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1

A lymphocyte transformation assay for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the Eurasian Badger ( Meles meles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is a significant wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain. Improved control strategies against the disease in badgers require the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines. Here, we report the development of a comparative lymphocyte transformation assay (LTA) using bovine and avian tuberculin as antigen to detect cell-mediated responses in M. bovis-infected badgers. In

D Dalley; M. A Chambers; P Cockle; W Pressling; D Gavier-Widén; R. G Hewinson

1999-01-01

2

Physiological stress in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles): effects of host, disease and environment.  

PubMed

A method for monitoring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) to stressors was validated by measuring cortisol excretion in serum and faeces. Serum and faecal samples were collected under anaesthesia from live-captured, wild badgers and fresh faeces was collected from latrines at 15 social groups in County Down, Northern Ireland. Variation in levels of cortisol in wild badgers was investigated relative to disease status, season, age, sex, body mass, body condition and reproductive status and environmental factors that might influence stress. Faecal cortisol levels were significantly higher in animals testing culture-positive for Mycobacterium bovis. Prolonged elevation of cortisol can suppress immune function, which may have implications for disease transmission. There was a strong seasonal pattern in both serum cortisol, peaking in spring and faecal cortisol, peaking in summer. Cortisol levels were also higher in adults with poor body condition and low body mass. Faecal samples collected from latrines in grassland groups had significantly higher cortisol than those collected from woodland groups, possibly as a result of greater exposure to sources of environmental stress. This study is the first to investigate factors influencing physiological stress in badgers and indicates that serological and faecal excretion are valid indices of the HPA response to a range of stressors. PMID:24607571

George, Sheila C; Smith, Tessa E; Mac Cana, Pól S S; Coleman, Robert; Montgomery, William I

2014-05-01

3

An Investigation of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian Badger (Meles meles) Scavenging, Scattering, and Removal of Deer Remains: Forensic Implications and Applications.  

PubMed

Within northwest Europe, especially the United Kingdom, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Eurasian Badger (Meles meles) are the largest wild scavengers capable of modifying a set of remains through scavenging. Knowledge of region-specific and species-typical scavenging behaviors of scavengers within the crime scene area and surroundings can aid in more efficient and accurate interpretations. The scavenging behaviors of captive and wild foxes and badgers were recorded and compared through actualistic methods and direct observation. The scavenging by wild foxes and badgers of surface-deposited baits and whole deer (Cervus nippon; Capreolus capreolus) in a woodland was observed and analyzed. Wild foxes were found to scavenge deer more frequently than badgers. The scavenging of deer remains by foxes was also compared with forensic cases. The scavenging pattern and recovery distances of deer and human remains scavenged by foxes were similar but were potentially affected by the condition and deposition of a body, and the presence of clothing. PMID:25065997

Young, Alexandria; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas; Stillman, Richard; Smith, Martin J; Korstjens, Amanda H

2015-01-01

4

Performance of TB immunodiagnostic tests in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) of different ages and the influence of duration of infection on serological sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background In parts of Great Britain and Ireland, Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) constitute a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection and a potential source of infection for cattle. In vitro diagnostic tests for live badgers are an important component of strategies to control TB in this species. Immunological tests have been developed for badgers, although little is known about the influence of the age of the animal on test performance. To address this, we evaluated the performance of three immunological tests for badgers with respect to the age of the animal: the Brock Test and BrockTB STAT-PAK® serological tests and the recently developed interferon-gamma enzyme immunoassay (IFN? EIA). Data published elsewhere suggested that seropositivity was associated with more progressive forms of TB in the badger. To gain further evidence for this, we used longitudinal data from a well-studied population of badgers to test for an association between the sensitivity of the Brock Test and the duration of TB infection. Results Sensitivity of the two serological tests was approximately 54% for both cubs and adults. Sensitivity of the IFN? EIA was lower in cubs (57%) compared with adults (85%) when a common cut-off value was used to define test positivity. Taking data from the cubs alone, the IFN? EIA cut-off value could be adjusted to increase the sensitivity to 71% with no loss in specificity. As a general observation, specificity of all tests was higher in cubs, although only significantly so in the case of the Brock Test. Using logistic regression analysis to adjust for age, sensitivity of the Brock Test was significantly lower at first culture positive event (58%), but increased to >80% as infection progressed. Conclusion These data suggest that serodiagnosis could be a valuable tool for detecting a higher proportion of badgers with the greatest probability of transmitting infection. The age category of the badger appeared to exert little influence on the performance of the serological tests. Although data were only available for the IFN? EIA in a small number of cubs, reduced sensitivity of the test in these individuals suggests a lower cut-off may be needed when testing younger animals. PMID:19919697

2009-01-01

5

Use of cattle troughs by badgers ( Meles meles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle feedtroughs that are contaminated with badger excreta constitute a potential transmission route for the spread of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) from badgers (Meles meles) to cattle. In order to investigate the maximum height to which a trough would have to be raised to make it secure against badgers, we presented wild badgers with an experimental trough that could be

B. T Garnett; T. J Roper; R. J Delahay

2003-01-01

6

Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): Implications for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes.  

PubMed

In the present study, to further understand the phylogenetic relationships among the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora), which are distributed widely in the Palearctic, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (539-545 base-pairs) as a maternal genetic marker, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome gene (SRY: 1052-1058 base-pairs), as a paternal genetic marker, were examined. The present study revealed ten SRY haplotypes from 47 males of 112 individuals of the Eurasian Continent and Japan. In addition, 39 mtDNA haplotypes were identified from those animals. From the phylogeography of both the uniparentally inherited genes, four lineages were recognized as Japanese, eastern Eurasian, Caucasian, and western Eurasian. The distribution patterns of the mtDNA lineages showed the existence of a sympatric zone between the eastern and western Eurasian lineages around the Volga River in western Russia. Furthermore, the present study suggested that in the Japanese badgers, the larger genetic differentiation of the Shikoku population was attributable to geographic history in the Japanese islands. PMID:21466348

Tashima, Sara; Kaneko, Yayoi; Anezaki, Tomoko; Baba, Minoru; Yachimori, Shuuji; Abramov, Alexei V; Saveljev, Alexander P; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-04-01

7

Foraging and spatial organisation of the European badger, Meles meles L  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Food and foraging behaviour of the European badger (Meles meles L.) are described for a study area in south-central England, with the aim of understanding the biological function of badgers' spatial organisation. Animals were followed with the aid of radio-location and observed through infra-red night glasses.2.The diet consisted largely of one species of earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris.3.Worm abundance was measured by

Hans Kruuk

1978-01-01

8

Trophic Enrichment Factors for Blood Serum in the European Badger (Meles meles)  

PubMed Central

Ecologists undertaking stable isotopic analyses of animal diets require trophic enrichment factors (TEFs) for the specific animal tissues that they are studying. Such basic data are available for a small number of species, so values from trophically or phylogenetically similar species are often substituted for missing values. By feeding a controlled diet to captive European badgers (Meles meles) we determined TEFs for carbon and nitrogen in blood serum. TEFs for nitrogen and carbon in blood serum were +3.0±0.4‰ and +0.4±0.1‰ respectively. The TEFs for serum in badgers are notably different from those published for the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). There is currently no data for TEFs in the serum of other mustelid species. Our data show that species sharing similar niches (red fox) do not provide adequate proxy values for TEFs of badgers. Our findings emphasise the importance of having species-specific data when undertaking trophic studies using stable isotope analysis. PMID:23300863

Kelly, David J.; Robertson, Andrew; Murphy, Denise; Fitzsimons, Tara; Costello, Eamon; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Marples, Nicola M.

2012-01-01

9

Association of quantitative interferon-? responses with the progression of naturally acquired Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild European badgers (Meles meles).  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is one of the biggest challenges facing cattle farming in Great Britain. European badgers (Meles meles) are a reservoir host for the causal agent, Mycobacterium bovis. There have been significant recent advances in diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in humans, cattle and badgers, with the development of species-specific assays for interferon-? (IFN-?), an important cytokine in tuberculous infections. Using data collected from longitudinal studies of naturally infected wild badgers, we report that the magnitude of the IFN-? response to M. bovis antigens at the disclosing test event was positively correlated with subsequent progression of disease to a seropositive or excreting state. In addition, we show that the magnitude of the IFN-? response, despite fluctuation, declined with time after the disclosing event for all badgers, but remained significantly higher in those animals with evidence of disease progression. We discuss how our findings may be related to the immunopathogenesis of natural M. bovis infection in badgers. PMID:25109384

Tomlinson, Alexandra J; Chambers, Mark A; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J

2015-02-01

10

Dissections of fresh skulls confirm low prevalence of Troglotrema acutum (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae) in German badgers (Meles meles).  

PubMed

We examined 131 European badgers Meles meles (Linnaeus, 1758) from 67 localities in central Germany for the presence of the cranial trematode Troglotrema acutum, as previous studies based on museum skulls might have underestimated the prevalence of the parasite in this host. We detected the flatworm in only three individuals that originated from the Rhoen Mountains (Thurigina and Bavaria). While the cranium of one host individual showed the lesions and the sponge-like widening of certain regions of the skullcap that are typical of a T. acutum infection, the skulls of the two remaining badgers did not show any deformations. The three badgers were infected by eight, 20, and 49 T. acutum individuals, respectively. Eggs of the trematode parasite were detected in the paranasal sinuses of two badgers. While badgers infected with T. acutum may not show any surface bone lesions, the results of the present study do not contradict the conclusion that the badger is only an accidental host of T. acutum. PMID:25563614

Heddergott, M; Frantz, A C; Jenrich, J; Müller, F

2015-02-01

11

Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles).  

PubMed

Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e. recognizing and binding a wider range of antigens than homozygotes) is expected to be more detectable when multiple pathogens are considered simultaneously. Here, we test whether MHC diversity in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles) is driven by pathogen-mediated selection. We examined individual prevalence (infected or not), infection intensity and co-infection of 13 pathogens from a range of taxa and examined their relationships with MHC class I and class II variability. This population has a variable, but relatively low, number of MHC alleles and is infected by a variety of naturally occurring pathogens, making it very suitable for the investigation of MHC-pathogen relationships. We found associations between pathogen infections and specific MHC haplotypes and alleles. Co-infection status was not correlated with MHC heterozygosity, but there was evidence of heterozygote advantage against individual pathogen infections. This suggests that rare-allele advantages and/or fluctuating selection, and heterozygote advantage are probably the selective forces shaping MHC diversity in this species. We show stronger evidence for MHC associations with infection intensity than for prevalence and conclude that examining both pathogen prevalence and infection intensity is important. Moreover, examination of a large number and diversity of pathogens, and both MHC class I and II genes (which have different functions), provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms driving MHC diversity. PMID:25211523

Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Burke, Terry; MacDonald, David W

2014-10-01

12

Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. from red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) and badgers ( Meles meles ) in northern Italy.  

PubMed

Background Salmonella spp. have been isolated from a wide range of wild animals. Opportunistic wild carnivores such as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and badgers (Meles meles) may act as environmental indicators or as potential sources of salmonellosis in humans. The present study characterizes Salmonella spp. isolated from the intestinal contents of hunted or dead red foxes (n¿=¿509) and badgers (n¿=¿17) in northern Italy.FindingsThirty-one strains of Salmonella belonging to 3 Salmonella enterica subspecies were isolated. Fourteen different serovars of S. enterica subsp. enterica were identified, among which were serovars often associated with human illness.ConclusionsWild opportunistic predators can influence the probability of infection of both domestic animals and humans through active shedding of the pathogen to the environment. The epidemiological role of wild carnivores in the spread of salmonellosis needs to be further studied. PMID:25492524

Chiari, Mario; Ferrari, Nicola; Giardiello, Daniele; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Lavazza, Antonio; Alborali, Loris G

2014-12-10

13

Climate and the individual: inter-annual variation in the autumnal activity of the European badger (Meles meles).  

PubMed

We establish intra-individual and inter-annual variability in European badger (Meles meles) autumnal nightly activity in relation to fine-scale climatic variables, using tri-axial accelerometry. This contributes further to understanding of causality in the established interaction between weather conditions and population dynamics in this species. Modelling found that measures of daylight, rain/humidity, and soil temperature were the most supported predictors of ACTIVITY, in both years studied. In 2010, the drier year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, RAIN, and 30cmTEMP (w?=?0.557), while in 2012, a wetter year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, and the RAIN*10cmTEMP (w?=?0.999). ACTIVITY also differed significantly between individuals. In the 2012 autumn study period, badgers with the longest per noctem activity subsequently exhibited higher Body Condition Indices (BCI) when recaptured. In contrast, under drier 2010 conditions, badgers in good BCI engaged in less per noctem activity, while badgers with poor BCI were the most active. When compared on the same calendar dates, to control for night length, duration of mean badger nightly activity was longer (9.5 hrs ±3.3 SE) in 2010 than in 2012 (8.3 hrs ±1.9 SE). In the wetter year, increasing nightly activity was associated with net-positive energetic gains (from BCI), likely due to better foraging conditions. In a drier year, with greater potential for net-negative energy returns, individual nutritional state proved crucial in modifying activity regimes; thus we emphasise how a 'one size fits all' approach should not be applied to ecological responses. PMID:24465376

Noonan, Michael J; Markham, Andrew; Newman, Chris; Trigoni, Niki; Buesching, Christina D; Ellwood, Stephen A; Macdonald, David W

2014-01-01

14

Spatio-temporal ecology and density of badgers Meles meles in the Swiss Jura Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports for the first time data on the spatio-temporal ecology of badgers living in a cold and wet mountain region\\u000a (Swiss Jura Mountains). The home range, movements, activity patterns and habitat use of three badgers (two males, one female)\\u000a were examined using radiotelemetry. Average home range size was 320 ha (MCP 100%), but the ranging behaviour of badgers varied

Emmanuel Do Linh San; Nicola Ferrari; Jean-Marc Weber

2007-01-01

15

Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations.  

PubMed

Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Agren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Cirovi?, D; Sprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

2014-11-01

16

Movement of badgers (Meles meles) in a high-density population: individual, population and disease effects.  

PubMed Central

The movement of 1763 badgers trapped between 36 social groups in Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, over 18 years was analysed to determine the frequency and duration of moves, the factors associated with a predisposition to move and the spatial pattern of movements. Of those badgers whose capture history could be categorized, nearly half had moved. Of these, 73.1% were classified as 'occasional movers', 22.1% as 'permanent movers' and 4.8% as 'frequent movers'. Most adult badgers that moved made occasional moves (78.8%, n = 67). Cubs made all types of move including permanent moves (29%, n = 10). Seventy per cent of females were non-movers compared with 37% of males. Badgers were significantly more likely to move to smaller groups, whereas male badgers were significantly more likely to move to groups with a greater proportion of females. The spatial pattern of movement differed from the distribution of groups with bovine tuberculosis in the study area. However, temporal changes in movement were significantly related to the incidence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the following year, indicating that as the movement of badgers between groups varies so does the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in the population. This finding is of central importance in the formulation of badger control policy. PMID:9718736

Rogers, L M; Delahay, R; Cheeseman, C L; Langton, S; Smith, G C; Clifton-Hadley, R S

1998-01-01

17

Population Estimation and Trappability of the European Badger (Meles meles): Implications for Tuberculosis Management  

PubMed Central

Estimates of population size and trappability inform vaccine efficacy modelling and are required for adaptive management during prolonged wildlife vaccination campaigns. We present an analysis of mark-recapture data from a badger vaccine (Bacille Calmette–Guérin) study in Ireland. This study is the largest scale (755 km2) mark-recapture study ever undertaken with this species. The study area was divided into three approximately equal–sized zones, each with similar survey and capture effort. A mean badger population size of 671 (SD: 76) was estimated using a closed-subpopulation model (CSpM) based on data from capturing sessions of the entire area and was consistent with a separate multiplicative model. Minimum number alive estimates calculated from the same data were on average 49–51% smaller than the CSpM estimates, but these are considered severely negatively biased when trappability is low. Population densities derived from the CSpM estimates were 0.82–1.06 badgers km?2, and broadly consistent with previous reports for an adjacent area. Mean trappability was estimated to be 34–35% per session across the population. By the fifth capture session, 79% of the adult badgers caught had been marked previously. Multivariable modelling suggested significant differences in badger trappability depending on zone, season and age-class. There were more putatively trap-wary badgers identified in the population than trap-happy badgers, but wariness was not related to individual’s sex, zone or season of capture. Live-trapping efficacy can vary significantly amongst sites, seasons, age, or personality, hence monitoring of trappability is recommended as part of an adaptive management regime during large–scale wildlife vaccination programs to counter biases and to improve efficiencies. PMID:23227211

Byrne, Andrew W.; O’Keeffe, James; Green, Stuart; Sleeman, D. Paddy; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Gormley, Eamonn; Murphy, Denise; Martin, S. Wayne; Davenport, John

2012-01-01

18

A Multi-Metric Approach to Investigate the Effects of Weather Conditions on the Demographic of a Terrestrial Mammal, the European Badger (Meles meles)  

PubMed Central

Models capturing the full effects of weather conditions on animal populations are scarce. Here we decompose yearly temperature and rainfall into mean trends, yearly amplitude of change and residual variation, using daily records. We establish from multi-model inference procedures, based on 1125 life histories (from 1987 to 2008), that European badger (Meles meles) annual mortality and recruitment rates respond to changes in mean trends and to variability in proximate weather components. Variation in mean rainfall was by far the most influential predictor in our analysis. Juvenile survival and recruitment rates were highest at intermediate levels of mean rainfall, whereas low adult survival rates were associated with only the driest, and not the wettest, years. Both juvenile and adult survival rates also exhibited a range of tolerance for residual standard deviation around daily predicted temperature values, beyond which survival rates declined. Life-history parameters, annual routines and adaptive behavioural responses, which define the badgers’ climatic niche, thus appear to be predicated upon a bounded range of climatic conditions, which support optimal survival and recruitment dynamics. That variability in weather conditions is influential, in combination with mean climatic trends, on the vital rates of a generalist, wide ranging and K-selected medium-sized carnivore, has major implications for evolutionary ecology and conservation. PMID:23874517

Nouvellet, Pierre; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Macdonald, David W.

2013-01-01

19

Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles)  

PubMed Central

Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

2014-01-01

20

A forensic STR profiling system for the Eurasian badger: A framework for developing profiling systems for wildlife species  

E-print Network

A forensic STR profiling system for the Eurasian badger: A framework for developing profiling short tandem repeat (STR) profiling systems for forensic identification is complicated in animal species and a lack of developed STR markers can make adhering to human forensic guidelines difficult. Furthermore

Thorpe, Roger Stephen

21

Diet-induced and physiologically occurring hypercholesterolemias in the spontaneous hypothyroid European badger (Meles meles L.): a density gradient study of lipoprotein profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

As previously shown in this laboratory (Laplaud, P. M. et al. J. Lipid Res. 1980. 21: 724-738), the European badger is, with regard to its plasma lipid transport system, an original and complex animal of great potential interest to li- poprotein research. In an effort to study the response of this animal to cholesterol feeding, we gave a diet supplemented

P. Michel Laplaud; Laurence Beaubatie; Daniel Maurel

22

Impacts of removing badgers on localised counts of hedgehogs.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence of the interactions among mammalian predators that eat or compete with one another is rare, due to the ethical and logistical challenges of managing wild populations in a controlled and replicated way. Here, we report on the opportunistic use of a replicated and controlled culling experiment (the Randomised Badger Culling Trial) to investigate the relationship between two sympatric predators: European badgers Meles meles and western European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus. In areas of preferred habitat (amenity grassland), counts of hedgehogs more than doubled over a 5-year period from the start of badger culling (from 0.9 ha-1 pre-cull to 2.4 ha-1 post-cull), whereas hedgehog counts did not change where there was no badger culling (0.3-0.3 hedgehogs ha-1). This trial provides experimental evidence for mesopredator release as an outcome of management of a top predator. PMID:24736454

Trewby, Iain D; Young, Richard; McDonald, Robbie A; Wilson, Gavin J; Davison, John; Walker, Neil; Robertson, Andrew; Doncaster, C Patrick; Delahay, Richard J

2014-01-01

23

Unusual odd-chain and trans-octadecenoic fatty acids in tissues of feral European beaver (Castorfiber), Eurasian badger (Melesmeles) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutesprocyonoides).  

PubMed

The fatty acid (FA) composition of depot adipose tissues in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutesprocyonoides) and the European beaver (Castorfiber) differs from that reported for the lipids of other monogastric animals, especially with regard to the presence of trans-octadecenoic acids. The concentrations of pentadecanoic acid 15:0 (PA) and heptadecanoic acid 17:0 (HA) in the lipids of the tested animals ranged from 0.23 to 0.79% and from 0.33 to 2.35% of total FAs, respectively. The total content of their monounsaturated cis isomers varied from 0.12 to 2.75% for pentadecanoic acid (c-PA) and from 0.38 to 2.45% for heptadecanoic acid (c-HA). It is interesting that the tissues of European beavers and raccoon dogs contained also trans isomers of octadecenoic acid C18:1 (t-OA) including vaccenic acid C18:1,11t (VA), typical of ruminants. The presence of FAs with an uneven number of carbon atoms and trans-octadecenoic acids in depot adipose tissue is indicative of the process of hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) in the digestive tract. The tissues of badgers also contained t-OA (from below 0.05% in the liver to 0.44% in the kidneys), but no VA was found. PMID:19243702

Martysiak-Zurowska, Dorota; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Kamieniarz, Robert

2009-06-01

24

Badger responses to small-scale culling may compromise targeted control of bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Where wildlife disease requires management, culling is frequently considered but not always effective. In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by infection in wild badger (Meles meles) populations. Large-scale badger culling can reduce the incidence of confirmed cattle TB, but these benefits are undermined by culling-induced changes in badger behavior (termed perturbation), which can increase transmission among badgers and from badgers to cattle. Test-vaccinate/remove (TVR) is a novel approach that entails testing individual badgers for infection, vaccinating test-negative animals, and killing test-positive animals. Imperfect capture success, diagnostic sensitivity, and vaccine effectiveness mean that TVR would be expected to leave some infected and some susceptible badgers in the population. Existing simulation models predict that TVR could reduce cattle TB if such small-scale culling causes no perturbation, but could increase cattle TB if considerable perturbation occurs. Using data from a long-term study, we show that past small-scale culling was significantly associated with four metrics of perturbation in badgers: expanded ranging, more frequent immigration, lower genetic relatedness, and elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of TB. Though we could not reject the hypothesis that culling up to three badgers per social group might avoid perturbation, we also could not reject the hypothesis that killing a single badger prompted detectable perturbation. When considered alongside existing model predictions, our findings suggest that implementation of TVR, scheduled for 2014, risks exacerbating the TB problem rather than controlling it. Ongoing illegal badger culling is likewise expected to increase cattle TB risks. PMID:24927589

Bielby, Jon; Donnelly, Christl A; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry; Woodroffe, Rosie

2014-06-24

25

Badger responses to small-scale culling may compromise targeted control of bovine tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Where wildlife disease requires management, culling is frequently considered but not always effective. In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by infection in wild badger (Meles meles) populations. Large-scale badger culling can reduce the incidence of confirmed cattle TB, but these benefits are undermined by culling-induced changes in badger behavior (termed perturbation), which can increase transmission among badgers and from badgers to cattle. Test–vaccinate/remove (TVR) is a novel approach that entails testing individual badgers for infection, vaccinating test-negative animals, and killing test-positive animals. Imperfect capture success, diagnostic sensitivity, and vaccine effectiveness mean that TVR would be expected to leave some infected and some susceptible badgers in the population. Existing simulation models predict that TVR could reduce cattle TB if such small-scale culling causes no perturbation, but could increase cattle TB if considerable perturbation occurs. Using data from a long-term study, we show that past small-scale culling was significantly associated with four metrics of perturbation in badgers: expanded ranging, more frequent immigration, lower genetic relatedness, and elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of TB. Though we could not reject the hypothesis that culling up to three badgers per social group might avoid perturbation, we also could not reject the hypothesis that killing a single badger prompted detectable perturbation. When considered alongside existing model predictions, our findings suggest that implementation of TVR, scheduled for 2014, risks exacerbating the TB problem rather than controlling it. Ongoing illegal badger culling is likewise expected to increase cattle TB risks. PMID:24927589

Bielby, Jon; Donnelly, Christl A.; Pope, Lisa C.; Burke, Terry; Woodroffe, Rosie

2014-01-01

26

Controlling Badger Damage  

E-print Network

Dens or holes dug by badgers can be a hazard to livestock, horseback riders and machinery. Badgers can be controlled by trapping, shooting, habitat modification or frightening them away with bright lights....

Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service

2004-06-28

27

Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km-2 (95% confidence interval 0.449-0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400-76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985-88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2-2.9%), equating to an 88% (70-105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83-123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (-25 to +49%).

Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; MacArthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

2014-01-01

28

Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011–2013  

PubMed Central

In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1?km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485?km?2 (95% confidence interval 0.449–0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400–76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985–88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2–2.9%), equating to an 88% (70–105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83–123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (?25 to +49%). PMID:24457532

Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; Macarthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

2014-01-01

29

A Mechanism for Passive Range Exclusion: Evidence from the European Badger ( Meles meles )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Passive Range Exclusion (PRE) Hypothesis provides a mechanism whereby species that rest or breed in communal residences, but forage independently on dispersed food items, may avoid entering the core home ranges of neighbouring groups. A stochastic simulation shows that as the occupants of a communal residence travel outwards to feed, their activities create a gradient in food availability. Food

Paul D Stewart; Carl Anderson; David W Macdonald

1997-01-01

30

Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations  

PubMed Central

Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB) in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles). The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to reduce bTB in badgers include efforts to minimise such external sources of infection. PMID:22738118

2012-01-01

31

Large-scale movements in European badgers: has the tail of the movement kernel been underestimated?  

PubMed

Characterizing patterns of animal movement is a major aim in population ecology, and yet doing so at an appropriate spatial scale remains a major challenge. Estimating the frequency and distances of movements is of particular importance when species are implicated in the transmission of zoonotic diseases. European badgers (Meles meles) are classically viewed as exhibiting limited dispersal, and yet their movements bring them into conflict with farmers due to their potential to spread bovine tuberculosis in parts of their range. Considerable uncertainty surrounds the movement potential of badgers, and this may be related to the spatial scale of previous empirical studies. We conducted a large-scale mark-recapture study (755 km(2) ; 2008-2012; 1935 capture events; 963 badgers) to investigate movement patterns in badgers, and undertook a comparative meta-analysis using published data from 15 European populations. The dispersal movement (>1 km) kernel followed an inverse power-law function, with a substantial 'tail' indicating the occurrence of rare long-distance dispersal attempts during the study period. The mean recorded distance from this distribution was 2·6 km, the 95 percentile was 7·3 km and the longest recorded was 22·1 km. Dispersal frequency distributions were significantly different between genders; males dispersed more frequently than females, but females made proportionally more long-distance dispersal attempts than males. We used a subsampling approach to demonstrate that the appropriate minimum spatial scale to characterize badger movements in our study population was 80 km(2) , substantially larger than many previous badger studies. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated a significant association between maximum movement distance and study area size, while controlling for population density. Maximum long-distance movements were often only recorded by chance beyond the boundaries of study areas. These findings suggest that the tail of the badger movement distribution is currently underestimated. The implications of this for understanding the spatial ecology of badger populations and for the design of disease intervention strategies are potentially significant. PMID:24410133

Byrne, Andrew W; Quinn, John L; O'Keeffe, James J; Green, Stuart; Paddy Sleeman, D; Wayne Martin, S; Davenport, John

2014-01-11

32

Host specificity of the badger's flea (Paraceras melis) and first detection on a bat host.  

