a digital format, which can be easily incorporated into models, and also facilitates recalibration/reinterpretation; 2) References are supplied for all data, facilitating validation, reinterpretation and development of the reconstructions; 3) The ice sheet reconstructions are supplied with error estimates; 4) The data will be available on the internet to the scientific community; 5) The database and GIS can be searched using spatial queries, and the reconstructions can be used for calculations. The DATED database and GIS will significantly facilitate the identification of the areas and time periods where data is lacking, which can guide future studies and refine the reconstructions.

Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J.; Lohne, O. S.

2009-12-01

208

Seismicity and Deep Structure of the Joint Area of Eurasian, North American and Okhotomorsk Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern geodynamics and seismicity of Far-Eastern region is mostly determined by interaction of Eurasian, Pacific, North American and supposed Amur and Okhotomorsk plates. The paper presents materials on seismicity, deep structure and space geodesy. These materials are used as a base for research the joint region of the plates. All earthquakes of this zone are aroused in the middle and in the bottom parts of the Earth`s crust at the depth of 7-30km. Seismic investigations and DSS observations materials show that seismic process is proceeding at pressure conditions. According to the DSS materials at the regional geotransect 2-DV (Magadan - Vrangel island) there is registered significant decrease of boundary velocity values (to 7.5-7.7 km/sec) along the Moho in the joint zone and local raise of the Moho. At the deep seismographic section in this zone we can see extremely heterogeneous middle crust, reduction of reflection contrast in the bottom of the crust and in the Moho section. In this zone we can also see reduction of average (effective) velocity in all stratum of the Earth`s crust, it can be an evidence of high fragmentation of the Earth`s crust structures. These materials, along with high seismicity at great depths up to 30 km, show appearance of the joint region of Okhotomorsk and North American plates not only in the upper part of the Earth`s crust, but also in the middle and in the bottom parts of the crust and in the Moho section. Along with the profile data of the geotransect 2-DV there are presented modern materials of areal seismological investigations for a section of joint of three big plates: earthquakes quantity distribution, total dedicated seismic energy and K- parameter, connected with velocities of P- and S-waves within seismic active layer of the Earth`s crust. By these data, the boundary of North American plate with Eurasian plate in the north and with Okhotomorsk plate in the south is more contrasting. The most severe earthquakes are also connected with this boundary. Joint area of Eurasian and Okhotomorsk plates is less contrasting. There are also presented some preliminary materials on sub-latitudinal geophysical profile Yakutsk - Susuman, which was realized by The Federal Subsoil Resources Management Agency in 2011-2012. Further complex interpretation of geology-geophysics materials of this profile allow to specify the boundary of Eurasian and Okhotomorsk plates.

Soloviev, V. M.; Seleznev, V. S.; Salnikov, A. S.; Timofeev, V. Y.; Shibaev, S. V.; Petrov, A.; Liseikin, A. V.; Shenmayer, A. E.

2013-05-01

209

[Strigiphilus strigis (Mallophaga: Philopteridae) in a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo interpositus) in Turkey].  

PubMed

In this study, a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo b. interpositus) was brought to the laboratory of Parasitology Department and was inspected for ectoparasites. Five Mallophaga specimens were collected from the eagle owl and they were mounted on slides in Faure forte medium after being cleared in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the lice were inspected and measured under the light microscope. All of the specimens were identified as Strigiphilus strigis (Pontoppidan 1763). This paper presents the first detection of S. strigis in Turkey. PMID:17471417

Dik, Bilal; Uslu, U?ur

2007-01-01

210

Tetrameres (Tetrameres) grusi (Shumakovich, 1946) (Nematoda: Tetrameridae) in Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) in central Iran.  

PubMed

The proventriculi of 11 Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) from central Iran were examined for the existence of parasitic helminths. Preliminary reports suggested that the death of these birds was related to untimely cold weather. Nine proventriculi (82%) were heavily infected by the nematode Tetrameres grusi. Glandular structure of the infected proventriculi was replaced by epithelial atrophy but significant inflammatory reactions were not observed in any of the infected organs. In serious infections, the nematode produced vast structural and functional changes, causing organ dysfunction and glandular necrosis. The coincidence of heavy helminth infection at times of environmental stress may lead to debilitation, wasting, and perhaps mortality in migratory cranes. PMID:16870864

Mowlavi, G R; Massoud, J; Mobedi, I; Gharagozlou, M J; Rezaian, M; Solaymani-Mohammadi, S

2006-04-01

211

Response of the Independent Scientific Group on Cattle TB (ISG) to the Report of the Independent Scientific Review of the Randomised Badger Culling Trial and Associated Epidemiological Research Professor F. J. Bourne CBE MRCVS (Chairman)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The report of the Review Group (RG) addresses many of the complex issues concerned with the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) and associated epidemiological research. The ISG welcomes the RG's endorsement of its work and, while we agree with many of the RG comments and recommendations and are reassured that no new lines of inquiry are identified, we have

C. A. Donnelly; Cox FRS; J. P. McInerney OBE; G. Gettinby; W. I. Morrison; R. Woodroffe

212

Monitoring testicular activity of male Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx by fecal testosterone metabolite measurement.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify relevant fecal testosterone metabolites in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) using HPLC analysis and to evaluate the specificity of two testosterone immunoassays against these fecal metabolites. Finally, fecal hormone analysis was used to characterize seasonal reproductive activity of captive male Eurasian and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx. Fecal samples from a male Eurasian lynx who received an i.v. injection of [3H]testosterone were subjected to HPLC analysis. All HPLC fractions were analyzed for radioactivity and androgen content by two testosterone immune assays (EIA and Testosterone-Immulite kits, DPC Biermann, Germany). Furthermore, fecal samples from four Eurasian lynx males (n=174) and three Iberian lynx (n=52) were collected throughout the year and fecal testosterone metabolites were determined with Testosterone-Immulite assay. HPLC separation of radiolabeled Eurasian lynx fecal extract indicated that the majority of testosterone metabolites are substances with a higher polarity than testosterone. Only minor proportion of radioactivity co-eluted with authentic testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Enzymatic hydrolysis and solvolysis of the fecal extract were insufficient to liberate testosterone. After solvolysis relatively more activity was eluated the position of DHT, but the majority of metabolites remained unaffected. The EIA measured substantial amount of immunoreactivity, which corresponded with two radioactive peaks. Additionally, both immunoassays recognized two metabolites, which were only minor components according to their radioactivity. The Immulite assay was able to recognize a metabolite at the position of dihydrotestosterone. HPLC separation of Iberian lynx feces extracts revealed a similar metabolite pattern determined by EIA that were typical for Eurasian lynx fecal extracts. Simultaneous analyses of fecal samples with both testosterone assays provided comparative results for both lynx species (Eurasian lynx, r2=0.488; p<0.001; Iberian lynx, r2=0.85, p<0.0001). Thus, seasonal reproductive activity of male Eurasian lynx was demonstrated also by Immulite -assay, confirming high testosterone levels during breeding season in March/April as previously documented with EIA. Preliminary results on testosterone measurements in Iberian lynx feces confirmed the suitability of the applied Immulite test in this highly endangered species. PMID:16843462

Jewgenow, K; Naidenko, S V; Goeritz, F; Vargas, A; Dehnhard, M

2006-11-01

213

Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins  

PubMed Central

Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol 14C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3–6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic.

Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Gustafsson, Orjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Wang, Zhiheng; Montlucon, Daniel B.; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.

2013-01-01

214

Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge  

PubMed Central

Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci.

Mazieres, Stephane; Myres, Natalie M.; Lin, Alice A.; Temori, Shah Aga; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Witzel, Michael; King, Roy J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Chiaroni, Jacques

2013-01-01

215

Intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher (Martes pennanti) and a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

Intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes was diagnosed in a 6-year-old fisher (Martes pennanti) and a geriatric Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Clinical signs included lethargy and inappetance in both animals and vomiting and occasional diarrhea in the fisher. The diagnosis in both cases was made using cytology of fresh tissue, histology of fixed tissues, and immunohistochemistry. Granules were seen most clearly on cytologic examination of direct impressions from fresh tissue. Because granules were absent in most histologic sections, cytology of fresh tissue was essential for the diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry determined that the neoplastic cells had positive membranous immunoreactivity to CD3 and were negative for CD79a, which was consistent with alimentary T-cell lymphoma. The disease course in both animals was presumed to be aggressive, with rapid progression of clinical signs, high mitotic index and effacement of local intestinal architecture in both cases, and metastatic disease in the fisher. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher and a Eurasian otter. PMID:20597223

Bartlett, Susan L; Imai, Denise M; Trnpkiewicz, John G; Garner, Michael M; Ogasawara, Seigo; Stokol, Tracy; Kiupel, Matti; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V

2010-06-01

216

The Cenozoic Eurasian plate is not a single rigid plate: clues from paleomagnetism. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cenozoic paleomagnetic inclination anomaly in Central Asia has been explained as a generalized error in the sedimentary magnetic field record over Asia due to an inclination flattening mechanism or as a persistent anomalous non-dipolar component of the magnetic field throughout the Tertiary. We propose that the inclination anomaly does not primarily result from either of these mechanisms. We present an analysis of the Asian paleomagnetic database for Meso-Cenozoic times from which we conclude that the inclination anomaly is most likely related to an underestimated global plate-tectonics cause. Based on this analysis, we propose that the wide so-called Eurasian plate has undergone sinistral transpressive north-south relative movements between its western and eastern parts since the end of the Cretaceous. These Cenozoic relative movements might have been located along the Ural Mountain chain with also some components along the Tornquist-Tesseyre line in central Europe. Therefore, we conclude that the Eurasian plate is not a rigid plate as commonly considered, at least since the late Mesozoic.

Cogné, J.

2013-12-01

217

Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive

John D. C. Linnell; Henrik Broseth; John Odden; Erlend Birkeland Nilsen

2010-01-01

218

Terrestrial water budget of the Eurasian pan-Arctic from GRACE satellite measurements during 2003–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the controls of the terrestrial water budget over the Eurasian pan-Arctic drainage region from 2003 to 2009 by combining observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) with reanalysis estimates of net precipitation and observations of river discharge from gauges. Of particular interest are the expansive permafrost regions. Thawing permafrost has been implicated to contribute to the

Felix W. Landerer; Jean O. Dickey; Andreas Güntner

2010-01-01

219

Different benthic size-compartments and their relationship to sediment chemistry in the deep Eurasian Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Arctic Expedition ARK VlII\\/3 (August to September 1991) with RV 'Polarstern', the macrofauna, meiofauna, foraminifera, bacteria were sampled and sediment chemistry was deter- mined at 13 stations along a transect from the Barents Sea slope across the deep Arctic Eurasian Basins towards the Lomonosov Ridge. Water depths ranged from 258 to 4427 m. In general, higher values for

I Kröncke; A Vanreusel; M Vincx; J Wollenburg; A Mackensen; G Liebezeit; B Behrends

2000-01-01

220

Epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities on Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and Myriophyllum alterniflorum in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the survival and proliferation of invertebrates in freshwater eco- systems. Epiphytic invertebrate communities may be altered through the replacement of native macrophytes by exotic mac- rophytes, even when the macrophytes are close relatives and have similar morphology. We sampled an invasive exotic macrophyte, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and

Sarah J. Wilson; Anthony Ricciardi

2009-01-01

221

Injured Eurasian Ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, Release an Alarm Pheromone that Could be Used to Control their Dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian ruffe, an undesirable species of fish that was introduced into the Great Lakes from Eurasia, employs an alarm pheromone which might be useful in bio-control. This pheromone is released from ruffe skin when it is damaged and serves to reduce the swimming and feeding activity of exposed conspecifics while repelling fish from areas treated with it. Responsiveness to this

Peter J. Maniak; Ryan D. Lossing; Peter W. Sorensen

2000-01-01

222

Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin: An apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected by an autonomous ice-based observatory that drifted into the Eurasian Basin between April and November 2010 indicate that the upper ocean was appreciably fresher than in 2007 and 2008. Sea ice and snowmelt over the course of the 2010 drift amounted to an input of less than 0.5 m of liquid freshwater to the ocean (comparable to the

M.-L. Timmermans; A. Proshutinsky; R. A. Krishfield; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; T. P. Stanton; J. M. Toole

2011-01-01

223

Prolonged Variscan to Alpine history of an active Eurasian margin (Georgia, Armenia) revealed by 40Ar\\/ 39Ar dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variscan to Alpine magmatic activity on the North Tethys active Eurasian margin in the Caucasus region is revealed by 40Ar\\/39Ar ages from rocks sampled in the Georgian Crystalline basement and exotic blocs in the Armenian foreland basin. These ages provide insights into the long duration of magmatic activity and related metamorphic history of the margin, with: (1) a phase of

Y. Rolland; M. Sosson; Sh. Adamia; N. Sadradze

2011-01-01

224

A record of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae) in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra L.) from Poland.  

PubMed

Opisthorchid digenean Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) was isolated from liver bile ducts of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) found dead in the fishing pond complex near Wroc?aw (Lower Silesia, SW. Poland) in March 2009. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the otter from Poland, the description, biometrical data and figure are presented. PMID:22165735

Hildebrand, Joanna; Popio?ek, Marcin; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Piróg, Agnieszka

2011-01-01

225

Linking geological evidence from the Eurasian suture zones to a regional Indian Ocean plate tectonic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a revised regional plate tectonic model for the Indian Ocean from the Late Jurassic to present, which assimilates both marine geophysical data constraining the seafloor spreading history as well as a variety of geological observations from the Eurasian collision zone. This model includes relative motion between Greater India, Sri Lanka, West Australia, East Antarctica, East Madagascar, the Seychelles and Argoland, a continental sliver which began migrating towards Eurasia in the Late Jurassic, forming the northern margins of Greater India and western Australia. Recently collected data offshore northwest Australia suggest that the majority of Greater India reached only halfway along the West Australian margin in an Early Mesozoic reconstruction, bounded by the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. The revised geometries and relative motion histories redefine the timing and nature of collisional events, as well as the history of back-arc basins and intra-oceanic arcs, such as the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc in northwest India and Pakistan. Abundant ophiolites have been identified throughout the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone, between the Indian-Himalaya and Tibet, several have boninitic compositions and almost all date to either the Mid Jurassic or late Early Cretaceous. Further evidence suggests that an intra-oceanic arc collided with Greater India before colliding with Eurasia. Our model features a transform boundary running north of East Africa, which initiated an oceanic arc following short-lived compression between the western and central Mesotethys in the Late Jurassic, coinciding with the initial motion of Argoland. The arc developed through extension and ophiolite generation until at least the mid-Cretaceous and consumed a narrow thinned sliver of West Argoland between ~120-65 Ma. The arc remained active in the same position until its eventual collision with Greater India ~55 Ma. The eastern portion of the intra-oceanic arc accreted to eastern Eurasia (near Burma) causing anticlockwise rotation/retreat of the margin until collision between the main portion of Greater India and central Eurasian margin took place ~36 Ma. This relatively young collision between India and Eurasia is supported by subduction-related magmatism, which continued into the Late Eocene. The Upper Eocene Pengqu Formation also suggests that marine conditions prevailed south of the suture zone until that time, while the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene Gangrinboche conglomerates mark the initial mixing and deposition of both Eurasian and Indian-sourced sediments.

Gibbons, A.; Aitchison, J.; Müller, R.; Whittaker, J.

2012-12-01

226

Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical equilibrium of tectonic plates implies that lithospheric edge and body forces are balanced by forces arising from interaction with the underlying mantle. We use this quantitative physical relation to integrate existing modelling approaches of lithosphere dynamics and mantle flow into a new combined approach applied to the Eurasian Plate. By combining a thorough analysis of lithospheric forces with the requirement of torque balance we constrain the orientation of the torque on Eurasia arising from mantle tractions. We use this constraint to evaluate convective mantle flow models driven by tomographic or subduction history model anomalies and observed plate motion. Mantle forcing is considered through both shear at the bottom of the plate and induced dynamic topography. We find that instantaneous semi-analytic flow models without lateral viscosity variations generate tractions that meet the constraint from Eurasian lithosphere dynamics, but only for specific ranges of mantle flow parameters. Of the explored set of mantle anomaly models, only mantle flow models based on S-wave tomography anomalies can balance Eurasia for realistic viscosity profiles and velocity-density scaling. Choices in mantle density forcing and viscosity are crucial in that they govern the relative magnitude of tractions due to convective mantle flow ('active tractions') and resistive tractions due to plate motion ('passive tractions'). We find mechanical balance is only achieved for similar torque magnitudes of active and passive shear. The two shear contributions do however in no case balance each other and a considerable, dominant, net torque from edge forces is required to balance total mantle tractions and lithospheric body forces (LBFs). Our analysis provides a range of mechanically consistent total force sets acting on the Eurasian Plate. Using this result we find that mantle buoyancy forces and LBFs acting on Eurasia itself are important driving forces but do not drive Eurasia in the observed direction. Continental collision at Eurasia's southern boundary significantly deviates Eurasia northwards. Our combined torque balance approach, in which mantle tractions from convective mantle flow modelling are combined with explicitly applied edge forces, thus emphasizes the role of plate interactions to the dynamics of tectonic plates.

Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

2012-06-01

227

A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies.  

PubMed

The head and mouthpart structures of 11 species of Eurasian scorpionflies represent three extinct and closely related families during a 62-million-year interval from the late Middle Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous. These taxa had elongate, siphonate (tubular) proboscides and fed on ovular secretions of extinct gymnosperms. Five potential ovulate host-plant taxa co-occur with these insects: a seed fern, conifer, ginkgoopsid, pentoxylalean, and gnetalean. The presence of scorpionfly taxa suggests that siphonate proboscides fed on gymnosperm pollination drops and likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms during the mid-Mesozoic, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding flies, moths, and beetles on angiosperms. All three scorpionfly families became extinct during the later Early Cretaceous, coincident with global gymnosperm-to-angiosperm turnover. PMID:19892981

Ren, Dong; Labandeira, Conrad C; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr; Shih, ChungKun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Logan, M Amelia V; Hotton, Carol L; Dilcher, David

2009-11-01

228

Distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, in the St. Clair-Detroit River system in 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submersed macrophytes were surveyed at 595 stations located throughout the St. Clair-Detroit River system between Lakes Huron and Erie, 23 August to 13 October, 1978. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), first recorded in the system in 1974, became the fourth most common submersed macrophyte in the system by 1978. However, it has not been reported as a widespread nuisance in this system as it has in many other large water bodies in the United States. Observations made during the present study, and interpretations of an aerial photograph, suggest that M. spicatum was a minor nuisance to small boat navigation in portions of the system. Information presented in this study provides a baseline against which future changes in the occurrence of M. spicatum in the St. Clair-Detroit River system can be measured.

Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

1984-01-01

229

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from Portugal.  

PubMed

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections were found in two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, L. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in February and March 2010 in Castelo Branco, Portugal. At postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. Acid-fast organisms were isolated from gastrointestinal tissue samples via bacteriologic culture. These organisms were identified as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, direct IS900 PCR-positive results were obtained for multiple organs of both animals. This is the first report of MAP infection of otters in Portugal. PMID:23505727

Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Matos, Manuela; Alvares, Sofia; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

2013-03-01

230

A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies  

PubMed Central

The head and mouthpart structures of 11 species of Eurasian scorpionflies represent three extinct and closely related families during a 62-million-year interval from the late Middle Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous. These taxa had elongate, siphonate (tubular) proboscides and fed on ovular secretions of extinct gymnosperms. Five potential ovulate host-plant taxa co-occur with these insects: a seed fern, conifer, ginkgoopsid, pentoxylalean, and gnetalean. The presence of scorpionfly taxa suggests that siphonate proboscides fed on gymnosperm pollination drops and likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms during the mid-Mesozoic, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding flies, moths, and beetles on angiosperms. All three scorpionfly families became extinct during the later Early Cretaceous, coincident with global gymnosperm-to-angiosperm turnover.

Ren, Dong; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr; Shih, ChungKun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Logan, M. Amelia V.; Hotton, Carol L.; Dilcher, David

2010-01-01

231

New constraining datasets for Eurasian ice sheet modelling: chronology, fjords and bedrock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing resolution of ice sheet models demands more detailed data for constraining and for comparison of results. Important data for this include ice sheet chronology, bed conditions and topography. We address this by compiling published data into three new constraining data sets. The Eurasian ice sheet chronology is reconstructed in our database-GIS solution (called DATED; Gyllencreutz et al., 2007). In DATED, we are building a database with all available dates, and a GIS with all geomorphologic features, that are relevant for the ice configuration through the Last Glacial Maximum and the following deglaciation, based on results from the literature. Reconstructions of the ice sheet configuration are presented as thousand-year time slices of the advance and decay of the Eurasian ice sheet between 25 and 10 thousand calendar years ago, based on chronologic, geomorphologic and stratigraphic data from the literature. To facilitate handling of error estimates in ice sheet modeling using our reconstructions, we made three reconstructions for every time slice: a maximum, a minimum and a "probable" ice sheet configuration, based on the limitations of the data at hand. The estimated uncertainty for the reconstructions was calculated in the GIS, and amounts to about 1 million km2 (about 1/5 of the maximum area) for most of the record before the Younger Dryas, indicating significant gaps in the knowledge of the Eurasian ice sheet configuration. In order to facilitate modeling of fast ice flow and ice streams, we compiled information about exposed bedrock from digital Quaternary maps in scale 1:1 million by the geological surveys in Norway, Sweden, Finland, UK and Ireland, together with published drift thickness estimates. The bed conditions data set was generalized to a grid resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 degrees. The Norwegian fjords are important for topographic steering; especially for fast glacier flow and draw-down from more central parts of the ice sheet. However, most fjords are less than a few kilometers wide and therefore are not captured even by high-resolution models. Therefore, we assembled information about the major Norwegian fjords, to a dataset containing fjord width, average depth, post-glacial sediment thickness, threshold elevation and drainage direction, also generalized to a 0.25 x 0.25 degrees grid resolution. The implementation of these new constraining datasets and the associated impact thereof is demonstrated by an ensemble of glacial cycle simulations using a three-dimensional thermo-mechanically coupled glacial systems model. References: Gyllencreutz, R., Mangerud, J., Svendsen, J.-I. & Lohne, Ø. 2007. DATED - A GIS-based Reconstruction and dating Database of the Eurasian Deglaciation. Applied Quaternary research in the central part of glaciated terrain. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 46, 113-120.

Gyllencreutz, R.; Tarasov, L.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, Ø. S.

2009-04-01

232

Recent shift in Eurasian boreal forest greening response may be associated with warmer and drier summers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ecosystems in the northern high latitudes are currently experiencing drastic warming, and recent studies suggest that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual relationships in boreal forest greening and climate over the last three decades using newly available satellite vegetation data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation, a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted western central Eurasian boreal forests into a warmer and drier regime. This may be the leading cause for the emergence of large-scale negative correlations between summer temperatures and forest greenness. If such a regime shift would be sustained, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by heat and drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may proceed more rapidly than anticipated.