PubMed

Defining the whole spectrum of potential hosts of a parasite has large epidemiological and evolutionary implications in biology. Specialized parasites might be able to occasionally exploit a range of different host species, increasing the individual survival and the chances of successful dispersal. For long time Paraceras melis has been considered a specific flea of European badger Meles meles. Anyway, it has occasionally been reported on different hosts. In this work, we summarize the host spectrum of P. melis from literature and we report its first detection on a bat host. Ten species were identified as occasional hosts, man included, and the plasticity of this flea in host exploitation is noteworthy because of possible increase of pathogens transmission to humans and domestic species. PMID:25216783

Ancillotto, Leonardo; Mazza, Giuseppe; Menchetti, Mattia; Mori, Emiliano

2014-10-01

33

Evidence for a role of the host-specific flea (Paraceras melis) in the transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European badger.  

PubMed

We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

2011-01-01

34

Evidence for a Role of the Host-Specific Flea (Paraceras melis) in the Transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European Badger  

PubMed Central

We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W.; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

2011-01-01

35

Oral Vaccination of Guinea Pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccine in a Lipid Matrix Protects against Aerosol Infection with Virulent M. bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobac- terium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

Simon Clark; Martin L. Cross; Allan Nadian; Julia Vipond; Pinar Court; Ann Williams; R. Glyn Hewinson; Frank E. Aldwell; Mark A. Chambers

2008-01-01

36

KNOWLEDGE BASED PROGRAMMING ASSISTANT, D. C. Badger  

E-print Network

KNOWLEDGE BASED PROGRAMMING ASSISTANT, KBPA-l by D. C. Badger R. Campbell N. Dershowitz M T HarandiMr.t~t"s in tl1(! dcbuCBing of thei.!:" pr0f,rar:1i1l. This propoBai scpks Stlpport to stlldy and C e r'~}lt1on or progra1n errors. His characterizHLl,)n i~ p:JrtialJy r\\:~prorJucp.d belo\\o, and COI;'l

Dershowitz, Nachum

37

Phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the phase diagram of the Kane-Mele model with a long-range Coulomb interaction using an exact quantum Monte Carlo method. Long-range interactions are expected to play a role in honeycomb materials because the vanishing density of states in the semimetallic weak-coupling phase suppresses screening. According to our results, the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model supports the same phases as the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The nonlocal part of the interaction promotes short-range sublattice charge fluctuations, which compete with antiferromagnetic order driven by the onsite repulsion. Consequently, the critical interaction for the magnetic transition is significantly larger than for the purely local Hubbard repulsion. Our numerical data are consistent with SU (2) Gross-Neveu universality for the semimetal to antiferromagnet transition, and with 3D XY universality for the quantum spin Hall to antiferromagnet transition.

Hohenadler, M.; Parisen Toldin, F.; Herbut, I. F.; Assaad, F. F.

2014-08-01

38

Phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model  

E-print Network

We determine the phase diagram of the Kane-Mele model with a long-range Coulomb interaction using an exact quantum Monte Carlo method. Long-range interactions are expected to play a role in honeycomb materials because the vanishing density of states in the semimetallic weak-coupling phase suppresses screening. According to our results, the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model supports the same phases as the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The nonlocal part of the interaction promotes short-range sublattice charge fluctuations, which compete with antiferromagnetic order driven by the onsite repulsion. Consequently, the critical interaction for the magnetic transition is significantly larger than for the purely local Hubbard repulsion. Our numerical data are consistent with $SU(2)$ Gross-Neveu universality for the semimetal to antiferromagnet transition, and with 3D XY universality for the quantum spin Hall to antiferromagnet transition.

M. Hohenadler; F. Parisen Toldin; I. F. Herbut; F. F. Assaad

2014-08-29

39

Estimation of badger abundance using faecal DNA typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Wildlife management and conservation programmes often require accurate infor- mation on population density, but this can be difficult to obtain, particularly when the species in question is nocturnal or cryptic. Badger populations in Britain are of intense management interest because they are a wildlife reservoir host of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Attempts to manage this infection in badgers, whether

G. J. Wilson; A. C. Frantz; L. C. Pope; T. J. Roper; T. A. Burke; C. L. Cheeseman; R. J. Delahay

2003-01-01

40

USING COMMERCIAL FORESTRY FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN SENSITIVE BADGER HABITAT  

E-print Network

USING COMMERCIAL FORESTRY FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN SENSITIVE BADGER HABITAT by Melissa Hogg BSc of Thesis: Using commercial forestry for ecosystem restoration in sensitive badger habitat Project Number prescribed fire. Commercial forestry can subsidize restoration work, but machinery may damage important

41

Badger Army Ammunition Plant groundwater data management system  

SciTech Connect

At the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (Badger), there are currently over 200 wells that are monitored on a quarterly basis. Badger has had three active production periods since its construction in 1942. During these periods, various nitrocellulose based propellants were produced including single base artillery propellants were produced including single base artillery propellant, double base rocket propellant and BALL POWDER{reg_sign} propellant. Intermediate materials used in the manufacture of these propellants were also produced, including nitroglycerine, and sulfuric and nitric acids. To meet the challenge of managing the data in-house, a groundwater data management system (GDMS) was developed. Although such systems are commercially available, they were not able to provide the specific capabilities necessary for data management and reporting at Badger. The GDMS not only provides the routine database capabilities of data sorts and queries, but has provided an automated data reporting system as well. The reporting function alone has significantly reduced the time and efforts that would normally be associated with this task. Since the GDMS was developed at Badger, the program can be continually adapted to site specific needs. Future planned modifications include automated reconciliation, improved transfer of data to graphics software, and statistical analysis and interpretation of the data.

Hansen, J.P. [Olin Corp., Baraboo, WI (United States). Badger Army Ammunition Plant

1994-12-31

42

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae in United Kingdom Badgers: Prevalence and Spatial Distribution  

PubMed Central

Eighteen (72%) of 25 badger social groups were found to excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Ried, S. enterica serovar Binza, S. enterica serovar Agama, or S. enterica serovar Lomita. Each serovar was susceptible to a panel of antimicrobials. Based on results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the S. enterica serovar Agama and S. enterica serovar Binza isolates were very similar, but two clones each of S. enterica serovar Lomita and S. enterica serovar Ried were found. Badgers excreting S. enterica serovar Agama were spatially clustered. PMID:12839821

Wilson, J. Sian; Hazel, Sarah M.; Williams, Nicola J.; Phiri, Amos; French, Nigel P.; Hart, C. Anthony

2003-01-01

43

Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.  

PubMed

The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

Bilandži?, Nina; Dež?ek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Doki?, Maja; Simi?, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

2012-01-01

44

Badger (Taxidea taxus) disturbances increase soil heterogeneity in a degraded shrub-steppe ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the western United States, overgrazing, weed invasion and wildfire have resulted in the conversion of shrub-steppe to annual grasslands, with substantial effects on ecosystem function. In these landscapes, badgers disturb large areas of soil while foraging for prey. Mounds created by badgers cont...

45

Killing technique of North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcasses of 13 Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) cached during autumn by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in southern Alberta, Canada, were inspected to determine the capture and killing technique. Regardless of prey size (251-651 g) or torpor status (normothermic or torpid), badgers killed ground squir - rels with a single grasping bite directed dorsally or laterally to the thorax.

Gail R. Michener; Andrew N. Iwaniuk

2001-01-01

46

GameBadger: Design and Development of a Social Gaming Platform  

E-print Network

GameBadger: Design and Development of a Social Gaming Platform Brendan Curran, ´Angel Rodr proposition for Game Developers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4 Value proposition for Gamers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 The GameBadger Application 8 3.1 The Home Screen

Militzer, Burkhard

47

Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Methodology Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; “Control”, “Feed Storage”, “Cattle Housing” and “Both”, whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Results Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle. PMID:22220199

Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A.; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J.

2011-01-01

48

Farmer attitudes to vaccination and culling of badgers in controlling bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Controversy persists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland concerning methods of controlling the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between badgers and cattle. The National Trust, a major land-owning heritage organisation, in 2011, began a programme of vaccinating badgers against bTB on its Killerton Estate in Devon. Most of the estate is farmed by 18 tenant farmers, who thus have a strong interest in the Trust's approach, particularly as all have felt the effects of the disease. This article reports on a study of the attitudes to vaccination of badgers and to the alternative of a culling programme, using face-to-face interviews with 14 of the tenants. The results indicated first that the views of the respondents were more nuanced than the contemporary public debate about badger control would suggest. Secondly, the attitude of the interviewees to vaccination of badgers against bTB was generally one of resigned acceptance. Thirdly, most respondents would prefer a combination of an effective vaccination programme with an effective culling programme, the latter reducing population of density sufficiently (and preferably targeting the badgers most likely to be diseased) for vaccination to have a reasonable chance of success. While based on a small sample, these results will contribute to the vigorous debate concerning contrasting policy approaches to bTB control in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. PMID:23775132

Warren, M; Lobley, M; Winter, M

2013-07-13

49

Bovine tuberculosis in a free ranging red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Doñana National Park (Spain).  

PubMed

During 1997 and 1998, a survey of Iberian carnivores was conducted to study the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in the Doñana National Park and surrounding areas in southwestern Spain. Post-mortem examinations were done on seven red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), one weasel (Mustela nivalis), two genets (Genetta genetta), one Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one Eurasian badger (Meles meles), and two polecats (Mustela putorius). Lesions suggestive of bovine tuberculosis were not detected but, in culture, Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes of one adult male red fox. This is the first report of M. bovis infection in red fox in Spain. PMID:16107680

Martín-Atance, P; Palomares, F; González-Candela, M; Revilla, E; Cubero, M J; Calzada, J; León-Vizcaíno, L

2005-04-01

50

Ferret badger rabies origin and its revisited importance as potential source of rabies transmission in Southeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The frequent occurrence of ferret badger-associated human rabies cases in southeast China highlights the lack of laboratory-based surveillance and urges revisiting the potential importance of this animal in rabies transmission. To determine if the ferret badgers actually contribute to human and dog rabies cases, and the possible origin of the ferret badger-associated rabies in the region, an active rabies

Ye Liu; Shoufeng Zhang; Xianfu Wu; Jinghui Zhao; Yanli Hou; Fei Zhang; Andres Velasco-Villa; Charles E Rupprecht; Rongliang Hu

2010-01-01

51

Um Framework para a Simulao de Redes Mveis Ad hoc Alexandre Mele & Markus Endler  

E-print Network

Um Framework para a Simulação de Redes Móveis Ad hoc Alexandre Mele & Markus Endler Departamento de, um framework flexível para a prototipação e simulação de protocolos para redes móveis ad hoc. Depois.11. Palavras-chave Redes Móveis Ad hoc, Framework, Simulação, Roteamento, Prototipação de Protocolos #12;Um

Endler, Markus

52

Rice–Mele model with topological solitons in an optical lattice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attractive ultracold fermions trapped in a one-dimensional periodically shaken optical lattice are considered. For an appropriate resonant shaking, a dimerized structure emerges for which the system realizes paradigmatic physics described by the Rice–Mele model. The emergent nature of the system together with density fluctuations or controlled modifications of lattice filling allow for the creation of defects. Those defects lead to topologically protected localized modes carrying the fractional particle number. Their possible experimental signatures are discussed.

Przysi??na, Anna; Dutta, Omjyoti; Zakrzewski, Jakub

2015-01-01

53

Rice-Mele model with topological solitons in an optical lattice  

E-print Network

Attractive ultra-cold fermions trapped in a one-dimensional periodically shaken opticla lattices are considered. For an appropriate resonant shaking the system realizes paradigmatic dimes physics described by Rice-Mele model. The important feature of our system is the possible presence of controlled defects. They result in the creation of topologically protected loclaized modes carrying fractional particle number. Their possible experimental signatures are discussed.

Anna Przysiezna; Omjyoti Dutta; Jakub Zakrzewski

2014-12-19

54

75 FR 43556 - Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Sourcepoint Staffing, Seek, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [TA-W-73,666] Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers...2010, applicable to workers of Badger Meter, Inc., including on-site leased workers...flow measurement devices and automatic meter reading equipment. The company...

2010-07-26

55

American badgers selectively excavate burrows in areas used by black-footed ferrets: implications for predator avoidance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated how American badgers (Taxidea taxus) might exert selective pressure on black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) to develop antipredator defenses. In a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in South Dakota, badgers concentrated their activities where burrow openings and prairie dogs were abundant, a selective behavior that was exhibited by ferrets in the same colony. Badgers excavated burrows more often when in areas recently used by a ferret, suggesting that badgers hunt ferrets or steal prey from ferrets, or both. We also conducted an analysis of survival studies for ferrets and Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii) released onto prairie dog colonies. This polecat is the ferret's ecological equivalent but evolved without a digging predator. Badgers accounted for 30.0% of predation on polecats and 5.5% of predation on ferrets. In contrast, both polecats and ferrets have evolutionary experience with canids, providing a plausible explanation for the similar relative impact of coyotes (Canis latrans) on them (65.0% and 67.1% of predation, respectively). We hypothesize that ferrets and badgers coexist because ferrets are superior at exploitation competition and are efficient at avoiding badgers, and badgers are superior at interference competition.

Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

2013-01-01

56

Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 2012–2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the RABV affecting the Taiwan ferret badgers (RABV-TWFB) is a distinct lineage within the group of lineages from Asia and that it has been differentiated from its closest lineages, China I (including isolates from Chinese ferret badgers) and the Philippines, 158–210 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of RABV-TWFB originated 91–113 years ago. Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host. PMID:24751120

Chiou, Hue-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chan, Fang-Tse; Wang, Hurng-Yi

2014-01-01

57

Molecular characterization of cryptically circulating rabies virus from ferret badgers, Taiwan.  

PubMed

After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 2012-2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the RABV affecting the Taiwan ferret badgers (RABV-TWFB) is a distinct lineage within the group of lineages from Asia and that it has been differentiated from its closest lineages, China I (including isolates from Chinese ferret badgers) and the Philippines, 158-210 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of RABV-TWFB originated 91-113 years ago. Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host. PMID:24751120

Chiou, Hue-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chan, Fang-Tse; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Pang, Victor Fei

2014-05-01

58

Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans  

PubMed Central

One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual “Neandertal” features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

2014-01-01

59

Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans.  

PubMed

One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual "Neandertal" features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

2014-07-22

60

Mesoscale modelling for an offshore wind farm Jake Badger*, Rebecca Barthelmie, Sten Frandsen, Merete Bruun Christiansen  

E-print Network

Mesoscale modelling for an offshore wind farm Jake Badger*, Rebecca Barthelmie, Sten Frandsen for an offshore wind farm in a coastal location. Spatial gradients and vertical profiles between 25 m and 70 m offshore wind farms tend to be placed within the coastal zone, the region within around 50km from

61

Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Local Transmission Patterns of Mycobacterium bovis in Sympatric Cattle and Badger Populations  

PubMed Central

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) technology holds great promise as a tool for the forensic epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. It is likely to be particularly useful for studying the transmission dynamics of an observed epidemic involving a largely unsampled ‘reservoir’ host, as for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British and Irish cattle and badgers. BTB is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex that also includes the aetiological agent for human TB. In this study, we identified a spatio-temporally linked group of 26 cattle and 4 badgers infected with the same Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) type of M. bovis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between sequences identified differences that were consistent with bacterial lineages being persistent on or near farms for several years, despite multiple clear whole herd tests in the interim. Comparing WGS data to mathematical models showed good correlations between genetic divergence and spatial distance, but poor correspondence to the network of cattle movements or within-herd contacts. Badger isolates showed between zero and four SNP differences from the nearest cattle isolate, providing evidence for recent transmissions between the two hosts. This is the first direct genetic evidence of M. bovis persistence on farms over multiple outbreaks with a continued, ongoing interaction with local badgers. However, despite unprecedented resolution, directionality of transmission cannot be inferred at this stage. Despite the often notoriously long timescales between time of infection and time of sampling for TB, our results suggest that WGS data alone can provide insights into TB epidemiology even where detailed contact data are not available, and that more extensive sampling and analysis will allow for quantification of the extent and direction of transmission between cattle and badgers. PMID:23209404

Wright, David; Mallon, Tom; McCormick, Carl; Orton, Richard J.; McDowell, Stanley; Trewby, Hannah; Skuce, Robin A.; Kao, Rowland R.

2012-01-01

62

Eurasian Heat Waves: Mechanisms and Predictability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study uses the NASA MERRA reanalysis and GEOS 5 model simulations to examine the causes of Eurasian heat waves including the recent extreme events that occurred in Europe during 2003 and in Russia during 2010. The focus is on the warm season and the part of the Eurasian continent that extends north of about 40oN, or roughly to the north of the mean upper tropospheric jet stream. The results show that such extreme events are an amplification of natural patterns of atmospheric variability that develop over the Eurasian continent as a result of internal atmospheric forcing. The amplification occurs when the wave occasionally becomes locked in place for several weeks to months resulting in extreme heat and drying with the location depending on the phase of the upper atmospheric wave. An ensemble of very long GEOS-S model simulations (spanning the 20th century) forced with observed SST and greenhouse gases show that the model is capable of generating very similar heat waves, and that they have become more intense in the last thirty years as a result of the overall warming of the Asian continent. Sensitivity experiments with perturbed initial conditions indicate that these events have limited predictability.

Wang, Hailan; Schubert, Siegfried; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max

2012-01-01

63

Review of the Badger report FE2416-24, conceptual design of a coal to methanol commercial plant, February 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives the results of a review by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of the conceptual design study of a 415,000-bbl\\/day coal-to-methanol facility published in February 1978 by Badger Plants, Incorporated. A critical assessment is made of the technology and economics of the proposed plant and of the Badger-recommended program for concurrent development and construction.

R. Salmon; H. F. Hartman; B. Niemann; W. R. Gambill; M. S. Edwards; J. R. Horton; W. R. Reed; J. F. Fisher; D. A. Canonico

1979-01-01

64

Optimising and Evaluating the Characteristics of a Multiple Antigen ELISA for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Badger Vaccine Field Trial  

PubMed Central

A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU) obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%), while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation. PMID:24983473

Aznar, Inma; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J.; Whelan, Clare; Martin, Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Murphy, Denise; De Jong, Mart C. M.

2014-01-01

65

Topological quantum phase transition in Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We systematically explore the ground-state phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model on the honeycomb lattice; particularly, we focus on its magnetic properties, which are ubiquitous and important in many realistic heavy-fermion materials but have not been clearly studied in the previous publication [X. Y. Feng, J. Dai, C. H. Chung, and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.016402 111, 016402 (2013)]. Besides the Kondo insulator found in that paper, two kinds of antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave phases are discovered. One is the normal antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave state and the other is a nontrivial topological antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave state, which shows the unexpected Z2 topological order with a quantized spin Hall conductance and a helical edge state similar to the hotly studied topological insulators. The quantum spin Hall insulator in the work of Feng is found to be absent since it is always unstable to antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave states at least at the mean-field level in our model. Interestingly, the transition between the two spin-density-wave phases is an exotic topological quantum phase transition, whose critical behavior is described by an emergent three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics, in which conduction electrons contribute to the low-energy Dirac fermions while the spin-wave fluctuation of local spins gives rise to an effective dynamic U(1) gauge field. Such nontrivial transition shows radical critical thermodynamic, transport, and single-particle behaviors, which provide a fingerprint for this transition. Additionally, the transition of antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave states to the Kondo insulator is found to be first order. The introduction of two novel magnetic phases and their topological quantum phase transition show rich and intrinsic physics involved in the Kane-Mele-Kondo lattice model.

Zhong, Yin; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Han-Tao; Luo, Hong-Gang

2013-12-01

66

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2011-01-01

67

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.  

PubMed

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

2011-04-01

68

Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

2013-01-01

69

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa  

PubMed Central

The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter–gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter–gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger–Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ?900–1,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe–Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ?2,700–3,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. PMID:24550290

Pickrell, Joseph K.; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Reich, David

2014-01-01

70

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. II. The badger population, its ecology and tuberculosis status.  

PubMed Central

Following a major outbreak of tuberculosis in cattle on a farm in Dorset, badgers were discovered to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Two hundred and forty sets were found in the 1200 hectares of the study area. The sets were found predominantly in areas of Portland Sand. A high prevalence of tuberculosis was found in the badger population which was removed and repopulation prevented for 3 years. The removal of the infected badgers led to the resolution of the problem in cattle. Re-colonization of the area has progressed slowly and the cattle have remained free from infection for a period of 5 years. PMID:6752271

Little, T. W.; Swan, C.; Thompson, H. V.; Wilesmith, J. W.

1982-01-01

71

Hybridization Facilitates the Rapid Evolution of Reduced Herbicide Sensitivity in the Widely-managed Invasive Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Watermilfoil.  

E-print Network

??Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) is one of North American’s most invasive and widely managed aquatic weeds. Eurasian watermilfoil also hybridizes with the native northern watermilfoil… (more)

LaRue, Elizabeth Ann

2012-01-01

72

Kane-Mele Hubbard model on a zigzag ribbon: Stability of the topological edge states and quantum phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum phases and phase transitions of the Kane-Mele Hubbard (KMH) model on a zigzag ribbon of honeycomb lattice at a finite size via the weak-coupling renormalization group (RG) approach. In the noninteracting limit, the Kane-Mele (KM) model is known to support topological edge states where electrons show helical property with orientations of the spin and momentum being locked. The effective interedge hopping terms are generated due to finite-size effect. In the presence of an on-site Coulomb (Hubbard) interaction and the interedge hoppings, special focus is put on the stability of the topological edge states (TI phase) in the KMH model against (i) the charge and spin gaped (II) phase, (ii) the charge gaped but spin gapless (IC) phase, and (iii) the spin gaped but charge gapless (CI) phase depending on the number (even/odd) of the zigzag ribbons, doping level (electron filling factor) and the ratio of the Coulomb interaction to the interedge tunneling. We discuss different phase diagrams for even and odd numbers of zigzag ribbons. We find the TI-CI, II-IC, and II-CI quantum phase transitions are of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. By computing various correlation functions, we further analyze the nature and leading instabilities of these phases. The relevance of our results for graphene is discussed.

Chung, Chung-Hou; Lee, Der-Hau; Chao, Sung-Po

2014-07-01

73

BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BADGER equation of state library was developed to enable inertial confinement fusion plasma codes to more accurately model plasmas in the high-density, low-temperature regime. The code had the capability to calculate 1- and 2-T plasmas using the Thomas-Fermi model and an individual electron accounting model. Ion equation of state data can be calculated using an ideal gas model or via a quotidian equation of state with scaled binding energies. Electron equation of state data can be calculated via the ideal gas model or with an adaptation of the screened hydrogenic model with ?-splitting. The ionization and equation of state calculations can be done in local thermodynamic equilibrium or in a non-LTE mode using a variant of the Busquet equivalent temperature method. The code was written as a stand-alone Fortran library for ease of implementation by external codes. EOS results for aluminum are presented that show good agreement with the SESAME library and ionization calculations show good agreement with the FLYCHK code. Program summaryProgram title: BADGERLIB v1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEND_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEND_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 41 480 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 904 451 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90. Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, or Mac. Operating system: Windows, Linux, MacOS X. RAM: 249.496 kB plus 195.630 kB per isotope record in memory Classification: 19.1, 19.7. Nature of problem: Equation of State (EOS) calculations are necessary for the accurate simulation of high energy density plasmas. Historically, most EOS codes used in these simulations have relied on an ideal gas model. This model is inadequate for low-temperature, high-density plasma conditions; the gaseous and liquid phases; and the solid phase. The BADGER code was developed to give more realistic EOS data in these regimes. Solution method: BADGER has multiple, user-selectable models to treat the ions, average-atom ionization state and electrons. Ion models are ideal gas and quotidian equation of state (QEOS), ionization models are Thomas-Fermi and individual accounting method (IEM) formulation of the screened hydrogenic model (SHM) with l-splitting, electron ionization models are ideal gas and a Helmholtz free energy minimization method derived from the SHM. The default equation of state and ionization models are appropriate for plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The code can calculate non-LTE equation of state (EOS) and ionization data using a simplified form of the Busquet equivalent-temperature method. Restrictions: Physical data are only provided for elements Z=1 to Z=86. Multiple solid phases are not currently supported. Liquid, gas and plasma phases are combined into a generalized "fluid" phase. Unusual features: BADGER divorces the calculation of average-atom ionization from the electron equation of state model, allowing the user to select ionization and electron EOS models that are most appropriate to the simulation. The included ion ideal gas model uses ground-state nuclear spin data to differentiate between isotopes of a given element. Running time: Example provided only takes a few seconds to run.

Heltemes, T. A.; Moses, G. A.

2012-12-01

74

Control strategies for wildlife tuberculosis in Ireland.  

PubMed

The principal domestic maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis is infected cattle. In countries where comprehensive surveillance schemes have been applied, tuberculosis rarely affects an animal to the extent that it presents with clinical disease. In the latter stages of an eradication campaign, the aim is to maintain the disease-free status of clear herds and eliminate foci of infection in herds as well as restricting movement of infected animals from these herds, other than to slaughter. However, the eradication of tuberculosis from cattle herds may be compromised if infected wildlife species, such as Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), share the same environment and contribute to transmission of infection. The options for dealing with tuberculosis in the wildlife reservoir hosts are limited to segregation of domestic animals from the wildlife, culling of the wildlife host or vaccination. Options are further limited by conservation and social reasons, particularly where culling is concerned. In Ireland and the UK, vaccination of badgers against M. bovis, if successfully employed, could directly facilitate the completion of bovine tuberculosis eradication. Programmes of research into vaccination of badgers are being undertaken in both countries, and there is clear evidence that vaccination induces protection. Vaccine trials in captive badgers have established that the M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine can induce a protective response that limits the distribution and severity of tuberculosis disease following experimental challenge. In Ireland, a large-scale field trial of oral BCG vaccination is being conducted to measure the protection generated in wild badgers subjected to natural transmission of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy. The results will provide a framework for the development and implementation of a national strategy to address the disease in badger populations and if successful will remove this major impediment to tuberculosis eradication from cattle. PMID:24171858

Gormley, E; Corner, L A L

2013-11-01

75

Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide variation in an approximately 490 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) was used to describe the genetic variation and phylogeographical pattern in the Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber ) over its entire range. The sampling effort was focused on the relict populations that survived a drastic population bottleneck, caused by overhunting, at the end of

WALTER DURKA; WIESLAW BABIK; JEAN-FRANCOIS DUCROZ; DIETRICH HEIDECKE; FRANK ROSELL; RAVCIGIJN SAMJAA; ALEXANDER P. SAVELJEV; ANNEGRET STUBBE; ALIUS ULEVICIUS; MICHAEL STUBBE

2005-01-01

76

Malignant melanoma in a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

An 11-yr-old female Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) presented with multiple cutaneous nodules identified histologically as malignant melanomas of spindle cell and epithelioid cell type. Metastases were detected in lymph nodes and liver, and the tumor, which was derived from melanocytes, showed aggressive biological behavior. Only occasional reports exist of neoplastic disease in otters. PMID:10884131

Weber, H; Mecklenburg, L

2000-03-01

77

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa  

E-print Network

, 2014 (received for review July 30, 2013) The history of southern Africa involved interactions between in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry en- tered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. prehistory | population genetics | migration

Reich, David

78

Understanding Higher Education Admissions Reforms in the Eurasian Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the twenty years since independence, new Eurasian nation-states of the former Soviet Union have introduced major changes to the way students are admitted to institutions of higher education. Azerbaijan (1992), Uzbekistan (1993), Kazakhstan (1999), Russia (2001), Kyrgyzstan (2002), Ukraine (2004), and Georgia (2005) have all created new state or…

Drummond, Todd W.; Gabrscek, Sergij

2012-01-01

79

Yellow (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian (P. fluviatilis) perch distinguished in  

E-print Network

292 Yellow (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian (P. fluviatilis) perch distinguished in fried fish- low perch "fish fries" in their local restaurants were, in fact, local yel- low perch (Perca flavescens Mitchell) taken from the Great Lakes. In re- cent years it has become economical- ly desirable

80

Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or comparable procedures. It will prove a basis for the long-term continuation of advanced measurements on aerosols, clouds, GHGs and trace gases in Northern Pan- Eurasian area to be operated by PEEX educated technical staff.

Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

2014-05-01

81

Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:20728995

Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

2010-11-24

82

Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of small-scale convection in the upper mantle for the Eurasian region (20°E~170°E,15°N~75°N), using the anomaly of isostatic gravity. The results show that the regional lithospheric tectonics is strongly correlated with the upper mantle flow in the Eurasian region. Two intensive convective belts against the weak background convection can be recognized from convection patterns in this region: Alpine-Himalayan collision belt and West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt. Alpine-Himalayan belt is caused by the collision between the northern plate (Eurasian plate) and the southern plates (African plate and Indian plate). West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Both of them are also seismotectonic belts. The collision and the subduction are two important geological events occurred since Mesozoic era and Cenozoic era in the Eurasian region. Therefore, the mantle flows may be one of the main driving forces of two events. In addition, most plate boundaries in this region can be recognized and the characteristics of upper mantle convection are different completely between the Eurasian plate and the plates around it (African plate, Arabian plate, Indian plate, Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate). Main structures and geodynamic characteristics of the Eurasian can also be explained by our model results. The Tibet plateau is located in the intensive convective belt. Around the belt, the upwelling materials push the lithosphere to lift unitarily and form the plateau. Towards the north of the Tibet plateau, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains, Zungarian Basin and Altai Mountains correspond successively to the downward flow, the upward flow, the downward flow and the upward flow in the mantle. It shows that the basic tectonic pattern of the interphase basin-and-range structure corresponds to the convective pattern of the interphase downward-and-upward flows. In China-Mongolian Continent, the convective pattern in the eastern area of 105°E structural zone is entirely different from the western area, weak in the East and intensive in the West. West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is located in the intensive convective areas and along this northeastern belt, there exist a series of interphase downward-and-upward flows. In summary, our results suggest that small-scale mantle convection in the upper mantle is one of the main driving forces of lithospheric dynamics of the Eurasian region. This work was supported by the Sinoprobe-02 project, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40874067) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20070491520)

Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Jia, Z.; Gao, R.; Fu, R.

2010-12-01

83

Resurrection: The History and Reconstitution of the Eurasian Idea  

E-print Network

, political, and religious values. Like other such place names, the term "Eurasian" is used to identify a type of mindset or a system of values that is characteristic of some defined geographic region. However, in exploring the geographical limitations... to cultural identity is apparent in present­ day Ukrainian independence from the Soviet Union, which was in part the result of a beliefthat Ukraine's cultural identity required that it secede from a physical union with Moscow in order to pursue a closer...

Schmidt, Matthew J.

2002-05-14

84

Molecular characterization of three ferret badger (Melogale moschata) rabies virus isolates from Jiangxi province, China.  

PubMed

Ferret badger (FB) rabies viruses JX09-17(fb), JX09-18 and JX10-37 were isolated from three different regions in Jiangxi province, China, in 2009 and 2010. The complete nucleotide sequence identity between these three isolates was 87-93 %. Compared with the other Chinese rabies virus isolates and vaccine strains, 101 substitutions (53 in JX10-37, 23 in JX09-17(fb) and 25 in JX09-18) in the five structural proteins were observed, and 47 of these substitutions (27 in JX10-37, 14 in JX09-17(fb) and 6 in JX09-18) were unique among lyssaviruses. Amino acid substitutions of S231 and Q333 were noted respectively in the G protein antigenic site I of JX10-37 and site III in JX09-17(fb). Phylogenetic analysis showed that JX09-17(fb) is rooted within the China I lineage, JX09-18 is in China II, and JX10-37 is independent. Evolutionary analysis and comparative sequence data indicate that isolate JX10-37 is a variant virus that diverged from canine rabies viruses around 1933 (range 1886-1963). PMID:24643334

Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Mi, Lijuan; Wang, Shuchao; Hu, Rongliang

2014-08-01

85

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. III. The prevalence of tuberculosis in mammals other than badgers and cattle.  

PubMed Central

A large sample of the wild mammals found on a farm in South Dorset were trapped and examined for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis following the discovery of widespread infection in cattle and badgers. M. bovis was isolated from the lymph nodes of two out of 90 rats (rattus norvegicus) and one out of seven foxes (Vulpes vulpes) but no lesions of tuberculosis were observed. It was concluded that the badger was the only species of wild mammal which was a reservoir of M. bovis in this area. PMID:6752272

Little, T. W.; Swan, C.; Thompson, H. V.; Wilesmith, J. W.

1982-01-01

86

The phylogeography of Eurasian Fraxinus species reveals ancient transcontinental reticulation.  

PubMed

To investigate the biogeographical history of ashes species of the Eurasian section Fraxinus and to test the hypothesis of ancient reticulations, we sequenced nuclear DNA (nETS and nITS, 1075 bp) for 533 samples and scored AFLP for 63 samples of Eurasian ashes within the section Fraxinus. The nITS phylogeny retrieved the classical view of the evolution of the section, whereas nETS phylogeny indicated an unexpected separation of F. angustifolia in two paraphyletic groups, respectively found in southeastern Europe and in the other parts of the Mediterranean basin. In the nETS phylogeny, the former group was closely related to F. excelsior, whereas the later was closely related to F. mandshurica, a species which is restricted nowadays to northeastern Asia. This topological incongruence between the two loci indicated the occurrence of an ancient reticulation between European and Asian ash species. Several other ancient reticulation events between the two European species and the other species of the section were supported by the posterior predictive checking method. Some of these reticulation events would have occurred during the Miocene, when climatic variations may have lead these species to expand their distribution range and come into contact. The recurrent reticulations observed among Eurasian ash species indicate that they should be considered as conspecific taxa, with subspecific status for some groups. Altogether, the results of the present study provide a rare documented evidence for the occurrence of multiple ancient reticulations within a group of temperate tree taxa with modern disjunct distributions in Eurasia. These ancient reticulation events indicate that the speciation process is slow in ashes, necessitating long periods of geographical isolation. The implications for speciation processes in temperate trees with similar life history and reproductive biology are discussed. PMID:24795215

Hinsinger, Damien D; Gaudeul, Myriam; Couloux, Arnaud; Bousquet, Jean; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

2014-08-01

87

Chlamydia psittaci in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.  

PubMed

Abstract We investigated the Chlamydia spp. occurrence in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) from urban and suburban areas in northern Italy. Among 76 doves screened, prevalence of Chlamydia spp. was 61%. Chlamydia psittaci genotype E was identified in 33 of the 46 positive samples. The multilocus sequence typing pattern of one highly positive sample showed a new allelic combination. The same molecular features were observed in a C. psittaci strain subsequently isolated from a live dove. Our results reveal a high C. psittaci prevalence in S. decaocto. The spread of this zoonotic pathogen from collared doves to other birds or humans seems to be a potential risk. PMID:25375950

Donati, Manuela; Laroucau, Karine; Delogu, Mauro; Vorimore, Fabien; Aaziz, Rachid; Cremonini, Eleonora; Biondi, Roberta; Cotti, Claudia; Baldelli, Raffaella; Di Francesco, Antonietta

2014-11-01

88

The Effect of Eurasian Snow Cover on Regional and Global Climate Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of the global climate system to interannual variability of he Eurasian snow cover has been investigated with numerical models. It was found that heavier than normal Eurasian snow cover in spring leads to a `poor' monsoon over Southeast Asia thereby verifying an idea over 100 years old. The poor monsoon was characterized by reduced rainfall over India and

T. P. Barnett; L. Dümenil; U. Schlese; E. Roeckner; M. Latif

1989-01-01

89

Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Naive and Vaccinated Pigs  

E-print Network

of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in nai¨ve and vaccinated pigs linked by naturalEvolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Nai¨ve and Vaccinated Pigs Pablo R. Murcia1 and Immunity, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Hammerton, James

90

ORIGINAL PAPER Diet of coastal foraging Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.)  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Diet of coastal foraging Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) in Pembrokeshire south The importance of the marine environment to Eurasian otters is currently poorly understood. Wales is one of the few countries where coastal activity has been recorded and an increase in marine otter sightings could

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Respiration Rates of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis and Ruffe: Lower Energy Costs in Groups  

E-print Network

for yellow perch Perca flavescens, Bajer et al. (2003) found strong evidence of deficiencies in estimatesRespiration Rates of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis and Ruffe: Lower Energy Costs in Groups DIANA and activity of the two shoaling percids, Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus

92

Original article Presence of the deleted hobo element Th in Eurasian  

E-print Network

Original article Presence of the deleted hobo element Th in Eurasian populations of Drosophila analysis has revealed the presence of a specific deletion-derivative hobo element, the Th element, in all current strains of Drosophila melanogaster examined throughout the Eurasian continent. The Th element

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Arctic sea ice and Eurasian climate: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and has shown significant climate change in recent decades, including the Arctic warming and decline of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness. In contrast to the Arctic warming and reduction of Arctic sea ice, Europe, East Asia and North America have experienced anomalously cold conditions, with record snowfall during recent years. In this paper, we review current understanding of the sea-ice impacts on the Eurasian climate. Paleo, observational and modelling studies are covered to summarize several major themes, including: the variability of Arctic sea ice and its controls; the likely causes and apparent impacts of the Arctic sea-ice decline during the satellite era, as well as past and projected future impacts and trends; the links and feedback mechanisms between the Arctic sea ice and the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation, the recent Eurasian cooling, winter atmospheric circulation, summer precipitation in East Asia, spring snowfall over Eurasia, East Asian winter monsoon, and midlatitude extreme weather; and the remote climate response (e.g., atmospheric circulation, air temperature) to changes in Arctic sea ice. We conclude with a brief summary and suggestions for future research.

Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Li, Fei; He, Shengping; Sandven, Stein; Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Lohmann, Katja; Keenlyside, Noel; Furevik, Tore; Suo, Lingling

2015-01-01

94

Experimental oral immunization of ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) with a recombinant canine adenovirus vaccine CAV-2-E3?-RGP and an attenuated rabies virus SRV9.  

PubMed

Ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) are a major reservoir of rabies virus in southeastern China. Oral immunization has been shown to be a practical method for wildlife rabies management in Europe and North America. Two groups of 20 ferret badgers were given a single oral dose of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3?-RGP, or an experimental attenuated rabies virus vaccine, SRV9. At 21 days, all ferret badgers had seroconverted, with serum virus-neutralizing antibodies ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 IU/mL. Titers were >0.50 IU/mL (an acceptable level) in 17/20 and 16/20 animals receiving CAV-2-E3?-RGP or SRV9, respectively. The serologic results indicate that the recombinant CAV-2-E3?-RGP is at least as effective as the attenuated rabies virus vaccine. Both may be considered for additional research as oral rabies vaccine candidates for ferret badgers. PMID:24506428

Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fang, Lijun; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

2014-04-01

95

Apoplastic Synthesis of Nitric Oxide by Plant Tissues Paul C. Bethke,a,1 Murray R. Badger,b and Russell L. Jonesa  

E-print Network

involved in plant defense responses is a variant P protein of the Gly decarboxylase complex (Chandok et alApoplastic Synthesis of Nitric Oxide by Plant Tissues Paul C. Bethke,a,1 Murray R. Badger,b and Russell L. Jonesa a Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

96

Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the connection between forces on the Eurasian plate, the plate's motion and the intraplate stress field. Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In this study we analyse the forces along the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate, presently the most prominent suture zone on Earth, resulting from the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate the force distribution along the Tethyan boundary as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We evaluate force distributions obeying this mechanical law on the basis of their ability to reproduce observed stress orientations. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Our investigation is structured according to two research objectives, pursued in a corresponding step-wise approach: (1) a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of Eurasia's stress field to the distribution of all acting forces; and (2) a quantification of collision-related forces along the southern boundary of Eurasia, including their relation to observed plate boundary structure, in particular plateau height. Intraplate stress observations as compiled in the World Stress Map project are used to constrain the distribution of forces acting on Eurasia. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and normal pressure from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.2 - 10.5 T N/m and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3 - 2.3 T N/m. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0 - 2.1 and 0 - 0.8 T N/m, respectively. The inferred collision forces are part of the best-fitting overall set of forces acting on the Eurasian plate, satisfying constraints from basic mechanics, absolute plate motion and stress field. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. We find that for both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateau, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force, thus confirming the hypothesis of balanced topography.

Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

2013-04-01

97

Magnetic Enhancement of Loessic Soils Along a Toposequence at Badger Ridge-Hitchcock Nature Area, Iowa, U.S.A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in magnetic properties of loessic soil have been correlated to changes in contemporary climate and such correlations aid in the interpretation of older, buried soils. While many studies have been conducted on the Loess Plateau of China, investigations of Midwestern Loess in the US are limited. Our aim is to determine the regional processes responsible for the magnetic development of the soil in Western Iowa. A total of 31 soil profiles from the southeast facing slopes of Badger Ridge located within the Hitchcock Nature Center in Honey Creek of Pottawattamie County were taken using a ½ in. manual soil push probe. The concentration-dependent parameters of magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and anhysteric remanent magnetization susceptibility (ARM) were measured. Highly eroded sites exhibited lesser degrees of magnetic enhancement than more stable sites. In depositional sites, the magnetic profiles were more variable and topographically influenced.

Munroe, C.; Geiss, C. E.; Urbano, L. D.

2009-12-01

98

The Center for Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies presents: "Beyond Socialist Realism  

E-print Network

The Center for Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies presents: "Beyond Socialist Realism: Rethinking Art and Politics in the Soviet Bloc" A lecture by Kyrill Kunakhovich Department of History-sponsored by the Slavic, History, German, and Art History departments

Acton, Scott

99

THE UNUSUAL SPERM MORPHOLOGY OF THE EURASIAN BULLFINCH (PYRRHULA PYRRHULA) IS NOT DUE TO THE PHENOTYPIC  

E-print Network

spermatozoïdes «typique» des passereaux: Carduelis chloris, Fringilla coelebs et Loxia curvirostra. Nous n Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra). We found no evidence that the Eurasian Bullfinch has undergone a reduction

Nottingham, University of

100

Winter site fidelity is higher than expected for Eurasian Teal Anas crecca in the Camargue, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Eurasian Teal show a return rate of 18.9%, or homing rate of 76.3%, to a ringing site in Camargue, Southern France: this is a much higher winter site fidelity than expected from the literature.

Matthieu Guillemain; Jonathan Fuster; Michel Lepley; Grégoire Massez

2009-01-01

101

Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

2008-01-01

102

Genotyping success of historical Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) samples.  

PubMed

Historical samples, like tanned hides and trophy skulls, can be extremely important for genetic studies of endangered or elusive species. Selection of a sampling protocol that is likely to provide sufficient amount and quality of DNA with a minimum damage to the original specimen is often critical for a success of the study. We investigated microsatellite genotyping success of DNA isolated from three different types of Eurasian lynx historical samples. We analysed a total of 20 microsatellite loci in 106 historical samples from the endangered Dinaric lynx population, established from re-introduction of three pairs of lynx in 1973 from Slovakian Carpathians. Of the three tested sample types, turbinal bone and septum from the nasal cavity of the trophy skulls had the lowest percentage of samples successfully genotyped for all 20 microsatellite loci. Footpad samples, collected using a cork drill, exhibited better results in polymerase chain reaction amplification and genotyping than samples of footpad epidermis cut with a scalpel. We report simple and efficient sampling protocols, which could be widely applied for future studies utilizing historical samples. PMID:22040140

Polanc, Primož; Sindi?i?, Magda; Jelen?i?, Maja; Gomer?i?, Tomislav; Kos, Ivan; Huber, Duro

2012-03-01

103

Eurasian dipper eggs indicate elevated organohalogenated contaminants in urban rivers.  

PubMed

Many urban European streams are recovering from industrial, mining, and sewage pollution during the 20th century. However, associated recolonization by clean water organisms can potentially result in exposure to legacy or novel toxic pollutants that persist in the environment. Between 2008 and 2010, we sampled eggs of a river passerine, the Eurasian dipper (Cinclus cinclus), from 33 rivers in South Wales and the English borders (UK) which varied in catchment land use from rural to highly urbanized. Dipper egg ?(15)N and ?(13)C stable isotopes were enriched from urban rivers while ?(34)S was strongly depleted, effectively discriminating their urban or rural origins at thresholds of 10% urban land cover or 1000 people/km(2). Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were positively related to urban land cover and human population density while legacy organochlorine pesticides such as p,p'-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene were found in higher concentrations at rural sites. Levels of PBDEs in urban dipper eggs (range of 136-9299 ng/g lw) were among the highest ever reported in passerines, and some egg contaminants were at or approaching levels sufficient for adverse effects on avian development. With the exception of dieldrin, our data shows PCBs and other organochlorine pesticides have remained stable or increased in the past 20 years in dipper eggs, despite discontinued use. PMID:23819781

Morrissey, Christy A; Stanton, David W G; Pereira, M Glória; Newton, Jason; Durance, Isabelle; Tyler, Charles R; Ormerod, Steve J

2013-08-01

104

Traces of Early Eurasians in the Mansi of Northwest Siberia Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as “Vogul”) of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragment–length polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups. PMID:11845409

Derbeneva, Olga A.; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Sukernik, Rem I.

2002-01-01

105

The behaviors of optimal precursors during wintertime Eurasian blocking onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the optimal precursors for wintertime Eurasian blocking onset are acquired by solving a nonlinear optimization problem whose objective function is constructed based on a blocking index with a triangular T21, three-level, quasi-geostrophic global spectral model. The winter climatological state is chosen as the reference basic state. Numerical results show that the optimal precursors are characterized by a baroclinic pattern with a westward tilt with height, which are mainly located upstream of the blocking region. For an optimization time of 5 days, these perturbations are mainly localized over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and continental Europe. With the extension of the optimization time to 8 days, these perturbations are distributed more upstream and extensively in the zonal direction. Wave spectrum analysis reveals that the optimal precursors are composed of not only synoptic-scale (wave numbers 5-18) waves, but planetary-scale (wave numbers 0-4) waves as well. The synoptic-scale optimal precursors are mainly located in the mid-latitude area, while the planetary-scale optimal precursors focus primarily on the high-latitude region. The formation of a strong planetary-scale positive blocking anomaly is accompanied by the reinforcement of synoptic-scale perturbations and further fragmentation into two branches, in which the northern branch is generally stronger than the southern one. The eddy forcing arising from the self-interaction of synoptic-scale disturbances is shown to be crucial in triggering the dipole blocking anomaly, and the planetary-scale optimal precursor provides the initial favorable background conditions for blocking onset.

Jiang, Zhina; Wang, Donghai

2012-11-01

106

The Eurasian Ice Sheet and the deglaciation of western Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New time-slice reconstructions of the Eurasian Ice Sheet limits reveal that the timing of both the maximum ice sheet extent and the subsequent retreat were spatially variable. This variability most likely reflects regional contrasts in geographic setting, internal ice sheet dynamics and the forcing mechanisms. Here we report fresh results from an ongoing field campaign in southern Norway. The inferred ice sheet history is based on a number of radiocarbon dates from various geological contexts as well cosmogenic nuclide (CN) dating of glacially transported boulders. We discuss the ice-recession along the western flank of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and until the final deglaciation of the fjords. One important conclusion is that the ice stream that occupied the Norwegian Trough, and that was active during the LGM, broke up extremely rapid at around 20 ka leaving the islands Utsira and Karmøy permanently ice free. The adjacent areas of the Norwegian mainland remained ice covered for another 4 thousand years until about 16 ka when the ice margin along the coast gradually started to retreat eastwards. However, this second stage of ice sheet retreat was interrupted by several re-advances. The largest advance probably peaked at the very end of the Younger Dryas stadial (11.6 ka) forming a system of prominent end moraines along the coast. The outlet glaciers that filled the main fjord troughs during this event started to break up very rapidly by means of calving at the onset of the Holocene warming, evidently a climatic response. The main fjords became totally ice free not later than 500 years into the Holocene, and a thousand years later the remaining part of the ice sheet was gone. It is calculated that the melting during the early Holocene (11.6-10.0 ka) was more than ten times faster than at Greenland today.

Svendsen, John Inge; Mangerud, Jan; Briner, Jason; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Lohne, Øystein S.; Goehring, Brent M.; Gyllencreutz, Richard

2013-04-01

107

Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild carnivores.  

PubMed

An ongoing canine distemper epidemic was first detected in Switzerland in the spring of 2009. Compared to previous local canine distemper outbreaks, it was characterized by unusually high morbidity and mortality, rapid spread over the country, and susceptibility of several wild carnivore species. Here, the authors describe the associated pathologic changes and phylogenetic and biological features of a multiple highly virulent canine distemper virus (CDV) strain detected in and/or isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), stone (Martes foina) and pine (Martes martes) martens, from a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a domestic dog. The main lesions included interstitial to bronchointerstitial pneumonia and meningopolioencephalitis, whereas demyelination--the classic presentation of CDV infection--was observed in few cases only. In the brain lesions, viral inclusions were mainly in the nuclei of the neurons. Some significant differences in brain and lung lesions were observed between foxes and mustelids. Swiss CDV isolates shared together with a Hungarian CDV strain detected in 2004. In vitro analysis of the hemagglutinin protein from one of the Swiss CDV strains revealed functional and structural differences from that of the reference strain A75/17, with the Swiss strain showing increased surface expression and binding efficiency to the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). These features might be part of a novel molecular signature, which might have contributed to an increase in virus pathogenicity, partially explaining the high morbidity and mortality, the rapid spread, and the large host spectrum observed in this outbreak. PMID:22362965

Origgi, F C; Plattet, P; Sattler, U; Robert, N; Casaubon, J; Mavrot, F; Pewsner, M; Wu, N; Giovannini, S; Oevermann, A; Stoffel, M H; Gaschen, V; Segner, H; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

2012-11-01

108

Wild boar tuberculosis in Iberian Atlantic Spain: a different picture from Mediterranean habitats  

PubMed Central

Background Infections with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are shared between livestock, wildlife and sporadically human beings. Wildlife reservoirs exist worldwide and can interfere with bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication efforts. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a MTC maintenance host in Mediterranean Iberia (Spain and Portugal). However, few systematic studies in wild boar have been carried out in Atlantic regions. We describe the prevalence, distribution, pathology and epidemiology of MTC and other mycobacteria from wild boar in Atlantic Spain. A total of 2,067 wild boar were sampled between 2008 and 2012. Results The results provide insight into the current status of wild boar as MTC and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) hosts in temperate regions of continental Europe. The main findings were a low TB prevalence (2.6%), a low proportion of MTC infected wild boar displaying generalized TB lesions (16.7%), and a higher proportion of MAC infections (4.5%). Molecular typing revealed epidemiological links between wild boar and domestic – cattle, sheep and goat – and other wildlife – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) – hosts. Conclusions This study shows that the likelihood of MTC excretion by wild boar in Atlantic habitats is much lower than in Mediterranean areas. However, wild boar provide a good indicator of MTC circulation and, given the current re-emergence of animal TB, similar large-scale surveys would be advisable in other Atlantic regions of continental Europe. PMID:24010539

2013-01-01

109

Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n?=?42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores. PMID:24886057

2014-01-01

110

The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity  

PubMed Central

The nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of population history. The maintenance of extended haplotypes characteristic of particular geographic regions, despite extensive admixture, allows complex demographic events to be deconstructed. In this study we report the frequencies of 23 Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphism haplotypes in 1,935 men from 49 Eurasian populations, with a particular focus on Central Asia. These haplotypes reveal traces of historical migrations, and provide an insight into the earliest patterns of settlement of anatomically modern humans on the Eurasian continent. Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three major waves of migration leading into Europe, the Americas, and India. The genetic results are interpreted in the context of Eurasian linguistic patterns. PMID:11526236

Wells, R. Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Underhill, Peter A.; Evseeva, Irina; Blue-Smith, Jason; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Shanmugalakshmi, Sadagopal; Balakrishnan, Karuppiah; Read, Mark; Pearson, Nathaniel M.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Webster, Matthew T.; Zholoshvili, Irakli; Jamarjashvili, Elena; Gambarov, Spartak; Nikbin, Behrouz; Dostiev, Ashur; Aknazarov, Ogonazar; Zalloua, Pierre; Tsoy, Igor; Kitaev, Mikhail; Mirrakhimov, Mirsaid; Chariev, Ashir; Bodmer, Walter F.