Buermann, Wolfgang; Parida, Bikash; Jung, Martin; MacDonald, Glen M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Reichstein, Markus

2014-03-01

233

Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 21b from a Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo).  

PubMed

A case of fatal salmonellosis in a Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) from Bursa Province (northwestern Turkey) is described. The organs of the bird were examined histopathologically and microbiologically. Macroscopic and microscopic findings were consistent with a Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) phage type (PT) 21b was isolated from the liver and spleen in pure culture and from the intestine. The isolate was susceptible to amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. This is the first report of an isolation of salmonellae from a wild bird species from Turkey and the first time S. Enteritidis PT21b has been reported from Turkey. PMID:17092905

Kocabiyik, A Levent; Cangul, I Taci; Alasonyalilar, Aylin; Dedicova, Daniela; Karpiskova, Renata

2006-07-01

234

Nest desertion is not predicted by cuckoldry in the Eurasian penduline tit.  

PubMed

Engagement in extra-pair copulations is an example of the abundant conflicting interests between males and females over reproduction. Potential benefits for females and the risk of cuckoldry for males are expected to have important implications on the evolution of parental care. However, whether parents adjust parental care in response to parentage remains unclear. In Eurasian penduline tits Remiz pendulinus, which are small polygamous songbirds, parental care is carried out either by the male or by the female. In addition, one third of clutches is deserted by both male and female. Desertion takes place during the egg-laying phase. Using genotypes of nine microsatellite loci of 443 offspring and 211 adults, we test whether extra-pair paternity predicts parental care. We expect males to be more likely to desert cuckolded broods, whereas we expect females, if they obtain benefits from having multiple sires, to be more likely to care for broods with multiple paternity. Our results suggest that parental care is not adjusted to parentage on an ecological timescale. Furthermore, we found that male attractiveness does not predict cuckoldry, and we found no evidence for indirect benefits for females (i.e., increased growth rates or heterozygosity of extra-pair offspring). We argue that male Eurasian penduline tits may not be able to assess the risk of cuckoldry; thus, a direct association with parental care is unlikely to evolve. However, timing of desertion (i.e., when to desert during the egg-laying phase) may be influenced by the risk of cuckoldry. Future work applying extensive gene sequencing and quantitative genetics is likely to further our understanding of how selection may influence the association between parentage and parental care. PMID:20802790

van Dijk, René E; Mészáros, Lidia A; van der Velde, Marco; Székely, Tamás; Pogány, Akos; Szabad, János; Komdeur, Jan

2010-09-01

235

Use of electric and bubble barriers to limit the movement of Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) is an aquatic invasive species accidentally introduced via ballast water to the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s. Fish barrier technology is being studied to stop the spread of invasive fish species such as ruffe. Electrical barriers have been constructed, most notably in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, to prevent non-indigenous species such as ruffe from spreading into areas where they are currently absent. Information on the response of an invasive fish to barriers can help managers determine strategies to prevent the spread of these species via artificial waterways. In this laboratory study electrical barriers were set up to determine effectiveness of four electrical settings for repelling Eurasian ruffe measuring 10 cm or more in length. In separate tests, airbubble curtains with two bubble sizes and densities were created to test this type of barrier in blocking movement of ruffe less than 10 cm in length. The most effective electrical settings found (5 ms, 6 Hz) repelled only about half of the attempted passes. When ruffe were offered food or shelter on the opposite side of the electrical barrier, neither food-starved nor shelter-deprived ruffe made significantly more attempts to cross the barrier. Ruffe were significantly repelled by all air-bubble curtains, but a large proportion of passes (4.5 passes per fish on average in the treatments) were still observed. Electrical barrier settings and air-bubble curtains used in this study were found ineffective at completely blocking the movement, but somewhat effective at inhibiting the passage of ruffe.

Dawson, Heather A.; Reinhardt, Ulrich G.; Savino, Jacqueline F.

2006-01-01

236

High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.  

PubMed

We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:21104273

Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

2011-05-01

237

Neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolves (Canis lupus); in 12.0% of 25 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus); in 16.7% of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris); in 6.4% of 31 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles); in 21.4% of 14 stone martens (Martes foina); in 66.7% of 3 pine martens (M. martes) and in 50% of 2 polecats (Mustela putorius). Antibodies to N. caninum in common genets (Genetta genetta) and Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon) were only observed by c-ELISA but were not confirmed by IFAT and/or NAT. No antibodies were detected in 5 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) by any technique. Statistically significant differences were observed among species and among geographical areas. The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was observed in the Cantabric Coastal region characterized by high humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in free ranging wild carnivores, other than wild canids, in Europe. The existence of a possible sylvatic cycle could have important implications in both sylvatic and domestic cycles since they might influence the prevalence of infection in cattle farms in those areas. PMID:18556128

Sobrino, R; Dubey, J P; Pabón, M; Linarez, N; Kwok, O C; Millán, J; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; López-Gatius, F; Thulliez, P; Gortázar, C; Almería, S

2008-08-17

238

The dynamics of the Eurasian plate and the intraplate stress field in the Middle-Late Eocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces driving and resisting plate motion together with the resulting intraplate stresses are analyzed for the Eurasian plate at 40 Ma with the aim to obtain a force model for which the stresses give the best fit to stress observations. Forces acting on a lithospheric plate can be categorized into three groups: i) edge forces due to interaction with neighboring plates; ii) lithospheric body forces and iii) mantle tractions. The direction of the edge forces is based on the boundary types of the Eurasian plate taken from the Lausanne Plate Tectonic Reconstruction (LPTR) from Stampfli and colleagues. Lithospheric body forces include ridge push, slab pull and topographic body forces and for these forces both the direction and magnitude can be computed. Since the uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas is only incompletely constrained, the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the topography (and thus the topographic body forces) at 40 Ma is investigated. Mantle tractions acting on the bottom of a lithospheric plate consist of (i) 'passive' tractions due to the relative motion of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle and ii) 'active' tractions due to the actively convecting mantle. Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2012) found that for the present-day Eurasian plate both passive and active tractions are relevant. This suggests that these tractions were also important in the past. Here we use tractions for the Eurasian plate from the global mantle circulation model by Webb (2012), which is based on mantle convection code TERRA, driven by a 300 Myr integration of the LPTR. The Eurasian plate is assumed to be in mechanical equilibrium. The modeled intraplate stress field resulting from different force sets is compared to paleostress observations to select the force model that best fits the data. We find that in models with small active tractions and lithospheric body forces, the magnitude of collision forces at the boundary between India and Eurasia is small. Warners-Ruckstuhl, K. N., R. Govers, and M. J. R. Wortel (2012), Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian plate, Geophys. J. Int., 189: 1253-1276. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05427. P. J. Webb (2012), Mantle circulation models: constraining mantle dynamics, testing plate motion history and calculating dynamic topography, Ph.D. Thesis Cardiff University, UK, Promotor: J. Huw Davies.

van der Burgt, Janneke; Govers, Rob; Webb, Peter; Stampfli, Gérard; Vérard, Christian; Hochard, Cyril; Davies, J. Huw; Wortel, Rinus

2013-04-01

239

Investigation of subsurface water flow along the continental margin of the Eurasian Basin using the transient tracers tritium, 3He, and CFCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

During August-September 1993 the R\\/V Polarstern expedition ARK IX\\/4 was made to the Eurasian continental margin of the Arctic Ocean. Sections of oceanographic stations leading from the outer shelf over the continental slopes toward the deep Eurasian Basin were occupied north of the Barents and Laptev Seas. The distributions of the transient tracers CFC-11, CFC-12, tritium, and 3He were measured

Markus Frank; William M. Smethie; Reinhold Bayer

1998-01-01

240

Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers.  

PubMed

Northwest Siberia is geographically remote territory, which has been settled by indigenous human populations probably since the Upper Paleolithic. To investigate the genetic landscape of Northwest Siberians, we have analyzed mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA polymorphisms of 169 unrelated individuals from Khanty and Mansi ethnic groups in Northwest Siberia. In addition, HVS-I sequences (N = 3522) and Y chromosome SNP data (N = 2175), obtained from the literature, were used to elucidate the genetic relationships among the North Eurasian populations. The results show clinal distributions of mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups along East-West axis of Northern Eurasia. In this context, the Ugric-speaking Khanty and Mansi appear as unique intermediate populations carrying Upper Paleolithic and more recent haplotypes typical for both West and East Eurasian gene pools. This admixture indicates that the Khanty and Mansi populations have resided in the contact zone of genetically distinguishable eastern and western Eurasia. PMID:18506205

Pimenoff, Ville N; Comas, David; Palo, Jukka U; Vershubsky, Galina; Kozlov, Andrew; Sajantila, Antti

2008-10-01

241

How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

2011-01-01

242

Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range\\u000a of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand\\u000a technically challenging. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management

John D. C. LinnellHenrik; Henrik Broseth; John Odden; Erlend Birkeland Nilsen

2010-01-01

243

Effect of orogeny, plate motion and land-sea distribution on Eurasian climate change over the past 30 million years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian climates of today, 10 million and 3O million years ago are simulated using an atmospheric general circulation model that incorporates realistic continental geography and epicontinental sea distributions. The resulting climates compare well with various palaeoclimate records. The retreat of the Paratethys-an epicontinental sea-shifts the central Asian climate from temperate to continental conditions, and plays as important a role

Gilles Ramstein; Frédéric Fluteau; Jean Besse; Sylvie Joussaume

1997-01-01

244

A multiproxy approach to reconstruct the environmental changes along the Eurasian continental margin over the last 150?000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores located along the Eurasian continental margin (Arctic Ocean) have been studied to reconstruct the environmental changes in terms of waxing and waning of the Barents\\/Kara Sea ice-sheets, Atlantic water inflow, and sea-ice distribution over the last 150 kyr. The stratigraphy of the cores is based on stable oxygen isotopes, AMS 14C, and paleomagnetic data. We studied variations in

Jochen Knies; Norbert Nowaczyk; Claudia Müller; Christoph Vogt; Ruediger Stein

2000-01-01

245

Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Howard, R. J.; Travis, S. E.; Sikes, B. A.

2008-01-01

246

Evaluating the forensic informativeness of mtDNA haplogroup H sub-typing on a Eurasian scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of phylogeographic information on mtDNA forensics has been limited to the quality control of published sequences and databases. In this work we use the information already available on Eurasian mtDNA phylogeography to guide the choice of coding-region SNPs for haplogroup H. This sub-typing is particularly important in forensics since, even when sequencing both HVRI and HVRII, the discriminating

Luísa Pereira; Martin Richards; Ana Goios; Antonio Alonso; Cristina Albarrán; Oscar Garcia; Doron M. Behar; Mukaddes Gölge; Ji?i Hatina; Lihadh Al-Gazali; Daniel G. Bradley; Vincent Macaulay; António Amorim

2006-01-01

247

The GBFM radar mosaic of the Eurasian Taiga: selected topics on geo-location and preliminary thematic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of the Global Boreal Forest Mapping project (GBFM), an initiative of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), a continental scale radar mosaic of the Eurasian Taiga was compiled. The mosaic is composed of some 520 strip-images (typically covering 80 km by 2500 km each) acquired in 1997-98 by the L-band SAR aboard the JERS-1 spacecraft. The mosaic

Gianfranco De Grandi; Valeria Spirolazzi; Y. A. Rauste; L. Curto; A. Rosenqvist; M. Shimada

2004-01-01

248

Application of a roding survey method to the sedentary Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola population in Pico Island, Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a resident species in Azores, Madeira and Canaries (Macaronesian archipelagos) in contrast to its mainly migrant continental\\u000a populations. The biology and ecology of these insular populations are still poorly known; however, woodcocks are hunted in\\u000a Azores and Madeira. This work aims to continuing bridging the gap between scientific knowledge and game management of woodcocks

A. Luísa Machado; Yves Ferrand; François Gossmann; António M. Silveira; David Gonçalves

2008-01-01

249

Tethyan collision forces and the stress field of the Eurasian Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In previous studies of the Eurasian Plate, we have analysed the balance of plate boundary forces, tractions resulting from lithosphere-mantle coupling, and intraplate variations in topography and density structure. This yielded a range of acceptable force distributions. In this study, we investigate to which extent the observed present-day stress field provides further constraints on the distribution of forces. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate all forces as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Intraplate stress observations used are from the World Stress Map project. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be particularly sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a much lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and tractions from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.0-10.5 TN m-1 and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3-2.7 TN m-1. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0-2.5 and 0-1.3 TN m-1, respectively. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. For both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateaus, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, we find that the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force.

Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

2013-10-01

250

Tandem duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor exclusively identified among East Eurasian thrushes.  

PubMed

Mesotocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone found in some non-mammalian vertebrates, including birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In this study, we identified and characterized 18-amino acid duplications in the C-terminal domain of the mesotocin receptor (MTR), specifically found in Turdus thrushes (Aves: Passeriforms: Turdidae). These duplicated elements are located in the distal part of the C-terminal tails of MTR and consist of amino acids that are highly conserved among major vertebrates. Intraspecific polymorphisms in a variable number of tandem duplications are commonly found in East Eurasian Turdus, but not in any other genus of Turdidae. Moreover, the genus Turdus can be further classified into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of a 3-amino acid deletion just adjacent to the putative palmitoylation site in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. The phylogeny presented here strongly supports the conspecific group of 4 East Eurasian thrushes (Turdus pallidus, T. chrysolaus, T. obscurus, and T. celaenops). Our findings, therefore, provide a new synapomorphy that can be used for phylogenetic assumptions and shed a light on the history of diversification within Eurasian Turdus clades. PMID:24193891

Abe, Hideaki; Nishiumi, Isao; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

2013-12-01

251

Methionine supplementation influences melanin-based plumage colouration in Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, nestlings.  

PubMed

The extent to which the expression of melanin-based plumage colouration in birds is genetically or environmentally determined is controversial. Here, we performed a between-nest design supplementation with either the sulphur amino acid dl-methionine or with water to investigate the importance of the non-genetic component of melanin-based plumage colouration in the Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus. Methionine affects growth and immunity, thus we aimed to modify nestling growth and immunity before feather development. Then, we measured the effect of the experiment on colouration of two melanin-based plumage patches of nestling kestrels. We found that methionine slowed down nestling growth through treatment administration and that nestlings compensated by speeding up their growth later. We did not find any effects of methionine on nestling immunity (i.e. lymphocyte counts, natural antibody levels or complement-mediated immunity). Effects on growth seemed to be mirrored by changes in nestling colouration in the two sexes: methionine-nestlings showed less intense brown plumage on their backs compared with control nestlings. These results provide support for a non-genetic determination of a melanin-based plumage patch in the two sexes of nestling kestrels. PMID:19837899

Parejo, Deseada; Silva, Nadia

2009-11-01

252

Helminth parasites of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in southwest Europe.  

PubMed

The helminth fauna in 109 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from France, Portugal and Spain was analysed, together with 56 faecal samples collected in Portugal and 23 fresh stools from otters included in a reintroduction programme. Seven helminth species were found in L. lutra in southwest Europe: Phagicola sp. (Trematoda), Aonchotheca putorii, Eucoleus schvalovoj, Strongyloides lutrae, Anisakis (third stage larvae) and Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda), and Gigantorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala). Eucoleus schvalovoj was the dominant species throughout southwest Europe. Strongyloides lutrae was significantly more prevalent in the Iberian Peninsula than in France. Apart from these two dominant nematodes and A. putorii, the other helminth species were incidental parasites of L. lutra in southwest Europe. The helminth fauna of L. lutra in southwest Europe is, in general, poorer than that reported in eastern Europe and in all other aquatic mustelids in southwest Europe. Phagicola specimens are reported for the first time in a non-marine wild carnivore in Europe. The prevalences of E. schvalovoj and S. lutrae obtained by necropsy were higher than those observed by coprological analysis using a formalin-ether concentration method (Ritchie). Nevertheless, the culture of fresh faeces appears to be the best method to study infection of L. lutra by Strongyloides. PMID:15575995

Torres, J; Feliu, C; Fernández-Morán, J; Ruíz-Olmo, J; Rosoux, R; Santos-Reis, M; Miquel, J; Fons, R

2004-12-01

253

Radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway  

SciTech Connect

To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m[sup 2][1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Kalas, J.A. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Bretten, S.; Njastad, O. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)); Byrkjedal, I. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

1994-01-01

254

Genetic diversity of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) population in Israel.  

PubMed

The Israeli population of Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) marks the Palearctic southern boundary of the species' distribution in the Levant. During the 20th century, the otter population in Israel experienced a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic habitat alterations. Currently, the otter population in Israel is estimated at about 100 individuals and defined as "Critically Endangered". The aim of this research was to characterize the Israeli otter population in order to determine its genetic diversity and fragmentation state for conservation purposes. Monitoring spraint sites during 2000-2011 along active and historic otter distribution regions indicate both stable and unstable otter subpopulations, mainly along the Jordan River. Four otter subpopulations, representing 57 individuals, were characterized by 12 microsatellites, previously used to characterize the European otter populations. The genetic results indicated three subpopulations correlating with three geographical regions: the Hula Valley, Sea of Galilee, and the Harod Valley. A moderate genetic diversity (F (st) = 0.087-0.123) was found among the subpopulations, suggesting sporadic interactions between individuals from distinct geographical locations along the Jordan Rift Valley. The Israeli otter population was found to be very small, demographically remote and genetically distinct, harboring unique alleles absent from the studied European populations. Therefore, immediate conservation actions are recommended to prevent the deterioration of the isolated, unique, and critically endangered otter population in Israel. PMID:23225879

Cohen, Tali Magory; Narkiss, Tamar; Dolev, Amit; Ben-Ari, Yossi; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Guter, Amichai; Saltz, David; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

2013-03-01

255

Canine adenovirus type 1 infection of a Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

A 10-year-old female Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra) died after prolonged anorexia and weight loss in the Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Seoul, Republic of Korea. On necropsy, the liver was found to be swollen and friable with 1 lobe enlarged and necrotic. The other organs showed no significant alterations except for mild atrophy of the right kidney. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic necrosis. The hepatocytes around the necrotic areas were swollen and contained large basophilic intranuclear inclusions. Periportal infiltration by plasma cells and lymphocytes was also evident. Transmission electron microscopy revealed characteristic hexagonal virus particles sized approximately 70 nm in diameter in the nuclei of the hepatocytes, which were consistent with an adenovirus. Polymerase chain reaction of the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver sections was used to determine whether the virus was either the canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), or some other viral agent. The results of these tests showed that the virus was CAV-1. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a CAV-1 infection in an otter. PMID:17606519

Park, N Y; Lee, M C; Kurkure, N V; Cho, H S

2007-07-01

256

Habitat correlates of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra recolonizing Central Poland.  

PubMed

The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14 years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15 % in 1993, 38 % in 1998, and 89 % in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river width while negatively affected by presence of buildings at the site and river regulation. During the most intensive colonization process in the 1990s, the habitat preferences of the otter did not change. However, the sites inhabited by otters after 1998 were characterized by lower river width and tree cover and were more often located on regulated river sections, suggesting change in habitat tolerance during expansion. The otter abundance in transformed habitats is a result of increasing population numbers and the necessity to inhabit suboptimal sections of watercourses. Thus, it seems that presence-absence data for otter populations cannot be considered a reliable indicator of habitat quality, being depended of the population density. PMID:23538688

Romanowski, Jerzy; Brzezi?ski, Marcin; Zmihorski, Micha?

2013-04-01

257

Effects of culling Eurasian wild boar on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis and Aujeszky's disease virus.  

PubMed

Worldwide, failure to eradicate a disease in livestock has sometimes been related to wildlife reservoirs of infection. We describe the effects of Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) abundance reduction through increased culling on the prevalence of two chronic infectious diseases, tuberculosis (TB) and Aujeszky's disease (AD), in a region of South-central Spain (SCS). The two infections studied responded differently to an approximately 50% reduction of wild boar abundance. Wild boar TB prevalence remained stable in control sites, whereas it decreased by 21-48% in treatment sites. In one treatment site, the annual wild boar abundance was positively correlated with the annual percentage of skin test reactor cattle. In another treatment site, red deer (Cervus elaphus) M. bovis infection prevalence decreased after culling wild boar. No significant effect of wild boar culling on wild boar ADV seroprevalence was found. The reduction in wild boar TB was achieved despite no alternative M. bovis host being included in the culling strategy. We advocate that culling could become a part of integrated control strategies including habitat and game management changes and vaccination, contributing to increase their success likelihood, or reducing the total expenses. PMID:22743215

Boadella, M; Vicente, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; de la Fuente, J; Gortázar, C

2012-12-01

258

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

2006-01-01

259

Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes.  

PubMed

This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River deltas are discussed. Temporal changes in the pattern of modification are also investigated, especially the dramatic homogenization of the custom resulting from the conquests of the Huns. This is contrasted with incidences of cranial modification in the south-central Andes, including the appearance of deliberate head shaping as well as shifts in the practice during the expansion of the Bolivian Altiplano state of Tiwanaku. Similarities in the use of cranial vault modification between these unrelated areas and in the alterations of the practice resulting from foreign contact are considered in light of vault modification's role as a malleable cultural artifact. PMID:15901115

Torres-Rouff, C; Yablonsky, L T

2005-01-01

260

Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Vegetation Growth Response Associated with Drought Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high-latitudes are currently experiencing drastic climatic changes. Initial findings based largely on satellite vegetation records and atmospheric CO2 data suggested that in response to warming these regions increase productivity as low temperature constraints on plant growth are diminished. In recent years, however, multiple lines of evidence showed that for the circumpolar boreal forests this pattern has not continued and that this biome is becoming increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors including temperature-induced drought stress, shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual and longer-term variations in boreal vegetation growth and relationships with abiotic drivers using a satellite vegetation record spanning nearly 3 decades (1982-2008) in conjunction with climate data and newly available upscaled ecosystem flux data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming and shifts to earlier spring onsets in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation trends a turning point has been crossed around the mid-1990s that shifted portions of the Eurasian boreal forests into a more water-limited regime resulting in large-scale declines of vegetation growth. If the detected decadal trend continues into the future, the forest dieback induced by drought and heat stress as predicted by vegetation models may start earlier than anticipated.

Buermann, W.; Parida, B.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Reichstein, M.

2012-12-01

261

Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Vegetation Growth Response Associated with Increasing Drought Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high-latitudes are currently experiencing drastic climatic changes. Initial findings suggested that in response to warming these regions increase productivity as low temperature constraints on plant growth are diminished. Recently, however, multiple lines of evidence have shown that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here, we analyzed interannual variations in boreal forest growth pattern and relationships with abiotic drivers in the period 1982-2008 using satellite vegetation and freeze-thaw records in conjunction with climate and upscaled ecosystem flux data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming and shifts to earlier spring onsets in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted portions of the western central Eurasian boreal forests into a more water-limited regime despite increasing CO2 and related water use efficiency. This has resulted in large-scale and spatially pervasive negative year-to-year relationships between summer temperatures and plant growth. If this regime shift is sustained into the future, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may start earlier and proceeds more rapidly than anticipated.