2001-01-01

111

Genetic relationship among eurasian and american larix species based on allozymes  

PubMed

Genetic variation at 16 allozyme loci was studied in both American (Larix occidentalis Nutt., L. laricina (Du Roi) C. Koch, L. lyallii Parl.) and Eurasian (L. sibirica Ledeb., L. gmelinii Rupr., L. olgensis A. Henry, L. kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. (=L. leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.), L. kamtschatica (Rupr.) Carr. and L. decidua (Mill. )) larch species. Species with a limited range, such as L. olgensis and L. lyallii, had lower genetic variation than species with a wider range. Population differentiation within species was of the same order of magnitude among species. The resulting phylogeny indicates a clear separation between American and Eurasian species. This result is in agreement with recent palaeontological findings that suggest that gene flow between American and Eurasian species has been unlikely since the last glaciation. PMID:10447704

Semerikov; Lascoux

1999-07-01

112

The University of Texas at Austin -College of Liberal Arts Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies Degree Plan  

E-print Network

, literature or culture:* _______ 3 hours Russian, East European and Eurasian history, economics or governmentThe University of Texas at Austin - College of Liberal Arts Russian, East European & Eurasian equal to or above completion of the fourth semester in one language (Chosen from: Russian, Czech, Polish

Texas at Austin, University of

113

Species-specific and shared features in vocal repertoires of three Eurasian ground squirrels (genus Spermophilus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along to alarm calls, Eurasian ground squirrels of the genus Spermophilus also produce other call types toward potential predators and rival conspecifics. Individually identified 50 speckled (Spermophilus suslicus), 18 European (S. citellus) and 59 yellow (S. fulvus) ground squirrels were examined for interspecies differences in their vocal repertoires. A separate sample of 116 (90 adult\\u000a and 26 juvenile) S. suslicus

Vera A. Matrosova; Irena Schneiderová; Ilya A. Volodin; Elena V. Volodina

114

Effect of investigator disturbance on nest attendance and egg predation in Eurasian oystercatchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) breeding on the salt marsh of Schiermonnikoog (Dutch Wadden Sea) lose many eggs to predators, mainly Herring (Larus argentatus) and Mew gulls (L. canus). We estimated that the probability for an egg to survive from laying until hatching was 69ÐDaily egg mortality was higher during the laying period than during the incubation period. When researchers were

Nanette Verboven; Bruno J. Ens; Sharon Dechesne

2001-01-01

115

Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 21b from a Eurasian Eagle-Owl (Bubo bubo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of fatal salmonellosis in a Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) from Bursa Province (northwestern Turkey) is described. The organs of the bird were examined histo- pathologically and microbiologically. Macro- scopic and microscopic findings were consis- tent with a Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) phage type (PT) 21b was isolated from the liver and spleen

A. Levent Kocabiyik; I. Taci Cangul; Aylin Alasonyalilar; Daniela Dedicova; Renata Karpiskova

116

BRIGHTNESS FEATURES OF VISUAL SIGNALING TRAITS IN YOUNG AND ADULT EURASIAN EAGLE-OWLS  

E-print Network

-Owl (Bubo bubo) white feather patches for both young birds and adult individuals. Our results showed that (1 WORDS: Eurasian Eagle-Owl; Bubo bubo; plumage brightness; visual signaling; white feathers. CARACTERI´STICAS DEL BRILLO DE LAS SEN~ ALES VISUALES EN JO´ VENES Y ADULTOS DE BUBO BUBO RESUMEN.--Trabajos recientes

Penteriani, Vincenzo

117

Foraging behavior predicts age at independence in juvenile Eurasian dippers ( Cinclus cinclus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timing of foraging independence may be controlled by parents, offspring, or both and may have consequences for dispersal, reproduction, and survival. In a study of juvenile Eurasian dippers {Cinclus cinclus), I examined the relationship between individual differences in parental provisioning, the development of foraging, and the liming of independence. Young dippers forage very differently from adults, specializing on small, stationary

Sonja I. Yoerg

1998-01-01

118

Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu

C. Torres-Rouff; L. T. Yablonsky

2005-01-01

119

The effect of a native biological control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil on six North American watermilfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing concern that introduced, classical biological control agents can have significant negative effects on non-target species. One alternative to classical biological control is the use of native species to control exotic pests. A North American weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, is being used as a biological control agent for the introduced aquatic plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in the United

Sallie P. Sheldon; Robert P. Creed

2003-01-01

120

Tetrameres (Tetrameres) grusi (Shumakovich, 1946) (Nematoda: Tetrameridae) in Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) in Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proventriculi of 11 Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) from central Iran were examined for the existence of parasitic hel- minths. Preliminary reports suggested that the death of these birds was related to untimely cold weather. Nine proventriculi (82%) were heavily infected by the nematode Tetrameres grusi. Glandular structure of the infected proventriculi was replaced by epithelial atrophy but significant inflammatory

G. R. Mowlavi; J. Massoud; I. Mobedi; M. J. Gharagozlou; M. Rezaian

121

NAO influence on sea ice extent in the Eurasian coastal region Claes Rooth,2  

E-print Network

NAO influence on sea ice extent in the Eurasian coastal region Aixue Hu,1 Claes Rooth,2 Rainer; published 20 November 2002. [1] Influence of winter pre-conditioning of Arctic sea ice due to atmospheric forcing associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the reduction in summer sea ice extent

Hu, Aixue

122

Sanderlings using African-Eurasian flyways: a review of current knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the worldwide occurrence of Sanderlings Calidris alba on popular beaches, strikingly little is known about their biology compared to other common waders. Here we review the limited available knowledge of Sanderlings that use African-Eurasian flyways. The basis for this review was a workshop on Sanderlings, held during the International Wader Study Group conference in Jastrz?bia Góra, Poland in 2008.

JEROEN RENEERKENS; MARK COlliER; GUNNAR THOR; MARC VAN ROOMEN; RON W. SUMMERS; Mill Crescent

2009-01-01

123

Diving times and feeding rate by pecking in the Eurasian coot (Fulica atra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We acquired data on diving times and feeding rates by pecking on three different substrates in a small wetland of central Italy, in order to improve the scant knowledge on foraging behaviour of the Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) in the Mediterranean area. Diving times showed a mean value of 2.59 sec (± 1.81 SD; n?=?186). A large proportion of diving

L. Fortunati; C. Battisti

2011-01-01

124

Genetic relationship among Eurasian and American Larix species based on allozymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation at 16 allozyme loci was studied in both American (Larix occidentalis Nutt., L. laricina (Du Roi) C. Koch, L. lyallii Parl.) and Eurasian (L. sibirica Ledeb., L. gmelinii Rupr., L. olgensis A. Henry, L. kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. (=L. leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.), L. kamtschatica (Rupr.) Carr. and L. decidua (Mill.)) larch species. Species with a limited range,

Vladimir L Semerikov; Martin Lascoux

1999-01-01

125

Invasion genetics of the Eurasian spiny waterflea: evidence for bottlenecks and gene flow using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian spiny waterflea ( Bythotrephes longimanus ) is a predacious zooplankter that has increased its range in Europe and is rapidly invading inland water-bodies throughout North America's Great Lakes region. To examine the genetics of these invasions, we iso- lated five microsatellite DNA loci with between 5 and 19 alleles per locus. We sampled three populations where B. longimanus

ROBERT I. COLAUTTI; MARINA MANCA; MARKKU VILJANEN; HENK A. M. KETELAARS; HANSRUDOLF BÜRGI; HUGH J. M ACISAAC; DANIEL D. H EATH

2005-01-01

126

Propagation of the MIS4 Eurasian Meltwater Event in the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment records from the Arctic Ocean indicate multiple Pleistocene meltwater events from Eurasian and North American ice sheets. These events may have affected both the Arctic climate and the North Atlantic deep-water formation, and are important for understanding the stability of Pleistocene ice sheets. We investigate the distribution of meltwater during the discharge of large Eurasian proglacial lakes at the end of Marine Isotope Stage 4, approximately 50-60 ka, using stable isotope records in planktic and benthic foraminifers. Studies focused on lithological and radiogenic isotope proxies suggest that this meltwater pulse affected sedimentation in the Eurasian Basin all the way to the Lomonosov Ridge and at least part of the Amerasian Basin (Mendeleev Ridge). The analysis of stable-isotope data provides further insights. The spatial distribution of planktonic oxygen-18, with the lightest values in the Mendeleev Ridge area, reveals a strong cyclonic circulation extending into the western Arctic Ocean, similar to the negative Arctic Oscillation mode. This circulation pattern differs from that inferred from lithostratigraphy and neodymium isotopes indicating a stronger effect of Eurasian discharge on the Lomonosov Ridge. We propose that this discrepancy resulted from a decoupling of surface and deep-water circulation, where deep waters had a significant contribution of brines carrying deglacial sediments (hyperpicnal flows). The propagation of proglacial brines as far as the Amerasian Basin, suggested earlier from neodymium isotope data, is confirmed by benthic stable isotope records.

Polyak, L. V.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Norgaard-Pedersen, N.; Curry, W. B.

2013-12-01

127

New reconstructions of Eurasian Ice Sheet build up and deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a series of new time-slice reconstructions from the DATED Project documenting the changing limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation (40-10 ka BP). Reconstructions are based on a compiled chronology of over 3000 dates representing the accumulated sum of knowledge on the timing of advance and retreat of the Scandinavian-British-Irish-Barents-Kara Sea Ice Sheets. The timing of both maximum extent and retreat were spatially variable across the ice sheet complex likely reflecting regional contrasts in forcing mechanisms and geographical setting. For example, maximum ice extent in the west occurs ~3000 years earlier than in the northeast sector. We expect the time-slices and derived area and volume estimates to be particularly useful for numerical and isostatic modelling requiring regional scale empirical constraints on past ice sheet extent, and design the reconstructions for this purpose. The ice sheet margin is delineated every 1000 years for the last 25 ka BP. Additional intervening snapshots are reconstructed when necessary to capture significant rapid changes in the ice margin. We also present some reconstructions at uneven intervals for earlier periods, reflecting the preservation bias of the chronological record. Uncertainty estimates (represented by maximum, minimum, preferred positions) are given for each time-slice. The ice sheet scale approach highlights instances of conflicting evidence and gaps in the ice sheet chronology. Greatest gaps are found along the western marine margins, in the Barents Sea and western Russia, and the inland areas glaciated during the Younger Dryas. The database and reconstructions will be updated as new information is published and made publically available via the project webpages. Future versions will extend the spatial coverage to include the Icelandic Ice Sheet and additionally include landform evidence to constrain ice sheet geometry (e.g. ice stream locations and thickness) and retreat patterns. In the database, each date is classified on the basis of stratigraphic information to facilitate interpretation of the ice sheet evolution, attributed to the source publication, fully documented with information relevant to its interpretation and searchable by: location, dated material, dating technique, stratigraphic position or setting, derived age and associated errors, pertinent comments from the source publication and sample elevation or depth, core name, laboratory id and/or sample name as applicable. For internal consistency all radiocarbon ages have been recalibrated using the most recent calibration curve (INTCAL09) and all terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure ages are reported using the same production rate and scaling model. The uncalibrated 14C and TCN ages as reported in the source publications are also given. TCN results are additionally reported with all the necessary details required to re-calculate the ages with different production rate and scaling models.

Hughes, A. L.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, O. S.

2012-12-01

128

Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

2012-01-01

129

Presence of Bartonella species in wild carnivores of northern Spain.  

PubMed

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R A; Barral, Marta

2012-02-01

130

Mercury in wild terrestrial carnivorous mammals from north-western Poland and unusual fish diet of red fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations were determined in the kidney (K), liver (L), and pectoral muscle (M) of 19 individuals representing\\u000a wild carnivorous mammals from NW Poland: 10 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758), 3 raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834, 2 badgers Meles meles Linnaeus, 1758, 3 pine martens Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758, and 1 polecat Mustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758. The

El?bieta Kalisi?ska; Piotr Lisowski; Wies?aw Salicki; Teresa Kucharska; Katarzyna Kavetska

2009-01-01

131

Instructions for use Eurasian J. For. Res. 15-1: 45-52 , 2012 Hokkaido University Forests, EFRC  

E-print Network

; Lewinsohn et al. 2005; Woodward et al. 2005; Filin and Ovadia 2007). In temperate deciduous forests, leafInstructions for use #12;Eurasian J. For. Res. 15-1: 45-52 , 2012 © Hokkaido University Forests

Tachizawa, Kazuya

132

Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) in the UK.  

PubMed

Clinical disease and mortalities due to disseminated visceral coccidiosis were identified for the first time in a group of captive juvenile Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) in the UK during 2008. Presumptive diagnosis was made from the finding of granulomatous nodules in the liver, spleen and other organs at gross postmortem examination, and confirmed histologically by the presence of intracellular coccidial stages within lesions. The species of coccidian was determined to be Eimeria reichenowi on the basis of faecal oocyst morphology and sequencing of 18S rDNA by PCR. A further outbreak of clinical disease occurred in the same enclosure in 2009, affecting a new group of juvenile Eurasian cranes and demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo) and indicating the persistence of infective oocysts in the environment. Clinical sampling of birds during both years demonstrated positive results from examination of both faecal samples and peripheral blood smears. PMID:21493556

O'Brien, M F; Brown, M J; Stidworthy, M F; Peirce, M A; Marshall, R N; Honma, H; Nakai, Y

2011-02-26

133

Timing vocal behavior: lack of temporal overlap avoidance to fluctuating noise levels in singing Eurasian wrens.  

PubMed

Many animals live in or near urban areas that have become increasingly widespread and noisy over the last century. Especially those species that rely heavily on acoustics for communication may be affected by these elevated anthropogenic noise levels. Many bird species that sing to defend their territories and to attract mates may have to exploit specific noise coping strategies to persist in such acoustically challenging conditions. Eurasian wrens (Troglodytes troglodytes), like several other bird species, have been shown in a previous experiment to time their vocalizations such that they avoid overlap with other singing birds. Here, we tested whether Eurasian wrens also time their songs to avoid overlap with fluctuating anthropogenic noise. However, we did not find any evidence in favor of this potential phenomenon. Territorial wrens persisted in singing without temporal adjustments in noisy territories with 'natural' fluctuations of traffic noise levels as well as during experimental exposure to intermittent white noise. PMID:25454773

Yang, Xiao-Jing; Slabbekoorn, Hans

2014-10-01

134

Repository of Eurasian influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase reverse genetics vectors and recombinant viruses  

PubMed Central

Reverse genetics can be used to produce recombinant influenza A viruses containing virtually every desired combination of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using the virus backbone of choice. Here, a repository of plasmids and recombinant viruses representing all contemporary Eurasian HA and NA subtypes, H1–H16 and N1–N9, was established. HA and NA genes were selected based on sequence analyses of influenza virus genes available from public databases. Prototype Eurasian HA and NA genes were cloned in bidirectional reverse genetics plasmids. Recombinant viruses based on the virus backbone of A/PR/8/34, and containing a variety of HA and NA genes were produced in 293T cells. Virus stocks were produced in MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. These plasmids and viruses may be useful for numerous purposes, including influenza virus research projects, vaccination studies, and to serve as reference reagents in diagnostic settings. PMID:20600474

Keawcharoen, J.; Spronken, M.I.J; Vuong, O.; Bestebroer, T.M.; Munster, V.J.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E; Rimmelzwaan, G.F; Fouchier, R.A.M.

2010-01-01

135

Enumeration and Characterization of Bacterial Colonists of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.)  

PubMed Central

A simple procedure for enumerating and grouping the bacterial colonists of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is described. Colony characteristics of bacteria associated with M. spicatum were better defined and more stable on nutrient-poor, diluted nutrient broth agar than on high-nutrient media. Acinetobacter, Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Pseudomonas and/or Alcaligenes, and Vibrio/Aeromonas spp., as well as two highly fastidious unidentified bacterial groups (gram-negative rods and gram-negative cocci), were associated with cultured watermilfoil during January, February, May, June, July, and August 1988. In Lake Wingra (Madison, Wis.), Micrococcus spp. and enterobacters were also associated with Eurasian watermilfoil during July, August, and October 1987. PMID:16348792

Chand, T.; Harris, R. F.; Andrews, J. H.

1992-01-01

136

Mating system, paternity and sex allocation in Eurasian Wrynecks ( Jynx torquilla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides for the first time an insight into the breeding system of the Eurasian Wryneck (Jynx torquilla). DNA fingerprinting and molecular sexing were used to investigate paternity, mating system and sex allocation in a population\\u000a near the city of Halberstadt, Germany. Similar to other woodpeckers, social and genetic monogamy is the norm in this species.\\u000a The abundance of

Michael Wink; Detlef Becker; Dirk Tolkmitt; Verena Knigge; Hedi Sauer-Gürth; Heidi Staudter

137

Vigilance patterns of wintering Eurasian Wigeon: female benefits from male low-cost behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased vigilance in male animals has been attributed to mate guarding (male investment hypothesis), to secondary sexual\\u000a characteristics increasing predation risk (male constraint hypothesis) or for the benefit to the female (female benefits\\u000a hypothesis). We studied Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) while they grazed on dry land, a ‘risky’ foraging situation, at two points during the winter period (pre- and post-pair

Steven J. Portugal; Matthieu Guillemain

2011-01-01

138

Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta.  

PubMed

The living hyena species (spotted, brown, striped and aardwolf) are remnants of a formerly diverse group of more than 80 fossil species, which peaked in diversity in the Late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma). The fossil history indicates an African origin, and morphological and ancient DNA data have confirmed that living spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) of Africa were closely related to extinct Late Pleistocene cave hyenas from Europe and Asia. The current model used to explain the origins of Eurasian cave hyena populations invokes multiple migrations out of Africa between 3.5-0.35 Ma. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from radiocarbon-dated Chinese Pleistocene hyena specimens to examine the origin of Asian populations, and temporally calibrate the evolutionary history of spotted hyenas. Our results support a far more recent evolutionary timescale (430-163 kya) and suggest that extinct and living spotted hyena populations originated from a widespread Eurasian population in the Late Pleistocene, which was only subsequently restricted to Africa. We developed statistical tests of the contrasting population models and their fit to the fossil record. Coalescent simulations and Bayes Factor analysis support the new radiocarbon-calibrated timescale and Eurasian origins model. The new Eurasian biogeographic scenario proposed for the hyena emphasizes the role of the vast steppe grasslands of Eurasia in contrast to models only involving Africa. The new methodology for combining genetic and geological data to test contrasting models of population history will be useful for a wide range of taxa where ancient and historic genetic data are available. PMID:24320717

Sheng, Gui-Lian; Soubrier, Julien; Liu, Jin-Yi; Werdelin, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Thomson, Vicki A; Tuke, Jonathan; Wu, Lian-Juan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Chen, Quan-Jia; Lai, Xu-Long; Cooper, Alan

2014-02-01

139

Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

2013-01-01

140

A Stratified Diagnosis of the Indian Monsoon---Eurasian Snow Cover Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

hypothesis, and recent diagnostic studies, which have largely failed to show its existence. Recently released version 2 NOAA\\/NESDIS satellite-based retrievals of snow cover are used. A focus is given to diagnosing (a) spatial and temporal complexity in the Eurasian snow cover distribution, (b) the role of ENSO in modulating the snow cover all-India rainfall (AIR) relationship, and (c) the spatial

J. Fasullo

2004-01-01

141

Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) – implications for future reintroductions  

PubMed Central

Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487–489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction. PMID:25067948

Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syr??ková, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

2014-01-01

142

Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC. PMID:22515208

Sindi?i?, Magda; Gomer?i?, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

2012-06-01

143

Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2014-01-01

144

Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) - implications for future reintroductions.  

PubMed

Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487-489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction. PMID:25067948

Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syr??ková, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

2014-06-01

145

Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-01-01

146

First description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Italy.  

PubMed

Adiaspiromycosis is a pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of the ubiquitous fungus Emmonsia spp., a common soil inhabitant. Information about the replication and dissemination of the fungus from the primary site is lacking. Members of the Family Mustelidae seem to be highly susceptible to this infection, which has been previously reported in otters (Lutra lutra) in Czech Republic/Slovakia, Finland and in the UK. In many cases, Emmonsia?associated lesions have also been reported as incidental findings during necropsies of otherwise healthy animals. A road?killed male Eurasian otter was submitted for the post?mortem examination on 21st December 2009 at the Veterinary Pathology Unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Teramo, as part of the RECAL [RECovery and post?mortem Analysis of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni (Salerno, Italy), and surrounding areas] project. Histologically, multifocal round structures with a PAS?positive thick tri?laminar wall and a central basophilic granular mass were observed within the alveoli. The adiaspores were surrounded by a severe granulomatous reaction with high number of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. Numerous multifocal cholesterol granulomas were observed close to those fungal?induced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter in Italy. PMID:25273962

Malatesta, Daniela; Simpson, Vic R; Fontanesi, Luca; Fusillo, Romina; Marcelli, Manlio; Bongiovanni, Laura; Romanucci, Mariarita; Palmieri, Chiara; Della Salda, Leonardo

2014-01-01

147

The origin of Eurasian Mammoth Faunas (Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleistocene Mammoth Faunas were the most successful, cold-adapted large mammal assemblages in the history of the Earth. However, the causes for their emergence can not be attributed only to the global trend of climate cooling which occurred during the Neogene/Quaternary period. The formation of the Eurasian Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex was a result of interacting tectonic, geographical, climatic, ecological and phylogenetic processes. The key environmental factors controlling the origin and evolution of Palaearctic cold-adapted large mammal faunas were successive aridification of major parts of Eurasia, rhythmic global climatic cooling with prolonged and intensified cold stages, and increasing continentality. Between 2.6 Ma and around 700 ka BP, largely independent mammal faunas became established in continental Asian steppe regions as well as in the circumpolar tundra. Both faunal complexes were adapted to open environmental conditions but were largely separated from each other. The principal requirements in order for species to evolve into members of Mammoth Faunas are progressing adaptation to aridity, decreasing temperatures and rapid temperature fluctuations. Eurasian Mammoth Faunas were mainly composed of the descendants of either Central Asian steppe or Arctic tundra faunal elements. The majority of species of Central Asian origin emerged in regions north of the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. Between 640 and 480 ka BP, saiga, musk-ox and reindeer occasionally spread far beyond the limits of their respective traditional areas, thus anticipating the subsequent merge of steppe and tundra originated species in Eurasian Mammoth Faunas. During the pronounced cold period of MIS 12, tundra species regularly expanded south- and southwestward into a newly formed type of biome, the so-called tundra-steppe. In parallel, species originating from the Asian steppe dispersed into new habitats north and northwest of their ancestral distribution areas. This drastic faunal turnover led to the formation of the earliest pan-Eurasian Mammoth Fauna at around 460 ka BP. The sister taxa of several species involved in Mammoth Faunas underwent separate evolution in Central Asia, thus indicating ecological differences between the Asian core steppe and Eurasian tundra-steppe habitats. During temperate and humid stages of the late Middle to Late Pleistocene periods the transcontinental reach of the steppe-tundra biome collapsed. As a result, the majority of the characteristic mammal species were forced back to continental steppe or Arctic tundra refugia, only returning during subsequent cold stages when the formation of a new and more evolved Mammoth Fauna began. The maximum geographic extension of the Palaearctic Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex occurred during the Late Pleistocene, when it covered an area of up to 190 degrees of longitude and 40 degrees of latitude.

Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

2014-07-01

148

How might the North American ice sheet influence the Northwestern Eurasian climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last glacial period (∼21 000 years ago), two continental-scale ice sheets covered the Canada and northern Europe. It is now widely acknowledged that these past ice sheets exerted a strong influence on climate by causing changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In turn, these changes may have impacted the development of the ice sheets themselves through a combination of different feedback mechanisms. The present study is designed to investigate the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Eurasian ice sheet through simulated changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using the LMDz5 atmospheric circulation model, we carried out twelve experiments run under constant Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions for insolation, greenhouse gases and ocean. In the all experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet is removed. The twelve experiments differ in the North American ice-sheet topography, ranging from a white and flat (present-day topography) ice sheet to a full-size LGM ice sheet. This experimental design allows to disentangle the albedo and the topographic impacts of the North American ice sheet onto the climate. The results are compared to our baseline experiment where both the North American and the Eurasian ice sheets have been removed. In summer, we show that the only albedo effect of the American ice sheet modifies the pattern of planetary waves with respect to the no-ice sheet case, causing a cooling of the Eurasian region. By contrast, the atmospheric circulation changes induced by the topography of the North American ice sheet imply summer warming in Northwestern Eurasia. In winter, the Scandinavian and the Barents-Kara regions respond differently to the albedo effect: in response to atmospheric circulation changes, Scandinavia is warmed up and precipitation is more abundant whereas Barents-Kara area is cooled down, decreasing convection process and thus leading to less precipitation. The height increase of American ice sheet leads to less precipitation and snowfalls and colder temperatures over both Scandinavian and Barents-Kara sectors. The simulated temperature and precipitation fields have then been used to force an ice-sheet model and to compute the resulting surface mass balance over the Fennoscandian region as a function of the American ice-sheet configuration. It clearly appears that the SMB is dominated by the ablation signal. In response to the summer cooling induced by the American ice-sheet albedo, a highly positive SMB is simulated over the Eurasian ice sheet, leading thus to the growth of the ice sheet. On the contrary, the topography of the American ice sheet leads to more ablation, hence limiting its growth.

Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Kageyama, M.; Dumas, C.; Ritz, C.

2015-01-01

149

Large-scale serosurvey of Besnoitia besnoiti in free-living carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

The disease bovine besnoitiosis is responsible for severe economic losses caused by the protozoan Besnoitia besnoiti. The identity of the definitive host (DH) of this parasite has yet to be determined, although it is presumed to be a carnivore. With the aim of advancing in the identification of B. besnoiti DH, a necessary step in implementing control strategies, the contact rate of 205 free-roaming carnivores with this parasite in Spain was studied. The study included 16 wolves (Canis lupus), 41 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 21 pine martens (Martes martes), eight stone martens (M. foina), 12 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 18 common genets (Genetta genetta), five Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 28 European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), 43 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus), and 13 other animals belonging to five other species. Serum samples were analysed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by two western immunoblots (WB, one with tachyzoite and the other with bradyzoite antigen). Twelve individuals (eight of which were cats) seroconverted by one or other of these techniques but no individual showed seroconversion by IFAT and one of the WBs. The results provided no evidence to support the idea that within the geographical regions covered by the analysis wild carnivores are implicated in the transmission of B. besnoiti in Spain. PMID:22770702

Millán, Javier; Sobrino, Raquel; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Oleaga, Alvaro; Gortazar, Christian; Schares, Gereon

2012-11-23

150

Survey of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in road-killed wild carnivores in Portugal.  

PubMed

A survey to determine the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in wild carnivores in Portugal was conducted by testing samples from road-killed animals between 2009 and 2012. Postmortem examinations were performed and tissues were collected from wild carnivores representing four families and six different species, with a total of 74 animals analyzed. Cultures were performed by using Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 solid media and acid-fast isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mycobactin dependency characteristics. Tissues were also screened for MAP by directly extracting DNA and testing for the MAP-specific sequences. The occurrence of infected animals (an animal had at least one tissue that was positive for culture or direct PCR) was 27.0% (n = 20). MAP was isolated from culture of 25 tissue samples (3.8%) and was detected by direct PCR in 40 (6.0%) samples. Infection was recorded in 5/6 studied species: 7/49 (14.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 3/3 (100%) beech martens (Martes foina), 2/4 (50.0%) Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 7/15 (46.7%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and 1/1 (100%) European badger (Meles meles). These species represent three different taxonomic families: Canidae (14.3% were positive), Mustelidae (75.0% were positive), and Herpestidae (46.7% were positive). The results of this study confirm the presence of MAP infection in wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:25632662

Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Loureiro, Filipa; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Matos, Manuela; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

2014-12-01

151

Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

2014-11-01

152

Virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

Enterococci are ubiquitous microorganisms found as part of the normal intestinal microbiota of many animals such as the free-ranging Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758). In this work, twenty-nine enterococci isolated from fecal samples of Eurasian otters free-living in reservoirs and associated river stretches in South Portugal were identified and typed by conventional/molecular methods and screened for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Identification allocated the isolates to the species Enterococcus faecalis (19), E. faecium (9) and E. durans (1) and PCR-fingerprinting revealed their high genomic diversity. Regarding virulence factors, three isolates produced cytolysin and six were gelatinase-positive. Genes ace and acm were detected in five enterococci each, ebpABC in seventeen, gelE in fourteen and cylA in three. All isolates showed resistance patterns and antibiotic resistance genes tet(M) and pbp5 were detected in seventeen isolates each, whereas vanB and vanD were identified in thirteen and five, respectively, being most van-harboring isolates members of E. faecium. The aac(6')-Ie-aph (2?) gene, encoding for gentamicin resistance, was observed in all gentamicin-resistant enterococci. Since all isolates harbor virulence and/or antibiotic resistance traits, the role of free-living Eurasian otters in the dissemination of virulent/resistant enterococci among other animals sharing the same ecological niche cannot be disregarded, as well as the health risk they may represent for humans directly interacting with them or their habitat. PMID:23375652

Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Nóbrega, Cláudia Silva; Ribeiro, Tânia; Pedroso, Nuno M; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tenreiro, Rogério; Tavares, Luís; Vilela, Cristina Lobo; Oliveira, Manuela

2013-05-01

153

[Strigiphilus strigis (Mallophaga: Philopteridae) in a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo interpositus) in Turkey].  

PubMed

In this study, a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo b. interpositus) was brought to the laboratory of Parasitology Department and was inspected for ectoparasites. Five Mallophaga specimens were collected from the eagle owl and they were mounted on slides in Faure forte medium after being cleared in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the lice were inspected and measured under the light microscope. All of the specimens were identified as Strigiphilus strigis (Pontoppidan 1763). This paper presents the first detection of S. strigis in Turkey. PMID:17471417

Dik, Bilal; Uslu, U?ur

2007-01-01

154

Resurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of Eurasian elk (Alces alces), with a report on associated pathology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varestrongylus alces Demidova & Naumitscheva, 1953 is resurrected for protostrongylid nematodes of Eurasian elk in Europe. Descriptions of males (11.36-16.95 mm) and females (16.25- 21.52 mm) are based on specimens collected from the terminal bronchioles in the lungs of Eurasian elk, Alces alces (L...

155

A comparison between the effects of snow albedo and infiltration of melting water of Eurasian snow on East Asian summer monsoon rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Eurasian spring snow amount on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall has previously been studied on the basis of both observations and numerical simulations. The results indicate that information on the Eurasian spring snow amount could be important for seasonal prediction of EASM rainfall. Although previous studies identified the effects of snow albedo and melting water of

Kazuyoshi Souma; Yuqing Wang

2010-01-01

156

Intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher (Martes pennanti) and a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

Intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes was diagnosed in a 6-year-old fisher (Martes pennanti) and a geriatric Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Clinical signs included lethargy and inappetance in both animals and vomiting and occasional diarrhea in the fisher. The diagnosis in both cases was made using cytology of fresh tissue, histology of fixed tissues, and immunohistochemistry. Granules were seen most clearly on cytologic examination of direct impressions from fresh tissue. Because granules were absent in most histologic sections, cytology of fresh tissue was essential for the diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry determined that the neoplastic cells had positive membranous immunoreactivity to CD3 and were negative for CD79a, which was consistent with alimentary T-cell lymphoma. The disease course in both animals was presumed to be aggressive, with rapid progression of clinical signs, high mitotic index and effacement of local intestinal architecture in both cases, and metastatic disease in the fisher. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher and a Eurasian otter. PMID:20597223

Bartlett, Susan L; Imai, Denise M; Trnpkiewicz, John G; Garner, Michael M; Ogasawara, Seigo; Stokol, Tracy; Kiupel, Matti; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V

2010-06-01

157

Robust Arctic sea-ice influence on the frequent Eurasian cold winters in past decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, severe winters occurred frequently in mid-latitude Eurasia, despite increasing global- and annual-mean surface air temperatures. Observations suggest that these cold Eurasian winters could have been instigated by Arctic sea-ice decline, through excitation of circulation anomalies similar to the Arctic Oscillation. In climate simulations, however, a robust atmospheric response to sea-ice decline has not been found, perhaps owing to energetic internal fluctuations in the atmospheric circulation. Here we use a 100-member ensemble of simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model driven by observation-based sea-ice concentration anomalies to show that as a result of sea-ice reduction in the Barents-Kara Sea, the probability of severe winters has more than doubled in central Eurasia. In our simulations, the atmospheric response to sea-ice decline is approximately independent of the Arctic Oscillation. Both reanalysis data and our simulations suggest that sea-ice decline leads to more frequent Eurasian blocking situations, which in turn favour cold-air advection to Eurasia and hence severe winters. Based on a further analysis of simulations from 22 climate models we conclude that the sea-ice-driven cold winters are unlikely to dominate in a warming future climate, although uncertainty remains, due in part to an insufficient ensemble size.

Mori, Masato; Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Inoue, Jun; Kimoto, Masahide

2014-12-01

158

Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.  

PubMed

We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ? 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection. PMID:23778601

Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

2013-07-01

159

Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins.  

PubMed

Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol (14)C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3-6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic. PMID:23940354

Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E; van Dongen, Bart E; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P; Dudarev, Oleg V; Wang, Zhiheng; Montluçon, Daniel B; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I

2013-08-27

160

On the Causes of and Long Term Changes in Eurasian Heat Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MERRA reanalysis, other observations, and the GEOS-S model have been used to diagnose the causes of Eurasian heat waves including the recent extreme events that occurred in Europe during 2003 and in Russia during 2010. The results show that such extreme events are an amplification of natural patterns of atmospheric variability (in this case a particular large-scale atmospheric planetary wave) that develop over the Eurasian continent as a result of internal atmospheric forcing. The amplification occurs when the wave occasionally becomes locked in place for several weeks to months resulting in extreme heat and drying with the location depending on the phase of the upper atmospheric wave. Model experiments suggest that forcing from both the ocean (SST) and land playa role phase-locking the waves. An ensemble of very long GEOS-S model simulations (spanning the 20th century) forced with observed SST and greenhouse gases show that the model is capable of generating very similar heat waves, and that they have become more extreme in the last thirty years as a result of the overall warming of the Asian continent.

Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max

2012-01-01

161

Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins  

PubMed Central

Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol 14C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3–6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic. PMID:23940354

Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Wang, Zhiheng; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.

2013-01-01

162

Is Predation by Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) an Important Source of Mortality for the Eurasian Watermilfoil Biocontrol Agent Euhrychiopsis lecontei?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic weevil Euhrychiopsis lecontei is a potential control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Predation by fishes may influence populations of this beneficial insect. To determine if fish predation is an important source of mortality for E. lecontei, fish stomachs from two Minnesota lakes, Lake Auburn and Cedar Lake, were sampled monthly during the summer of 1994. None of

Thomas J. Sutter; Raymond M. Newman

1997-01-01

163

Sex-specific recruitment and brood sex ratios of Eurasian kestrels in a seasonally and annually fluctuating  

E-print Network

Sex-specific recruitment and brood sex ratios of Eurasian kestrels in a seasonally and annually-ordinating editor: J. Tuomi Abstract. Timing of birth and food availability may select for biased offspring sex in brood sex ratio during the breeding season in a long-term data from 8 years. As far as we know

Laaksonen, Toni

164

78 FR 44618 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Eurasian Affairs; U.S. Participation in the ``Milan Expo 2015'' By virtue of the authority vested in me as Secretary of State...to provide for U.S. participation in the ``Milan Expo 2015.'' Any act, executive order, regulation, or procedure...

2013-07-24

165

Effects of Trans-Eurasian Transport of Air Pollutants on Surface1 Ozone Concentrations over Western China2  

E-print Network

and agricultural49 productivity in Western China.50 Key Words: ozone, trans-Eurasian transport, source million (China Statistical Yearbook, 2013) whose health are potentially affected by O3.62 High surface O3 can also reduce agricultural production [Avnery et al., 2011a; Mauzerall and63 Wang, 2001; Shindell et

Mauzerall, Denise

166

Epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities on Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and Myriophyllum alterniflorum in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the survival and proliferation of invertebrates in freshwater eco- systems. Epiphytic invertebrate communities may be altered through the replacement of native macrophytes by exotic mac- rophytes, even when the macrophytes are close relatives and have similar morphology. We sampled an invasive exotic macrophyte, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and

Sarah J. Wilson; Anthony Ricciardi

2009-01-01

167

Indiana University Department of Central Eurasian Studies invites applications for the new Balassi Institute Graduate Fellowship in Hungarian Studies.  

E-print Network

Indiana University Department of Central Eurasian Studies invites applications for the new Balassi Institute Graduate Fellowship in Hungarian Studies. The Fellowship will be given to a student who has been in research falling within the field of Hungarian language and area studies, including but not limited

Indiana University

168

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

1994-12-01

169

Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females). In general, the breeding proportion varied between age classes and study sites, whereas we did not detect such variation in litter size. The lack of differences in litter sizes among age classes is at odds with most findings in large mammals, and we argue that this is because the level of prenatal investment is relatively low in felids compared to their substantial levels of postnatal care. PMID:22707757

Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

2012-07-01

170

Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. PMID:25185866

Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

2014-01-01

171

[Maternal behavior of the Eurasian Lynx lynx L. during the early postnatal ontogeny of its cubs].  

PubMed

The dynamics of the major elements of maternal behavior of Eurasian lynx females during the first month of life of their cubs and their association with litter parameters (number of kittens, sex, and mass) have been traced. By the end of the first month, the amount of time spent by the female outside of the den significantly increases. An association between the litter size and maternal behavior has been found. Females rearing small litters spend more time outside of their den; they also spend more time on allogrooming of each separate kitten than females with large litters. Concerning allogrooming duration, a preference for male kittens by lynx females has been noticed in the third week. PMID:22567872

Chagaeva, A A; Na?denko, S V

2012-01-01

172

Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian siskin, Spinus spinus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The Eurasian siskin (Spinus spinus), also called the European siskin, common siskin or just siskin, is found throughout Europe and Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. spinus was determined to be 16,828?bp. The size of protein-coding genes (PCGs) in the S. spinus mitochondrial genome was 11,400?bp. The longest PCG of S. spinus mtDNA was nad5 (1818?bp), whereas the shortest is atp8 (168?bp). The nad6 gene of S. spinus mitogenome had strong skews of T versus A (-0.54), and G versus C (0.64). According to the distribution of the conserved motifs in other avian CRs, the CR of S. spinus can be divided into three domains: ETAS domain I, central conserved domain II, and CSB domain III. PMID:25319308

Kan, Xianzhao; Ren, Qiongqiong; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Lan; Zhang, Liqin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Qin

2014-10-16

173

Recent shift in Eurasian boreal forest greening response may be associated with warmer and drier summers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ecosystems in the northern high latitudes are currently experiencing drastic warming, and recent studies suggest that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here we analyze interannual relationships in boreal forest greening and climate over the last three decades using newly available satellite vegetation data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation, a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted western central Eurasian boreal forests into a warmer and drier regime. This may be the leading cause for the emergence of large-scale negative correlations between summer temperatures and forest greenness. If such a regime shift would be sustained, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by heat and drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may proceed more rapidly than anticipated.

Buermann, Wolfgang; Parida, Bikash; Jung, Martin; MacDonald, Glen M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Reichstein, Markus

2014-03-01

174

Babesia microti-like parasites detected in Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris orientis) in Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

Six Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris orientis), victims of road traffic found during 2002 and 2004 near the Noppro Forest Park in Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan, were examined for the presence of Babesia parasites. Three of the six squirrels exhibited positive signals by nested PCRs targeting both the 18S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes. Three squirrels proved to be infected with a B. microti-like parasite as evidenced by sequencing the amplified DNAs and by the morphology of the intraerythrocytic parasites. Genotypically, however, the parasite appeared to be of a new type, as it was clearly distinguishable from any of the known types that have previously been reported in various wild animals. This is the first report showing molecular evidence for the presence of B. microti-like parasites in Sciuridae. PMID:16891774

Tsuji, Masayoshi; Zamoto, Aya; Kawabuchi, Takako; Kataoka, Tomomi; Nakajima, Rui; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

2006-07-01

175

Changes in tropopause height for the Eurasian region determined from CARDS radiosonde data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have identified the tropopause height (TH) as a promising fingerprint of climatic change. In the present paper, we report variations in TH for the Eurasian region over the period 1973 1998 and analyse the influence of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) on these variations. As previous studies indicate that the greatest increases in TH occur in the extratropics, we focused our attention on this area. We applied a set of homogenization procedures to radiosonde data and considered three different scenarios that take into account change points and the main volcanic eruptions over the study period. Our results demonstrate that the number of stations with positive TH trends is very sensitive to the quality of data and the methods used to remove inhomogeneities. Consequently, when change points were included in the analysis, the number of stations with positive trends decreased markedly. Furthermore, stratospheric NAM appears to control TH in stations located at latitudes higher than 55°N.

Añel, Juan A.; Gimeno, Luis; de La Torre, Laura; Nieto, Raquel

2006-12-01

176

A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies  

PubMed Central

The head and mouthpart structures of 11 species of Eurasian scorpionflies represent three extinct and closely related families during a 62-million-year interval from the late Middle Jurassic to the late Early Cretaceous. These taxa had elongate, siphonate (tubular) proboscides and fed on ovular secretions of extinct gymnosperms. Five potential ovulate host-plant taxa co-occur with these insects: a seed fern, conifer, ginkgoopsid, pentoxylalean, and gnetalean. The presence of scorpionfly taxa suggests that siphonate proboscides fed on gymnosperm pollination drops and likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms during the mid-Mesozoic, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding flies, moths, and beetles on angiosperms. All three scorpionfly families became extinct during the later Early Cretaceous, coincident with global gymnosperm-to-angiosperm turnover. PMID:19892981

Ren, Dong; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr; Shih, ChungKun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Logan, M. Amelia V.; Hotton, Carol L.; Dilcher, David

2010-01-01

177

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from Portugal.  

PubMed

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections were found in two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, L. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in February and March 2010 in Castelo Branco, Portugal. At postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. Acid-fast organisms were isolated from gastrointestinal tissue samples via bacteriologic culture. These organisms were identified as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, direct IS900 PCR-positive results were obtained for multiple organs of both animals. This is the first report of MAP infection of otters in Portugal. PMID:23505727

Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Matos, Manuela; Alvares, Sofia; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

2013-03-01

178

Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 21b from a Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo).  

PubMed

A case of fatal salmonellosis in a Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) from Bursa Province (northwestern Turkey) is described. The organs of the bird were examined histopathologically and microbiologically. Macroscopic and microscopic findings were consistent with a Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) phage type (PT) 21b was isolated from the liver and spleen in pure culture and from the intestine. The isolate was susceptible to amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. This is the first report of an isolation of salmonellae from a wild bird species from Turkey and the first time S. Enteritidis PT21b has been reported from Turkey. PMID:17092905

Kocabiyik, A Levent; Cangul, I Taci; Alasonyalilar, Aylin; Dedicova, Daniela; Karpiskova, Renata

2006-07-01

179

Discrimination of aerosol sources over the eurasian boreal forest using satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALANIS-Aerosols project is a feasibility study on the use of existing satellite data for discriminating between natural aerosols emitted by boreal Eurasian forests and long-range transported anthropogenic aerosols. Different satellite products are potentially useful to obtain this kind of information. These include satellites products providing the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases, in particular biogenic volatile organic compounds which play an important role in the formation of new particles through nucleation, and anthropogenic trace gases such as SO2 and NO2. The direct observation of particles with a diameter larger than 50-100 nm, using Earth Observation (EO) instruments at wavelengths in the UV/VIS part of the electromagnetic spectrum provides information on the concentrations of particles which occur over most of the Eurasian Boreal forest either as a natural background or due to transport of particles produced elsewhere often as a product of anthropogenic activities. The satellite data used in this particular study is aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR, flying on ENVISAT since 2002) using both the forward and nadir view with the AATSR dual view algorithm (ADV). These EO observations are compared with ground-based in situ aerosol properties measured in Hyytiälä, Finland. Satellite and ground-based in situ observations are complemented with model calculations using the global atmospheric aerosol and chemistry model GLOMAP. Examples are presented to illustrate the complementarity of different data sources to obtain information on the temporal and spatial information on the nature of aerosols over the Boreal forest.

de Leeuw, G.; Sogacheva, L.; Kivekas, N.; Lappalainen, H.; Arola, A.; Mielonen, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Sofiev, M.; Korhonen, H.; Arneth, A.; Kulmala, M.; Pinnock, S.

2012-04-01

180

One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.  

PubMed

Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation. PMID:23859302

Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrén, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

2014-01-01

181

The dynamics of the Eurasian plate and the intraplate stress field in the Middle-Late Eocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces driving and resisting plate motion together with the resulting intraplate stresses are analyzed for the Eurasian plate at 40 Ma with the aim to obtain a force model for which the stresses give the best fit to stress observations. Forces acting on a lithospheric plate can be categorized into three groups: i) edge forces due to interaction with neighboring plates; ii) lithospheric body forces and iii) mantle tractions. The direction of the edge forces is based on the boundary types of the Eurasian plate taken from the Lausanne Plate Tectonic Reconstruction (LPTR) from Stampfli and colleagues. Lithospheric body forces include ridge push, slab pull and topographic body forces and for these forces both the direction and magnitude can be computed. Since the uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas is only incompletely constrained, the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the topography (and thus the topographic body forces) at 40 Ma is investigated. Mantle tractions acting on the bottom of a lithospheric plate consist of (i) 'passive' tractions due to the relative motion of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle and ii) 'active' tractions due to the actively convecting mantle. Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2012) found that for the present-day Eurasian plate both passive and active tractions are relevant. This suggests that these tractions were also important in the past. Here we use tractions for the Eurasian plate from the global mantle circulation model by Webb (2012), which is based on mantle convection code TERRA, driven by a 300 Myr integration of the LPTR. The Eurasian plate is assumed to be in mechanical equilibrium. The modeled intraplate stress field resulting from different force sets is compared to paleostress observations to select the force model that best fits the data. We find that in models with small active tractions and lithospheric body forces, the magnitude of collision forces at the boundary between India and Eurasia is small. Warners-Ruckstuhl, K. N., R. Govers, and M. J. R. Wortel (2012), Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian plate, Geophys. J. Int., 189: 1253-1276. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05427. P. J. Webb (2012), Mantle circulation models: constraining mantle dynamics, testing plate motion history and calculating dynamic topography, Ph.D. Thesis Cardiff University, UK, Promotor: J. Huw Davies.

van der Burgt, Janneke; Govers, Rob; Webb, Peter; Stampfli, Gérard; Vérard, Christian; Hochard, Cyril; Davies, J. Huw; Wortel, Rinus

2013-04-01

182

Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.  

PubMed

Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR. PMID:22673688

Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

2012-09-01

183

How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

2011-01-01

184

Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental causes of variation in yellow skin pigmentation and serum carotenoids in Eurasian kestrel nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of sexual selection and parent-offspring communication, carotenoid-based coloration operates as a dynamic condition-dependent\\u000a signal, as pigments stored in the skin and in the bill can be reallocated to other tissues in accordance with physiological\\u000a needs. We studied the proximate factors affecting the carotenoid-dependent coloration of the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Kestrel nestlings show carotenoid-based coloration at the

Stefania Casagrande; David Costantini; James Tagliavini; Giacomo Dell’Omo

2009-01-01

185

The GBFM radar mosaic of the Eurasian Taiga: selected topics on geo-location and preliminary thematic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of the Global Boreal Forest Mapping project (GBFM), an initiative of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), a continental scale radar mosaic of the Eurasian Taiga was compiled. The mosaic is composed of some 520 strip-images (typically covering 80 km by 2500 km each) acquired in 1997-98 by the L-band SAR aboard the JERS-1 spacecraft. The mosaic

Gianfranco De Grandi; Valeria Spirolazzi; Y. A. Rauste; L. Curto; A. Rosenqvist; M. Shimada

2004-01-01

186

Exclusive core areas and intrasexual territoriality in Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris ) revealed by incremental cluster polygon analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When animal home ranges overlap extensively in species lacking overt territorial behaviours, identifying exclusive core areas\\u000a within individual ranges can be difficult. By analysing the size and overlap of successively smaller core areas among individual\\u000a Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris), we determined exclusive areas within the home ranges of resident males and females. Possible effects of habitat composition\\u000a and food

Erica Di Pierro; Ambrogio Molinari; Guido Tosi; Lucas A. Wauters

2008-01-01

187

Tethyan collision forces and the stress field of the Eurasian Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In previous studies of the Eurasian Plate, we have analysed the balance of plate boundary forces, tractions resulting from lithosphere-mantle coupling, and intraplate variations in topography and density structure. This yielded a range of acceptable force distributions. In this study, we investigate to which extent the observed present-day stress field provides further constraints on the distribution of forces. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate all forces as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Intraplate stress observations used are from the World Stress Map project. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be particularly sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a much lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and tractions from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.0-10.5 TN m-1 and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3-2.7 TN m-1. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0-2.5 and 0-1.3 TN m-1, respectively. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. For both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateaus, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, we find that the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force.

Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

2013-10-01

188

Hybrid watermilfoil lineages are more invasive and less sensitive to a commonly used herbicide than their exotic parent (Eurasian watermilfoil).  

PubMed

Hybridization may stimulate the evolution of invasiveness in human-impacted habitats if unique hybrid genotypes have higher fitness than parental genotypes. Human efforts to control invasive taxa frequently involve the intentional alteration of habitats, but few studies have considered whether hybridization can result in decreased sensitivity to control measures. Here, we investigate whether interspecific hybrids between introduced Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum) are more invasive than parental Eurasian watermilfoil, especially in regard to their relative responses to an herbicide commonly applied for their control (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D). In two separate laboratory experiments, hybrids on average grew faster and were less sensitive to 2,4-D compared with parental Eurasian watermilfoil. These two invasive traits appear to be common in hybrid watermilfoils, as opposed to being restricted to a few unique lineages, because they were found in a diversity of hybrid genotypes from several independent hybridization events. In addition, we found that hybrids occurred more frequently than parental species in natural lakes previously treated with 2,4-D. Our results provide compelling empirical evidence that hybridization is associated with the evolution of increased invasiveness in watermilfoils, and have important implications for their management. PMID:23745138

Larue, Elizabeth A; Zuellig, Matthew P; Netherland, Michael D; Heilman, Mark A; Thum, Ryan A

2013-04-01

189

The geoarchaeology and archaeology of Stud'onoye, an Upper Paleolithic site in Siberia  

E-print Network

. Modern Vegetation of the Transbaikal Common Name Scientific Name cedar pine Siberian fir dwarf pine birch rhododendron alder scrub Pinus sibirica Pinus sylvestris Abies sibirica Pinus pumila Larix sp. Rhododendron parvifoli u m Alnaster... of the Transbaikal Common Name Scientific Name Mongolian bobak Tolai hare Siberian polecat badger fox wolf Marmota sibirica Lepus tolai Mustela putorius Meles meles Vulpes sp. Canis lepus In sum, modern environments of the Transbaikal and Stud...

Buvit, Ian

2012-06-07

190

Comparison of two different methods in the cryopreservation of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm.  

PubMed

Two different cryopreservation methods were compared and an optimal dilution ratio for the use of controlled-rate freezer (CRF) was established for Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm. Progressive motility (72±15%) and curvilinear velocity (VCL, 146±11?m/s) of sperm cryopreserved with CRF did not reduce significantly compared to fresh sperm [progressive motility (90±4%), VCL (173±24?m/s)]. On the other hand, progressive motility (62±15%) and VCL (120±21?m/s) of sperm cryopreserved with the conventional floating frame technique were significantly lower when compared to the fresh control. Sperm in both cryopreserved groups showed significantly higher straightness [STR, CRF (84±4%), frame (84±2%)] than in the fresh control group (68±4%). Perch sperm cryopreserved with CRF at a dilution ratio of 1:20 showed significantly higher progressive motility (49±6%) than at a ratio of 1:5 (39±6%) and showed significantly higher VCL (129±11?m/s) than at dilution ratios of 1:10 (112±17?m/s) and 1:5 (115±9?m/s). PMID:25533132

Bernáth, G; Bokor, Z; Kása, E; Várkonyi, L; Hegyi, Á; Kollár, T; Urbányi, B; ?arski, D; Radóczi Ifj, J; Horváth, Á

2015-02-01

191

Water Transparency Drives Intra-Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis)  

PubMed Central

Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization. PMID:22912895

Bartels, Pia; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Svanbäck, Richard; Eklöv, Peter

2012-01-01

192

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.  

PubMed

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

2013-04-01

193

Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes.  

PubMed

This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River deltas are discussed. Temporal changes in the pattern of modification are also investigated, especially the dramatic homogenization of the custom resulting from the conquests of the Huns. This is contrasted with incidences of cranial modification in the south-central Andes, including the appearance of deliberate head shaping as well as shifts in the practice during the expansion of the Bolivian Altiplano state of Tiwanaku. Similarities in the use of cranial vault modification between these unrelated areas and in the alterations of the practice resulting from foreign contact are considered in light of vault modification's role as a malleable cultural artifact. PMID:15901115

Torres-Rouff, C; Yablonsky, L T

2005-01-01

194

Implications of Hybridization, NUMTs, and Overlooked Diversity for DNA Barcoding of Eurasian Ground Squirrels  

PubMed Central

The utility of DNA Barcoding for species identification and discovery has catalyzed a concerted effort to build the global reference library; however, many animal groups of economical or conservational importance remain poorly represented. This study aims to contribute DNA barcode records for all ground squirrel species (Xerinae, Sciuridae, Rodentia) inhabiting Eurasia and to test efficiency of this approach for species discrimination. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences were obtained for 97 individuals representing 16 ground squirrel species of which 12 were correctly identified. Taxonomic allocation of some specimens within four species was complicated by geographically restricted mtDNA introgression. Exclusion of individuals with introgressed mtDNA allowed reaching a 91.6% identification success rate. Significant COI divergence (3.5–4.4%) was observed within the most widespread ground squirrel species (Spermophilus erythrogenys, S. pygmaeus, S. suslicus, Urocitellus undulatus), suggesting the presence of cryptic species. A single putative NUMT (nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene) sequence was recovered during molecular analysis; mitochondrial COI from this sample was amplified following re-extraction of DNA. Our data show high discrimination ability of 100 bp COI fragments for Eurasian ground squirrels (84.3%) with no incorrect assessments, underscoring the potential utility of the existing reference librariy for the development of diagnostic ‘mini-barcodes’. PMID:25617768

Ermakov, Oleg A.; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergey V.; Brandler, Oleg V.; Ivanova, Natalia V.; Borisenko, Alex V.