Buermann, W.; Parida, B.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Reichstein, M.

2013-12-01

262

The effects of the definition of a stable Eurasian reference frame on geodetic velocity estimates along its boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodetic definition of a stable Eurasian reference frame has long suffered from having a disproportionate number of stations in its European portion and from the fact that the available stations east of the Ural mountains are all in, or close to, the central Asian deformation zone. This has affected, for example, the ITRF2000-Eurasia definition of Altamimi et al. (2002). Only recently this situation has changed with the availability of sufficiently long time-series of IGS stations in central and northern Siberia. These data has effectively been used by Calais et al. (2003) and Steblov et al. (2003). It has become evident that there is a systematic difference between the definition of a Eurasian reference frame from studies that include or exclude stations east of the Ural. The pole of rotation that explains the difference is located in Eastern Europe. The rate difference results in up to 4 mm/yr in Southeast Asia. All geodetic studies from the Mediterranean to Southeast Asia appear to use different definitions of stable Eurasia. We explore here the effects of adopting different definitions of Eurasia on the geodetic velocity estimates along Eurasia's southern margin, including Nubia, Arabia, India, and East- and Southeast Asia. We show that, compared to Nubia's motion relative to European stations, its motion relative to Eurasia is 12° more clockwise (CW) in the eastern Mediterranean and 20° more counter-clockwise (CCW) west of Gibraltar. Both solutions are significantly different form geologic estimates, but velocities in a Eurasian reference frame are noticeably closer to the geologic estimates than the velocities in a European definition. Bahrein (Arabia) moves 3° CW and 1 mm/yr faster relative to Eurasia than to a European defined Eurasia. The motion of Bangalore (southern India) could be 3 mm/yr slower and 2° CCW relative to a Eurasian fixed reference when only stations in Europe are used. At Shanghai and Singapore using only European stations would give a velocity 30° CW from a solution that includes Siberian stations. Other examples will be discussed as well. Finally, it is important to point out that any comparison with geologic plate motion models should be based on a geodetic definition of the Eurasian plate that includes Siberia stations, because the Artic Ridge (which is used in geologic plate motion estimates) extends to 120° E. Also, no-net-rotation (NNR) estimates of Eurasia based on geologic models should be avoided, because its definition is significantly different from geodetic estimates, largely as a result of the inclusion of the Asian deformation zones in the geologic NNR definition.

Le Pichon, X.; Kreemer, C.

2004-05-01

263

Long Term Seasonality Changes and Short Term Climate Variability Recorded in Eurasian Loess: Examples from Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent are well studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of considerable debate. While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are modified and transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmosphere and ocean processes and regulate teleconnection patterns of the Northern Hemisphere. The distribution of Eurasian loess deposits allows interregional palaeoclimatic investigations along a west-east transect across the entire Eurasian loess belt of the Northern Hemisphere, offering the potential to reconstruct Pleistocene atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust dynamics on a wide spatial scale. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from several loess sequences across Eurasia (Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China) that provide a detailed signal of glacial-interglacial atmospheric dynamics and long term, semi-continuous trends in the aeolian dust record since marine isotope stage 10. In consideration of the modern synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust transport across the Eurasian landmass, we propose that the observed data reflect oscillations superimposed on a long term signal of seasonality, triggered by changes in duration and permanency of the seasonal shift of the Eurasian polar front during the middle to late Pleistocene. As the activity of the polar front jet is intimately connected with the high level planetary frontal zone (HPFZ), the Eurasian loess archives may also serve as a recorder of intra-hemispheric climate connections in past atmospheric circulation. Although there are large scale similarities in the dust transport record from numerous sites across Eurasia, the data reveal distinct differences in short-term climate variability along the studied transect from SE Europe over Central Asia to China. In Central and East Asia the observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror ?18O and fine dust variations seen in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, the presented data represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to verify hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing theories, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker of suborbital global climate changes and an initiator of abrupt climate oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Haam, E.; Lai, Z. P.; Endlicher, W.

2012-04-01

264

Biological hurdles to the control of TB in cattle: A test of two hypotheses concerning wildlife to explain the failure of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle, predominantly in the SW of England has proved continually recalcitrant; it is currently increasing at an annual rate of 18%. This deterioration has occurred despite a succession of government schemes involving killing badgers, Meles meles, with the intention of reducing transmission of bTB to cattle. Of various hypotheses proposed

David W. Macdonald; Philip Riordan; Fiona Mathews

2006-01-01

265

Developmental impairment in eurasian dipper nestlings exposed to urban stream pollutants.  

PubMed

Avian studies of endocrine disruption traditionally have focused on reproductive impairment, given that many environmental contaminants affect sex steroid hormones. There is also increasing interest in altered thyroid function, and associated early development, particularly in altricial species with extended developmental windows. Both types of effect are relevant under the complex pollutant conditions created in streams draining urban areas, but case studies are scarce. Therefore, the authors measured breeding performance, as well as nestling growth, condition, and plasma thyroid hormones, in 87 Eurasian dipper (Cinclus cinclus) nests on 36 urban and rural streams in south and mid-Wales (UK); invertebrate prey data were also collected. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether urban stream pollution or food scarcity might affect reproduction or development in this specialized aquatic songbird. Clutch sizes and egg fertility were similar on rural and urban streams, whereas nest success was actually higher at urban sites and food abundance was not significantly reduced. However, subtle but important differences were apparent. Urban nestlings were significantly lighter than rural nestlings for their body size (condition index), and brood sex ratios were increasingly male biased with increasing urbanization. The nestling thyroid hormone profile closely reflected urban land use, whereas depressed triiodothyronine (T3) hormones and poorer body condition were associated with higher exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at urbanized sites. These data suggest that PCBs, PBDEs, and/or accompanying contaminants in urban streams could be affecting dipper nestling development, with potential consequences for the birds' fitness. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1315-1323. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24648128

Morrissey, Christy A; Stanton, David W G; Tyler, Charles R; Pereira, M Glória; Newton, Jason; Durance, Isabelle; Ormerod, Steve J

2014-06-01

266

Three Eurasian teleconnection patterns: spatial structures, temporal variability, and associated winter climate anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian (EU) pattern is a distinct teleconnection pattern observed in boreal winter. Since the EU pattern was first identified, three types have been reported in the literature: the conventional EU pattern; the type 1 EU pattern, or Scandinavian (SCAND) pattern; and the type 2 EU pattern, or East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) pattern. Based on several reanalysis and observational datasets, the three EU patterns are extracted using the rotated empirical orthogonal function method. In order to provide a further distinction and understanding of the three EU patterns, a comprehensive side-by-side comparison is performed among them including their temporal variability, horizontal and vertical structure, related stationary Rossby wave activity, impact on climate, and possible driving factors associated with external forcing. The results reveal that all three EU patterns are characterised by a clear quasi-barotropic wave-train structure, but each has a distinct source and centre of action. Accordingly, their impacts on the precipitation and surface air temperature also differ from one other. Further evidence suggests that the conventional EU pattern is likely driven by anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic, in which process the transient eddies are actively involved. The SCAND pattern is partly maintained by the vorticity source over Western Europe, which arises from the anomalous convergence/divergence over the Mediterranean and is efficiently driven by the tropical and southern Indian Ocean SST via divergent circulation. The EATL/WRUS pattern shows some linkage to the North American snow cover, and the involved process remains unclear and needs further investigation.

Liu, Yuyun; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

2014-06-01

267

Low-level temperature inversions of the eurasian arctic and comparisons with Soviet drifting station data  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal and regional variations in characteristics of the Arctic low-level temperature inversion are examined using up to 12 years of twice-daily rawinsonde data from 31 inland and coastal sites of the Eurasian Arctic and a total of nearly six station years of data from three Soviet drifting stations near the North Pole. The frequency of inversions, the median inversion depth, and the temperature difference across the inversion layer increase from the Norwegian Sea eastward toward the Laptev and East Siberian seas. This effect is most pronounced in winter and autumn, and reflects proximity to oceanic influences and synoptic activity, possibly enhanced by a gradient in cloud cover. East of Novaya Zemlya during winter, inversions are found in over 95% of all soundings and tend to be surface based. For all locations, however, inversions tend to be most intense during winter due to the large deficit in surface net radiation. The strongest inversions are found over eastern Siberia, and reflect the effects of local topography. The frequency of inversions is lowest during summer, but is still >50% at all locations. Most summer inversions are elevated, and are much weaker than their winter counterparts. Data from the drifting stations reveal an inversion in every sounding from December to April. The minimum frequency of 85% occurs during August. While the median inversion depth is over 1200 m during March, it decreases to approximately 400 m during August, with median temperature differences across the inversion layer of 12.6[degrees]and 2.8[degrees]C, respectively. The median depth of the summertime mixed layer below inversions at the drifting stations ranges from 300 to 400 m. Seasonal changes in these inversion characteristics show a strong relationship with seasonal changes in cloud cover. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Serreze, M.C.; Schnell, R.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kahl, J.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1992-06-01

268

Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe  

PubMed Central

Background Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. Results The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. Conclusions This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

2013-01-01

269

Eurasian fundamental mode surface wave phase velocities and their relationship with tectonic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We automatically analyzed 32,000 fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh wave signals with earthquake-station paths traversing Eurasia and Indonesia and obtained robust average phase velocity measurements between 20 s and 170 s periods along 4389 Love and 4020 Rayleigh paths. These were inverted to give phase velocity maps at 14 fixed periods. Resolution tests suggest that features with diameter >750 km and >500 km are resolved over most of Eurasia and central/SE Asia respectively. Low-period Love waves image areas with thick sedimentary cover as low-velocity zones, and almost all periods image mountainous regions since these have thick crust and hence low average lithospheric shear velocity. At long periods, both Love and Rayleigh waves define high phase velocity zones across shield and cratonic areas reflecting their deep lithospheric roots. We observe significant along-strike heterogeneity in the Zagros fold belt and Tien Shan-Altai system. Taking sections across Eurasian phase velocity space allows us to make approximate interpretations in terms of shear velocity structure directly. For example, the Red River and East Vietnam Boundary faults are traced on their eastern side by low velocities which extend at depth into Indonesia. We relate this to mantle upwelling associated with early Eocene rotation of Indochina and reversal of the sense of shear across the Red River fault post-20 Ma. We observe dipping subduction of the Mediterranean beneath the Aegean, of the Philippine Sea beneath Indonesia, and of the Indian shield beneath Tibet. We also image a fossil subducted plate beneath NE Borneo which we associate with subduction of the proto-South China Sea between 50 Ma and 15 Ma.

Curtis, Andrew; Trampert, Jeannot; Snieder, Roel; Dost, Bernard

1998-11-01

270

Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

Chen, Shuangyan [Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Huang, Xin [Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Liu, Gongshe [Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences

2013-01-01

271

Molecular diversity and relationships of North American Elymus trachycaulus and the Eurasian E. caninus species.  

PubMed

The morphological similarity of Elymus trachycaulus to the Eurasian E. caninus has often been noted. This has lead to controversial and contradicting taxonomic treatments. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic investigation on molecular genetic similarity between E. trachycaulus and E. caninus. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to study the similarity between the two species. RAPD analysis of 38 samples representing E. caninus and E. trachycaulus complex yielded 111 interpretable RAPD bands. The Jaccard's similarity values for E. caninus ranged from 0.38 between accessions H10345 and H10353 to 0.97 between accessions H8745 and H10096, with an average of 0.67. The Jaccard's similarity values for E. trachycaulus complex ranged from 0.09 between E. trachycaulus ssp. subsecundus (PI 537321) and E. trachycaulus ssp. violaceus (PI 272612) to 0.78 between accessions PI 315368 and PI 372644, with an average of 0.43. The results from different analyses (NJ and PCA) were similar but not identical. The molecular genetic separation between E. caninus and E. trachycaulus was consistent. The PCA analysis clearly separated all E. caninus accessions from E. trachycaulus and its subspecies. The NJ analysis also showed separation between most accessions of E. caninus and E. trachycaulus. Further analysis excluding E. trachycaulus ssp. subsecundus and ssp. violaceus revealed that E. caninus species and E. trachycaulus species were clearly separated into two distinct groups. The RAPD data thus support the treatment of E. caninus and E. trachycaulus as distinct species. The analyses further indicate that E. violaceus is nested within E. trachycaulus, and more related to E. trachycaulus complex rather than to E. caninus. PMID:16850213

Sun, Genlou; Tang, Hemei; Salomon, Björn

2006-05-01

272

Natural selection among Eurasians at genomic regions associated with HIV-1 control  

PubMed Central

Background HIV susceptibility and pathogenicity exhibit both interindividual and intergroup variability. The etiology of intergroup variability is still poorly understood, and could be partly linked to genetic differences among racial/ethnic groups. These genetic differences may be traceable to different regimes of natural selection in the 60,000 years since the human radiation out of Africa. Here, we examine population differentiation and haplotype patterns at several loci identified through genome-wide association studies on HIV-1 control, as determined by viral-load setpoint, in European and African-American populations. We use genome-wide data from the Human Genome Diversity Project, consisting of 53 world-wide populations, to compare measures of FST and relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) at these candidate loci to the rest of the respective chromosome. Results We find that the Europe-Middle East and Europe-South Asia pairwise FST in the most strongly associated region are elevated compared to most pairwise comparisons with the sub-Saharan African group, which exhibit very low FST. We also find genetic signatures of recent positive selection (higher REHH) at these associated regions among all groups except for sub-Saharan Africans and Native Americans. This pattern is consistent with one in which genetic differentiation, possibly due to diversifying/positive selection, occurred at these loci among Eurasians. Conclusions These findings are concordant with those from earlier studies suggesting recent evolutionary change at immunity-related genomic regions among Europeans, and shed light on the potential genetic and evolutionary origin of population differences in HIV-1 control.

2011-01-01

273

Trends in Eurasian Arctic runoff timing and their relationship to snow cover changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pronounced land surface process changes have occurred in the Arctic and sub-Arctic in recent decades. Apparent earlier ablation of snow cover in spring implies that some of the energy that was once used to melt snow is now absorbed by the ground, thereby lowering the albedo and thus leading to more snowmelt. To date, however, confirmation of such causal explanations for hydrologic trends has been elusive, primarily because of short record lengths and/or absence of requisite data records. We examine changes in the timing of runoff from 53 unregulated Eurasian Arctic streamflow gauges distributed over the Lena, Ob and Yenisei River basins for the period 1958 - 1999. Variables examined include the onset date of the spring runoff pulse, the centroid of timing of spring runoff, and seasonal fractional flows. These results were compared with surface air temperature anomalies and (satellite) snow cover trends to diagnose the sensitivity of runoff in each of the basins to snow cover disappearance, snow-free duration and period of snowmelt. We find that there are consistent trends indicating an earlier onset of runoff in spring across many of the basins, which can be linked to changes in snowmelt timing, and an increase in winter flows, which appears to be related to shorter snow cover duration. Surface air temperature trends have less obvious linkages with the streamflow timing changes, with the exception of the Yenisei basin where an increase in May temperatures are associated with lower snowmelt season runoff, but increases in June temperatures are associated with increased June runoff.

Tan, A.; Adam, J. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2008-12-01

274

Three Eurasian teleconnection patterns: spatial structures, temporal variability, and associated winter climate anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian (EU) pattern is a distinct teleconnection pattern observed in boreal winter. Since the EU pattern was first identified, three types have been reported in the literature: the conventional EU pattern; the type 1 EU pattern, or Scandinavian (SCAND) pattern; and the type 2 EU pattern, or East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) pattern. Based on several reanalysis and observational datasets, the three EU patterns are extracted using the rotated empirical orthogonal function method. In order to provide a further distinction and understanding of the three EU patterns, a comprehensive side-by-side comparison is performed among them including their temporal variability, horizontal and vertical structure, related stationary Rossby wave activity, impact on climate, and possible driving factors associated with external forcing. The results reveal that all three EU patterns are characterised by a clear quasi-barotropic wave-train structure, but each has a distinct source and centre of action. Accordingly, their impacts on the precipitation and surface air temperature also differ from one other. Further evidence suggests that the conventional EU pattern is likely driven by anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic, in which process the transient eddies are actively involved. The SCAND pattern is partly maintained by the vorticity source over Western Europe, which arises from the anomalous convergence/divergence over the Mediterranean and is efficiently driven by the tropical and southern Indian Ocean SST via divergent circulation. The EATL/WRUS pattern shows some linkage to the North American snow cover, and the involved process remains unclear and needs further investigation.

Liu, Yuyun; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

2014-05-01

275

Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Na?ve and Vaccinated Pigs  

PubMed Central

Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies.

Murcia, Pablo R.; Hughes, Joseph; Battista, Patrizia; Lloyd, Lucy; Baillie, Gregory J.; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H.; Ormond, Doug; Oliver, Karen; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Caccamo, Mario; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wood, James L. N.

2012-01-01

276

Impact and implications of the Afro-Eurasian collision south of Cyprus from reflection seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyprus Arc in the Eastern Mediterranean represents the active collision front between the African and Eurasian (Anatolian) Plates. Along the Cyprus Arc, the Eratosthenes Seamount is believed to have been blocking the northward motion of the African Plate since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Based on a dense grid of 2D reflection seismic profiles covering the Eratosthenes Seamount and western Levant Basin offshore Cyprus, new observations regarding the Cyprus Arc collision front at the triple transition zone Eratosthenes Seamount-Levant Basin-Hecataeus Rise are presented. The data show that the Levant Basin is filled with ~ 10 km of sediments of Early Mesozoic (probably Jurassic) to Plio-Quaternary age with only a localized deformation affecting the Miocene-Oligocene rock units. The sediments onlap directly against the steep eastern flank of the Eratosthenes Seamount to the west and the southern flank of the Hecataeus Rise to the north. The sediments show no deformation that could be associated with collision and are undeformed even very close to the two prominent structures. Pinching out of the Base Miocene reflector in the Levant Basin due to onlapping of the Middle Miocene reflector indicates uplift of the Eratosthenes Seamount and the Hecataeus Rise. In contrast to the Messinian Evaporites north of the Eratosthenes Seamount, the salt in the Levant Basin, even close to the Hecataeus Rise, is tectonically undeformed. It is proposed that the Eratosthenes Seamount, the western Levant Basin and the Hecataeus Rise act as one tectonic unit. This implies that the collision front is located north of this unit and that the Hecataeus Rise shields the sediments south of it from deformation associated with collision of the African and Anatolian Plates.

Klimke, Jennifer; Ehrhardt, Axel

2014-06-01

277

Living on the edge: Space use of Eurasian red squirrels in marginal high-elevation habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In marginal habitats located at the edge of a species' range, environmental conditions are frequently extreme and individuals may be subject to different selective pressures compared to central populations. These so-called edge or marginal populations tend to have lower densities and reproductive rates than populations located in more suitable habitats, but little is known about local adaptations in spacing behavior. We studied space use and social organization in a population of Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) in a high-elevation marginal habitat of dwarf mountain pine ( Pinus mugo) and compared it with spacing patterns in high-quality Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest at lower-elevation. Home ranges and core areas were larger in the marginal habitat. In both habitats, males used larger home ranges than females, but sex differences in core area size were significant only in the edge population. Patterns of core area overlap were similar in both habitats with intra-sexual territoriality among adult females and higher degrees of inter-sexual overlap, typical for the species throughout its range. However, low densities in the edge population resulted in higher female by males overlap in spring-summer, suggesting males increased home ranges and core areas during mating season to augment access to estrus females. Thus, in the marginal habitat, with low food abundance and low population densities, linked with extreme winter conditions, squirrels, especially males, used large home ranges. Finally, squirrels responded more strongly to variation in food availability (inverse relation between home range size and seed abundance), and even to fluctuations in density (inverse relation between core area size and density of animals of the same sex), in the marginal than in the high-quality habitat, suggesting high behavioral plasticity to respond to the ecological constraints in marginal habitats.

Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Preatoni, Damiano; Tosi, Guido; Martinoli, Adriano

2010-11-01

278

Neogene climatic oscillations shape the biogeography and evolutionary history of the Eurasian blindsnake.  

PubMed

Typhlops vermicularis is the only extant scolecophidian representative occurring in Europe. Its main distribution area, the eastern Mediterranean, has a complicated geological and climatic history that has left an imprint on the phylogenies and biogeography of many taxa, especially amphibians and reptiles. Since reptiles are sensitive indicators of palaeogeographical and palaeoclimatic events, we investigated the intraspecific genealogy of T. vermicularis in a phylogeographical framework. A total of 130 specimens were analyzed, while the use of formalin and ethanol as preservatives called for a special treatment of the samples. Partial sequences of two mitochondrial (12S and ND2) and one nuclear (PRLR) marker were targeted and the results of the phylogenetic analyses (NJ, ML and BI) and the parsimony-network revealed the existence of 10 evolutionary significant units within this species. In combination with the results of the dispersal-vicariance analysis, we may conclude that the Eurasian blindsnake has encountered a sequence of extinction events, followed by secondary expansion from refugia. Estimation of divergence times showed that severe climatic changes between significantly wetter and drier conditions in the Late Neogene have played a key role on the evolutionary and biogeographical history of T. vermicularis. Additionally, both markers (mtDNA and nDNA) distinguished a largely-differentiated evolutionary lineage (Jordan and south Syria), which could even be reckoned as a full species. Our study reveals the existence of cryptic evolutionary lineages within T. vermicularis, which calls for further attention both on the protection of intraspecific varieties and the respective geographic areas that hold them. PMID:22182993

Kornilios, P; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumluta?, Y; Lymberakis, P; Moravec, J; Sindaco, R; Rastegar-Pouyani, N; Afroosheh, M; Giokas, S; Fraguedakis-Tsolis, S; Chondropoulos, B

2012-03-01

279

Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Fargallo, Juan A.

2008-05-01

280

Hydrologic Variations in a Mid-Latitude Eurasian Steppe Watershed: Step Change or Temporal Trend?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies in precipitation or runoff trend rarely considered confounding effects of step change. As a result, because the stationarity assumption of commonly used trend analysis methods (e.g., Mann-Kendall test technique) becomes invalid, those studies failed to explain inconsistencies between detected trends and observed large anomalies. The objectives of this study were to: 1) formulate a trend analysis approach that considers nonstationarity due to step change; 2) use this approach to detect trend and extreme occurrence of precipitation and runoff in a mid-latitude Eurasian steppe watershed in north China; and 3) examine how runoff variations were associated with precipitation variations in the study watershed. The results indicate that annual precipitation had a marginal step jump around 1995, and that the trends before and after this jump point could be erroneously detected if the step jump was misinterpreted. The significant annual downward trend after 1994 was mainly caused by the decrease of summer rainfall because precipitation in each of other three seasons did not exhibit any significant trend at a significance level of ? = 0.05. At monthly scale, rainfall in July after 1994 exhibited a significant downward trend, whereas precipitation in other months had no trend. In addition, percent of wet days had an step plump around 1994 and exhibited a significant decrease trend before 1994, but precipitation intensity had no step change and any significant trend. However, both low- and high-frequency precipitations in the study watershed occurred more often after than before 1994, which is likely a result or an indicator of climate change. In response to these precipitation changes, runoff also exhibited a step change around 1994 and a significant decrease trend since then. The study watershed had distinctly different precipitation-runoff relations for observed annual precipitations of less than 300 mm, between 300 and 400 mm, and greater than 400 mm.