2015-01-01

195

Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

2012-05-01

196

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

2006-01-01

197

Implications of Hybridization, NUMTs, and Overlooked Diversity for DNA Barcoding of Eurasian Ground Squirrels.  

PubMed

The utility of DNA Barcoding for species identification and discovery has catalyzed a concerted effort to build the global reference library; however, many animal groups of economical or conservational importance remain poorly represented. This study aims to contribute DNA barcode records for all ground squirrel species (Xerinae, Sciuridae, Rodentia) inhabiting Eurasia and to test efficiency of this approach for species discrimination. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences were obtained for 97 individuals representing 16 ground squirrel species of which 12 were correctly identified. Taxonomic allocation of some specimens within four species was complicated by geographically restricted mtDNA introgression. Exclusion of individuals with introgressed mtDNA allowed reaching a 91.6% identification success rate. Significant COI divergence (3.5-4.4%) was observed within the most widespread ground squirrel species (Spermophilus erythrogenys, S. pygmaeus, S. suslicus, Urocitellus undulatus), suggesting the presence of cryptic species. A single putative NUMT (nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene) sequence was recovered during molecular analysis; mitochondrial COI from this sample was amplified following re-extraction of DNA. Our data show high discrimination ability of 100 bp COI fragments for Eurasian ground squirrels (84.3%) with no incorrect assessments, underscoring the potential utility of the existing reference librariy for the development of diagnostic 'mini-barcodes'. PMID:25617768

Ermakov, Oleg A; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L; Titov, Sergey V; Brandler, Oleg V; Ivanova, Natalia V; Borisenko, Alex V

2015-01-01

198

Converging migration routes of Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo crossing the African equatorial rain forest  

PubMed Central

Autumn migration of adult Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo from Europe to southern Africa was recorded by satellite telemetry and observed routes were compared with randomly simulated routes. Two non-random features of observed routes were revealed: (i) shifts to more westerly longitudes than straight paths to destinations and (ii) strong route convergence towards a restricted area close to the equator (1°?S, 15°?E). The birds migrated south or southwest to approximately 10°?N, where they changed to south-easterly courses. The maximal spread between routes at 10°?N (2134?km) rapidly decreased to a minimum (67?km) close to the equator. We found a striking relationship between the route convergence and the distribution of continuous rainforest, suggesting that hobbies minimize flight distance across the forest, concentrating in a corridor where habitat may be more suitable for travelling and foraging. With rainforest forming a possible ecological barrier, many migrants may cross the equator either at 15°?E, similar to the hobbies, or at 30–40°?E, east of the rainforest where large-scale migration is well documented. Much remains to be understood about the role of the rainforest for the evolution and future of the trans-equatorial Palaearctic-African bird migration systems. PMID:18986977

Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Hake, Mikael; Olofsson, Patrik; Alerstam, Thomas

2008-01-01

199

Establishment of a health surveillance program for reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland.  

PubMed

In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing. PMID:23060498

Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin

2012-10-01

200

Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences in the predation of the western green lizard ( Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated whether the rate of predation differed during the 8-year study period and among the three habitats studied. We collected lizard remains from nest boxes of kestrels. Freshly killed lizards were sexed by visual inspection, whilst the sex of head remains was assigned by analysing the cephalic scale morphology using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that the risk of being predated by a kestrel in our population was overall about 3.55 times higher for males than for females. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a male-biased predation in a lizard species. The selective predation of males was consistent between years over the 8-year study period (1999-2006) and also consistent between the three types of kestrel hunting habitat. Overall predation rates on lizards differed between habitats, depending on the year. We propose that the observed sex-biased predation is mainly due to sex differences in lizard behaviour.

Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

2007-12-01

201

Genetic diversity of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) population in Israel.  

PubMed

The Israeli population of Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) marks the Palearctic southern boundary of the species' distribution in the Levant. During the 20th century, the otter population in Israel experienced a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic habitat alterations. Currently, the otter population in Israel is estimated at about 100 individuals and defined as "Critically Endangered". The aim of this research was to characterize the Israeli otter population in order to determine its genetic diversity and fragmentation state for conservation purposes. Monitoring spraint sites during 2000-2011 along active and historic otter distribution regions indicate both stable and unstable otter subpopulations, mainly along the Jordan River. Four otter subpopulations, representing 57 individuals, were characterized by 12 microsatellites, previously used to characterize the European otter populations. The genetic results indicated three subpopulations correlating with three geographical regions: the Hula Valley, Sea of Galilee, and the Harod Valley. A moderate genetic diversity (F (st) = 0.087-0.123) was found among the subpopulations, suggesting sporadic interactions between individuals from distinct geographical locations along the Jordan Rift Valley. The Israeli otter population was found to be very small, demographically remote and genetically distinct, harboring unique alleles absent from the studied European populations. Therefore, immediate conservation actions are recommended to prevent the deterioration of the isolated, unique, and critically endangered otter population in Israel. PMID:23225879

Cohen, Tali Magory; Narkiss, Tamar; Dolev, Amit; Ben-Ari, Yossi; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Guter, Amichai; Saltz, David; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

2013-03-01

202

Habitat correlates of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra recolonizing Central Poland.  

PubMed

The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14 years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15 % in 1993, 38 % in 1998, and 89 % in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river width while negatively affected by presence of buildings at the site and river regulation. During the most intensive colonization process in the 1990s, the habitat preferences of the otter did not change. However, the sites inhabited by otters after 1998 were characterized by lower river width and tree cover and were more often located on regulated river sections, suggesting change in habitat tolerance during expansion. The otter abundance in transformed habitats is a result of increasing population numbers and the necessity to inhabit suboptimal sections of watercourses. Thus, it seems that presence-absence data for otter populations cannot be considered a reliable indicator of habitat quality, being depended of the population density. PMID:23538688

Romanowski, Jerzy; Brzezi?ski, Marcin; Zmihorski, Micha?

2013-04-01

203

Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe  

PubMed Central

Background Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. Results The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. Conclusions This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species. PMID:23861841

Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

2013-01-01

204

Impact and implications of the Afro-Eurasian collision south of Cyprus from reflection seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyprus Arc in the Eastern Mediterranean represents the active collision front between the African and Eurasian (Anatolian) Plates. Along the Cyprus Arc, the Eratosthenes Seamount is believed to have been blocking the northward motion of the African Plate since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Based on a dense grid of 2D reflection seismic profiles covering the Eratosthenes Seamount and western Levant Basin offshore Cyprus, new observations regarding the Cyprus Arc collision front at the triple transition zone Eratosthenes Seamount-Levant Basin-Hecataeus Rise are presented. The data show that the Levant Basin is filled with ~ 10 km of sediments of Early Mesozoic (probably Jurassic) to Plio-Quaternary age with only a localized deformation affecting the Miocene-Oligocene rock units. The sediments onlap directly against the steep eastern flank of the Eratosthenes Seamount to the west and the southern flank of the Hecataeus Rise to the north. The sediments show no deformation that could be associated with collision and are undeformed even very close to the two prominent structures. Pinching out of the Base Miocene reflector in the Levant Basin due to onlapping of the Middle Miocene reflector indicates uplift of the Eratosthenes Seamount and the Hecataeus Rise. In contrast to the Messinian Evaporites north of the Eratosthenes Seamount, the salt in the Levant Basin, even close to the Hecataeus Rise, is tectonically undeformed. It is proposed that the Eratosthenes Seamount, the western Levant Basin and the Hecataeus Rise act as one tectonic unit. This implies that the collision front is located north of this unit and that the Hecataeus Rise shields the sediments south of it from deformation associated with collision of the African and Anatolian Plates.

Klimke, Jennifer; Ehrhardt, Axel

2014-06-01

205

Scent-marking behaviour and social dynamics in a wild population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx.  

PubMed

Scent-marking is widespread among mammals and has been observed in many felid species. Although the behaviour is well-described, little is known about its function in wild felid populations. We investigated patterns of scent-marking and its role in intra- and intersexual communication among resident and non-resident Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx by observing interactions among wild lynx at natural marking sites by means of infrared camera traps. Marking activity of resident animals showed a peak during the mating season and was lowest during the time when females gave birth and lactated. Both sexes scent-marked, but male lynx visited marking sites much more often than females and marked relatively more often when visiting a site. Most visits to marking sites were by residents but we also observed scent-marking by non-residents. Juveniles were never observed marking. We found no evidence of lynx regularly renewing scent-marks after a certain 'expiry date' but the presence of a strange scent-mark triggered over-marking. Males responded similarly to the presence of another individual's scent-mark, irrespective of whether it was the top- or the underlying scent-mark in a mixture of scent-marks they encountered. Our results suggest that marking sites could serve as 'chemical bulletin boards', where male lynx advertise their presence and gain information on ownership relationships in a given area. Females placed their urine marks on top of the ones left by resident males, but further studies are needed to explain the functions of over-marking in females. PMID:24814909

Vogt, Kristina; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Kölliker, Mathias; Breitenmoser, Urs

2014-07-01

206

Histological and endocrine characterisation of the annual luteal activity in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Lynx presents a unique sexual cycle with persistent corpora lutea (CLs) and elevated serum progesterone (P?) throughout parturition and lactation. In other mammals, CLs normally disintegrate after parturition, therefore the aim of our study was to characterise the annual life cycle of lynx CLs. Ovaries from Eurasian lynxes were obtained from the National Veterinary Institute in Sweden, where tissues from killed lynx were stored at -20?°C. Ovaries from 66 animals were weighed; each corpus luteum was segmented for histology and hormone analysis. Ovary and CLs weights were constant throughout the year, peaking during pregnancy. In non-pregnant lynxes, the seasonal level of intraluteal steroids was steady for P? (3.2±1.9 s.d. ?g/g, n=53) and total oestrogens (18.3±15.5 s.d. ng/g, n=53). Within histology slides, structurally intact luteal cells were found throughout the year with the highest incidence in March/April; evidence of luteal regression was predominantly found in post-breeding season. Ovaries from pregnant animals contained two types of CLs. Group A was bigger in size with large luteal cells (P?, 72.3±65.4 s.d. ?g/g; oestrogen, 454.0±52.4 s.d. ng/g). In contrast, group B were smaller, with greater luteal regression and lower steroid concentrations (P?, 8.3±2.9 s.d. ?g/g; oestrogen, 31.5±20.4 s.d. ng/g). Our results suggest that structural luteolysis proceeds throughout the year and into next breeding cycle, resulting in two CLs types on the same ovary. PMID:22829688

Carnaby, Kim; Painer, Johanna; Söderberg, Arne; Gavier-Widèn, Dolores; Göritz, Frank; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

2012-10-01

207

Developmental impairment in eurasian dipper nestlings exposed to urban stream pollutants.  

PubMed

Avian studies of endocrine disruption traditionally have focused on reproductive impairment, given that many environmental contaminants affect sex steroid hormones. There is also increasing interest in altered thyroid function, and associated early development, particularly in altricial species with extended developmental windows. Both types of effect are relevant under the complex pollutant conditions created in streams draining urban areas, but case studies are scarce. Therefore, the authors measured breeding performance, as well as nestling growth, condition, and plasma thyroid hormones, in 87 Eurasian dipper (Cinclus cinclus) nests on 36 urban and rural streams in south and mid-Wales (UK); invertebrate prey data were also collected. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether urban stream pollution or food scarcity might affect reproduction or development in this specialized aquatic songbird. Clutch sizes and egg fertility were similar on rural and urban streams, whereas nest success was actually higher at urban sites and food abundance was not significantly reduced. However, subtle but important differences were apparent. Urban nestlings were significantly lighter than rural nestlings for their body size (condition index), and brood sex ratios were increasingly male biased with increasing urbanization. The nestling thyroid hormone profile closely reflected urban land use, whereas depressed triiodothyronine (T3) hormones and poorer body condition were associated with higher exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at urbanized sites. These data suggest that PCBs, PBDEs, and/or accompanying contaminants in urban streams could be affecting dipper nestling development, with potential consequences for the birds' fitness. PMID:24648128

Morrissey, Christy A; Stanton, David W G; Tyler, Charles R; Pereira, M Glória; Newton, Jason; Durance, Isabelle; Ormerod, Steve J

2014-06-01

208

Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian ruffe or yellow perch  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread to areas with more dense zebra mussel populations, the zone of interaction among zebra mussels, yellow perch, and ruffe will increase and intensify. In the laboratory, the effect of zebra mussel shells on the ability of these fishes to forage on amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) and chironomids (Chironomus plumosus) was examined in light and darkness. In 12 h, ruffe consumed more amphipods than did similar-sized yellow perch, particularly in darkness on bare cobble, and in light within zebra mussels. Amphipods decreased activity more in the presence of ruffe than yellow perch. More amphipods were found in zebra mussel shells than in bare cobble, whether or not fish were present. In darkness, when ruffe consumed more amphipods on bare cobble, amphipods became more associated with zebra mussel shells. Although ruffe consumed more amphipods than yellow perch, perch consumed more chironomids than ruffe on bare cobble. The presence of zebra mussel shells altered the relative consumption of invertebrates in some substrate-light combinations. Experiments such as these help to improve understanding of the direct and indirect effects of predation between and among native and nonindigenous species that may exert structuring forces on the nearshore communities of the Great Lakes currently or in the future.

Kolar, C.S.; Fullerton, A.H.; Martin, K.M.; Lamberti, G.A.

2002-01-01

209

Trends in Eurasian Arctic runoff timing and their relationship to snow cover changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pronounced land surface process changes have occurred in the Arctic and sub-Arctic in recent decades. Apparent earlier ablation of snow cover in spring implies that some of the energy that was once used to melt snow is now absorbed by the ground, thereby lowering the albedo and thus leading to more snowmelt. To date, however, confirmation of such causal explanations for hydrologic trends has been elusive, primarily because of short record lengths and/or absence of requisite data records. We examine changes in the timing of runoff from 53 unregulated Eurasian Arctic streamflow gauges distributed over the Lena, Ob and Yenisei River basins for the period 1958 - 1999. Variables examined include the onset date of the spring runoff pulse, the centroid of timing of spring runoff, and seasonal fractional flows. These results were compared with surface air temperature anomalies and (satellite) snow cover trends to diagnose the sensitivity of runoff in each of the basins to snow cover disappearance, snow-free duration and period of snowmelt. We find that there are consistent trends indicating an earlier onset of runoff in spring across many of the basins, which can be linked to changes in snowmelt timing, and an increase in winter flows, which appears to be related to shorter snow cover duration. Surface air temperature trends have less obvious linkages with the streamflow timing changes, with the exception of the Yenisei basin where an increase in May temperatures are associated with lower snowmelt season runoff, but increases in June temperatures are associated with increased June runoff.

Tan, A.; Adam, J. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2008-12-01

210

Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values  

PubMed Central

Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995–2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

Olden, Julian D.; Tamayo, Mariana

2014-01-01

211

Living on the edge: Space use of Eurasian red squirrels in marginal high-elevation habitat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In marginal habitats located at the edge of a species' range, environmental conditions are frequently extreme and individuals may be subject to different selective pressures compared to central populations. These so-called edge or marginal populations tend to have lower densities and reproductive rates than populations located in more suitable habitats, but little is known about local adaptations in spacing behavior. We studied space use and social organization in a population of Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) in a high-elevation marginal habitat of dwarf mountain pine ( Pinus mugo) and compared it with spacing patterns in high-quality Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest at lower-elevation. Home ranges and core areas were larger in the marginal habitat. In both habitats, males used larger home ranges than females, but sex differences in core area size were significant only in the edge population. Patterns of core area overlap were similar in both habitats with intra-sexual territoriality among adult females and higher degrees of inter-sexual overlap, typical for the species throughout its range. However, low densities in the edge population resulted in higher female by males overlap in spring-summer, suggesting males increased home ranges and core areas during mating season to augment access to estrus females. Thus, in the marginal habitat, with low food abundance and low population densities, linked with extreme winter conditions, squirrels, especially males, used large home ranges. Finally, squirrels responded more strongly to variation in food availability (inverse relation between home range size and seed abundance), and even to fluctuations in density (inverse relation between core area size and density of animals of the same sex), in the marginal than in the high-quality habitat, suggesting high behavioral plasticity to respond to the ecological constraints in marginal habitats.

Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Preatoni, Damiano; Tosi, Guido; Martinoli, Adriano

2010-11-01

212

Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.  

PubMed

Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

2014-01-01

213

Evolution of an Eurasian avian-like influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pigs.  

PubMed

Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies. PMID:22693449

Murcia, Pablo R; Hughes, Joseph; Battista, Patrizia; Lloyd, Lucy; Baillie, Gregory J; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H; Ormond, Doug; Oliver, Karen; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Caccamo, Mario; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N

2012-01-01

214

Food Availability and Animal Space Use Both Determine Cache Density of Eurasian Red Squirrels  

PubMed Central

Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years. PMID:24265833

Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

2013-01-01

215

Low-level temperature inversions of the eurasian arctic and comparisons with Soviet drifting station data  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal and regional variations in characteristics of the Arctic low-level temperature inversion are examined using up to 12 years of twice-daily rawinsonde data from 31 inland and coastal sites of the Eurasian Arctic and a total of nearly six station years of data from three Soviet drifting stations near the North Pole. The frequency of inversions, the median inversion depth, and the temperature difference across the inversion layer increase from the Norwegian Sea eastward toward the Laptev and East Siberian seas. This effect is most pronounced in winter and autumn, and reflects proximity to oceanic influences and synoptic activity, possibly enhanced by a gradient in cloud cover. East of Novaya Zemlya during winter, inversions are found in over 95% of all soundings and tend to be surface based. For all locations, however, inversions tend to be most intense during winter due to the large deficit in surface net radiation. The strongest inversions are found over eastern Siberia, and reflect the effects of local topography. The frequency of inversions is lowest during summer, but is still >50% at all locations. Most summer inversions are elevated, and are much weaker than their winter counterparts. Data from the drifting stations reveal an inversion in every sounding from December to April. The minimum frequency of 85% occurs during August. While the median inversion depth is over 1200 m during March, it decreases to approximately 400 m during August, with median temperature differences across the inversion layer of 12.6[degrees]and 2.8[degrees]C, respectively. The median depth of the summertime mixed layer below inversions at the drifting stations ranges from 300 to 400 m. Seasonal changes in these inversion characteristics show a strong relationship with seasonal changes in cloud cover. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Serreze, M.C.; Schnell, R.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kahl, J.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1992-06-01

216

Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)  

PubMed Central

Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35–48% and 41–46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models. PMID:25354270

Scheidt, Spencer N.; Hurlbert, Allen H.

2014-01-01

217

Fronts and intrusions in the upper Deep Polar Water of the Eurasian and Makarov basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CTD data obtained in the Arctic Basin are analyzed to describe structural features of intrusive layers and fronts encountered in the upper Deep Polar Water. This work is an extension of Arctic intrusions studies by Rudels et al. (1999) and Kuzmina et al. (2011). Numerous examples of fronts and intrusions observed in a deep layer (depth range of 600-1300 m) in the Eurasian and Makarov basins where salinity is increasing, and temperature is decreasing with depth (stable-stable thermohaline stratification), are described. The data are used to estimate hydrological parameters capable of determining different types of fronts and characterizing intrusive layers depending on the front structure. Coherence of intrusive layers is shown to get broken with the change of front structure. An evidence is found that enhanced turbulent mixing above local bottom elevations can prevent from intrusive layering. A linear stability model description of the observed intrusions is developed based on the Merryfield's (2000) assumption that interleaving is caused by differential mixing. Theoretical analysis is focused on prediction of the slopes of unstable modes at baroclinic and thermohaline fronts. Apparent vertical diffusivity due to turbulent mixing at baroclinic and thermohaline fronts is estimated on the basis of comparison of observed intrusion slopes with modeled slopes of the most unstable modes. Apparent lateral diffusivity is estimated too, based on Joyce (1980) approach. These estimates show that intrusive instability of fronts caused by differential mixing can result in sizable values of apparent lateral heat diffusivity in the deep Arctic layer that are quite comparable with those of the upper and intermediate Arctic layers (Walsh, Carmack, 2003; Kuzmina et al., 2011).

Kuzmina, Natalia; Rudels, Bert; Zhurbas, Natalia; Lyzhkov, Dmitry

2013-04-01

218

Innovative Techniques for Estimating Illegal Activities in a Human-Wildlife-Management Conflict  

PubMed Central

Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management. PMID:23341973

Cross, Paul; St. John, Freya A. V.; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

2013-01-01

219

Collection of field reproductive data from carcasses of the female Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Information about reproductive physiology in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) would generate knowledge that could be useful in the management of the Swedish lynx population based on the knowledge about their reproductive potential and population development. Age-related differences in ovulation and implantation rates would affect the reproductive output and the development of the population. The aims of this study were to evaluate a protocol for collection of reproductive data from carcasses by comparisons with published field data and to generate data about reproduction in the Swedish lynx. Reproductive organs from 120 females that were harvested between March 1 and April 9 from 2009 to 2011 were collected and evaluated macroscopically for placental scars. Females had their first estrus as yearlings but did not have their first litter until the next season. Pregnancy rates were lower in 2-year-old females than in females aged 3 to 7 years but did not differ significantly from females aged 8 to 13 years (54.5%, 95.6%, and 75.0%, respectively). CL from the present season were morphologically distinctly different from luteal bodies from previous cycles (LBPC). All females ?3 years had macroscopically visible LBPC, whereas only 67% of 22 to 23 months old females had one to three LBPC and no females <1 year of age had LBPC. Females aged 34 to 35 months had up to eight LPBC, whereas the highest number of LBPC counted in females ?3 years of age was 11. These data would be in agreement with only one estrus per season and LBPC from at least three previous reproductive seasons in older females. The number of LBPC was significantly correlated with the weight of the ovaries rs = 0.648, P < 0.001) and the age of the animals (rs = 0.572, P < 0.001). Uterine weight differed significantly with the stage of the reproductive cycle and was highest for mature females in the luteal phase of the cycle. The estrous period, defined as occurrence of ovarian follicles lasted from March 5 to April 1 in this material. In conclusion, this study confirms that useful information about lynx reproduction can be collected from reproductive organs retrieved after the death of the animals. Continuous monitoring of lynx reproductive organs would therefore make a valuable contribution to collection of field data, gathering information that can be useful for the management of lynx populations and potentially for the lynx as an indicator of environmental disturbances. PMID:23987987

Axnér, E; Payan-Carreira, R; Setterlind, P; Åsbrink, J; Söderberg, A

2013-11-01

220

Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus  

PubMed Central

Background The trade-off between current and future parental investment is often different between males and females. This difference may lead to sexual conflict between parents over care provisioning in animals that breed with multiple mates. One of the most obvious manifestations of sexual conflict over care is offspring desertion whereby one parent deserts the young to increase its reproductive success at the expense of its mate. Offspring desertion is a wide-spread behavior, and its frequency often varies within populations. We studied the consistency of offspring desertion in a small passerine bird, the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus, that has an extremely variable breeding system. Both males and females are sequentially polygamous, and a single parent (either the male or the female) incubates the eggs and rears the young. About 28–40% of offspring are abandoned by both parents, and these offspring perish. Here we investigate whether the variation in offspring desertion in a population emerges either by each individual behaving consistently between different broods, or it is driven by the environment. Results Using a three-year dataset from Southern Hungary we show that offspring desertion by females is consistent between nests. Male desertion, however, depends on ambient environment, because all males desert their nests early in the season and some of them care late in the season. Therefore, within-population variation in parental care emerges by sexually different mechanisms; between-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern of offspring desertion in females, whereas within-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern in males. Conclusion To our knowledge, our study is the first that investigates repeatability of offspring desertion behavior in nature. The contrasting strategies of the sexes imply complex evolutionary trajectories in breeding behavior of penduline tits. Our results raise an intriguing question whether the sexual difference in caring/deserting decisions explain the extreme intensity of sexual conflict in penduline tits that produces a high frequency of biparentally deserted (and thus wasted) offspring. PMID:18761745

2008-01-01

221

Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire events. Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and in contrast, a normal fire season burned in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the fire season (April - September) for 1999, 2002, and 2004. We assess these data sets for evidence of relationships between the net radiative fluxes and fire onset as well as evidence for residual influence of the fires upon the radiative budgets.

Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

2013-12-01

222

Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.  

PubMed

Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

2014-01-01

223

Mesozoic faults in the NE Tarim (western China) and the implications on collisions in the southern Eurasian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleozoic and Cenozoic deformation events responding to the continental growth in the southern Eurasian margin since the Paleozoic have been well documented in surface and subsurface geology; in contrast, Mesozoic deformation remains poorly known. Based on interpretation of numerous seismic profiles carried out for oil and gas exploration, a Mesozoic transpressional linked fault system has been identified in the NE Tarim, which is composed of (1) the NW-SE-trending Longkou, Ying-S, Ying-N, and Tienan strike-slip faults to the west, (2) the NE-SW-trending and NW-dipping Ying-E 1 and Ying-E 2 thrust faults as well as their branches to the southeast, and (3) to the north, the Weimak fault which can be divided into NW-SE-trending dextral strike-slip segments and NE-SW-trending, SE-verging segments. The unconformity and growth strata related to activity of these faults occurred from the Jurassic to the Cretaceous. This transpressional linked fault system in the NE Tarim block is a kind of intracontinental deformation, attributed to the collisions of the Qiangtang and Lhasa blocks to the southern Eurasian margin from the Jurassic through the Cretaceous.

Wang, Sheng-Li; Shu, Liang-Shu; Zhu, Wen-Bin; Xu, Ming-Jie; Lu, Hua-Fu; Xiao, Zhong-Yao; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhu, Chang-Jian

2012-08-01

224

Improvement in Simulation of Eurasian Winter Climate Variability with a Realistic Arctic Sea Ice Condition in an Atmospheric GCM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to approx. 0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

2012-01-01

225

Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) – Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam  

PubMed Central

Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

2014-01-01

226

Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens.

Schuler, Krysten L.; Green, David E.; Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J.; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Ip, Hon S.

2012-01-01

227

Role for Eurasian Arctic shelf sea ice in a secularly varying hemispheric climate signal during the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypothesized low-frequency climate signal propagating across the Northern Hemisphere through a network of synchronized climate indices was identified in previous analyses of instrumental and proxy data. The tempo of signal propagation is rationalized in terms of the multidecadal component of Atlantic Ocean variability—the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Through multivariate statistical analysis of an expanded database, we further investigate this hypothesized signal to elucidate propagation dynamics. The Eurasian Arctic Shelf-Sea Region, where sea ice is uniquely exposed to open ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as a strong contender for generating and sustaining propagation of the hemispheric signal. Ocean-ice-atmosphere coupling spawns a sequence of positive and negative feedbacks that convey persistence and quasi-oscillatory features to the signal. Further stabilizing the system are anomalies of co-varying Pacific-centered atmospheric circulations. Indirectly related to dynamics in the Eurasian Arctic, these anomalies appear to negatively feed back onto the Atlantic`s freshwater balance. Earth's rotational rate and other proxies encode traces of this signal as it makes its way across the Northern Hemisphere.

Wyatt, Marcia Glaze; Curry, Judith A.

2014-05-01

228

Improvement in simulation of Eurasian winter climate variability with a realistic Arctic sea ice condition in an atmospheric GCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to ˜0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

2012-12-01

229

Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2014-01-01

230

Snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of Egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.  

PubMed

The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n?=?99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n?=?19), stone marten (Martes foina, n?=?3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n?=?3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n?=?4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox's as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten's as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

Duarte, Margarida D; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V

2013-01-01

231

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2014-01-01

232

Disease threats to the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

The Iberian lynx, (Lynx pardinus), is the most endangered felid in the world. To determine whether sympatric carnivores are reservoirs of pathogens posing a disease risk for the lynx, evidence of exposure to 17 viral, bacterial and protozoan agents was investigated in 176 carnivores comprising 26 free-living lynx, 53 domestic cats, 28 dogs, 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 24 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 10 common genets (Genetta genetta) and 2 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in the areas inhabited by the last two populations of Iberian lynx, both in Andalusia (South-Western Spain). The results indicated that the lynx had low rates of contact with viral pathogens, with one seropositive finding each for feline leukemia virus, parvovirus and canine adenovirus-1, whereas contact with bacteria and protozoa appeared more frequent. Active infections with parvovirus, Ehrlichia spp., Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans and Cytauxzoon spp. were confirmed. In contrast, 53% of the domestic cats were exposed to some infectious agent (prevalence range 4.5-11.4%). Antibodies to canine distemper virus and parvovirus were frequently found in dogs (32% and 42%, respectively) and foxes (30% and 12%). Past or present infections with parvovirus, Ehrlichia spp., Chlamydophila spp., M. bovis, Salmonella enterica, L. interrogans, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum were also detected in these and other species surveyed. Questionnaires to owners revealed that 14% of the dogs but none of the cats had been vaccinated, and no cat had been neutered. Based on the apparent absence of acquired immunity of the lynx against infectious agents, the frequent detection of agents among sympatric carnivores, and the reported lack of immunocompetence of the Iberian lynx, a disease outbreak among the local abundant carnivores may pose a serious disease risk for lynx conservation. PMID:18555712

Millán, Javier; Candela, Mónica G; Palomares, Francisco; Cubero, María José; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Barral, Marta; de la Fuente, José; Almería, Sonia; León-Vizcaíno, Luis

2009-10-01

233

Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus  

PubMed Central

The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n?=?99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n?=?19), stone marten (Martes foina, n?=?3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n?=?3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n?=?4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

2013-01-01

234

Global Trends in Higher Education and Their Impact on the Region. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, June 12-13, 2013)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education presents conference proceedings of the annual Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held June 12-13, 2013, at Nazarbayev University. The theme of this year's Forum is "Global Trends in Higher Education and their Impact on the Region". Many internationally-recognized higher…

Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

2013-01-01

235

Willow ( Salix spp.) and aspen ( Populus tremula ) regrowth after felling by the Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber ): implications for riparian woodland conservation in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposed trial reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber L.) to Scotland was recently rejected by the Scottish Executive, partly over the perceived risks to woodland within a Special Area of Conservation. 2. This paper presents data on two years of willow (Salix spp.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) regrowth following tree felling by captive beavers within two large

KEVIN JONESa; David Gilvear; Nigel Willby; Martin Gaywood

2009-01-01

236

Revised and synthetic apparent polar wander paths of the African, Eurasian, North American and Indian plates, and true polar wander since 200 Ma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed paleomagnetic data available for the Eurasian, African, North American and Indian plates over the last 200 Ma. Selection criteria are those generally accepted, with an emphasis on evidence for lack of remagnetization, accurate dating and proper structural analysis. This results in 23, 35, 51 and 2 poles for Eurasia, Africa, North America and India, respectively. We believe

Jean Besse; Vincent Courtillot

1991-01-01

237

Connecting ground-based in-situ observations, ground-based remote sensing and satellite data within the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities put an increasing stress on the Earth' environment and push the safe and sustainable boundaries of the vulnerable eco-system. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research program aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims to (i) understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in both pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks filling the gaps of the insitu observational network, (iii) contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan- Eurasian region. In this contribution, we underline general features of the satellite observations relevant to the PEEX research program and how satellite observations connect to the ground-based observations.

Petäjä, Tuukka; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Moisseev, Dmitri; O'Connor, Ewan; Bondur, Valery; Kasimov, Nikolai; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Guo, Huadong; Zhang, Jiahua; Matvienko, Gennadii; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Baklanov, Alexander; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

2014-10-01

238

Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.  

PubMed

The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p < 0.0001) showing a postpartum increase both in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females. The results from the Eurasian lynx revealed that the measurement of faecal progesterone metabolites led to profiles dissimilar to profiles shown in other felid species, but similar to those from faecal gestagen metabolite analysis in the Iberian lynx. To identify faecal gestagen and oestrogen metabolites a radio-metabolism study was performed. Using the progesterone immunoassay two major progesterone metabolites were detected demonstrating that the assay indeed tracks the relevant metabolites. The oestrogen assay measured authentic 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone, and their conjugates. The analysis of the faecal metabolite composition in samples from early and late pregnancy and lactation particularly revealed a distinct shift in the relation between 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone that changed in favour of oestrone. This might indicate different hormone sources during and after pregnancy (corpus luteum, placenta). We hypothesize, that placental steroid analysis in combination with other highly sophisticated analytical techniques, like liquid chromatography mass spectrometry or urinary relaxin analysis may led to analytical options to confirm pregnancy and to differentiate this from pseudo-pregnancy in lynx species. PMID:18638107

Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

2008-07-01

239

Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.  

PubMed

Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers. PMID:20582437

Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

2010-09-01

240

Influence of the Gulf Stream on the Barents Sea ice retreat and Eurasian coldness during early winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal sea-ice retreat over the Barents Sea during early winter has been considered a leading driver of recent midlatitude severe winters over Eurasia. However, causal relationships between such retreat and the atmospheric circulation anomalies remains uncertain. Using a reanalysis dataset, we found that poleward shift of a sea surface temperature front over the Gulf Stream likely induces warm southerly advection and consequent sea-ice decline over the Barents Sea sector, and a cold anomaly over Eurasia via planetary waves triggered over the Gulf Stream region. The above mechanism is supported by the steady atmospheric response to the diabatic heating anomalies over the Gulf Stream region obtained with a linear baroclinic model. The remote atmospheric response from the Gulf Stream would be amplified over the Barents Sea region via interacting with sea-ice anomaly, promoting the warm Arctic and cold Eurasian pattern.

Sato, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

2014-08-01

241

Rapid courtship evolution in grouse (Tetraonidae): contrasting patterns of acceleration between the Eurasian and North American polygynous clades  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection is thought to be a powerful diversifying force, based on large ornamental differences between sexually dimorphic species. This assumes that unornamented phenotypes represent evolution without sexual selection. If sexual selection is more powerful than other forms of selection, then two effects would be: rapid divergence of sexually selected traits and a correlation between these divergence rates and variance in mating success in the ornamented sex. I tested for these effects in grouse (Tetraonidae). For three species pairs, within and among polygynous clades, male courtship characters had significantly greater divergence than other characters. This was most pronounced for two species in Tympanuchus. In the Eurasian polygynous clade, relative courtship divergence gradually increased with nucleotide divergence, suggesting a less dramatic acceleration. Increase in relative courtship divergence was associated with mating systems having higher variance in male mating success. These results suggest that sexual selection has accelerated courtship evolution among grouse, although the microevolutionary details appear to vary among clades. PMID:17284413

Spaulding, Allen

2007-01-01

242

Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?  

PubMed Central

Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans. PMID:24671829

Ostoji?, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W.; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S.

2014-01-01

243

Structure of intrusions and fronts in the deep layer of the Eurasian basin and Makarov basin (Arctic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous CTD data obtained in the Eurasian and Makarov basins in the Arctic during the Polarstern (1996), Oden, and Louis S. St. Laurent (1994) international polar expeditions are analysed to describe fronts and intrusions observed in the deep layer (600-1300 m). The hydrological parameters were estimated from available CTD data, which made it possible to identify different types of fronts (baroclinic, thermohaline, and compound types of fronts) and analyze intrusive layering taking into account the peculiarities of the thermohaline structure of fronts. The field data are interpreted using an interleaving model describing the formation of intrusions on the baroclinic and pure thermohaline fronts under conditions of absolutely stable stratification. It is assumed that differential mixing is the main instability mechanism. Estimates of the vertical and lateral diffusivities in the frontal zones of the deep Arctic layer are presented.

Kuzmina, N. P.; Rudels, B.; Zhurbas, N. V.

2013-07-01

244

Evolution of endogenous retroviruses in the Suidae: evidence for different viral subpopulations in African and Eurasian host species  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent remnants of an exogenous form that have become integrated in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) genome. Although they are usually inactive, the capacity of ?1 ERVs to infect human cells in vitro has raised concerns about xenotransplantation because the viruses could cross the species barrier to humans. Here we have analyzed the evolution of ?1 ERVs in ten species of Suidae (suids, pigs and hogs) from Eurasia and Africa using DNA sequences for their coding domains (gag, pro/pol and env genes). For comparison with ?1 PERVs, we have also analysed ?2 ERVs which in domestic pigs are known to be inactive and do not pose a risk to xenotransplantation. Results Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference showed that ?1 and ?2 ERVs have distinctive evolutionary histories. Firstly, two different viral lineages of ?1 ERVs were found and a coevolutionary analysis demonstrated that they correspond broadly to their host phylogeny, one of Eurasian and another of African species, and show no evidence of horizontal transmission. ?2 ERVs, however, show a bush-like evolution, suggesting a rapid viral radiation from a single common ancestor with no correspondence between host and viral evolutionary trees. Furthermore, though ?1 ERV env genes do not possess frequent stop codons, ?2 env genes do. To understand whether ?1 suid ERVs may be still replicating, we have also evaluated their likely mechanism of proliferation by statistically testing internal to terminal branches using nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitution ratios. Our results suggest that ?1 ERVs are increasing in copy number by reinfection, which requires the translocation of the virus from one cell to another. Conclusions Evidence of at least two viral subpopulations was observed in ?1 ERVs from Eurasian and African host species. These results should be taken into account in xenotransplantation since ?1 ERVs appear to be codiverging with their host and maintaining ongoing capacity to infect somatic and germ cells. PMID:21609472

2011-01-01

245

Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae).  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) hosts the most polymorphic genes ever described in vertebrates. The MHC triggers the adaptive branch of the immune response, and its extraordinary variability is considered an evolutionary consequence of pathogen pressure. The last few years have witnessed the characterization of the MHC multigene family in a large diversity of bird species, unraveling important differences in its polymorphism, complexity, and evolution. Here, we characterize the first MHC class II B sequences isolated from a Rallidae species, the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. A next-generation sequencing approach revealed up to 265 alleles that translated into 251 different amino acid sequences (? chain, exon 2) in 902 individuals. Bayesian inference identified up to 19 codons within the presumptive peptide-binding region showing pervasive evidence of positive, diversifying selection. Our analyses also detected a significant excess of high-frequency segregating sites (average Tajima's D = 2.36, P < 0.05), indicative of balancing selection. We found one to six different alleles per individual, consistent with the occurrence of at least three MHC class II B gene duplicates. However, the genotypes comprised of three alleles were by far the most abundant in the population investigated (49.4%), followed by those with two (29.6%) and four (17.5%) alleles. We suggest that these proportions are in agreement with the segregation of MHC haplotypes differing in gene copy number. The most widespread segregating haplotypes, according to our findings, would contain one single gene or two genes. The MHC class II of the Eurasian Coot is a valuable system to investigate the evolutionary implications of gene copy variation and extensive variability, the greatest ever found, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a non-passerine bird. PMID:24683452

Alcaide, Miguel; Muñoz, Joaquin; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

2014-03-01

246

Timing of Indian-Eurasian collision from the Indus Basin in Ladakh, northwestern Indian Himalaya: An interdisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Cenozoic Indus Basin of northwest India straddles the Indus suture zone and has long been regarded as having the potential to yield important constraints on the timing of collision between India and Eurasia and final closure of the intervening Neo-Tethys ocean basin. Unfortunately, three issues have frustrated previous attempts to capitalize on that potential. First, outcrops in the Indus Basin are deformed, making accurate reconstructions of basin stratigraphy difficult. As a consequence, published maps of the basin are discrepant - in some cases significantly so. Second, previously published detrital zircon U-Pb data for Pre-Oligocene sandstone units point to a distinctive Eurasian source, with scant evidence for Indian detritus, leaving open the possibility that deposition could have been prior to the docking of India. Finally, much of the succession does not contain age-diagnostic fossils and datable volcanic units (e.g., tuffs) have not been found. We report here the results of an interdisciplinary study that has permitted us to overcome these obstacles and better constrain the timing of collision at this sector of the orogen. Detailed photogeologic analysis of most of the Indus Basin using all bands (visible to thermal infrared) of ASTER satellite imagery, coupled with topical ground-truthing in the field, has allowed for both improved mapping of the macroscopic structure and improved resolution of key stratigraphic characteristics. Based upon our map, we present both isotopic and trace element geochemical data from various, carefully selected samples. First, the distribution of U-Pb dates for detrital zircons from quartzite cobbles within the oldest Indus Basin unit are comparable to those found in Indian passive margin units. Trace element geochemistry of mafic pebbles from throughout the older Indus Basin units appear to demonstrate derivation from the Shyok suture zone, situated north of the local Eurasian source area. However, several clasts are geochemically similar to ophiolitic material found within the Indus suture zone, implying sourcing from fragments of the Neo-Tethys ocean basin caught up in the suture or obducted onto the Indian passive margin prior to collision. 40Ar/39Ar cooling dates for detrital biotite from a sandstone unit intercalated with an upper Ypresian marine limestone (the youngest marine unit in the Indus Basin) are more consistent with an Indian plate source region than a Eurasian provenance. These results collectively point to an Early Eocene (upper Ypresian) minimum age for India-Eurasia collision in this sector of the orogenic system, consistent with conventional wisdom but seemingly inconsistent with suggestions of Oligocene-aged collision (e.g., Aitchison et al., 2007). Aitchison, J. C., J. R. Ali, and A. M. Davis (2007), When and where did India and Asia collide?, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B05423, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004706.

Tripathy, A.; Hodges, K.; Edwards, C. S.; Gordon, G. W.; Wartho, J.

2012-12-01

247

Multiple gene segment reassortment between Eurasian and American lineages of influenza A virus (H6N2) in Guillemot ( Uria aalge )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Guillemots banded in the northern Baltic Sea were screened for influenza A virus (IAV). Three out of 26 sampled birds tested positive by RT-PCR. Two of these were characterized as subtype H6N2. Phylogenetic analyses showed that five gene segments belonged to the American avian lineage of IAVs, whereas three gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage. Our findings indicate

A. Wallensten; V. J. Munster; J. Elmberg; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; R. A. M. Fouchier; B. Olsen

2005-01-01

248

Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. PMID:25066418

Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

2014-09-15

249

Arachidonic Acid Induces Production of 17,20?-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) via a Putative PGE2 Receptor in Fish Follicles from the Eurasian Perch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of docosahexaenoic, eicosaenoic and arachidonic acids (DHA, EPA and ARA, respectively) on sex-steroid and prostaglandin\\u000a (PG) production were investigated in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) follicles using an in- vitro incubation technique. Only ARA was able to induce the production of 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one\\u000a (DHP), the hormone produced by vitellogenic follicles undergoing final meiotic maturation, as well as the production of

E. Henrotte; S. Milla; S. N. M. Mandiki; P. Kestemont

2011-01-01

250

Kentish versus snowy Plover: PhenotyPic and Genetic analyses of Charadrius alexandrinus reveal diverGence of eurasian and american subsPecies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many shorebird species have widespread geographic distributions comprising several continents. Because shorebirds are excellent flyers and can migrate large distances, it is often unclear whether reproductive barriers between subspecies and populations from different continents exist. Kentish-Snowy Plovers ( Charadrius alexandrinus) are cosmopolitan shorebirds. Whether the American and Eurasian subspecies—Snowy Plover and Kentish Plover, respectively—constitute a single species is the subject

Clemens Küpper; Jordi Figuerola; Bath BA

251

Genetic structure of the Far Eastern population of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope inferred from sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence variation of the 5? end of the mitochondrial DNA control region (600 bp) was examined in the population samples of\\u000a Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope from Anadyr’ and Primorye. A total of 11 different mtDNA haplotypes were identified, with one of these belonging to American\\u000a wigeon Anas americana. The presence of the mtDNA haplotype from the species closely relative to

I. V. Kulikova; Yu. N. Zhuravlev

2010-01-01

252

Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) in three different scenarios of heavy metal exposure.  

PubMed

The main aim of the present study is the assessment of oxidative stress related to metals in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) from three areas (agricultural and rural area, industrial area, and mining area) of Murcia, Southern Spain. Mean blood metal concentrations were Cd=0.07±0.21, Pb=3.27±5.21, Cu=10.62±4.77, Zn=311.47±67.14, Hg=2.32±3.83 ?g/dl wet weight. Although individuals from the mining area had significant higher Pb and Hg concentrations, and significant lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in red blood cells (RBC); the lack of differences in oxidative damage to membrane lipids (TBARS) among areas suggests that the antioxidant capacity of the different populations is able to deal with oxidant species and maintain TBARS levels in the same amount. Despite the low levels of metals, several oxidative stress biomarkers were correlated with metal concentrations. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals cause effects on the antioxidant system in Eagle owls. Blood Cd concentrations greater than 0.3 ?g/dl produced an inhibition in GPx (32%) and CAT (26%) activity in RBC. However, Cd concentrations higher than 0.02 ?g/dl were enough to produce an inhibition of these enzymes. Regarding Pb levels, blood concentrations above 2 ?g/dl produced an inhibition of 8% and 10.5% in GPx and CAT activities, respectively, in RBC. A depletion of 16% and 4% in tGSH levels was associated with Pb concentrations higher than 15 and 3 ?g/dl, respectively, in individuals from the ancient mine site. In addition, Pb concentrations above 2 and 10 ?g/dl produced a TBARS induction of 10% and 28%, respectively, in individuals from both the industrial and the mining area. Finally, Hg concentrations greater than 3 and 10 ?g/dl resulted in a TBARS induction of 102% and 190%, respectively, in Eurasian eagle owls from the industrial area. Our findings show that Pb may produce effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in Strigiformes at lower concentrations than those typically accepted for considering physiological effects in Falconiformes (20 µg/dl in blood). In addition, we provide new data on Hg and Cd concentrations related to effects in the antioxidant system. PMID:24721131

Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; León-Ortega, Mario; Martínez, José Enrique; García-Fernández, Antonio Juan

2014-05-01

253

Genetic composition of communal roosts of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica) inferred from non-invasive samples.  

PubMed

Many animal species form communal roosts in which they aggregate and sleep together. Several benefits of communal roost have been suggested, but due to lack of data on relatedness among group members, it is unknown whether these benefits can be amplified by the formation of kin-based communal roosts. We investigate the genetic composition of two winter roosts of Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica), using microsatellite markers on non-invasive samples. Using permutation tests by reshuffling the alleles presented in the roosts, we determined that individuals in the communal roosts of magpies were not more related than expected by chance, suggesting that kinship may not be a driving force for the formation of communal roosts in magpies. However, the pairwise relatedness and estimated relationship based on a maximum likelihood approach revealed that the roosts involve both kin and non-kin. Relatedness coefficients varied widely within a roost, indicating that family subgroups form a small proportion of the total number of birds in a roost. Our results suggest that ecological benefits of communal roost in animals are sufficient for the evolution of communal roosts without any involvement of kinship. PMID:23106562

Lee, Won Young; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Choe, Jae Chun

2012-11-01

254

Predicting average wintertime wind and wave conditions in the North Atlantic sector from Eurasian snow cover in October  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study assesses the lead-lag teleconnection between Eurasian snow cover in October and the December-to-February mean boreal winter climate with respect to the predictability of 10 m wind speed and significant wave heights in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. Lead-lag correlations exceeding a magnitude of 0.8 are found for the short time period of 1997/98-2012/13 (n = 16) for which daily satellite-sensed snow cover data is available to date. The respective cross-validated hindcast skill obtained from using linear regression as a statistical forecasting technique is similarly large in magnitude. When using a longer but degraded time series of weekly snow cover data for calculating the predictor variable (1979/80-2011/12, n = 34), hindcast skill decreases but yet remains significant over a large fraction of the study area. In addition, Monte-Carlo field significance tests reveal that the patterns of skill are globally significant. The proposed method might be used to make forecast decisions for wind and wave energy generation, seafaring, fishery and offshore drilling. To exemplify its potential suitability for the latter sector, it is additionally applied to DJF frequencies of significant wave heights exceeding 2 m, a threshold value above which mooring conditions at oil platforms are no longer optimal.

Brands, Swen

2014-04-01

255

A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia.  

PubMed

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society. PMID:20091844

Kim, Kijeong; Brenner, Charles H; Mair, Victor H; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Gelegdorj, Eregzen; Batbold, Natsag; Song, Yi-Chung; Yun, Hyeung-Won; Chang, Eun-Jeong; Lkhagvasuren, Gavaachimed; Bazarragchaa, Munkhtsetseg; Park, Ae-Ja; Lim, Inja; Hong, Yun-Pyo; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Dae-Jin; Chung, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Won-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2010-07-01

256

Effect of Incubation on Bacterial Communities of Eggshells in a Temperate Bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica)  

PubMed Central

Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica). We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent) bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce. PMID:25089821

Lee, Won Young; Kim, Mincheol; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Choe, Jae Chun; Lee, Sang-im

2014-01-01

257

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

258

The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.  

PubMed

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-09-01

259

Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

2010-05-01

260

The emerging tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs.  

PubMed Central

Variation in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is now routinely described and used to infer the histories of peoples, by means of one of two procedures, namely, the assaying of RFLPs throughout the genome and the sequencing of parts of the control region (CR). Using 95 samples from the Near East and northwest Caucasus, we present an analysis based on both systems, demonstrate their concordance, and, using additional available information, present the most refined phylogeny to date of west Eurasian mtDNA. We describe and apply a nomenclature for mtDNA clusters. Hypervariable nucleotides are identified, and the relative mutation rates of the two systems are evaluated. We point out where ambiguities remain. The identification of signature mutations for each cluster leads us to apply a hierarchical scheme for determining the cluster composition of a sample of Berber speakers, previously analyzed only for CR variation. We show that the main indigenous North African cluster is a sister group to the most ancient cluster of European mtDNAs, from which it diverged approximately 50,000 years ago. PMID:9915963

Macaulay, V; Richards, M; Hickey, E; Vega, E; Cruciani, F; Guida, V; Scozzari, R; Bonné-Tamir, B; Sykes, B; Torroni, A

1999-01-01

261

DUPAL anomaly in the Sea of Japan: Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic variations at the eastern Eurasian continental margin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic rocks from the eastern Eurasian plate margin (southwestern Japan, the Sea of Japan, and northeastern China) show enriched (EMI) component signatures. Volcanic rocks from the Ulreung and Dog Islands in the Sea of Japan show typical DUPAL anomaly characteristics with extremely high ??208/204 Pb (up to 143) and enriched Nd and Sr isotopic compositions (??{lunate}Nd = -3 to -5, 87Sr 86Sr = ~0.705). The ??208/204 Pb values are similar to those associated with the DUPAL anomaly (up to 140) in the southern hemisphere. Because the EMI characteristics of basalts from the Sea of Japan are more extreme than those of southwestern Japan and inland China basalts, we propose that old mantle lithosphere was metasomatized early (prior to the Proterozoic) with subduction-related fluids (not present subduction system) so that it has been slightly enriched in incompatible elements and has had a high Th/U for a long time. The results of this study support the idea that the old subcontinental mantle lithosphere is the source for EMI of oceanic basalts, and that EMI does not need to be stored at the core/ mantle boundary layer for a long time. Dredged samples from seamounts and knolls from the Yamato Basin Ridge in the Sea of Japan show similar isotopic characteristics to basalts from the Mariana arc, supporting the idea that the Yamato Basin Ridge is a spreading center causing separation of the northeast Japan Arc from Eurasia. ?? 1991.

Tatsumoto, M.; Nakamura, Y.

1991-01-01

262

Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2013-01-01

263

Progress in Oral Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Its Main Wildlife Reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian Wild Boar  

PubMed Central

Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar. PMID:22848869

Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

2012-01-01

264

Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range.  

PubMed

The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Lud?k; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D C

2014-01-01

265

X-chromosome as a marker for population history: linkage disequilibrium and haplotype study in Eurasian populations  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium structure is still unpredictable because the interplay of regional recombination rate and demographic history is poorly understood. We have compared the distribution of LD across two genomic regions differing in crossing-over activity – Xq13 (0.166 cM/Mb) and Xp22 (1.3 cM/Mb) – in 15 Eurasian populations. Demographic events predicted to increase the LD level – genetic drift, bottleneck and admixture – had a very strong impact on extent and patterns of regional LD across Xq13 compared to Xp22. The haplotype distribution of the DXS1225-DXS8082 microsatellites from Xq13 exhibiting strong association in all populations was remarkably influenced by population history. European populations shared one common haplotype with a frequency of 25-40%. The Volga-Ural populations studied, living at the geographic borderline of Europe, showed elevated LD as well as harboring a significant fraction of haplotypes originating from East Asia, thus reflecting their past migrations and admixture. In the young Kuusamo isolate from Finland, a bottleneck has led to allelic associations between loci and shifted the haplotype distribution, but has much less affected single microsatellite allele frequencies compared to the main Finnish population. The data show that the footprint of a demographic event is longer preserved in haplotype distribution within a region of low crossing-over rate, than in the information content of a single marker, or between actively recombining markers. As the knowledge of LD patterns is often chosen to assist association mapping of common disease, our conclusions emphasise the importance of understanding the history, structure and variation of a study population. PMID:15657606

Laan, Maris; Wiebe, Victor; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Remm, Maido; Pääbo, Svante

2005-01-01

266

Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe  

PubMed Central

With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin. PMID:22363811

Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

2012-01-01

267

Complete mitochondrial DNA analysis of eastern Eurasian haplogroups rarely found in populations of northern Asia and eastern Europe.  

PubMed

With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin. PMID:22363811

Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

2012-01-01

268

Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.  