Wang, X.; Liu, T.; Yang, X.; Li, F.; Gao, R.; Duan, L.; Luo, Y.; Xi, B.; Xu, Q.; Huang, J.

2013-12-01

281

Northern Eurasian Wetlands and the Carbon Cycle: Model Estimates of Carbon Storage and Methane Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian Arctic drainage constitutes over ten percent of the global land area, and stores a substantial fraction of the terrestrial carbon pool in its soils and boreal forests. Specifically, boreal forests in this region constitute an estimated carbon sink of 0.5 Pg/y. However, assessments of carbon storage and fluxes in this region, and their role in climate change, vary considerably due to large uncertainties in the extent of wetlands, which both store carbon as peat and emit carbon as methane. Accurate estimates of wetland extent have been confounded by insufficient resolution of satellite imagery and poor coverage of in situ observations. In this study we refine these estimates of wetland extent, carbon storage, and methane emissions using a system of linked large-scale models of hydrology, terrestrial carbon dynamics, and methane emissions. Large-scale hydrology comes from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model, which includes an updated lake/wetland parameterization that estimates the water table depth as a function of both lake level and wetland soil moisture. Fast ecosystem processes such as photosynthesis and respiration are simulated via the Biosphere Energy-Transfer Hydrology (BETHY) terrestrial carbon model. Methane emissions in areas of open water or saturated soil are simulated with the Walter-Heimann methane model. We validate this modeling system with respect to in situ observations of soil moisture and temperature, evaporation, and fluxes of CO2 and methane at flux towers at Fyodorovskoje, Hakasia, and Cherskii, Russia, over the period 1998- 2004. Sensitivity to calibration parameters such as the rooting depth and the proportionality between methane production rate and NPP are also explored.

Bohn, T. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Sathulur, K.; Bowling, L. C.; McDonald, K. C.

2006-12-01

282

Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Depth across Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow depth is one of the important parameters of snow cover, and it affects the surface energy balance, assessment of snow water equivalent, ecosystem, soil temperatures, and water cycle as a whole. In this study, the long-term observed snow depth from 1972 meteorological stations and snow course sites were used to investigate snow depth climatology and its spatiotemporal variations over Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008. Preliminary results showed that snow depth was affected by latitude, which in general snow depth increased with the increasing latitude. The higher values of snow depth were found in the northeastern European Russia, the east of western Siberia, the west of central Siberia, Kamchatka Peninsula, and some areas of Sakhalin. While the lower snow accumulation occurred in most areas of China except for the north of Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, Northeast China, and some regions of the southwestern Tibet. Both of the trends in inter-annual variability of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were not significant. However, the long-term monthly mean snow depth had obvious increasing trends from February to May. There were similar spatial distributions of linear trend coefficients of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth across the former Soviet Union (USSR). The most significant trends of changes in annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were found between 40° to 70°N. The obvious trends of variability in monthly mean snow depth appeared in the areas between 50° to 60°N. The significant decreasing trends in monthly mean snow depth were observed in most areas of China from February to March. This may be largely influenced by climate change, which leads to an advancing of the end date of snow cover.

Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

2013-12-01

283

Innovative Techniques for Estimating Illegal Activities in a Human-Wildlife-Management Conflict  

PubMed Central

Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management.

Cross, Paul; St. John, Freya A. V.; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

2013-01-01

284

Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus  

PubMed Central

Background The trade-off between current and future parental investment is often different between males and females. This difference may lead to sexual conflict between parents over care provisioning in animals that breed with multiple mates. One of the most obvious manifestations of sexual conflict over care is offspring desertion whereby one parent deserts the young to increase its reproductive success at the expense of its mate. Offspring desertion is a wide-spread behavior, and its frequency often varies within populations. We studied the consistency of offspring desertion in a small passerine bird, the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus, that has an extremely variable breeding system. Both males and females are sequentially polygamous, and a single parent (either the male or the female) incubates the eggs and rears the young. About 28–40% of offspring are abandoned by both parents, and these offspring perish. Here we investigate whether the variation in offspring desertion in a population emerges either by each individual behaving consistently between different broods, or it is driven by the environment. Results Using a three-year dataset from Southern Hungary we show that offspring desertion by females is consistent between nests. Male desertion, however, depends on ambient environment, because all males desert their nests early in the season and some of them care late in the season. Therefore, within-population variation in parental care emerges by sexually different mechanisms; between-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern of offspring desertion in females, whereas within-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern in males. Conclusion To our knowledge, our study is the first that investigates repeatability of offspring desertion behavior in nature. The contrasting strategies of the sexes imply complex evolutionary trajectories in breeding behavior of penduline tits. Our results raise an intriguing question whether the sexual difference in caring/deserting decisions explain the extreme intensity of sexual conflict in penduline tits that produces a high frequency of biparentally deserted (and thus wasted) offspring.

2008-01-01

285

Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can improve the characterization of emission locations, magnitudes and trends over sparsely monitored areas such as seas or oceans.

Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

2013-04-01

286

Role for Eurasian Arctic shelf sea ice in a secularly varying hemispheric climate signal during the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypothesized low-frequency climate signal propagating across the Northern Hemisphere through a network of synchronized climate indices was identified in previous analyses of instrumental and proxy data. The tempo of signal propagation is rationalized in terms of the multidecadal component of Atlantic Ocean variability—the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Through multivariate statistical analysis of an expanded database, we further investigate this hypothesized signal to elucidate propagation dynamics. The Eurasian Arctic Shelf-Sea Region, where sea ice is uniquely exposed to open ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as a strong contender for generating and sustaining propagation of the hemispheric signal. Ocean-ice-atmosphere coupling spawns a sequence of positive and negative feedbacks that convey persistence and quasi-oscillatory features to the signal. Further stabilizing the system are anomalies of co-varying Pacific-centered atmospheric circulations. Indirectly related to dynamics in the Eurasian Arctic, these anomalies appear to negatively feed back onto the Atlantic`s freshwater balance. Earth's rotational rate and other proxies encode traces of this signal as it makes its way across the Northern Hemisphere.

Wyatt, Marcia Glaze; Curry, Judith A.

2013-09-01

287

Non cat-like ovarian cycle in the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx - ultrasonographical and endocrinological analysis.  

PubMed

The Iberian lynx is considered the most endangered felid species. Therefore, an ex situ conservation program was initiated to protect this species from extinction. Additional knowledge on lynx reproduction biology and reliable methods for reproductive monitoring are important for developing a captive breeding program. The aim of this study in lynx was to implement transrectal ultrasonography to visualize ovarian structures (follicles, corpora lutea) and to assess ovarian activity in addition to analysis of serum progesterone and oestradiol. Because of limited access to Iberian lynxes, the less-endangered Eurasian lynx and bobcat were also studied in this comparative study. Recent endocrinological studies based on faecal and urinary progesterone and oestrogen metabolites revealed that steroid profiles in both these species were alike and did not follow the typical pattern of other felids. Pregnancy diagnosis was not possible, since progesterone concentrations did not differ between pregnant and pseudopregnant animals. Progesterone was also detected after parturition as well as after weaning until the onset of a new oestrous cycle. In the present study, the presence of corpora lutea during the non-breeding season was confirmed by ultrasonography and by elevated serum levels of progesterone averaging 3.56 +/- 1.3 ng/ml in Eurasian and 6.1 +/- 0.26 ng/ml in Iberian lynx, respectively. The ultrasonographical findings on the ovarian structures suggest strongly that corpora lutea developed after ovulation stay active until November and regress before the onset of the next oestrus. PMID:19754543

Göritz, F; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Martinez, F; López-Bao, J V; Palomares, F; Jewgenow, K

2009-07-01

288

Improvement in simulation of Eurasian winter climate variability with a realistic Arctic sea ice condition in an atmospheric GCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to ˜0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

2012-12-01

289

[Testing of microsatellite primers with different populations of Eurasian spruces Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Picea obovata Ledeb].  

PubMed

From a clone library containing microsatellite DNA fragments of Norwegian spruce, seven pairs of primers were selected. These primers were tested to be the markers in the genetic structure analysis of nine populations of Eurasian spruce species Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Picea obovata Ledeb. Five pairs of these primers identified polymorphic loci with the allele numbers from 6 to 15. In the populations examined, the observed and expected heterozygosity values assessed at five loci varied from 0.1778 to 0.6556 and from 0.7800 to 0.900, respectively. In the populations examined, the values of F(st) index varied from 0.0691 to 0.2551 with the mean value of 0.1318. On the dendrogram based on Nei genetic distances, the populations formed three groups: Pskov-Ciscarpathia, Komi-Tatarstan-Arkhangelsk, Kazakhstan-Karelia(natural)-Karelia(culture)-Krasnoyarsk. Five of the primer pairs tested proved useful for analysis of the population genetic structure in Eurasian spruce species. PMID:22830263

Mel'nikova, M N; Petrov, N B; Lomov, A A; la Porta, N; Politov, D V

2012-05-01

290

Role for Eurasian Arctic shelf sea ice in a secularly varying hemispheric climate signal during the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypothesized low-frequency climate signal propagating across the Northern Hemisphere through a network of synchronized climate indices was identified in previous analyses of instrumental and proxy data. The tempo of signal propagation is rationalized in terms of the multidecadal component of Atlantic Ocean variability—the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Through multivariate statistical analysis of an expanded database, we further investigate this hypothesized signal to elucidate propagation dynamics. The Eurasian Arctic Shelf-Sea Region, where sea ice is uniquely exposed to open ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as a strong contender for generating and sustaining propagation of the hemispheric signal. Ocean-ice-atmosphere coupling spawns a sequence of positive and negative feedbacks that convey persistence and quasi-oscillatory features to the signal. Further stabilizing the system are anomalies of co-varying Pacific-centered atmospheric circulations. Indirectly related to dynamics in the Eurasian Arctic, these anomalies appear to negatively feed back onto the Atlantic`s freshwater balance. Earth's rotational rate and other proxies encode traces of this signal as it makes its way across the Northern Hemisphere.

Wyatt, Marcia Glaze; Curry, Judith A.

2014-05-01

291

Improvement in Simulation of Eurasian Winter Climate Variability with a Realistic Arctic Sea Ice Condition in an Atmospheric GCM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to approx. 0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

2012-01-01

292

Relationships between Environmental Characteristics and the Density of Age0 Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis in the Littoral Zone of a Lake: A Nonlinear Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the spatial distribution of age-0 Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis in the littoral area of a large lake (Lake Pareloup, France) using eight environmental variables as habitat descriptors. Nonparametric locally weighted scatterplot smother (Lowess) functions were used to visualize the relationships between spatial distribution and the habitat descriptors. The highest abundance was observed in the transition area between shallow

Sebastien Brosse; Sovan Lek

2002-01-01

293

The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current along the Eurasian slope and the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge: Water mass properties, transports and transformations from moored instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Year-long (summer 1995 to 1996) time series of temperature, salinity and current velocity from three slope sites spanning the junction of the Lomonosov Ridge with the Eurasian continent are used to quantify the water properties, transformations and transport of the boundary current of the Arctic Ocean. The mean flow is cyclonic, weak (1 to 5 cm s?1), predominantly aligned along

Rebecca A Woodgate; Knut Aagaard; Robin D Muench; John Gunn; Göran Björk; Bert Rudels; A. T Roach; Ursula Schauer

2001-01-01

294

Overwinter Habitat and the Relationship of Overwinter to In-lake Densities of the Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, a Eurasian Watermilfoil Biological Control Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native weevil Euhrychiopsis lecontei has been associated with declines of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spica- tum). The weevil spends all summer on submersed plants, producing 3 to 6 generations. In September to November adult weevils move to shore where they overwinter in leaf lit- ter at drier sites near the shoreline. Mean November shore- line densities from 1992-1998 at Lake

DAVID W. RAGSDALE; ALYSON MILLES; CARY OIEN

295

Differences in the susceptibility of Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian common carp (Cyprinus carpio), identified by mitochondrial DNA typing, to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).  

PubMed

In 2004, a massive mortality of wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) due to CyHV-3 infection occurred in Lake Biwa. Although common carp of two different mitochondrial types (Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian) occur in the lake, the majority of the dead fish seemed to be the indigenous type. The apparent high mortality in the indigenous type implies a higher susceptibility of this type to CyHV-3. To test the hypothesis that the susceptibility of indigenous and Eurasian types differ, we performed experimental infections with CyHV-3 among 2 groups of the indigenous type, and for the Eurasian type 4 groups of domesticated common carp and 4 groups of koi carp. Fish were immersed in CyHV-3 isolate and kept at 24°C. Both groups of the indigenous type died more rapidly compared with the 8 groups of the Eurasian type. Cumulative mortality in both indigenous groups reached 95-100%, whereas the cumulative mortalities of domesticated common carp (30-95%) and koi carp (35-100%) were more varied. CyHV-3 genome in the organs of the indigenous type increased more rapidly after the viral exposure and reached higher peak levels than those of the domesticated strain. These findings revealed that susceptibility of the indigenous type of carp to CyHV-3 can be considered especially high. PMID:24690375

Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Yuasa, Kei

2014-06-25

296

Revised and synthetic apparent polar wander paths of the African, Eurasian, North American and Indian plates, and true polar wander since 200 Ma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed paleomagnetic data available for the Eurasian, African, North American and Indian plates over the last 200 Ma. Selection criteria are those generally accepted, with an emphasis on evidence for lack of remagnetization, accurate dating and proper structural analysis. This results in 23, 35, 51 and 2 poles for Eurasia, Africa, North America and India, respectively. We believe

Jean Besse; Vincent Courtillot

1991-01-01

297

Stability of permafrost and gas hydrates in Arctic coastal lowlands and on the Eurasian shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last Glacial period thick continuous permafrost developed on the Siberian coastal lowlands and large shelf areas due to the up to 120 m lower sea level and the exposure of these areas to cold temperatures. With the beginning of the Holocene transgression, complex interaction processes of sea water with the permafrost landscape occurred. The occurrence of gas hydrates captured in permafrost is a characteristic feature of the the Eurasian Arctic shelf areas, especially on the shelf of the Kara, Laptev and East Siberia seas. In some of the shelf areas oceanic rift zones stretch to the continent, as for example in the Laptev Sea area where the Gakkel Ridge continues into the land. Great differences in geothermal heat flow values and in the properties of the sediments and rocks have to be assumed in undisturbed lithosphere block and in fault zones like as in continental rifts (such as Momskii and Baikalskii rifts, etc.). As a result differences in the thickness of permafrost and the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) within these structures are expected. The thickness of permafrost and the GHSZ change essentially and irregularly in the stages of regressions and transgressions of the sea. Models show that the thickness of offshore (subsea) permafrost in the stages of climatic warming and transgressions essentially decrease however, rather irregular. The possibilities and the boundary conditions for the occurrence of open taliks, which may result in an emission of greenhouse gases from sub-permafrost gases and hydrates, have been estimated. Ice-bearing and ice-bonded permafrost in the northern regions of Arctic lowlands and in the inner shelf zone, have been preserved during at least four Pleistocene climatic and glacial-eustatic cycles. Presently, they are subjected to degradation from the bottom under the impact of geothermal heat flux as well as from interaction with warmer sea water at the top. Subsea permafrost formed on the arctic continental shelves that were inundated following the end of the last Glacial period 18,000 years ago. This inundation has increased the mean annual temperature at the sediment surface since the mean annual sea bottom water temperature is higher than the temperature of the land surface before the transgression. This increase in temperature leads to the thawing of permafrost below the seabed, which can occur as a result of temperature increase, but also due to the penetration of salt-water into the seabed, which lowers the freezing point of the sediment's pore water. Coastal and subsea permafrost are important components in the global carbon system. It contains significant amounts of methane and organic carbon, which may be released to the atmosphere during permafrost warming and degradation. Gas hydrates, and in particular methane hydrates, have been observed trapped within and below arctic permafrost. Recent observations of high methane concentrations in Siberian shelf waters may indicate a shift in release rates connected to submarine permafrost degradation.

Hubberten, H. W.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Romanovskii, N.; Wetterich, S.

2011-12-01

298

A Cretaceous pole from south China, and the Mesozoic hairpin turn of the Eurasian apparent polar wander path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To contribute to the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of the South China Block and Eurasia in general, we collected paleomagnetic samples from Mesozoic red beds around the city of Ya' an (30°N, 103°E) in the western tip of the Sichuan Basin. In this paper we present the results from 373 oriented cores taken from one section representing 3 km of sedimentary rocks. The section is dated with continental ostracods and with a magnetostratigraphic correlation between a densely sampled 272-m sequence and the polarity time scale, giving an upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous or Lower Tertiary age. The remanent direction is remarkably stable throughout the section (D=2.0°, I=34.2°, k=63.1,?95=3.6°, N=26/28 sites). While this fact might suggest that the section has been remagnetized, paleomagnetic and rock magnetic tests indicate that the remanence is primary. The pole position (78.6°N, 273.4°E, dp=2.4°, dm=4.1°) corresponds to a rather low paleolatitude (?=18.8°±2.4°) but is consistent with other Cretaceous poles from China. If one accepts the Eurasian APWP of Irving and Irving (1982), this result would imply that more than 1000 km of shortening took place between South China and Eurasia, following the acquisition of the remanence. However, there is no geological evidence for this large shortening. We propose that the remanence was acquired within the time corresponding to the tip of the hairpin turn (˜150-50 Ma) in the revised APWP of Besse and Courtillot (this issue). The local geology suggests that the syncline from which the samples were taken has been rotated by 15°±5° counterclockwise, which is reflected in a similar discrepancy between the measured paleodeclination and that predicted by the Besse and Courtillot (this issue) Eurasian APWP. After correcting for this rotation, the pole position is 70.9°N, 225.2°E (dp=2.4°, dm=6.5°). We conclude that Eurasia was fully assembled by the end of the Jurassic and that the Mesozoic Eurasian hairpin turn is a real feature.

Enkin, Randolph J.; Chen, Yan; Courtillot, Vincent; Besse, Jean; Xing, Lisheng; Zhang, Zhenhai; Zhuang, Zhonghai; Zhang, Jingxin

1991-03-01

299

Eurasian Tree Sparrows, Risk for H5N1 Virus Spread and Human Contamination through Buddhist Ritual: An Experimental Approach  

PubMed Central

Background The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 virus has dramatically spread throughout Southeast Asia since its first detection in 1997. Merit Release Birds, such as the Eurasian Tree Sparrow, are believed to increase one's positive karma when kissed and released during Buddhist rituals. Since these birds are often in close contact with both poultry and humans, we investigated their potential role in the spread of H5N1 virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven series of experiments were conducted in order to investigate the possible interactions between inoculated and exposed birds, including sparrow/sparrow, sparrow/chicken, duck/sparrow. Daily and post-mortem samples collected were tested for H5N1 virus by real-time RT-PCR and egg inoculation. When directly inoculated, Eurasian Tree Sparrows were highly susceptible to the H5N1 virus, with a fatality rate approaching 100% within 5 days post-inoculation. Although transmission of fatal infection between sparrows did not occur, seroconversion of the exposed birds was observed. Up to 100% chickens exposed to inoculated sparrows died of H5N1 infection, depending on the caging conditions of the birds, while a fatality rate of 50% was observed on sparrows exposed to infected ducks. Large quantities of H5N1 virus were detected in the sparrows, particularly in their feathers, from which infectious particles were recovered. Conclusions/Significance Our study indicates that under experimental conditions, Eurasian Tree Sparrows are susceptible to H5N1 infection, either by direct inoculation or by contact with infected poultry. Their ability to transmit H5N1 infection to other birds is also demonstrated, suggesting that the sparrows may play a role in the dissemination of the virus. Finally, the presence of significant quantities of H5N1 virus on sparrows' feathers, including infectious particles, would suggest that Merit Release Birds represent a risk for human contamination in countries where avian influenza virus is circulating and where this religious ritual is practiced.

Gutierrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Sorn, San; Nicholls, John M.; Buchy, Philippe

2011-01-01

300

Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?  

PubMed

Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans. PMID:24671829

Ostoji?, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W; Shaw, Rachael C; Cheke, Lucy G; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S

2014-03-01

301

Rapid courtship evolution in grouse (Tetraonidae): contrasting patterns of acceleration between the Eurasian and North American polygynous clades  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection is thought to be a powerful diversifying force, based on large ornamental differences between sexually dimorphic species. This assumes that unornamented phenotypes represent evolution without sexual selection. If sexual selection is more powerful than other forms of selection, then two effects would be: rapid divergence of sexually selected traits and a correlation between these divergence rates and variance in mating success in the ornamented sex. I tested for these effects in grouse (Tetraonidae). For three species pairs, within and among polygynous clades, male courtship characters had significantly greater divergence than other characters. This was most pronounced for two species in Tympanuchus. In the Eurasian polygynous clade, relative courtship divergence gradually increased with nucleotide divergence, suggesting a less dramatic acceleration. Increase in relative courtship divergence was associated with mating systems having higher variance in male mating success. These results suggest that sexual selection has accelerated courtship evolution among grouse, although the microevolutionary details appear to vary among clades.

Spaulding, Allen

2007-01-01

302

Structure of intrusions and fronts in the deep layer of the Eurasian basin and Makarov basin (Arctic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous CTD data obtained in the Eurasian and Makarov basins in the Arctic during the Polarstern (1996), Oden, and Louis S. St. Laurent (1994) international polar expeditions are analysed to describe fronts and intrusions observed in the deep layer (600-1300 m). The hydrological parameters were estimated from available CTD data, which made it possible to identify different types of fronts (baroclinic, thermohaline, and compound types of fronts) and analyze intrusive layering taking into account the peculiarities of the thermohaline structure of fronts. The field data are interpreted using an interleaving model describing the formation of intrusions on the baroclinic and pure thermohaline fronts under conditions of absolutely stable stratification. It is assumed that differential mixing is the main instability mechanism. Estimates of the vertical and lateral diffusivities in the frontal zones of the deep Arctic layer are presented.

Kuzmina, N. P.; Rudels, B.; Zhurbas, N. V.

2013-07-01

303

Molecular signals for late Tertiary/early Quaternary range splits of an Eurasian steppe plant: Clausia aprica (Brassicaceae).  

PubMed

Several vegetation belts stretch continuously from Europe to Asia, taiga and steppe being most prominent. Numerous plant species within these belts share a conspicuous distribution area, which is longitudinally contracted or disrupted approximately along longitude 70 degrees E. To date no hypothesis for this intriguing distribution pattern has been put forward. We detected molecular footprints in the contemporary genetic composition in nuclear DNA (ITS1, ITS2) and chloroplast DNA (trnL-trnF spacer region) of the steppe element Clausia aprica (Brassicaceae) providing evidence for a severe longitudinal range split and genetic differentiation east of the Ural Mountains about 1 million years ago caused by Quaternary climatic oscillations. Clausia aprica provides the first phylogeographical analysis on the intraspecific evolution of an Eurasian steppe plant. PMID:15315689

Franzke, A; Hurka, H; Janssen, D; Neuffer, B; Friesen, N; Markov, M; Mummenhoff, K

2004-09-01

304

Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?  

PubMed Central

Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans.

Ostojic, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W.; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S.

2014-01-01

305

Evolution of endogenous retroviruses in the Suidae: evidence for different viral subpopulations in African and Eurasian host species  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent remnants of an exogenous form that have become integrated in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) genome. Although they are usually inactive, the capacity of ?1 ERVs to infect human cells in vitro has raised concerns about xenotransplantation because the viruses could cross the species barrier to humans. Here we have analyzed the evolution of ?1 ERVs in ten species of Suidae (suids, pigs and hogs) from Eurasia and Africa using DNA sequences for their coding domains (gag, pro/pol and env genes). For comparison with ?1 PERVs, we have also analysed ?2 ERVs which in domestic pigs are known to be inactive and do not pose a risk to xenotransplantation. Results Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference showed that ?1 and ?2 ERVs have distinctive evolutionary histories. Firstly, two different viral lineages of ?1 ERVs were found and a coevolutionary analysis demonstrated that they correspond broadly to their host phylogeny, one of Eurasian and another of African species, and show no evidence of horizontal transmission. ?2 ERVs, however, show a bush-like evolution, suggesting a rapid viral radiation from a single common ancestor with no correspondence between host and viral evolutionary trees. Furthermore, though ?1 ERV env genes do not possess frequent stop codons, ?2 env genes do. To understand whether ?1 suid ERVs may be still replicating, we have also evaluated their likely mechanism of proliferation by statistically testing internal to terminal branches using nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitution ratios. Our results suggest that ?1 ERVs are increasing in copy number by reinfection, which requires the translocation of the virus from one cell to another. Conclusions Evidence of at least two viral subpopulations was observed in ?1 ERVs from Eurasian and African host species. These results should be taken into account in xenotransplantation since ?1 ERVs appear to be codiverging with their host and maintaining ongoing capacity to infect somatic and germ cells.

2011-01-01

306

Intercomparison of four global precipitation data sets and their correlation with increased Eurasian river discharge to the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent increases in Eurasian river discharge to the Arctic Ocean have attracted considerable scientific attention but remain poorly understood. Previous studies have examined fire frequency, permafrost thaw, and dam construction as potential mechanisms. Here we focus on precipitation as a driver, using 198 dam-free Eurasian river basins ranging from 151 to 897,000 km2. Using R-ArcticNet monthly discharge data and four observational and reanalysis precipitation products from the University of Delaware (UDel), University of Washington (UW), NCEP/NCAR (NCEP), and ECMWF (ERA-40), we (1) assess which precipitation data sets best capture spatially realistic patterns as inferred from agreement with river discharge (198 basins; 1958-1989); and (2) determine to what extent observed discharge trends follow Udel precipitation changes (66 basins; 1936-1999). Results from the precipitation intercomparison show for the 74 (of 198) basins displaying statistically significant discharge trends (24 positive, 50 negative; -74% to +89%, mean = -1%), interpolated precipitation products significantly outperform reanalysis data sets, perhaps owing to the fine-scale resolutions examined here. Agreement between discharge and precipitation is 42-86% and 42-97% for UDel and UW, respectively, but approaches zero for NCEP and ERA-40. Comparison of precipitation and discharge trends suggests that precipitation increases play a significant role in observed long-term discharge increases. For the 40 (of 66) basins displaying statistically significant trends in discharge (32 positive, 8 negative; -23% to +50%, mean = +11%), 29 display corresponding trends in precipitation with 35-62% agreement between discharge and precipitation trend. Comparison of discharge trends with basin permafrost properties indicates a possible, but not strong role for permafrost thaw in the observed increases.

Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Smith, Laurence C.

2006-11-01

307

The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current along the Eurasian slope and the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge: Water mass properties, transports and transformations from moored instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Year-long (summer 1995 to 1996) time series of temperature, salinity and current velocity from three slope sites spanning the junction of the Lomonosov Ridge with the Eurasian continent are used to quantify the water properties, transformations and transport of the boundary current of the Arctic Ocean. The mean flow is cyclonic, weak (1 to 5 cm s -1), predominantly aligned along isobaths and has an equivalent barotropic structure in the vertical. We estimate the transport of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin to be 5±1 Sv. About half of this flow is diverted north along the Eurasian Basin side of the Lomonosov Ridge. The warm waters (>1.4°C) of the Atlantic layer are also found on the Canadian Basin side of the ridge south of 86.5°N, but not north of this latitude. This suggests that the Atlantic layer crosses the ridge at various latitudes south of 86.5°N and flows southward along the Canadian Basin side of the ridge. Temperature and salinity records indicate a small (0.02 Sv), episodic flow of Canadian Basin deep water into the Eurasian Basin at ˜1700 m, providing a possible source for an anomalous eddy observed in the Amundsen Basin in 1996. There is also a similar flow of Eurasian Basin deep water into the Canadian Basin. Both flows probably pass through a gap in the Lomonosov Ridge at 80.4°N. A cooling and freshening of the Atlantic layer, observed at all three moorings, is attributed to changes (in temperature and salinity and/or volume) in the outflow from the Barents Sea the previous winter, possibly caused by an observed increased flow of ice from the Arctic Ocean into the Barents Sea. The change in water properties, which advects at ˜5 cm s -1 along the southern edge of the Eurasian Basin, also strengthens the cold halocline layer and increases the stability of the upper ocean. This suggests a feedback in which ice exported from the Arctic Ocean into the Barents Sea promotes ice growth elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean. The strongest currents recorded at the moorings (up to 40 cm s -1) are related to eddy features which are predominantly anticyclonic and, with a few exceptions, are of two main types: cold core eddies, confined to the upper 100-300 m, probably formed on the shelf, and warm core eddies of greater vertical extent, probably related to instabilities of an upstream front.

Woodgate, Rebecca A.; Aagaard, Knut; Muench, Robin D.; Gunn, John; Björk, Göran; Rudels, Bert; Roach, A. T.; Schauer, Ursula

2001-08-01

308

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goals during this period included the following objectives from the Statement of Work: in Phase 2A, completion of Subtask 2.1.4 -- Interpret data, of Task 2.1 -- Acquire 3-D seismic data; and, in Phase 2B, completion of Subtask 2.2.1 -- Solicit bids and award, and initiation of Subtask 2.2.2 -- Acquire cores, of Task 2.2 -- Drill slant hole. Subtask 2.1.4 -- Interpret data: Interpretation of the 3- D seismic survey was completed on a Sun Sparcstation10 workstation (UNIX based), using Landmark Graphics latest version of Seisworks 3D software. Subtask 2.2.2 -- Acquire cores: Sierra had picked a location and prepared a drilling plan for the slant/horizontal wellbores. Sierra was ready to submit an Application for Permit to Drill. However, due to the fact that Sierra entered into an agreement to sell the Badger Basin property, the drilling phase was put on hold.

Fortmann, R.G.

1994-01-14

309

Eurasian-Origin Gene Segments Contribute to the Transmissibility, Aerosol Release, and Morphology of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological success of pandemic and epidemic influenza A viruses relies on the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplet (RD) transmission of influenza viruses requires efficient replication and release of infectious influenza particles into the air. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus originated by reassortment of a North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) virus with a Eurasian swine virus that contributed the neuraminidase (NA) and M gene segments. Both the TRS and Eurasian swine viruses caused sporadic infections in humans, but failed to spread from person-to-person, unlike the pH1N1 virus. We evaluated the pH1N1 and its precursor viruses in a ferret model to determine the contribution of different viral gene segments on the release of influenza virus particles into the air and on the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. We found that the Eurasian-origin gene segments contributed to efficient RD transmission of the pH1N1 virus likely by modulating the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air. All viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of infected ferrets, suggesting that factors other than viral replication are important for the release of influenza virus particles and transmission. Our studies demonstrate that the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air correlates with increased NA activity. Additionally, the pleomorphic phenotype of the pH1N1 virus is dependent upon the Eurasian-origin gene segments, suggesting a link between transmission and virus morphology. We have demonstrated that the viruses are released into exhaled air to varying degrees and a constellation of genes influences the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus.

Lakdawala, Seema S.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Wang, Weijia; Santos, Celia P.; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindsley, William G.; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

2011-01-01

310

Impact of Eurasian biomass burning emissions on the springtime lower-tropospheric ozone in North China and the rest of Northeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive biomass burning activities take place in Eurasia from April through September, severely degrading regional air quality. We examine the impact of Eurasian biomass burning on the springtime (April-May) lower-tropospheric (LT) ozone over Northeast Asia in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model driven by the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields from the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). We evaluate model-simulated ozone against the multi-year (1995-2012) aircraft ozone profiles over Beijing from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program and ozonesonde measurements at Japanese stations obtained from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC). The model-simulated large-scale temporal and vertical variability in ozone is similar to that in the MOZAIC observations, but the model often underestimates the magnitude of the observed ozone enhancements in the LT during April-May. By conducting model sensitivity simulations, we quantify and contrast the impacts of Eurasian biomass burning on the springtime LT ozone over Northeast Asia in the years with and without active biomass burning activities, respectively. Extremely high Eurasian biomass burning emissions in combination with stronger northward transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions resulted in very large ozone enhancements in the LT over Northeast Asia in May 2003. We find that the impact of Eurasian biomass burning emissions on the springtime LT ozone in Beijing can be comparable to, or even higher than that of Chinese anthropogenic emissions. These results have important implications for predicting the air quality of the North China Plain as well as understanding the interannual variability of springtime tropospheric ozone in Northeast Asia.

Huang, J.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Thouret, V.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Strahan, S. E.; Damon, M.; Steenrod, S. D.; Strode, S. A.

2013-12-01

311

Blood lead levels and ?-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl ( Bubo bubo ) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl\\u000a chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations.\\u000a However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site (“Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union”)

P. Gómez-Ramírez; E. Martínez-López; P. María-Mojica; M. León-Ortega; A. J. García-Fernández

2011-01-01

312

Stages of geodynamic rearrangements of the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent in the Cenozoic: The amur river-sea of the Okhotsk region  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed in literature that the convergent boundary between the Pacific Plate and the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent permanently existed through the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. However, new data in combination with recent publications on the Sikhote Alin?Sakhalin [1?5] and the East China? Japan [6?8] regions testify to geodynamic and tectonic instability of the eastern margin

N. I. Filatova

2006-01-01

313

Major, trace element, and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: Interaction of hydrous EM1-rich asthenosphere with thinned Eurasian lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraplate magmatism affected much of Indochina following the mid-Miocene cessation of South China Sea opening. Thick basalt plateaus formed on accreted terrains of varying age as extensional fractures were reactivated following the Indo-Eurasian collision. The basalts are part of a diffuse igneous province affecting much of eastern and southeastern Asia and western Pacific marginal basins. Most Indochina basalt centers comprise two eruptive episodes, an early (lower) series of high-Si0 2, low-FeO ? quartz and olivine tholeiites, tapping a relatively-refractory, lithospheric mantle-type source, and a later (upper) series of low-SiO 2, high-FeO ? olivine tholeiites, alkali basalts, and basanites, tapping a fertile, asthenospheric source. This pattern is observed elsewhere in the region (e.g., Hainan Island) and resembles several continental flood basalt provinces. While some crustal contamination is suggested, incompatible trace element and strontium, neodymium, and lead isotopic compositions reflect secular changes from the inferred lithospheric to asthenospheric reservoirs. Lower Series basalts reflect hybrids of 206Pb/204Pb- rich EM2 and N-MORB reservoirs, with high K2O/P 2O5 and low Rb/Sr and Ba/Nb ratios, consistent with the involvement of lithospheric mantle. In contrast, Upper Series basalts show lower K2O/P 2O5 and higher Rb/Sr and Ba/Nb ratios and reflect hybrids of 206Pb/204Pb- poor EM1 and N-MORB sources. These resemble anomalous (A) -MORB compositions that are typical of eastern/southeastern Asian and western Pacific marginal basin asthenosphere. Despite its resemblance to Indian Ocean (I-) MORB, A-MORB "plum-pudding" asthenosphere may be explained in terms of an endogenous Asian model whereby EM1-rich subcratonic lithosphere was entrained by asthenosphere extruded by the Indo-Eurasian collision. This model is consistent with the restriction of diffuse regional magmatism to the late Cenozoic (i.e., following tectonic extrusion), evidence for shallow, thermally-anomalous mantle, and absence of A-MORB signatures from the pre-extrusion continental mantle.

Nguyen, Hoang; Flower, Martin F. J.; Carlson, Richard W.

1996-11-01

314

Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) in three different scenarios of heavy metal exposure.  

PubMed

The main aim of the present study is the assessment of oxidative stress related to metals in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) from three areas (agricultural and rural area, industrial area, and mining area) of Murcia, Southern Spain. Mean blood metal concentrations were Cd=0.07±0.21, Pb=3.27±5.21, Cu=10.62±4.77, Zn=311.47±67.14, Hg=2.32±3.83 ?g/dl wet weight. Although individuals from the mining area had significant higher Pb and Hg concentrations, and significant lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in red blood cells (RBC); the lack of differences in oxidative damage to membrane lipids (TBARS) among areas suggests that the antioxidant capacity of the different populations is able to deal with oxidant species and maintain TBARS levels in the same amount. Despite the low levels of metals, several oxidative stress biomarkers were correlated with metal concentrations. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals cause effects on the antioxidant system in Eagle owls. Blood Cd concentrations greater than 0.3 ?g/dl produced an inhibition in GPx (32%) and CAT (26%) activity in RBC. However, Cd concentrations higher than 0.02 ?g/dl were enough to produce an inhibition of these enzymes. Regarding Pb levels, blood concentrations above 2 ?g/dl produced an inhibition of 8% and 10.5% in GPx and CAT activities, respectively, in RBC. A depletion of 16% and 4% in tGSH levels was associated with Pb concentrations higher than 15 and 3 ?g/dl, respectively, in individuals from the ancient mine site. In addition, Pb concentrations above 2 and 10 ?g/dl produced a TBARS induction of 10% and 28%, respectively, in individuals from both the industrial and the mining area. Finally, Hg concentrations greater than 3 and 10 ?g/dl resulted in a TBARS induction of 102% and 190%, respectively, in Eurasian eagle owls from the industrial area. Our findings show that Pb may produce effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in Strigiformes at lower concentrations than those typically accepted for considering physiological effects in Falconiformes (20 µg/dl in blood). In addition, we provide new data on Hg and Cd concentrations related to effects in the antioxidant system. PMID:24721131

Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; León-Ortega, Mario; Martínez, José Enrique; García-Fernández, Antonio Juan

2014-05-01

315

Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: the Eurasian Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto in the United States.  

PubMed

Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the spread direction consistent with empirical observations. Site persistence probability exhibits a quadratic response to density. We also succeeded at detecting differences in the relationship between density and initial colonization vs. recolonization probabilities. We provide a map of sites that may be colonized in the future as an example of possible practical application of our work. PMID:21516906

Bled, Florent; Royle, J Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

2011-01-01

316

The emerging tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs.  

PubMed Central

Variation in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is now routinely described and used to infer the histories of peoples, by means of one of two procedures, namely, the assaying of RFLPs throughout the genome and the sequencing of parts of the control region (CR). Using 95 samples from the Near East and northwest Caucasus, we present an analysis based on both systems, demonstrate their concordance, and, using additional available information, present the most refined phylogeny to date of west Eurasian mtDNA. We describe and apply a nomenclature for mtDNA clusters. Hypervariable nucleotides are identified, and the relative mutation rates of the two systems are evaluated. We point out where ambiguities remain. The identification of signature mutations for each cluster leads us to apply a hierarchical scheme for determining the cluster composition of a sample of Berber speakers, previously analyzed only for CR variation. We show that the main indigenous North African cluster is a sister group to the most ancient cluster of European mtDNAs, from which it diverged approximately 50,000 years ago.

Macaulay, V; Richards, M; Hickey, E; Vega, E; Cruciani, F; Guida, V; Scozzari, R; Bonne-Tamir, B; Sykes, B; Torroni, A

1999-01-01

317

Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2013-01-01

318

Reference-free SNP discovery for the Eurasian beaver from restriction site-associated DNA paired-end data.  

PubMed

In this study, we used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to discover SNP markers suitable for population genetic and parentage analysis with the aim of using them for monitoring the reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fibre) to Scotland. In the absence of a reference genome for beaver, we built contigs and discovered SNPs within them using paired-end RAD data, so as to have sufficient flanking region around the SNPs to conduct marker design. To do this, we used a simple pipeline which catalogued the Read 1 data in stacks and then used the assembler cortex_var to conduct de novo assembly and genotyping of multiple samples using the Read 2 data. The analysis of around 1.1 billion short reads of sequence data was reduced to a set of 2579 high-quality candidate SNP markers that were polymorphic in Norwegian and Bavarian beaver. Both laboratory validation of a subset of eight of the SNPs (1.3% error) and internal validation by confirming patterns of Mendelian inheritance in a family group (0.9% error) confirmed the success of this approach. PMID:23432348

Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Cezard, Timothee; Gharbi, Karim; Iqbal, Zamin; Johnson, Eric; Kamps-Hughes, Nick; Rosell, Frank; McEwing, Ross

2013-06-01

319

Novel Reassortment of Eurasian Avian-Like and Pandemic/2009 Influenza Viruses in Swine: Infectious Potential for Humans ? †  

PubMed Central

Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts and “mixing vessels,” facilitating the genesis of pandemic influenza viruses, as demonstrated by the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pdm/09) virus. The prevalence and repeated introduction of the pdm/09 virus into pigs raises the possibility of generating novel swine influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. To address this, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted with slaughtered pigs in abattoirs in southern China. Over 50% of the pigs tested were found to be seropositive for one or more H1 influenza viruses, most commonly pdm/09-like viruses. Out of 36 virus isolates detected, one group of novel reassortants had Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 surface genes and pdm/09 internal genes. Animal experiments showed that this virus transmitted effectively from pig to pig and from pig to ferret, and it could also replicate in ex vivo human lung tissue. Immunization against the 2009 pandemic virus gave only partial protection to ferrets. The continuing prevalence of the pdm/09 virus in pigs could lead to the genesis of novel swine reassortant viruses with the potential to infect humans.

Zhu, Huachen; Zhou, Boping; Fan, Xiaohui; Lam, Tommy T. Y.; Wang, Jia; Chen, Antony; Chen, Xinchun; Chen, Honglin; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Smith, David K.; Guan, Yi

2011-01-01

320

Summer U.K. Temperature and Its Links to Preceding Eurasian Snow Cover, North Atlantic SSTs, and the NAO.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by an attempt to predict summer (June August) U.K. temperatures, the time-lagged correlations between summer U.K. and European temperatures and prior snow cover, North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are examined. The analysis centers on the 30-yr period 1972 2001 corresponding to the interval of reliable satellite-derived land snow cover data. A significant association is found between late winter Eurasian snow cover and upcoming summer temperatures over the British Isles and adjacent areas, this link being strongest with January March snow cover. Significant links are also observed between summer temperatures and the preceding late winter NAO index and with a leading principal component of North Atlantic SST variability. The physical mechanisms underlying these time-lagged correlations are investigated by studying the associated variability in large-scale atmospheric circulation over the Euro Atlantic sector. Seasonal expansion in the Azores high pressure system may play an important role in the time-lagged relationships. The potential seasonal predictability of summer U.K. temperatures during the period 1972 2001 is assessed by cross-validated hindcasts and usable predictive skill is found. However, the presence and cause of temporal instability in the time-lagged relationships over longer periods of time requires further investigation.

Qian, Budong; Saunders, Mark A.

2003-12-01

321

Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.  

PubMed

Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year. PMID:12061951

Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

2002-06-01

322

Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.  

PubMed Central

Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year.

Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

2002-01-01

323

Predicting average wintertime wind and wave conditions in the North Atlantic sector from Eurasian snow cover in October  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study assesses the lead–lag teleconnection between Eurasian snow cover in October and the December-to-February mean boreal winter climate with respect to the predictability of 10 m wind speed and significant wave heights in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. Lead–lag correlations exceeding a magnitude of 0.8 are found for the short time period of 1997/98–2012/13 (n = 16) for which daily satellite-sensed snow cover data is available to date. The respective cross-validated hindcast skill obtained from using linear regression as a statistical forecasting technique is similarly large in magnitude. When using a longer but degraded time series of weekly snow cover data for calculating the predictor variable (1979/80–2011/12, n = 34), hindcast skill decreases but yet remains significant over a large fraction of the study area. In addition, Monte-Carlo field significance tests reveal that the patterns of skill are globally significant. The proposed method might be used to make forecast decisions for wind and wave energy generation, seafaring, fishery and offshore drilling. To exemplify its potential suitability for the latter sector, it is additionally applied to DJF frequencies of significant wave heights exceeding 2 m, a threshold value above which mooring conditions at oil platforms are no longer optimal.

Brands, Swen

2014-04-01

324

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

325

The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.  

PubMed

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-09-01

326

Carbonate-rich melt infiltration in peridotite xenoliths from the Eurasian-North American modern plate boundary (Chersky Range, Yakutia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of mainly spinel peridotite and subordinate pyroxenite xenoliths and megacrysts were studied in detail, enabling us to characterize upper mantle conditions and processes beneath the modern North American-Eurasian continental plate boundary. The samples were collected from 37-Ma-old basanites cropping out in the Main Collision Belt of the Chersky Range, Yakutia Republic (Russian Far East). The spinel lherzolites reflect a mantle sequence, equilibrated at temperatures of 890-1,025 °C at pressures of 1.1-2 GPa, with melt extraction estimated to be around 2-6 %. The spinel harzburgites are characterized by lower P-T equilibration conditions and estimated melt extraction up to 12 %. Minor cryptic metasomatic processes are recorded in the clinopyroxene trace elements, revealing that percolating hydrous fluid-rich melts and basaltic melts affected the peridotites. One of the lherzolites preserves a unique melt droplet with primary dolomite in perfect phase contact with Na-rich aluminosilicate glass and sodalite. On the basis of the well-constrained P-T frame of the xenolith suite, as well as the rigorously documented melt extraction and metasomatic history of this upper mantle section, we discuss how a carbonated silicate melt infiltrated the lherzolite at depth and differentiated into an immiscible carbonate and silicate liquid shortly before the xenolith was transported to the surface by the host basalt. Decreasing temperatures triggered crystallization of primary dolomite from the carbonate melt fraction and sodalite as well as quenched glass from the Na-rich aluminosilicate melt fraction. Rapid entrainment and transport to the Earth's surface prevented decarbonatization processes as well as reaction phenomena with the host lherzolite, preserving this exceptional snapshot of upper mantle carbonatization and liquid immiscibility.

Tschegg, Cornelius; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Akinin, Vyacheslav V.; Hauzenberger, Christoph

2012-09-01

327

Mass mortality of eurasian tree sparrows (passer montanus) from salmonella typhimurium dt40 in Japan, winter 2008-09.  

PubMed

Abstract An outbreak of salmonellosis in wild passerines caused mass mortality of Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Hokkaido, Japan, 2005-06; however, the etiology was poorly understood. In winter 2008-09, sparrow mortality again occurred in Hokkaido, and 202 deaths in 100 incidents at 94 sites were reported. We conducted a comprehensive investigation to evaluate the cause and impact on sparrow populations. We collected 26 carcasses at 13 sites, including a zoological park. In addition, Salmonella screening of zoo animals was conducted as a biosecurity measure. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from multiple organs in all examined sparrows; they were diagnosed with septicemic salmonellosis. Eleven sites (85%) were related to wild bird feeding and six of eight sparrow fecal samples, including from the zoo, were S. Typhimurium-positive. No infection was detected in zoo animals. Isolates belonged to three phage types: DT40 (88%), DT110 (8%), and DT120 (4%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were the same in all isolates, regardless of phage type. Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic-resistance profiles of DT40 were similar in all isolates, indicating a single origin. The mortality was likely associated with that in 2005-06 because the isolates had the same profiles. Tissue levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium (the main components of chemical deicer suspected to be the major cause of poisoning deaths in 2005-06 mortality) were not higher in the affected sparrows. We conclude that an emerging epidemic infection with S. Typhimurium DT40 related to bird feeding was the cause of sparrow mortality in 2008-09 and suggest that this causative strain is host-adapted to sparrows in Japan. The mortality might have had some impact on the local population, but its influence was limited. PMID:24779465

Fukui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Katsumi; Kubo, Midori; Une, Yumi; Kato, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen

2014-07-01

328

Genetic diversity of invasive species in the Great Lakes versus their Eurasian source populations: insights for risk analysis.  

PubMed

Combining DNA variation data and risk assessment procedures offers important diagnostic and monitoring tools for evaluating the relative success of exotic species invasions. Risk assessment may allow us to understand how the numbers of founding individuals, genetic variants, population sources, and introduction events affect successful establishment and spread. This is particularly important in habitats that are "hotbeds" for invasive species--such as the North American Great Lakes. This study compares genetic variability and its application to risk assessment within and among three Eurasian groups and five species that successfully invaded the Great Lakes during the mid 1980s through early 1990s; including zebra and quagga mussels, round and tubenose gobies, and the ruffe. DNA sequences are compared from exotic and native populations in order to evaluate the role of genetic diversity in invasions. Close relatives are also examined, since they often invade in concert and several are saline tolerant and are likely to spread to North American estuaries. Results show that very high genetic diversity characterizes the invasions of all five species, indicating that they were founded by very large numbers of propagules and underwent no founder effects. Genetic evidence points to multiple invasion sources for both dreissenid and goby species, which appears related to especially rapid spread and widespread colonization success in a variety of habitats. In contrast, results show that the ruffe population in the Great Lakes originated from a single founding population source from the Elbe River drainage. Both the Great Lakes and the Elbe River populations of ruffe have similar genetic diversity levels--showing no founder effect, as in the other invasive species. In conclusion, high genetic variability, large numbers of founders, and multiple founding sources likely significantly contribute to the risk of an exotic species introduction's success and persistence. PMID:16268948

Stepien, Carol A; Brown, Joshua E; Neilson, Matthew E; Tumeo, Mark A

2005-08-01

329

A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring.

Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

2013-01-01

330

A high diversity of Eurasian lineage low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses circulate among wild birds sampled in Egypt.  

PubMed

Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

Gerloff, Nancy A; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Elbadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C; de Mattos, Carlos A; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O

2013-01-01

331

Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37-0.47 and 0.14-0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

2013-11-01

332

The phenetic distances of the living Druze from other human populations suggest a major genetic drift from the Western Eurasian ancestral category.  

PubMed

The objectives were to determine the expression frequency and sexual dimorphism of 16 non-metric crown traits on the sample of permanent dentitions of the living Druze population (a Near Eastern genetic isolate) in Jordan, and to assess the biological affinity of this sample to 21 regional groups, and to the living general Jordanian population, based on these traits. Druze schoolchildren (46 males, 40 females; mean age=16.0, sd=0.5 years) were studied in 2011. The traits were classified using the Arizona State University dental anthropology system, counted with the individual count method, and dichotomized according to the criteria of Scott and Turner for the purpose of group comparisons. Fisher's exact test for dichotomized scores was used to assess sexual dimorphism in these traits. Smith's mean measure of divergence was used to measure all pairwise distance values among the groups. Sexual dimorphism was found in five traits (i.e., UI2 interruption grooves, 3-cusped UM2, UM1 Carabelli's tubercle/cusp, 4-cusp LM1, and LM2 Y-groove pattern). This study revealed that the dental pattern of living Druze, which is similar to that of the general Jordanian population, is sufficiently distinct from the Western Eurasian pattern and all other known dental patterns to form a distinct dental pattern for the regional group or subcategory to which these two populations belong. Moreover, the relatively large distance values of the living Druze and Jordanians from the other world groups considered, including the Western Eurasian groups, suggest a similar major genetic difference of these two populations from the Western Eurasian ancestry. PMID:24008149

Alsoleihat, F; Khraisat, A

2013-10-01

333

Regional differences in the distribution of the sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian mtDNA lineages in Yemen.  

PubMed

Despite its key location for population movements out of and back into Africa, Yemen has not yet been sampled on a regional level for an investigation of sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian genetic contributions. In this study, we present mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data for regionally distinct Yemeni populations that reveal different distributions of mtDNA lineages. An extensive database of mtDNA sequences from North and East African, Middle Eastern and Indian populations was analyzed to provide a context for the regional Yemeni mtDNA datasets. The groups of western Yemen appear to be most closely related to Middle Eastern and North African populations, while the eastern Yemeni population from Hadramawt is most closely related to East Africa. Furthermore, haplotype matches with Africa are almost exclusively confined to West Eurasian R0a haplogroup in southwestern Yemen, although more sub-Saharan L-type matches appear in more northern Yemeni populations. In fact, Yemeni populations have the highest frequency of R0a haplotypes detected to date, thus Yemen or southern Arabia may be the site of the initial expansion of this haplogroup. Whereas two variants of the sub-Saharan haplogroup M1 were detected only in southwestern Yemen close to the Bab el-Mandeb Strait, different non-African M haplotypes were detected at low frequencies (approximately 2%) in western parts of the country and at a higher frequency (7.5%) in the Hadramawt. We conclude that the Yemeni gene pool is highly stratified both regionally and temporally and that it has received West Eurasian, Northeast African, and South Asian gene flow. PMID:18257024

Cerný, Viktor; Mulligan, Connie J; Rídl, Jakub; Zaloudková, Martina; Edens, Christopher M; Hájek, Martin; Pereira, Luísa

2008-06-01

334

Biological and genetic characterization of a low-pathogenicity avian influenza H6N2 virus originating from a healthy Eurasian coot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A virus, A\\/Eurasian coot\\/Western Australia\\/2727\\/79 (H6N2), from an apparently healthy coot was characterized. This\\u000a virus was able to grow on MDCK cells and produce a cytopathic effect in the absence of exogenous trypsin and was further characterized\\u000a as a low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus, with an intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.15 and a 321PQAETRG328 motif at the cleavage site of

Songhua Shan; Trevor Ellis; Stan Fenwick; John Edwards; Mark O’Dea; John Parkinson

2010-01-01

335

Genomic analyses detect Eurasian-lineage H10 and additional H14 influenza A viruses recovered from waterfowl in the Central United States.  

PubMed

The accurate and timely characterization of influenza A viruses (IAV) from natural reservoirs is essential for responses to animal and public health threats. Differences between antigenic and genetic subtyping results for 161 IAV isolates recovered from migratory birds in the central United States during 2010-2011 delayed the recognition of four isolates of interest. Genomic sequencing identified the first reported Eurasian-origin H10 subtype in North America and three additional H14 isolates showing divergence from previously reported H14 isolates. Genomic analyses revealed additional diversity among IAV isolates not detected by antigenic subtyping and provided further insight into interhemispheric spread of avian-origin IAVs. PMID:24698181

Fries, Anthony C; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Bowman, Andrew S; Killian, Mary L; Wentworth, David E; Slemons, Richard D

2014-07-01

336

Installation-restoration program environmental technology development. Task Order 12. Field demonstration - composting of propellant-contaminated sediments at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Final report, Jul 87-Mar 89  

SciTech Connect

A field-scale demonstration of composting propellants-contaminated sediment was conducted at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Composting, as used at BAAP, is a treatment process in which organic-chemical contaminated soils or sediments are mixed with organic materials such as manure to enhance the role of microbial metabolism in degrading and stabilizing soil/sediment contaminants. Sediments contaminated with the propellant nitrocellulose (NC) were mixed with manure, alfalfa, livestock feed, and wood chips and composted in four static piles. Negative pressure aeration was used to maintain aerobiosis and remove excess heat. Experimental variables investigated during the study were temperature (mesophilic, 35 C vs. thermophilic, 55 C), sediment loading (19 to 32 weight percent), and NC loading. Small aliquots of compost (approximately 400 cu cm) were spiked with pure NC, placed in porous nylon bags and buried in compost piles. These bagged compost samples were used to determine if high levels of NC could be successfully composted. Thermophilic temperatures resulted in the highest percent reduction in NC concentration.

Williams, R.T.; Ziegenfuss, P.S.; Marks, P.J.

1989-03-01

337

Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole on climate variations in the southern part of the Eurasian Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in 1999, various regional climate variations have been identified as outcomes of IOD rather than El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, based on recent studies, we show two typical examples in the southern part of the Eurasian Continent. Using reanalysis data and snow cover data derived from satellite observations, respective influences of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Tibetan snow cover in early winter are investigated. It is found that the snow cover shows a significant positive partial correlation with IOD. In the pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrences of El Nino, negative geopotential height anomalies north of India are associated with warm and humid southwesterlies to enter the plateau from the Bay of Bengal after rounding cyclonically and supply more moisture. This leads to more precipitation, more snow cover, and resultant lower surface temperature over the plateau. These negative geopotential height anomalies north of India are related to the equivalent barotropic stationary Rossby waves in the South Asian wave guide. The waves can be generated by the IOD-related convection anomalies over the western/central Indian Ocean. Using monthly data during 1974-2005 from 183 meteorological stations in the southern part of Iran, the interannual variation of precipitation are also examined. The precipitation in this region occurs during the rainy season from October to May. The interannual variation in fall and early winter during the first part of the rainy season shows an apparently significant positive correlation with both IOD and ENSO. However, a partial correlation analysis used to extract the respective influence of IOD and ENSO shows a significant positive correlation only with the IOD and not with ENSO. The southeasterly moisture flux anomaly over the Arabian Sea turns anticyclonically and transport more moisture to the southern part of Iran from the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf during the positive IOD. During the latter part of the rainy season in late winter and spring, however, the interannual variation of precipitation is more strongly influenced by modes of variability over the Mediterranean Sea. The induced largescale atmospheric circulation anomaly controls moisture supply from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Identification of the true cause of regional climate variations is very important for societal applications of climate forecast information.

Yamagata, T.; Pourasghar, F.; Tozuka, T.; Yuan, C.

2012-12-01

338

Organohalogen exposure in a Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) population from Southeastern Spain: temporal-spatial trends and risk assessment.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) were analysed in 58 Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) unhatched eggs collected between 2004 and 2009 in Southeastern Spain. Levels of p,p'-DDE were found to be higher than in eggs laid by other European owls in the same decade, probably due to the greater agricultural activity in our study area. Compared to other European raptors, exposure to PCBs can be considered intermediate, but low to PBDEs. Land use differences and prey availability were the rationale to divide the study area in two subareas in further assessments. Temporal trends of HCB, p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH, PCBs and PBDEs were significantly different in each subarea, generally increasing over time in the Southern but decreasing or remaining stable in the Northern. On the contrary, levels of cyclodienes tended to decrease in both subareas. Dietary shifts with a greater amount of birds are suggested as a cause for increasing organochlorine loads in raptors. This may explain the increasing trend in the Southern territories. However, due to the proximity of most of these nests to Cartagena, an important industrial city, increasing environmental pollution cannot be ruled out. Although average levels of the compounds analysed are below threshold levels, 17% of the samples exceeded 400 pg g(-1)ww (wet weight), the LOAEC for Total TEQs. Moreover, a negative correlation between TEQ concentrations and the metabolizable fraction of PCBs (F(prob)=0.0018) was found when TEQs values were above 10 pg g(-1)ww. This could be indicative of hepatic enzymes induction in the birds exposed at higher concentrations, which are mainly breeding in the Southern subarea. These females could be suffering from Ah-receptor-related toxic effects, some of which have been related to altered bird reproduction. Finally, a significant negative correlation between p,p'-DDE levels and eggshell thickness (r=-0.469, p<0.001) was observed, with about 17% of eggshell thinning for eggs with p,p'-DDE levels above 100 ?g g(-1)lw. The persistence of this degree of thinning over a period of time has been related to population declines in other raptor species. PMID:22503462

Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; García-Fernández, A J; Zweers, A J; van den Brink, N W

2012-08-01

339

Phylogeographical lineages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in North America: divergence, origins and affinities with Eurasian Thymallus.  

PubMed

The number and location of Arctic glacial refugia utilized by taxa during the Pleistocene are continuing uncertainties in Holarctic phylogeography. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are widely distributed in freshwaters from the eastern side of Hudson Bay (Canada) west to central Asia. We studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA variation in North American T. arcticus to test for genetic signatures of survival in, and postglacial dispersal from, multiple glacial refugia, and to assess their evolutionary affinities with Eurasian Thymallus. In samples from 32 localities, we resolved 12 mtDNA haplotypes belonging to three assemblages that differed from each other in sequence by between 0.75 and 2.13%: a 'South Beringia' lineage found from western Alaska to northern British Columbia, Canada; a 'North Beringia' lineage found on the north slope of Alaska, the lower Mackenzie River, and to eastern Saskatchewan; and a 'Nahanni' lineage confined to the Nahanni River area of the upper Mackenzie River drainage. Sequence analysis of a portion of the control region indicated monophyly of all North American T. arcticus and their probable origin from eastern Siberian T. arcticus at least 3 Mya. Arctic grayling sampled from 25 localities displayed low allelic diversity and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) across five microsatellite loci (means of 2.1 alleles and 0.27 H(E), respectively) and there were declines in these measures of genetic diversity with distance eastward from the lower Yukon River Valley. Assemblages defined by mtDNA divergences were less apparent at microsatellite loci, but again the Nahanni lineage was the most distinctive. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that between 24% (microsatellite DNA) and 81% (mtDNA) of the variance was attributable to differences among South Beringia, North Beringia and Nahanni lineages. Our data suggest that extant North American Arctic grayling are more diverse phylogeographically than previously suspected and that they consist of at least three major lineages that originated in distinct Pleistocene glacial refugia. T. arcticus probably originated and dispersed from Eurasia to North America in the late to mid-Pliocene, but our data also suggest more recent (mid-late Pleistocene) interactions between lineages across Beringia. PMID:15140096

Stamford, M D; Taylor, E B

2004-06-01

340

Shear-wave splitting at the SW edge of the Ryukyu subduction zone: When the mantle wedge meets the Eurasian lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraslab events recorded by ocean-bottom seismometers in the Okinawa trough provide an extended depiction of shear wave splitting in the southwest section of the Ryukyu subduction zone. At 100-200 km from the western edge of the subduction system, we observed trench-normal fast polarization direction in the back arc compatible with 2D slab- or rifting-driven corner flow. Towards the edge, the fast directions are sub-parallel to the trench in the arc - back arc region, and rotate to trench-normal within 50 km of the edge. Splitting constrained by land stations with paths mostly in the mantle wedge exhibits similar trench-normal fast directions in the subduction edge zone. Further inland, the dominant component of fast directions becomes roughly EW, parallel to the Taiwan orogenic fabric. Splitting of P-to-S phases converted at the Moho of the Okinawa trough and of S phases from shallow events suggest that crustal anisotropy may affect the measured splitting, but the observed pattern reflects predominantly mantle anisotropy. The variation in splitting along the Okinawa trough cannot be explained by a B-type-A-type olivine fabric transition in the mantle wedge. It may indicate the presence of an along-arc flow in the mantle wedge towards the edge where it is blocked and deflected by the Eurasian lithosphere. This scenario bolsters previous studies suggesting a significant impact of Eurasian lithosphere on the dynamics of the Ryukyu subduction system.

Kuo, B.; Wang, C.; Lin, S.; Lin, C.

2012-12-01

341

Application of a west Eurasian-specific filter for quasi-median network analysis: Sharpening the blade for mtDNA error detection.  

PubMed

The application of quasi-median networks provides an effective tool to check the quality of mtDNA data. Filtering of highly recurrent mutations prior to network analysis is required to simplify the data set and reduce the complexity of the network. The phylogenetic background determines those mutations that need to be filtered. While the traditional EMPOPspeedy filter was based on the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny, haplogroup-specific filters can more effectively highlight potential errors in data of the respective (sub)-continental region. In this study we demonstrate the performance of a new, west Eurasian filter EMPOPspeedyWE for the fine-tuned examination of data sets belonging to macrohaplogroup N that constitutes the main portion of mtDNA lineages in Europe. The effects on the resulting network of different database sizes, high-quality and flawed data, as well as the examination of a phylogenetically distant data set, are presented by examples. The analyses are based on a west Eurasian etalon data set that was carefully compiled from more than 3500 control region sequences for network purposes. Both, etalon data and the new filter file, are provided through the EMPOP database (www.empop.org). PMID:21067984

Zimmermann, Bettina; Röck, Alexander; Huber, Gabriela; Krämer, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M; Parson, Walther

2011-03-01

342

Application of a west Eurasian-specific filter for quasi-median network analysis: Sharpening the blade for mtDNA error detection  

PubMed Central

The application of quasi-median networks provides an effective tool to check the quality of mtDNA data. Filtering of highly recurrent mutations prior to network analysis is required to simplify the data set and reduce the complexity of the network. The phylogenetic background determines those mutations that need to be filtered. While the traditional EMPOPspeedy filter was based on the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny, haplogroup-specific filters can more effectively highlight potential errors in data of the respective (sub)-continental region. In this study we demonstrate the performance of a new, west Eurasian filter EMPOPspeedyWE for the fine-tuned examination of data sets belonging to macrohaplogroup N that constitutes the main portion of mtDNA lineages in Europe. The effects on the resulting network of different database sizes, high-quality and flawed data, as well as the examination of a phylogenetically distant data set, are presented by examples. The analyses are based on a west Eurasian etalon data set that was carefully compiled from more than 3500 control region sequences for network purposes. Both, etalon data and the new filter file, are provided through the EMPOP database (www.empop.org).

Zimmermann, Bettina; Rock, Alexander; Huber, Gabriela; Kramer, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M.; Parson, Walther

2011-01-01

343

Carbonatite melt infiltration in mantle xenoliths from the Eurasian plate - North American modern plate collision zone (Ruditch, Yakutia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the seismic active Chersky belt, the modern border between North American and Eurasian plates (Indigirka River area, Sakha-Yakutia Republic), mantle xenoliths were found in eroded alkaline basalt dike remnants.The peridotite xenoliths are represented by mainly anhydrous spinel lherzolites that appear together with subordinate orthpyroxene, clinopyroxene and feldspar megacrysts. Spinel lherzolites have protogranular textures and are well equilibrated, lacking any mineral zonation. The constituent minerals have minor compositional variations whithin and between different samples. Olivine compositions range from Fo 89-90.5, with CaO contents between 0.04 and 0.06 wt.%. Orthopyroxenes indicate a very narrow composititional variance (Wo1En63Fs36, Mg# 90-91 and Al2O3 from 4 to 4.7 wt.%), just like clinopyroxene phases that are represented by Wo38En40Fs22, with Mg#s from 90 to 91 and Al2O3 between 6.8 and 7.6 wt.%. Spinels also show a fertile composition with Cr#s ranging between 26 and 29 and Mg#s between 77 and 78 respectively. Equlibration temperature estimations gives approx. 1000 °C at 15 kbar pressure for all studied samples. In one xenolith, a round melt pocket with 200 microns in diameter consisting of well crystallized dolomite (25 wt.% CaO, 31 wt.% MgO) in perfect contact with homogeneous glass (16 wt.% Na2O, 51 wt.% SiO2, 20 wt.% Al2O3), apparently an immiscibility of carbonatite and silicate melt, was found at the triple point of olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. Mineral chemistries show that the lithospheric mantle underneath the study area is a fertile lherzolith. Clinopyroxene LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses confirm the fertile nature of the xenoliths. The primitive mantle normalized REE patterns show a slight depletion of LREE with respect to HREE. The majority of the analyzed cpx have (La/Yb)N that vary between 0.1 and 0.5 and (Tb/Yb)N from 1.0 to 1.1 indicating the overal absense and metasomatic processes and low degree of melt extraction melting. Zr/Hf ratios vary from 30 to 40 and are similar to the theoretical ratios of primitive mantle clinopyroxenes. Melting models show that these clinopyroxenes represent the residue after 2-5% batch melting of a primitive mantle. It seems likely that shortly before transportion to the surface, the carbonate-silicate melt was introduced into the host xenolith, with subsequent rapid separation of the immiscible liquids and without any reaction with constituent xenolith mineral phases. As erupted carbonatites and highly undersaturated silica melts frequently occur together in intra-plate settings, the survival of the immiscible dolomitic and Na-rich melt in these xenoliths provide additional evidence for a common origin for the carbonatites and highly undersaturated lavas from the same primary magma.

Tschegg, Cornelius; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Akinin, Viacheslav; Hauzenberger, Christoph

2010-05-01

344

Persistence of 2,4-D and its effects on benthic macroinvertebrates following spring treatment of Eurasian Watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum L. in two lakes in southeastern Wisconsin, USA.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the persistence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) applied to two lakes (one mesotrophic and one eutrophic) for the control of Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM), and to determine the impacts of 2,4-D on benthic macroinvertebrates in one of the lakes. One lake was treated with a liquid formulation, and the other with a slow release granular formulation of 2,4-D. Concentrations of 2,4-D in the water column were highest 1 and 2 days post-treatment and declined to below detection limits by 7 and 10 days post-treatment. We observed negative correlations between days post-treatment and taxa richness, and between days post-treatment and abundance of three of 12 taxonomic groups of macroinvertebrates. Lake managers need to balance control of EWM with possible impacts of 2,4-D to nontarget organisms. PMID:24458246

Harrahy, E A; Edwards, D S; Hedman, C J

2014-04-01

345

North American Triple Reassortant and Eurasian H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses Do Not Readily Reassort to Generate a 2009 Pandemic H1N1-Like Virus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1) was derived through reassortment of North American triple reassortant and Eurasian avian-like swine influenza viruses (SIVs). To date, when, how and where the pH1N1 arose is not understood. To investigate viral reassortment, we coinfected cell cultures and a group of pigs with or without preexisting immunity with a Eurasian H1N1 virus, A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (SP04), and a North American triple reassortant H1N1 virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07). The infected pigs were cohoused with one or two groups of contact animals to investigate viral transmission. In coinfected MDCK or PK15 continuous cell lines with KS07 and SP04 viruses, more than 20 different reassortant viruses were found. In pigs without or with preexisting immunity (immunized with commercial inactivated swine influenza vaccines) and coinfected with both viruses, six or seven reassortant viruses, as well as the parental viruses, were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from the lungs. Interestingly, only one or two viruses transmitted to and were detected in contact animals. No reassortant containing a gene constellation similar to that of pH1N1 virus was found in either coinfected cells or pigs, indicating that the reassortment event that resulted in the generation of this virus is a rare event that likely involved specific viral strains and/or a favorable, not-yet-understood environment.

Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Qinfang; Qiao, Chuanling; del Real, Gustavo; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Webby, Richard J.; Richt, Jurgen A.

2014-01-01

346

Observations of water masses and circulation with focus on the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies). The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY). Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the water to the Atlantic layer in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream, north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, suggesting a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600-800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending, saline boundary plumes may also contribute to the warming of the deeper layers.

Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Björk, G.; Korhonen, M.; Pisarev, S.; Rabe, B.; Wisotzki, A.

2013-02-01

347

Blood lead levels and ?-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area.  

PubMed

In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations. However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site ("Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union") or in their surroundings (Geometric mean (GM) = 5.83 ?g/dl, range 0.49-25.61 ?g/dl), an area highly polluted by lead and other metals, were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the rest of the population (GM = 1.66 ?g/dl, range = Non detected-18.37 ?g/dl). Because ?-ALAD activity is considered the best biomarker for lead exposure and effect in birds, the activity of this enzyme was also evaluated and correlated with lead levels in blood. In this study, low levels of blood lead inhibited ?-ALAD, even when lead concentrations were lower than the limits described by other authors in raptors. Adverse effects caused by this inhibition may occur when blood lead levels were above 15 ?g/dl, although only eight chicks presented these concentrations in their blood. Sampling site also influenced enzymatic activity, since it decreased about 60% in the polluted area in relation to the rest. For all these reasons, further research regarding risk assessment for lead exposure in Eagle Owls nesting in the polluted area is advisable. Our results suggest that the Eurasian Eagle Owl can be considered a suitable sentinel animal for monitoring lead contamination and ?-ALAD activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker for lead exposure and effect in this species. PMID:21076940

Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; María-Mojica, P; León-Ortega, M; García-Fernández, A J

2011-01-01

348

Muscular sarcocystosis in wild carnivores in Honshu, Japan.  

PubMed

A total of 65 free-living carnivores collected on Honshu Island, Japan were examined for muscular Sarcocystis species infections. Among them, 12 Japanese raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), one Japanese red fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica), three Japanese martens (Martes melampus melampus), and two Japanese badgers (Meles meles anakuma) were found to have sarcocysts in their muscles. No inflammatory reactions associated with sarcocysts were observed. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocysts detected in the Japanese raccoon dogs, Japanese red fox, and Japanese martens were similar to each other, with the sarcocyst wall being thin and exhibiting minute undulations. On the other hand, the sarcocysts detected in the Japanese badgers had a thick cyst wall with numerous finger-like protrusions which contained microtubules. The species of Sarcocystis in Japanese carnivores remain to be determined. This is the first published report on muscular sarcocystosis in Japanese carnivores. PMID:19841942

Kubo, Masahito; Okano, Tsukasa; Ito, Keiko; Tsubota, Toshio; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

2009-12-01

349

Control of bovine tuberculosis in British livestock: there is no 'silver bullet'.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB; Mycobacterium bovis) is a bacterial infection of cattle that also affects certain wildlife species. Culling badgers (Meles meles), the principal wildlife host, results in perturbation of the badger population and an increased level of disease in cattle. Therefore, the priority for future management must be to minimize the risk of disease transmission by finding new ways to reduce the contact rate among the host community. At the farm level, targeting those individuals that represent an elevated risk of transmission might prove to be effective. At the landscape level, risk mapping can provide the basis for targeted surveillance of the host community. Here, we review the current evidence for bTB persistence in Britain and make recommendations for future management and research. PMID:18706814

White, Piran C L; Böhm, Monika; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R

2008-09-01

350

Age and geochemical characteristics of Paleogene basalts drilled from western Taiwan: Records of initial rifting at the southeastern Eurasian continental margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern Eurasian continental margin has been characterized by formation of rift basins associated with intraplate basaltic volcanism since early Cenozoic time. In contrast to Paleogene volcanic rocks that occur sporadically in the basins, Neogene basalts are more widespread on land as lava flows and pyroclastics in the Taiwan Strait (Penghu Islands) and northwestern Taiwan. To better understand the tectonomagmatic evolution, in particular the initial rifting record, this study reports new age, major- and trace-elemental, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks drilled from several locations in the Taiwan Strait and western Taiwan. 40Ar/39Ar dating results show two main episodes of volcanic activities: ~ 56-38 Ma (Eocene) and ~ 11-8 Ma (late Miocene). The volcanic rocks are composed dominantly of basalts and basaltic andesites, and subordinately of dacites and rhyolites of Eocene age. The two episodes of basaltic volcanism have distinct geochemical characteristics. Comparatively, the Eocene basalts are more depleted in basaltic components such as Ca, Fe and Ti, but have higher Al content. They are also more enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and show depletions in high field strength elements (HFSE). Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the late Miocene basalts are relatively more uniform and unradiogenic (?Nd = + 6.0 to + 3.8), similar to those of Miocene basalts from NW Taiwan and Penghu Islands, and broadly coeval OIB-type basalts from the South China Sea. However, the Eocene basalts have a wider range in isotope ratios (e.g., ?Nd(T) = + 5.6 to -3.2) pointing towards an enriched mantle source. The overall geochemical characteristics suggest two distinct mantle sources: (1) a more refractory mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related processes to generate the Eocene basalts and (2) a fertile but isotopically depleted mantle source for the late Miocene basalts. These two source components are proposed to reside in the lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere, respectively. The change in magma sources with time reflects the evolution of an extensional regime within the Eurasian continental margin from an initial rifting to a well-established stage accomplished by thinning of the lithosphere and associated upwelling of the asthenosphere. The Eocene bimodal volcanism entails a transition from the latest Cretaceous magmatism in the western Taiwan Strait that not only signals incipient rifting in the region, but also records geochemical inputs from the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate to the southeastern Eurasian lithospheric mantle. As the preexisting, subduction-related component had been preferentially overprinted by the Eocene magma generation, there was a magmatic quiescence in the Oligocene before the onset of Miocene basaltic volcanism that resulted essentially from decompression melting of the ascended asthenospheric mantle.

Wang, Kuo-Lung; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lo, Yi-Ming; Lo, Ching-Hua; Yang, Huai-Jen; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Lee, Tung-Yi; Wu, Jong-Chang; Huang, Shiuh-Tsann

2012-12-01

351

Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2013-01-01

352

Characterization of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds (mandarin duck and Eurasian eagle owl) in 2010 in Korea.  

PubMed

Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. PMID:23611846

Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2013-04-01

353

The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata Hungarica, 21: 63-67. Gao K.-Q., Shubin N.H. 2003. Earliest known crown-group Salamanders. Nature, 422: 424-428. Westphal F. 1958. Die Tertiären und rezenten Eurasiatischen Riesensalamander. Palaeontolographica Abt. A, 110: 20-92.

Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

2010-05-01

354

Crustal-scale Structure of the Eurasian Continental Margin in the Northern South China Sea, Offshore Taiwan from Seismic Reflection and Wide-angle OBS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-channel seismic reflection data and wide-angle OBS data collected in 2009 offshore southwest Taiwan as part of the TAIGER program delineate the crustal structure of the Eurasian rifted continental margin in the northern South China Sea. Geophysical studies in central and southwest South China Sea have revealed the Eurasian margin to be a wide, structurally complex margin, with variable associated volcanic activity. The new TAIGER active source seismic data provide some of the first high-resolution crustal-scale constraints on the opening of the South China Sea basin near present-day Taiwan, as well as images of crustal materials that may serve as analogs for the materials involved in the formation of the nearby Taiwan mountain belt. The new reflection imaging and travel-time tomography show 3-4 km of passive margin sediments overlying continental crust over 20 km thick. Listric normal faults along the continental shelf offset shallow sediments and penetrate deep into the crust. At the base of the continental slope, a necking zone where crust thins to ~4 km is observed in both a travel-time tomography velocity model and reflection images. This necking zone is characterized by a rapidly shoaling Moho, a half-graben structure in the thinned crust, thick sediments and local volcanic activity. Crust thickens gradually basin-ward to 10-12 km thick. While this thickness is consistent with observations from previous potential field studies, seismic velocities of this crustal block are consistent with transitional crust elsewhere in the South China Sea, rather than anomalously thick ocean crust as has been previously inferred. Instead, these new data suggest a zone of seamounts at ~ 20° latitude may serve as the boundary between the block of 10-12 km thick transitional crust to the north and normal ocean crust of the South China Sea basin to the south. Future geophysical imaging and modeling efforts may shed light on the tectonic history of the South China Sea and the influence of pre-existing margin structure on mountain-building processes in Taiwan.

Lester, W. R.; McIntosh, K. D.; van Avendonk, H. J.

2010-12-01

355

North American and Eurasian strains of Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) have a high genetic identity, but differ in the nuclear apparatus and in their mating behavior.  

PubMed

It was investigated whether the closely related species Stylonychia lemnae and Stylonychia mytilus occur in North America. Eigthy-one Stylonychia cells were collected in the surroundings of Ithaca, N.Y., USA. A comparison of their isoenzyme patterns and the number of dorsal cilia with those of Eurasian clones demonstrated that 79 clones belong to S. lemnae and 2 to S. mytilus. The mean genetic identity between the European and the North American populations of S. lemnae is 84% which is characteristic for different populations of one species. Only 33 of the North American clones conjugated. F 1 and F 2 exconjugants (North American × European clones) are as viable as exconjugants from European clones. Crossings of North American × European clones with different isoenzyme alleles demonstrated that the genetic material is exchanged. In contrast, many of the other 46 nonconjugating North American clones can start but do not finish conjugation ("pseudoconjugation" without genetic exchange). Some of these clones have Mi without function, small Mi or no Mi at all. Some clones also show a peculiar DNA banding pattern with several highly overamplified DNA sequences. It is concluded that the American populations of S. lemnae contain clones which diverge in several characteristics from the European/Asian clones. PMID:23195788

Ammermann, D; Schlegel, M; Hellmer, K H

1989-09-15

356

Oral re-vaccination of Eurasian wild boar with Mycobacterium bovis BCG yields a strong protective response against challenge with a field strain  

PubMed Central

Background Field vaccination trials with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, an attenuated mutant of M. bovis, are ongoing in Spain, where the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is regarded as the main driver of animal tuberculosis (TB). The oral baiting strategy consists in deploying vaccine baits twice each summer, in order to gain access to a high proportion of wild boar piglets. The aim of this study was to assess the response of wild boar to re-vaccination with BCG and to subsequent challenge with an M. bovis field strain. Results BCG re-vaccinated wild boar showed reductions of 75.8% in lesion score and 66.9% in culture score, as compared to unvaccinated controls. Only one of nine vaccinated wild boar had a culture-confirmed lung infection, as compared to seven of eight controls. Serum antibody levels were highly variable and did not differ significantly between BCG re-vaccinated wild boar and controls. Gamma IFN levels differed significantly between BCG re-vaccinated wild boar and controls. The mRNA levels for IL-1b, C3 and MUT were significantly higher in vaccinated wild boar when compared to controls after vaccination and decreased after mycobacterial challenge. Conclusions Oral re-vaccination of wild boar with BCG yields a strong protective response against challenge with a field strain. Moreover, re-vaccination of wild boar with BCG is not counterproductive. These findings are relevant given that re-vaccination is likely to happen under real (field) conditions.

2014-01-01

357

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.  

PubMed

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak. PMID:20414255

Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie

2010-05-01

358

Crustal structure of Iraq from receiver functions and surface wave dispersion: implications for understanding the deformation history of the Arabian-Eurasian collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the crustal structure for two locations in Iraq estimated by joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (RFs) and surface (Rayleigh) wave group velocity dispersion. RFs were computed from teleseismic recordings at two temporary broad-band seismic stations located in Mosul (MSL) in the Zagros Fold Belt and Baghdad (BHD) in the Mesopotamian Foredeep. Group velocity dispersion curves at the sites were derived from continental-scale tomography. The inversion results show that the crustal thicknesses are 39 km at MSL and 43 km at BHD. We observe a strong PsMoho at BHD consistent with a sharp Moho discontinuity. However, at MSL we observe a weak PsMoho suggesting a transitional Moho where crustal thickening is likely to be occurring in the deep crust. Both sites reveal low velocity surface layers consistent with sedimentary thickness of about 3 km at station MSL and 7 km at BHD and agreeing well with the previous reports. Ignoring the sediments, the crystalline crustal velocities and thicknesses are remarkably similar at both stations. The similarity of crustal structure suggests that the crust of the northeastern proto-Arabian Platform was uniform before subsidence and deposition of the sediments in the Cenozoic. If crystalline crustal structure is uniform across the northern Arabian Platform then crustal thickness variations in the Zagros Fold Belt and Thrust Zone should reveal the history of deformation and crustal shortening in the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone and not reflect pre-existing crustal thickness variations in the Arabian Plate.

Gök, Rengin; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Rodgers, Arthur J.

2008-03-01

359

Demonstration of regional discrimination of Eurasian seismic events using observations at Soviet IRIS and CDSN stations. Final report, 29 Mar 89-28 Mar 92  

SciTech Connect

This study has brought together a large, high-quality database of regional signals from Eurasian seismic events, including 38 underground nuclear explosions and 68 earthquakes, recorded at Soviet IRIS and CDSN stations. Characteristics of regional phases observed at each of the Soviet IRIS stations and their relation to propagation and source effects have been analyzed. The high quality of the signals indicates the strong potential of the stations for monitoring events throughout Eurasia. A variety of amplitude and spectral measurements have been performed on the regional signals to discern differences related to source type. We find here differences in Lg/P amplitude ratios and Lg/P spectral ratios between underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes. The fact that such differences are observed for explosions and earthquakes with practically identical propagation paths provides strong evidence that the observed behavior is dependent on source type. However, the regional phase amplitudes and spectral behavior also are affected by geologic structure along the propagation path. A methodology for identifying and adjusting the observations for such propagation effects is described. Similarity of signals for events of a common source type suggests that discriminants effective for some events are likely to work for others from the same general area.

Bennett, T.J.; Campanella, A.K.; Scheimer, J.F.; Murphy, J.R.

1992-03-01

360

Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, heavy metals and anticoagulant rodenticides in tissues of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from upper Loire River catchment (France).  

PubMed

In this study, tissues of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from a naturally expanding population along upper Loire River (France) catchment were used for contaminants analyses. nine organochlorine pesticides, 16 PCB congeners, five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and arsenic) and three anticoagulant rodenticides were quantified in livers of road-traffic killed otters. Organochlorine compounds and heavy metals were found in 100% of the samples, and occasional contamination by anticoagulant rodenticides was confirmed. Total organochlorine pesticides reached a maximum of 9.4 mg kg(-1) lipid weight. Higher data were observed for other contaminants, especially total PCBs and mercury. Maximal total PCBs values reached 64.8 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, and maximal measured mercury concentration was 8.2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight. Considering the expansion noted in the study area, global contamination does not seem to threat the short-term species conservation. Nevertheless, important values at some individual scale were noticed, suggesting high inter-individual variations in populations. PMID:20594572

Lemarchand, Charles; Rosoux, René; Berny, Philippe

2010-08-01

361

Optimizing the size of the area surveyed for monitoring a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population in the Swiss Alps by means of photographic capture-recapture.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of surveyed area size on density estimates by means of camera-trapping in a low-density felid population (1-2 individuals/100 km(2) ). We applied non-spatial capture-recapture (CR) and spatial CR (SCR) models for Eurasian lynx during winter 2005/2006 in the northwestern Swiss Alps by sampling an area divided into 5 nested plots ranging from 65 to 760 km(2) . CR model density estimates (95% CI) for models M0 and Mh decreased from 2.61 (1.55-3.68) and 3.6 (1.62-5.57) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the smallest to 1.20 (1.04-1.35) and 1.26 (0.89-1.63) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the largest area surveyed. SCR model density estimates also decreased with increasing sampling area but not significantly. High individual range overlaps in relatively small areas (the edge effect) is the most plausible reason for this positive bias in the CR models. Our results confirm that SCR models are much more robust to changes in trap array size than CR models, thus avoiding overestimation of density in smaller areas. However, when a study is concerned with monitoring population changes, large spatial efforts (area surveyed ?760 km(2) ) are required to obtain reliable and precise density estimates with these population densities and recapture rates. PMID:24020463

Zimmermann, Fridolin; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Molinari-Jobin, Anja; Breitenmoser, Urs

2013-09-01

362

First evidence of the possible implication of the 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in immune activity of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.): comparison with cortisol.  

PubMed

Cortisol, the main corticosteroid in fish, is frequently described as a modulator of fish immune system. Moreover, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) was shown to bind and transcriptionally activate the mineralocorticoid receptor and may act as a mineralocorticoid in fish. Immune modulations induced by intraperitoneal injections of these two corticosteroids were assessed in Eurasian perch juveniles. Cortisol and DOC were injected at 0.8 mg kg(-1) and 0.08 mg kg(-1) body weight respectively. Cortisol increased plasma lysozyme activity 72 h post-injection, C-type lysozyme expression in spleen from 1 to 72 h post-injection, and favoured blood neutrophils at the expense of a mixture of lymphocytes and thrombocytes. Moreover, 6 h after injection, cortisol reduced expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? in spleen. DOC had no effects on the immune variables measured in plasma, but increased expression levels of C-type lysozyme and apolipoprotein A1 mRNA in both gills and spleen. Meanwhile, DOC stimulated its putative signalling pathway by increasing expression of mineralocorticoid receptor and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 in spleen. These results confirmed the role of cortisol as an innate, short term immune stimulator. For the first time, DOC is described as a possible immune stimulator in fish. PMID:23458843

Mathieu, Cédric; Milla, Sylvain; Mandiki, S N M; Douxfils, Jessica; Douny, Caroline; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Kestemont, Patrick

2013-06-01

363

Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18%?per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently £74 million. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10?397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is ?2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur.

Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G. Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

2005-01-01

364

Plio-Quaternary paleostresses in the Atlantic passive margin of the Moroccan Meseta: Influence of the Central Rif escape tectonics related to Eurasian-African plate convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atlantic Moroccan Meseta margin is affected by far field recent tectonic stresses. The basement belongs to the variscan orogen and was deformed by hercynian folding and metamorphism followed by a post-Permian erosional stage, producing the flat paleorelief of the region. Tabular Mesozoic and Mio-Plio-Quaternary deposits locally cover the Meseta, which has undergone recent uplift, while north of Rabat the subsidence continues in the Gharb basin, constituting the foreland basin of the Rif Cordillera. The Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover of the Moroccan Meseta, mainly formed by aeolian and marine terraces deposits, is affected by brittle deformations (joints and small-scale faults) that evidence that this region - considered up to date as stable - is affected by the far field stresses. Striated faults are recognized in the oldest Plio-Quaternary deposits and show strike-slip and normal kinematics, while joints affect up to the most recent sediments. Paleostress may be sorted into extensional, only affecting Rabat sector, and three main compressive groups deforming whole the region: (1) ENE-WSW to ESE-WNW compression; (2) NNW-SSE to NE-SW compression and (3) NNE-SSW compression. These stresses can be attributed mainly to the NW-SE oriented Eurasian-African plate convergence in the western Mediterranean and the escape toward the SW of the Rif Cordillera. Local paleostress deviations may be related to basement fault reactivation. These new results reveal the tectonic instability during Plio-Quaternary of the Moroccan Meseta margin in contrast to the standard passive margins, generally considered stable.

Chabli, Ahmed; Chalouan, Ahmed; Akil, Mostapha; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruano, Patricia; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López-Garrido, Angel Carlos; Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Pedrera, Antonio

2014-07-01

365

Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel  

PubMed Central

The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than ?9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening ?10?000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at ?6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area.

Pereira, Luisa; Cerny, Viktor; Cerezo, Maria; Silva, Nuno M; Hajek, Martin; Vasikova, Alzbeta; Kujanova, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

2010-01-01

366

Crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian margin) at the convergence of the Eurasian and African plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Cadiz, located at the southwestern Iberian margin, is characterized by widespread seismicity, compressional and strike-slip fault plane solutions and by a large, elongated positive free-air gravity anomaly, the Gulf of Cadiz Gravity High (GCGH). Multichannel seismic profiles across and along GCGH, together with bathymetric and gravity data, allow us to study in detail the tectonic architecture and crustal structure of the Gulf of Cadiz. The upper shelf and slope of the Gulf of Cadiz includes the main structural domains of the Betic fold and thrust belt. In the middle part of the Gulf, the Paleozoic basement crops out on the shallow Guadalquivir Bank and is associated with the largest signature of the GCGH, whereas toward the outer part of the Gulf, the basement deepens progressively. A large NW-SE normal fault and conjugate NE-SW faults define a prominent basement high associated with the GCGH. Modeling of the GCGH suggests localized crustal thinning of 10 km along the central part of the Gulf of Cadiz, probably generated during the Mesozoic rifting episode between the Iberian and African plates. Concentric wedges of fold and thrust belts and large allochthonous masses were emplaced in the Gulf of Cadiz during the Neogene compressional phase. The final emplacement of these units becomes progressively young from the SE (pre-early Langhian) toward the foreland in the NW (late Tortonian). Seafloor surface ruptures, pockmarks, and submarine landslides provide evidence of active faulting in the Gulf of Cadiz. To accommodate the present-day convergence between the African and Eurasian plates, previously extensional faults have probably been reactivated and inverted at depth, as suggested by the intermediate depth seismicity.

Grã Cia, Eulã Lia; DañObeitia, Juanjo; VergéS, Jaume; Bartolomé, Rafael; Córdoba, Diego

2003-08-01

367

Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.  

PubMed

Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing <0.5 m. We deduce that temperature influences beavers at the landscape scale via effects on spring green-up phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and topography on forage growth are instructive, and consequently warrant examination when developing conservation management strategies for populations of medium to large herbivores. PMID:23504905

Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

2013-04-01

368

Spatio-temporal trends in tree and tall shrub cover in the Eurasian Low Arctic: evidence from 1960s and contemporary satellite imagery and ground observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns of tree and tall shrub occurrence form conspicuous and dynamic ecological boundaries across arctic regions. Expansion of trees and shrubs into tundra-dominated areas is one of the principal changes to arctic land cover expected with climatic warming, and there is evidence that ecological state-shifts are already occurring in ecotones of the North American Low Arctic. The ubiquity of these state-shifts across the circumpolar Low Arctic is unclear, however, because few data exist for the vast Eurasian continent. Large-scale, synchronous expansions have occurred in the past (e.g., mid-Holocene) and associated changes to land surface-atmosphere interactions could have far-reaching effects on atmospheric circulation and global climate. This study is quantifying state-level vegetation change in geographic and altitudinal tundra ecotones at ~25 sites in northern Eurasia and Alaska using comparisons of circa 1965 Corona and contemporary high-resolution satellite photography. Corona was the world’s first operational satellite surveillance system and offers a readily available data source for land-surface change studies over a ~40 year temporal interval. Remote sensing and ground-based data indicate that mean annual temperatures have increased over the last ~50 years at all study sites, although the magnitude of warming varies (~1.5 - 4 °C). The degree to which patterns of vegetation change are shared among sites will indicate the ubiquity of ecological state-shifts in the Low Arctic, as well as the relative influence of large-scale forcing mechanisms (e.g., climate change) and local environmental controls (e.g., disturbance regime, geomorphology) on tree and tall shrub expansion. Preliminary findings indicate that tall shrublands have expanded at several sites in northwestern and far eastern Siberia. Recent expansion is most apparent on floodplains, uplands, and drained lake basins. Ground data indicate that dramatic expansion of alder shrubs at a tree-line site near Kharp, northwest Siberia has occurred in areas affected by an antecedent high-intensity wildfire that removed the surface organic layer. Additionally, alder recruitment both inside and outside of the burn is concentrated on disturbed mineral soils associated with cryogenic patterned-ground features. On the southern Yamal Peninsula, Russia, comparison of 1968 Corona and 2009 aerial photographs indicate that alders have colonized retransported sands derived from barren uplands near Ozero Yaroto. Additionally, alders and willows have rapidly colonized fluvial terraces and point bars on the Tanlova River that were barren in 1968. These findings indicate that local-scale disturbance events that create mineral-dominated edaphic conditions have promoted recent shrubification and enhanced productivity in parts of the Low Arctic.

Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H.; Walker, D. A.

2009-12-01

369

Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the ?stanbul Terrane (Bak?rl?k?ran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kas?mlar Formations; Bey?ehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kas?mlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kas?mlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution of Triassic or Carboniferous (Variscan) arc sources, in marked contrast to those of the Triassic Karakaya subduction complex. In comparison, the ages of the analysed zircons in the Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane range from 294 Ma to 3.1 Ga. Triassic zircons are again absent, while Variscan-aged zircons (294 to 339 Ma) dominate the zircon population. Additional zircon populations are dated at 554 to 655 Ma, 0.9 to 1.2 Ga, 1.5 Ga, 1.65 Ga, 2.0 to 2.15 and 2.5 to 2.8 Ga. The Precambrian zircon age spectra are compatible with derivation from an Avalonian/Amazonian/Baltic crustal provenance. In summary, there is no evidence in either the Triassic sandstones of the ?stanbul Terrane or of the Taurides of the Triassic magmatic arc source that dominates the Triassic Karakaya subduction-accretion complex. Where then was the source of the Karakaya arc detritus? A likely option is that the Karakaya subduction-accretion complex is an exotic terrane that was detached from a source magmatic arc and displaced to its present location, probably prior the initial deposition of the Early Jurassic cover sediments. This study was supported by TUBITAK, Project No: 111R015

Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

2014-05-01

370

The Late Miocene to recent erosion pattern of the Alpine foreland basin reflects Eurasian slab-unloading beneath the western Alps rather than global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that mountainous erosion increased globally around 5 Ma in response to global climate change, mainly because this increase coincides with a cooling trend indicated by global isotopic data (e.g., Herman et al. 2013). The Alps have played a prominent role in this debate. Published sedimentary budgets for the western and eastern Alps for the past 35 Ma show a substantial increase in the erosion of the Alps at c. 5 Ma (e.g., Kuhlemann, 2000). This temporal coincidence was used to call for a climate driver, mainly because this increase was not accompanied by tectonic convergence across the Alps during this time period. However, several authors emphasized the importance of lithospheric-scale processes beneath the Alps, which could also explain the increase in erosion rates through surface uplift. To provide a new perspective on this debate, we synthesized a spatial gradient map of erosion rates for the Alps and the entire Alpine foreland basin. Our data base consists of published (1) apatite fission-track (AFT) cooling ages for the Alps (e.g., Vernon et al. 2008; Luth and Willingshofer 2008; Wölfler et al. 2012; (2) AFT ages from wells from the Swiss foreland basin (e.g., Cederbom et al. 2011), and (3) stratigraphic data from industry wells in the German and Austrian foreland basin (e.g., Lemcke 1974; Genser et al. 2007). We focus our analysis on the shape and scale of the areas undergoing erosion since 5 Ma. Our synthesis of published denudation rate data for the past 5 Million years reveals that erosion of the Alpine foreland basin is highest in front of the western Alps (between 2 and 0.6 km), and decreases eastward over a distance of 700 km to the Austrian foreland basin (c. 200 m). For the western Alps, the compilation of apatite-fission-track ages yields erosion rates > 0.6 km/Ma, while erosion rates for the eastern foreland basin and the adjacent eastern Alps are < 0.1 km/Ma, except for a small-scale signal in the Tauern window. The results yield a large ellipsoidal, orogen-crossing pattern of erosion, centered along the western Alps. Most likely, accelerated erosion of the western Alps and their foreland basin occurred in response to regional-scale surface uplift, related to lithospheric unloading of the European slab along the Eurasian-Adriatic plate boundary. This mechanism triggered large drainage-pattern changes that lead to the establishment of the headwaters for the Rhine and Danube rivers, the largest streams in central Europe. Our findings contradict recent views that substantial erosion of the European Alps since 5 Ma was mainly due to global climate change. Instead, regional-scale tectonic processes have driven this asymmetric erosion pattern during this time.

Friedrich, Anke; Schlunegger, Fritz; Baran, Ramona

2014-05-01

371

Age-specific breeding success in a wild mammalian population: selection, constraint, restraint and senescence.  

PubMed

The Selection, Constraint, Restraint and Senescence Hypotheses predict how breeding success should vary with age. The Selection Hypothesis predicts between-individual variation arising from quality differences; the other hypotheses predict within-individual variation due to differing skills or physiological condition (Constraint), residual reproductive lifespan (Restraint), or somatic and reproductive investment (Senescence). Studies tend to focus on either the initial increase in breeding success or later decrease; however, both require consideration when unravelling the underlying evolutionary processes. Additionally, few studies present genetic fitness measures and rarely for both sexes. We therefore test these four hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, in a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles. Using an 18-year data set (including 22 microsatellite loci), we show an initial improvement in breeding success with age, followed by a later and steeper rate of reproductive senescence in male than in female badgers. Breeding success was skewed within age-classes, indicating the influence of factors other than age-class. This was partly attributable to selective appearance and disappearance of badgers (Selection Hypothesis). Individuals with a late age of last breeding showed a concave-down relationship between breeding success and experience (Constraint Hypothesis). There was no evidence of abrupt terminal effects; rather, individuals showed a concave-down relationship between breeding success and residual reproductive lifespan (Restraint Hypothesis), with an interaction with age of first breeding only in female badgers. Our results demonstrate the importance of investigating a comprehensive suite of factors in age-specific breeding success analyses, in both sexes, to fully understand evolutionary and population dynamics. PMID:21714821

Dugdale, Hannah L; Pope, Lisa C; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

2011-08-01

372

The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding.  

PubMed

Genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (Felis catus, 2n = 38), American mink (Mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula, 2n = 40), Old World badger (Meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (Melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species chromosome painting with a complete set of stone marten probes. In total, 18 stone marten autosomal probes reveal 20, 19, 21, 18 and 21 pairs of homologous chromosomal segments in the respective genomes of American mink, yellow-throated marten. Old World badger, ferret badger and red panda. Reciprocal painting between stone marten and cat delineated 21 pairs of homologous segments shared in both stone marten and cat genomes. The chromosomal painting results indicate that most chromosomes of these species are highly conserved and show one-to-one correspondence with stone marten and cat chromosomes or chromosomal arms, and that only a few interchromosomal rearrangements (Robertsonian fusions and fissions) have occurred during species radiation. By comparing the distribution patterns of conserved chromosomal segments in both these species and the putative ancestral carnivore karyotype, we have reconstructed the pathway of karyotype evolution of these species from the putative 2n = 42 ancestral carnivore karyotype. Our results support a close phylogenetic relationship between the red panda and mustelids. The homology data presented in these maps will allow us to transfer the cat gene mapping data to other unmapped carnivore species. PMID:12067210

Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Fu, Beiyuan; Ying, Tian; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

2002-01-01

373

Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian (Lynx lynx), the Iberian (L. pardinus), the Canada lynx (L. canadensis) and the bobcat (L. rufus).  

PubMed

With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal samples collected before, during, and after pregnancy from individual females of each lynx species. Gestagens and estrogens revealed three similar classes of immunoreactive faecal metabolites: (1) polar metabolites which were enzyme-hydrolysable and thus may be designated as conjugates, (2) non-hydrolysable polar metabolites, and (3) non-polar metabolites or free steroids. For both hormones, strong similarities in the HPLC immunograms across species suggests that steroid metabolism is relatively conserved among Lynx species. Gestagens were primarily excreted as polar conjugates or unknown metabolites, whereas estrogen metabolism revealed a huge proportion (approximately 50%) consisting of 17beta-estradiol and estrone. These results are consistent with patterns of steroid metabolism in other felid species. Only two minor species-specific patterns emerged. In bobcats, we observed an exceptionally high proportion of gestagen conjugates, and in Iberian lynx, there was an exceptionally high proportion of estrone. The comparison of HPLC immunograms within individuals revealed that intra-individual variations in steroid metabolite composition are considerably high. However, changes in metabolite composition did not correlate with specific reproductive stages; rather, they seemed to occur at random. We assume that these differences may reflect changes in liver metabolism and/or qualitative and quantitative variations in gut bacteria composition, resulting in differences in faecal metabolite composition. PMID:20346945

Dehnhard, M; Fanson, K; Frank, A; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Jewgenow, K

2010-06-01

374

Mammalian spinal biomechanics. I. Static and dynamic mechanical properties of intact intervertebral joints.  

PubMed

Four-point bending was used to apply pure extension and flexion moments to the ligamentous lumbosacral spine and pelvic girdle of monkey (Macaca fascicularis), rabbit (domestic and wild, Oryctolagus cuniculus), badger (Meles meles), wallaby (Wallabia rufogrisea frutica), sheep (Ovis aries), seal (Phoca vitulina) and tiger (Panthera tigris). The absolute ranges of angular change in lumbar-lumbar joints (from X-radiographs) were considerable and similar in monkey and wallaby (greater in flexion) and in rabbit and badger (symmetrical in extension and flexion). Mass-specific bending comparisons showed that monkey and seal joints were the most and least resistant, respectively, to these moments. The patterns of mobility showed no clear scaling effects. Subsequently, additional ligamentous joint complexes (three vertebrae and two intervertebral discs) of monkey, wallaby, tiger, jaguar (Panthera onca) and seal (Halichoerus grypus) were subjected to cyclic extension and flexion moments. Changes in intervertebral angle (y, from X-radiographs) were modelled as functions of applied specific bending moments (x):y=A(1-e-Bx). A and B values represented bending capacities and joint compliances respectively. Homologous monkey and wallaby joints had considerable flexion capacities, with low compliances. Homologous jaguar and tiger joints had limited flexion capacities, but greater compliances. The data suggest that flexion resistance may be controlled by different mechanisms in different species. PMID:8440968

Gál, J M

1993-01-01

375

Mortality trajectory analysis reveals the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology in natural wildlife-disease interactions.  

PubMed

In animal populations, males are commonly more susceptible to disease-induced mortality than females. However, three competing mechanisms can cause this sex bias: weak males may simultaneously be more prone to exposure to infection and mortality; being 'male' may be an imperfect proxy for the underlying driver of disease-induced mortality; or males may experience increased severity of disease-induced effects compared with females. Here, we infer the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology by decomposing fixed mortality rates into mortality trajectories and comparing their parameters. We applied Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to a 22-year longitudinal study of a population of badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). At the point of infection, infected male and female badgers had equal mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that acquisition of infection occurs in males with coincidentally high mortality. Males and females exhibited similar levels of heterogeneity in mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that maleness is only a proxy for disease susceptibility. Instead, sex differences were caused by a more rapid increase in male mortality rates following infection. Males are indeed more susceptible to bTB, probably due to immunological differences between the sexes. We recommend this mortality trajectory approach for the study of infection in animal populations. PMID:25056621

McDonald, Jennifer L; Smith, Graham C; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Hodgson, Dave

2014-09-01

376

Badger History, Vol. 29, No. 3, January 1976. Wisconsin Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document focuses on the physical environment of Wisconsin and describes how movement of glaciers during the Ice Ages formed Wisconsin's present topography. The journal contains short reading selections, stories, word lists, and activities designed to help elementary school students understand the causes and effects of glacial drift. Nine…

Kanetzke, Howard W., Ed.

377

Eurasian surface wave tomography: Group velocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a study of the dispersion characteristics of broadband fundamental surface waves propagating across Eurasia. The study is broader band, displays denser and more uniform data coverage, and demonstrates higher resolution than previous studies of Eurasia performed on this scale. In addition, the estimated group velocity maps reveal the signatures of geological and tectonic features never before displayed in similar surface wave studies. We present group velocity maps from 20 s to 200 s period for Rayleigh waves and from 20 s to 125 s for Love waves. Broadband waveform data from about 600 events from 1988 through 1995 recorded at 83 individual stations across Eurasia have produced about 9000 paths for which individual dispersion curves have been estimated. Dispersion curves from similar paths are clustered to reduce redundancy, to identify outliers for rejection, and to assign uncertainty estimates. On average, measurement uncertainty is about 0.030-0.040 km/s and is not a strong function of frequency. Resolution is estimated from "checker-board" tests, and we show that average resolutions across Eurasia range from 5° to 7.5° but degrade at periods above about 100 s and near the periphery of the maps. The estimated maps produce a variance reduction relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) of more than 90% for Rayleigh waves below 60 s period but reduce to about 70% between 80 and 200 s period. For Love waves, variance reductions are similar, being above 90% for most periods below 100 s and falling to 70% at 150 s. Synthetic experiments are presented to estimate the biases that theoretical approximations should impart to the group velocity maps, in particular source group time shifts, azimuthal anisotropy, and systematic event mislocations near subducting slabs. The most significant problems are probably caused by azimuthal anisotropy, but above 100 s the effect of source group time shifts may also be appreciable. These effects are probably below the signal levels that we interpret here, however. Many known geological and tectonic structures are observed in the group velocity maps. Of particular note are the signatures of sedimentary basins, continental flood basalts, variations in crustal thickness, backarc spreading, downgoing slabs, and continental roots. Comparison of the estimated group velocity maps with those predicted by CRUST5.1/S16B30 is qualitatively good, but there are significant differences in detail which provide new information that should help to calibrate future crustal and upper mantle models of Eurasia.

Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Levshin, Anatoli L.

1998-03-01

378

High latitude Eurasian paleoenvironments: introduction and synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue developed partly from the open PAGES conference held in Moscow in May 2002. The dominant theme of the present collection of articles is the Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoenvironmental history of Northern Eurasia-from the White to the Black Sea and from the Estonia to the Kurile Islands.Here, we briefly summarize the available paleorecords from the FSU territory

Olga Solomina; Keith Alverson

2004-01-01

379

Background environmental pollution of the Eurasian continent.  

PubMed

(1) The interest to studying pollution of environmental media on the background level has grown in the recent years. There arose a necessity to establish a specialized observational system for conducting observations of changes in the state of the environment, and of ecological consequences of pollution as well as to produce assessments of the current and predicted states. The realized program of background monitoring and first results of integrated background measurements have already been published. The paper presented illustrates time-and-space features of the background pollution of natural environmental media according to data from various background stations. (2) Long-term systematic measurements at the 'Borovoe' station (Kazakh SSR) commenced in 1976 have been supplemented with the results of the background pollution studies carried out in Berezinskyi, Caucasian, Central-Chernozem, Sary-Chelek, and Repetek Biosphere Reserves and in locations of the background stations in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The data from the Hungarian and Czechoslovak stations were obtained during joint expeditions. Details are given in the relevant publications. (3) Ozone. Ozone measurements show the diurnal variation with the day-time maxima from 35 up to 160 ?g m(-3). The correlation between day-time and nocturnal concentrations is a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect. (4) Sulphur dioxide and sulphates. The annual variation of sulphur dioxide characterised by winter maximum and summer minimum indicates the direct dependence on the amount of fuel burnt in the given region. Mean values of the sulphur dioxide content in the surface layer of the atmosphere correlates with the extent of the region urbanization and varies within 0.2-12.5 ?g m(-3). The value of sulphur dioxide and sulphates correlation in the atmosphere is rather stable and varies within 0.18-0.37 ?g m(-3). (5) Heavy metals. The annual cycle of the atmospheric content of lead, cadmium and arsenic is well expressed by winter maximum and summer minimum (which is opposite in case of mercury). As for lead and mercury, their annual variation is more distinct than that of cadmium and arsenic; their time-and-space variation is also more distinct. The content of these metals in the urbanized regions of Europe is 5 times higher than in Asia and the Caucasus. Atmospheric contents of arsenic and cadmium vary insignificantly from region to region. The content of all these metals in other environmental media (soil, water, vegetation) is of insignificant spatial variability. Observations in the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve showed minimum levels of the background atmospheric pollution: lead-16 ?g m(-3), mercury-5 ng m(-3), arsenic-3.9 ng m(-3), cadmium-0.5 ng m(-3). (6) Organochloride pesticides. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in the environmental media of European background regions are 3 times higher than those in Asia ('Borovoe'). (7) PAH. Atmospheric content of BaP has a well expressed annual variation with winter maximum; the difference between winter and summer periods reaches the magnitude of an order. Background concentrations in European regions (Hungary, Berzinskyi Biosphere Reserve) are noticeably higher than in Asia; the difference reaches 3-5 times. (8) Comparisons with literature data on the background pollution show that observational materials from the background monitoring stations supplement to a considerable extent, and extent, the current notions on the background pollution and show the effects of the man-made impact on the background regions. PMID:24264348

Rovinsky, F Y; Afanasjev, M I; Burtseva, L V; Yegorov, V I

1982-12-01

380

LA ICP MS and Ion Probe U-Pb dating of igneous and metasedimentary units in the NE Pontides, NE Turkey: evidence of Peri-Gondwanan terrane accretion, Late Palaeozoic magmatism/metamorphism and Early Mesozoic extension along the S Eurasian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Artvin area is critical to an understanding of the tectonic development of the S margin of Eurasia and Tethys to the south. We have supplemented recent MTA mapping with 1/25,000-scale mapping of a critical area, combined with integrated stratigraphical, sedimentary, geochemical and geochronological studies. Here, we focus on U-Pb zircon dating of igneous and detrital zircons derived from basement units of the Pontide Autocthon and from overlying slice complexes, carried out by LA ICP MS at Frankfurt University and by Ion Probe at Edinburgh University. The Eastern Pontide Autocthon is overlain by north-vergent thrust sheets, mostly of continental margin origin, whereas Mesozoic (Neotethyan) ophiolites form the uppermost thrust sheet. The Autochton basement (Çaml?kaya pluton) is mainly tonalite, cut by granitic dykes. Both intrusions are of within-plate type, without a chemically identifiable subduction influence. The pluton yielded a concordant age of 330.4 ± 4.2 Ma (Visean), while crosscutting dykes gave an age of 156.3 ± 2.0 Ma (Oxfordian). The overlying lower slice complex (Slice 1) begins with a low-grade meta-clastic basement unit, intruded by coarse-grained granite. Detrital zircons from the meta-clastics yielded late Neoproterozoic (579-700), early Neoproterozoic (0.9 Ga) and Kibaran/Grenvillian (1.1-1.3 Ga) zircon populations. The oldest known zircon has an age of 2719 Ma. Slice 2 above this (Demirkent Intrusive Complex) is represented by foliated amphibolites, cut by granitic veins and, together, cut by swarms of basic-silicic dykes that postdate regional metamorphism and related deformation. A granitic vein yielded a concordia age of 325.4 ± 2.8 Ma (Visean-Serpukhovian). Slice 2 was intruded by two small tonalitic bodies, one of which yielded a concordant age of 179.8 ± 1 Ma (Toarcian). Slice 3 above this begins with granulite-facies gneiss and schist (Karada? Metamorphics). A representative 1 m-wide meta-granitic stock within paragneiss experienced lead loss, with a lower intercept at 326 Ma. One magmatic zircon from this intrusion gave an age of 358 Ma (early Carboniferous), interpreted as the crystallisation age. Metamorphic rims of these zircons cluster around 330 Ma, viewed as the time of peak Variscan metamorphism. We interpret the E Pontide region (e.g. Artvin area) as part of an active S-Eurasian continental margin during Late Palaeozoic. Accretion/collision of Peri-Gondwanan terrane(s) was likely responsible for Variscan deformation/metamorphism. Newly accreted Peri-Gondwanan crust was intruded by granitic rocks during early Carboniferous, possibly in response to delamination/slab-break off processes. Following exhumation, the Eurasian margin remained relatively inactive and erosional during Late Carboniferous-Triassic. Related to regional northward subduction of Palaeotethys, the S-Eurasian margin underwent tectonic extension and deep-marine basin formation during Early Jurassic. The dyke swarm and Toarcian felsic plutons were emplaced into extended crust behind a continental margin magmatic arc. Short-lived Mid-Jurassic compression may reflect collision of an oceanic edifice (seamount/continental fragment) with the subduction trench. Extension resumed during Late Jurassic associated with Oxfordian magmatism. A S-facing subsiding passive margin existed during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, followed by northward subduction and arc magmatism (E Pontide Arc). SSZ-type ophiolites were regionally obducted during latest Cretaceous, followed by Eocene telescoping of the Eurasian margin during final closure of Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean.

Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Ayda Ustaömer, P.

2010-05-01

381

Persistent currents in a Kane-Mele graphene ring with armchair edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A graphene nano-ribbon with armchair edges is known to have no edge state. However, if the nano-ribbon is in the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state, then there must be helical edge states. By folding a graphene ribbon to a ring and threading it by a magnetic flux, we study the persistent charge and spin currents in the tight-binding limit. It is found that, for a broad ribbon, the edge spin current approaches a finite value independent of the radius of the ring. For a narrow ribbon, inter-edge coupling between the edge states could open the Dirac gap and reduce the overall persistent currents. Furthermore, by enhancing the Rashba coupling, we find that the persistent spin current gradually reduces to zero at a critical value, beyond which the graphene is no longer a QSH insulator.

Chang, Ming-Che; Huang, Bor-Luen; Mou, Chung-Yu

2013-03-01

382