PubMed

Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601

Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

2013-01-01

269

Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37–0.47 and 0.14–0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

2013-01-01

270

A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

2013-01-01

271

Use of water exchange information to improve chemical control of eurasian watermilfoil in Pacific Northwest rivers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The submersed plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), continues to adversely impact areas in the high water exchange environment of the Columbia River system. Studies designed to characterize water movement and to evaluate a slow release matrix device (SRMD) for improving the chemical control of that target plant were conducted in the Pend Oreille and Columbia Rivers, Washington, in August 1990. A series of rhodamine WT dye treatments were applied (using conventional, liquid application techniques) to 4-ha plots representing milfoil-dominated riverine and cove sites to estimate potential herbicide contact time. In addition, dye-impregnated SRMDs were deployed in 0.4-ha plots and evaluated for their potential as slow-release herbicide carriers. Dye dissipation data were used to calculate water-exchange half-lives in plots treated with conventional application techniques. Mean half-lives ranged from 8.8 to 12.2 hr in riverine plots, to 36.3 hr in a plot situated in a protected embayment. Half-lives from these 4-ha plots were two to four times longer than half-lives measured in smaller plots (0.4 ha) from previous dye studies conducted in similar locations. In most cases, dye release rates from SRMDs provided water concentrations near the target level of 10 micrograms/L through 7 days after deployment (DAD). Dye concentrations peaked at 105 to 130 micrograms/L at 2 DAD in Plot I (main channel plot) and 4.5 to 82 micrograms/L at I DAD in Plot 2 (side channel plot).

Getsinger, K.D.; Sisneros, D.; Tumer, E.G.

1993-01-01

272

Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range  

PubMed Central

The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7?N in central Europe to 70°00?N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day–night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Lud?k; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R.; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D. C.

2014-01-01

273

Genomic analyses detect Eurasian-lineage H10 and additional H14 influenza A viruses recovered from waterfowl in the Central United States  

PubMed Central

The accurate and timely characterization of influenza A viruses (IAV) from natural reservoirs is essential for responses to animal and public health threats. Differences between antigenic and genetic subtyping results for 161 IAV isolates recovered from migratory birds in the central United States during 2010–2011 delayed the recognition of four isolates of interest. Genomic sequencing identified the first reported Eurasian-origin H10 subtype in North America and three additional H14 isolates showing divergence from previously reported H14 isolates. Genomic analyses revealed additional diversity among IAV isolates not detected by antigenic subtyping and provided further insight into interhemispheric spread of avian-origin IAVs. PMID:24698181

Fries, Anthony C; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Bowman, Andrew S; Killian, Mary L; Wentworth, David E; Slemons, Richard D

2014-01-01

274

Validation of an Individual-Based Gap Model of the Eurasian Boreal Forest With Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal forests of the Earth provide a significant source of renewable natural resources and are capable of sequestering and storing the carbon emitted by human industrial activities. This storage is estimated to be in the range of nearly 31 X 1012 kg of carbon in the trees alone (Kuusela, 1990). Annual storage estimates for the boreal forest suggest between 1-2 gigatons of carbon are captured in pools in the boreal regions, which amounts to nearly 30% of all annual anthropogenic carbon emissions (Bousquet et al. 1990). These systems are of critical importance to the climate system (Bonan et al. 1992) and for mitigating the effects of human activities on the Earth's climate. These boreal systems are likely to receive an enhanced warming effect due to global climate change (Smith et al. 1998). The result will be a shift in traditional ecotone distribution and a release of stored carbon (Harmon, Ferrell 1990). Scientists believe that these changes could result in a positive feedback loop of warming to the system. Thus, mapping current biomass stores are valuable for assessing the scale of future warming. Modeling efforts are underway to accurately map the Earth's boreal forests. The individual-based gap model FAREAST can accurately model many components of the boreal forest including carbon storage and species composition. Using this mechanism to model the boreal forest carbon system seems to be a viable methodology, one that is more spatially acute than other methods due to the geographic scale of the gaps it creates. With an expansion of the FAREAST model to a regional scale, it is possible for much of the Eurasian boreal forest to be accurately modeled and mapped. Large scale validation of the model is the remaining step in the modeling process. High resolution remote sensing data can be used to examine forest ecosystem characteristics with a minimum of field validation. This paper investigates the use of remotely sensed data to validate the gap model FAREAST in the Russian and Chinese boreal forest by predicting the location of species transition zones. In pristine landscapes, FAREAST predictions and remote sensing imagery align significantly. In disturbed landscapes, FAREAST is not capable of accurately predicting landscapes compared to remote sensing analysis. The efficacy of remote sensing imagery analysis to reveal necessary changes in the model suggests that imagery analysis is a viable solution to ecosystem model validation and also indicates the ability for high resolution sensors to extract fine ecosystem characteristics.

Lutz, D. A.; Shugart, H. H.

2007-12-01

275

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores.

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2011-01-01

276

Phylogeographical lineages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in North America: divergence, origins and affinities with Eurasian Thymallus.  

PubMed

The number and location of Arctic glacial refugia utilized by taxa during the Pleistocene are continuing uncertainties in Holarctic phylogeography. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are widely distributed in freshwaters from the eastern side of Hudson Bay (Canada) west to central Asia. We studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA variation in North American T. arcticus to test for genetic signatures of survival in, and postglacial dispersal from, multiple glacial refugia, and to assess their evolutionary affinities with Eurasian Thymallus. In samples from 32 localities, we resolved 12 mtDNA haplotypes belonging to three assemblages that differed from each other in sequence by between 0.75 and 2.13%: a 'South Beringia' lineage found from western Alaska to northern British Columbia, Canada; a 'North Beringia' lineage found on the north slope of Alaska, the lower Mackenzie River, and to eastern Saskatchewan; and a 'Nahanni' lineage confined to the Nahanni River area of the upper Mackenzie River drainage. Sequence analysis of a portion of the control region indicated monophyly of all North American T. arcticus and their probable origin from eastern Siberian T. arcticus at least 3 Mya. Arctic grayling sampled from 25 localities displayed low allelic diversity and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) across five microsatellite loci (means of 2.1 alleles and 0.27 H(E), respectively) and there were declines in these measures of genetic diversity with distance eastward from the lower Yukon River Valley. Assemblages defined by mtDNA divergences were less apparent at microsatellite loci, but again the Nahanni lineage was the most distinctive. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that between 24% (microsatellite DNA) and 81% (mtDNA) of the variance was attributable to differences among South Beringia, North Beringia and Nahanni lineages. Our data suggest that extant North American Arctic grayling are more diverse phylogeographically than previously suspected and that they consist of at least three major lineages that originated in distinct Pleistocene glacial refugia. T. arcticus probably originated and dispersed from Eurasia to North America in the late to mid-Pliocene, but our data also suggest more recent (mid-late Pleistocene) interactions between lineages across Beringia. PMID:15140096

Stamford, M D; Taylor, E B

2004-06-01

277

Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole on climate variations in the southern part of the Eurasian Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in 1999, various regional climate variations have been identified as outcomes of IOD rather than El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, based on recent studies, we show two typical examples in the southern part of the Eurasian Continent. Using reanalysis data and snow cover data derived from satellite observations, respective influences of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Tibetan snow cover in early winter are investigated. It is found that the snow cover shows a significant positive partial correlation with IOD. In the pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrences of El Nino, negative geopotential height anomalies north of India are associated with warm and humid southwesterlies to enter the plateau from the Bay of Bengal after rounding cyclonically and supply more moisture. This leads to more precipitation, more snow cover, and resultant lower surface temperature over the plateau. These negative geopotential height anomalies north of India are related to the equivalent barotropic stationary Rossby waves in the South Asian wave guide. The waves can be generated by the IOD-related convection anomalies over the western/central Indian Ocean. Using monthly data during 1974-2005 from 183 meteorological stations in the southern part of Iran, the interannual variation of precipitation are also examined. The precipitation in this region occurs during the rainy season from October to May. The interannual variation in fall and early winter during the first part of the rainy season shows an apparently significant positive correlation with both IOD and ENSO. However, a partial correlation analysis used to extract the respective influence of IOD and ENSO shows a significant positive correlation only with the IOD and not with ENSO. The southeasterly moisture flux anomaly over the Arabian Sea turns anticyclonically and transport more moisture to the southern part of Iran from the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf during the positive IOD. During the latter part of the rainy season in late winter and spring, however, the interannual variation of precipitation is more strongly influenced by modes of variability over the Mediterranean Sea. The induced largescale atmospheric circulation anomaly controls moisture supply from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Identification of the true cause of regional climate variations is very important for societal applications of climate forecast information.

Yamagata, T.; Pourasghar, F.; Tozuka, T.; Yuan, C.

2012-12-01

278

Organohalogen exposure in a Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) population from Southeastern Spain: temporal-spatial trends and risk assessment.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) were analysed in 58 Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) unhatched eggs collected between 2004 and 2009 in Southeastern Spain. Levels of p,p'-DDE were found to be higher than in eggs laid by other European owls in the same decade, probably due to the greater agricultural activity in our study area. Compared to other European raptors, exposure to PCBs can be considered intermediate, but low to PBDEs. Land use differences and prey availability were the rationale to divide the study area in two subareas in further assessments. Temporal trends of HCB, p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH, PCBs and PBDEs were significantly different in each subarea, generally increasing over time in the Southern but decreasing or remaining stable in the Northern. On the contrary, levels of cyclodienes tended to decrease in both subareas. Dietary shifts with a greater amount of birds are suggested as a cause for increasing organochlorine loads in raptors. This may explain the increasing trend in the Southern territories. However, due to the proximity of most of these nests to Cartagena, an important industrial city, increasing environmental pollution cannot be ruled out. Although average levels of the compounds analysed are below threshold levels, 17% of the samples exceeded 400 pg g(-1)ww (wet weight), the LOAEC for Total TEQs. Moreover, a negative correlation between TEQ concentrations and the metabolizable fraction of PCBs (F(prob)=0.0018) was found when TEQs values were above 10 pg g(-1)ww. This could be indicative of hepatic enzymes induction in the birds exposed at higher concentrations, which are mainly breeding in the Southern subarea. These females could be suffering from Ah-receptor-related toxic effects, some of which have been related to altered bird reproduction. Finally, a significant negative correlation between p,p'-DDE levels and eggshell thickness (r=-0.469, p<0.001) was observed, with about 17% of eggshell thinning for eggs with p,p'-DDE levels above 100 ?g g(-1)lw. The persistence of this degree of thinning over a period of time has been related to population declines in other raptor species. PMID:22503462

Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; García-Fernández, A J; Zweers, A J; van den Brink, N W

2012-08-01

279

A new classification of a preovulatory oocyte maturation stage suitable for the synchronization of ovulation in controlled reproduction of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L.  

PubMed

To improve controlled reproduction of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis, the criteria for the evaluation of final oocyte maturation stages were revised. The new classification covers six preovulatory maturational stages (I -VI) from the end of vitellogenesis to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and was based on macroscopic changes of preovulatory oocytes (position of the germinal vesicle, GVBD, oil droplets coalescence). The observation was performed during out-of-season artificial reproduction with the use of a single hCG injection (500 IU/kg). The classification was subsequently verified with the controlled reproduction of wild female perch with the use of hormonal stimulation (500 IU hCG/kg of body weight at 12°C). The females were at different maturational stages and constituted respective experimental groups (I-VI). During the experiment, ovulation appeared to be considerably synchronized within particular groups. Statistical differences in latency time (time between hormonal treatment and ovulation) were found between experimental groups (mean latency time: 110, 92, 68, 49, 29 and 18 h in groups representing VI, V, IV, III, II and I stage of the proposed classification, respectively). The proposed classification and the results presented in the study allowed for effective synchronisation of ovulation. The use of our new oocyte maturation classification may positively influence the effectiveness of Eurasian perch production. PMID:22139334

Zarski, Daniel; Bokor, Zoltán; Kotrik, László; Urbanyi, Béla; Horváth, Akos; Targo?ska, Katarzyna; Krejszeff, S?awomir; Pali?ska, Katarzyna; Kucharczyk, Dariusz

2011-11-01

280

Helena, the hidden beauty: Resolving the most common West Eurasian mtDNA control region haplotype by massively parallel sequencing an Italian population sample.  

PubMed

The analysis of mitochondrial (mt)DNA is a powerful tool in forensic genetics when nuclear markers fail to give results or maternal relatedness is investigated. The mtDNA control region (CR) contains highly condensed variation and is therefore routinely typed. Some samples exhibit an identical haplotype in this restricted range. Thus, they convey only weak evidence in forensic queries and limited phylogenetic information. However, a CR match does not imply that also the mtDNA coding regions are identical or samples belong to the same phylogenetic lineage. This is especially the case for the most frequent West Eurasian CR haplotype 263G 315.1C 16519C, which is observed in various clades within haplogroup H and occurs at a frequency of 3-4% in many European populations. In this study, we investigated the power of massively parallel complete mtGenome sequencing in 29 Italian samples displaying the most common West Eurasian CR haplotype - and found an unexpected high diversity. Twenty-eight different haplotypes falling into 19 described sub-clades of haplogroup H were revealed in the samples with identical CR sequences. This study demonstrates the benefit of complete mtGenome sequencing for forensic applications to enforce maximum discrimination, more comprehensive heteroplasmy detection, as well as highest phylogenetic resolution. PMID:25303789

Bodner, Martin; Iuvaro, Alessandra; Strobl, Christina; Nagl, Simone; Huber, Gabriela; Pelotti, Susi; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Parson, Walther

2015-03-01

281

The oldest Eurasian hominoid.  

PubMed

Engelswies is an early Miocene vertebrate locality in southern Germany with a rich assemblage of terrestrial mammals, invertebrates and fossil plants. It is dated to 16.5-17.0 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy, and includes among the faunal remains a hominoid upper molar fragment, the oldest hominoid so far identified from Europe. The evidence from Engelswies suggests that hominoids arrived in Eurasia about 17 Ma, roughly contemporaneously with pliopithecoids and Deinotherium, and before the last marine transgression to isolate Eurasia from Africa. Thick enamel and low dentine penetrance may have been key adaptations that contributed to the success of hominoids of dentally modern aspect in western Eurasia and ultimately to their ability to spread to eastern Eurasia and Africa in the middle and late Miocene. PMID:11681862

Heizmann, E P; Begun, D R

2001-11-01

282

Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian ( Lynx lynx), the Iberian ( L. pardinus), the Canada lynx ( L. canadensis) and the bobcat ( L. rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal

M. Dehnhard; K. Fanson; A. Frank; S. V. Naidenko; A. Vargas; K. Jewgenow

2010-01-01

283

ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 284291. Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009. Original Russian Text E.V. Shein, 2009, published in Pochvovedenie, 2009, No. 3, pp. 309317.  

E-print Network

284 ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 284­291. © Pleiades Publishing application in many fields of soil science and in neighboring sciences. Any quantita- tive characterization. Shein Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia Received February 13, 2008

Ahmad, Sajjad

284

A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain†  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material. PMID:23926157

Godfray, H. Charles J.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Kao, Rowland R.; Macdonald, David W.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L. N.; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B.; McLean, Angela R.

2013-01-01

285

[Genetic structure of the Far Eastern population of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope inferred from sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region].  

PubMed

Sequence variation of the 5' end of the mitochondrial DNA control region (600 bp) was examined in the population samples of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope from Anadyr' and Primorye. A total of 11 different mtDNA haplotypes were identified, with one of these belonging to American wigeon Anas americana. The presence of the mtDNA haplotype from the species closely relative to A. penelope in the Anadyr' sample can be considered as the genetic evidence in favor of interspecific hybridization. This suggestion is in the good agreement with ornithological data. Genetic differentiation of the Primorye and Anadyr' populations was low (phi(ST) = 0.096). The phylogeographic structure was not pronounced. PMID:20873206

Kulikova, I V; Zhuravlev, Iu N

2010-08-01

286

Glenn NP Nowak 10426 Badger Ravine Street  

E-print Network

from (and work with) students they may likely be future clients or business partners Foundation accreditation report as helping the school meet objectives for verbal and written communication skills body to foster higher levels of design literacy and communication within the profession TRAVEL AWARDS

Hemmers, Oliver

287

Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the eurasian lynx.  

PubMed

Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

Ratkiewicz, Miros?aw; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafa?; Schmidt, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

288

Long-Range Gene Flow and the Effects of Climatic and Ecological Factors on Genetic Structuring in a Large, Solitary Carnivore: The Eurasian Lynx  

PubMed Central

Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

Ratkiewicz, Miros?aw; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P.; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafa?; Schmidt, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

289

Blood lead levels and ?-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area.  

PubMed

In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations. However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site ("Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union") or in their surroundings (Geometric mean (GM) = 5.83 ?g/dl, range 0.49-25.61 ?g/dl), an area highly polluted by lead and other metals, were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the rest of the population (GM = 1.66 ?g/dl, range = Non detected-18.37 ?g/dl). Because ?-ALAD activity is considered the best biomarker for lead exposure and effect in birds, the activity of this enzyme was also evaluated and correlated with lead levels in blood. In this study, low levels of blood lead inhibited ?-ALAD, even when lead concentrations were lower than the limits described by other authors in raptors. Adverse effects caused by this inhibition may occur when blood lead levels were above 15 ?g/dl, although only eight chicks presented these concentrations in their blood. Sampling site also influenced enzymatic activity, since it decreased about 60% in the polluted area in relation to the rest. For all these reasons, further research regarding risk assessment for lead exposure in Eagle Owls nesting in the polluted area is advisable. Our results suggest that the Eurasian Eagle Owl can be considered a suitable sentinel animal for monitoring lead contamination and ?-ALAD activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker for lead exposure and effect in this species. PMID:21076940

Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; María-Mojica, P; León-Ortega, M; García-Fernández, A J

2011-01-01

290

Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.  

PubMed

Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum, their ability to serve as vectors of M. bovis, and their propensity to ingest contaminated sources of M. bovis requires additional research in Michigan, USA. PMID:23531427

Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

2013-07-01

291

Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. PMID:23611846

Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2013-01-01

292

Age and geochemical characteristics of Paleogene basalts drilled from western Taiwan: Records of initial rifting at the southeastern Eurasian continental margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern Eurasian continental margin has been characterized by formation of rift basins associated with intraplate basaltic volcanism since early Cenozoic time. In contrast to Paleogene volcanic rocks that occur sporadically in the basins, Neogene basalts are more widespread on land as lava flows and pyroclastics in the Taiwan Strait (Penghu Islands) and northwestern Taiwan. To better understand the tectonomagmatic evolution, in particular the initial rifting record, this study reports new age, major- and trace-elemental, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks drilled from several locations in the Taiwan Strait and western Taiwan. 40Ar/39Ar dating results show two main episodes of volcanic activities: ~56-38 Ma (Eocene) and ~11-8 Ma (late Miocene). The volcanic rocks are composed dominantly of basalts and basaltic andesites, and subordinately of dacites and rhyolites of Eocene age. The two episodes of basaltic volcanism have distinct geochemical characteristics. Comparatively, the Eocene basalts are more depleted in basaltic components such as Ca, Fe and Ti, but have higher Al content. They are also more enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and show depletions in high field strength elements (HFSE). Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the late Miocene basalts are relatively more uniform and unradiogenic (?Nd = +6.0 to +3.8), similar to those of Miocene basalts from NW Taiwan and Penghu Islands, and broadly coeval OIB-type basalts from the South China Sea. However, the Eocene basalts have a wider range in isotope ratios (e.g., ?Nd(T) = +5.6 to -3.2) pointing towards an enriched mantle source. The overall geochemical characteristics suggest two distinct mantle sources: (1) a more refractory mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related processes to generate the Eocene basalts and (2) a fertile but isotopically depleted mantle source for the late Miocene basalts. These two source components are proposed to reside in the lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere, respectively. The change in magma sources with time reflects the evolution of an extensional regime within the Eurasian continental margin from an initial rifting to a well-established stage accomplished by thinning of the lithosphere and associated upwelling of the asthenosphere. The Eocene bimodal volcanism entails a transition from the latest Cretaceous magmatism in the western Taiwan Strait that not only signals incipient rifting in the region, but also records geochemical inputs from the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate to the southeastern Eurasian lithospheric mantle. As the preexisting, subduction-related component had been preferentially overprinted by the Eocene magma generation, there was a magmatic quiescence in the Oligocene before the onset of Miocene basaltic volcanism that resulted essentially from decompression melting of the ascended asthenospheric mantle.

Wang, K.; Chung, S.; Lo, Y.; Lo, C.; Yang, H.; Shinjo, R.; Lee, T.; Wu, J.; Huang, S.

2013-12-01

293

Reassortment of American and Eurasian genes in an influenza A virus isolated from a great black-backed gull ( Larus marinus ), a species demonstrated to move between these regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary hosts for influenza A viruses are waterfowl, although gulls and shorebirds are also important in global avian\\u000a influenza dynamics. Avian influenza virus genes are separated phylogenetically into two geographic clades, American and Eurasian,\\u000a which is caused by the geographic separation of the host species between these two regions. We surveyed a gregarious and cosmopolitan\\u000a species, the Great Black-backed

Michelle Wille; Gregory J. Robertson; Hugh Whitney; Davor Ojkic; Andrew S. Lang

2011-01-01

294

The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata Hungarica, 21: 63-67. Gao K.-Q., Shubin N.H. 2003. Earliest known crown-group Salamanders. Nature, 422: 424-428. Westphal F. 1958. Die Tertiären und rezenten Eurasiatischen Riesensalamander. Palaeontolographica Abt. A, 110: 20-92.

Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

2010-05-01

295

Optimizing the size of the area surveyed for monitoring a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population in the Swiss Alps by means of photographic capture-recapture.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of surveyed area size on density estimates by means of camera-trapping in a low-density felid population (1-2 individuals/100 km(2) ). We applied non-spatial capture-recapture (CR) and spatial CR (SCR) models for Eurasian lynx during winter 2005/2006 in the northwestern Swiss Alps by sampling an area divided into 5 nested plots ranging from 65 to 760 km(2) . CR model density estimates (95% CI) for models M0 and Mh decreased from 2.61 (1.55-3.68) and 3.6 (1.62-5.57) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the smallest to 1.20 (1.04-1.35) and 1.26 (0.89-1.63) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the largest area surveyed. SCR model density estimates also decreased with increasing sampling area but not significantly. High individual range overlaps in relatively small areas (the edge effect) is the most plausible reason for this positive bias in the CR models. Our results confirm that SCR models are much more robust to changes in trap array size than CR models, thus avoiding overestimation of density in smaller areas. However, when a study is concerned with monitoring population changes, large spatial efforts (area surveyed ?760 km(2) ) are required to obtain reliable and precise density estimates with these population densities and recapture rates. PMID:24020463

Zimmermann, Fridolin; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Molinari-Jobin, Anja; Breitenmoser, Urs

2013-09-01

296

Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - do people want to keep the doors open?  

PubMed

This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation. PMID:23811031

Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

2013-11-15

297

Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world's most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora).  

PubMed

Marine invasions are taking place at an increasing rate. When occurring in blooms, zooplanktivorous comb jellies of the genus Mnemiopsis are able to cause pelagic regime shifts in coastal areas and may cause the collapse of commercially important fish populations. Using microsatellites, developed for the first time in the phylum Ctenophora, we show that Mnemiopsis leidyi has colonized Eurasia from two source regions. Our preliminary data set included four sites within the putative source region (US East Coast and Gulf of Mexico) and 10 invaded locations in Eurasian waters. Bayesian clustering and phylogeographic approaches revealed the origin of earlier invasions of the Black and Caspian Sea in the 1980s/1990s within or close to the Gulf of Mexico, while the 2006 invasion of the North and Baltic Seas can be directly traced to New England (pairwise F(ST) = 0). We found no evidence for mixing among both gene pools in the invaded areas. While the genetic diversity (allelic richness) remained similar in the Baltic Sea compared to the source region New England, it was reduced in the North Sea, supporting the view of an initial invasion of Northern Europe to a Baltic Sea port. In Black and Caspian Sea samples, we found a gradual decline in allelic richness compared to the Gulf of Mexico region, supporting a stepping-stone model of colonization with two sequential genetic founder events. Our data also suggest that current practices of ballast water treatment are insufficient to prevent repeated invasions of gelatinous zooplankton. PMID:20561193

Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bolte, Sören; Sparwel, Maximiliane; Moss, Anthony G; Javidpour, Jamileh

2010-07-01

298

North American and Eurasian strains of Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) have a high genetic identity, but differ in the nuclear apparatus and in their mating behavior.  

PubMed

It was investigated whether the closely related species Stylonychia lemnae and Stylonychia mytilus occur in North America. Eigthy-one Stylonychia cells were collected in the surroundings of Ithaca, N.Y., USA. A comparison of their isoenzyme patterns and the number of dorsal cilia with those of Eurasian clones demonstrated that 79 clones belong to S. lemnae and 2 to S. mytilus. The mean genetic identity between the European and the North American populations of S. lemnae is 84% which is characteristic for different populations of one species. Only 33 of the North American clones conjugated. F 1 and F 2 exconjugants (North American × European clones) are as viable as exconjugants from European clones. Crossings of North American × European clones with different isoenzyme alleles demonstrated that the genetic material is exchanged. In contrast, many of the other 46 nonconjugating North American clones can start but do not finish conjugation ("pseudoconjugation" without genetic exchange). Some of these clones have Mi without function, small Mi or no Mi at all. Some clones also show a peculiar DNA banding pattern with several highly overamplified DNA sequences. It is concluded that the American populations of S. lemnae contain clones which diverge in several characteristics from the European/Asian clones. PMID:23195788

Ammermann, D; Schlegel, M; Hellmer, K H

1989-09-15

299

Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps  

PubMed Central

Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5?±?2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6?±?25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8?±?12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

2013-01-01

300

On the use of satellites to obtain information on the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols over the boreal eurasian forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALANIS-Aerosols project is a feasibility study on the use of existing satellite data for discriminating between natural aerosols emitted by boreal Eurasian forests and long-range transported anthropogenic aerosols. In this paper an overview is provided of different satellite products which are potentially useful to obtain this kind of information. Approaches that have been followed in the past are briefly summarized. Secondary production of aerosols from their precursor gases, in particular biogenic volatile organic compounds which play an important role in the formation of new particles through nucleation, is briefly discussed. These newly formed particles are initially too small to observe directly with optical instruments used for earth observation (EO) but through the use of proxies information can be obtained on global nucleation mode aerosol concentrations. Next we focus on aerosols with particle sizes in the optically active size range, roughly particles with a diameter larger than 50-100 nm, depending on wavelength. These particles can be observed with EO instruments as well as using several different types of in situ observations. The satellite data used are aerosol properties retrieved from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR, flying on ENVISAT since 2002) using both the forward and nadir view with the AATSR dual view algorithm (ADV). Ground-based in situ data used here are aerosol properties measured in Hyytiälä, Finland. These observations are complemented with model calculations using the global atmospheric aerosol and chemistry model GLOMAP. Examples show the complementarity of different data sources to obtain information on the temporal and spatial information on the nature of aerosols over the Boreal forest.

de Leeuw, G.; Arola, A.; Sogacheva, L.; Kivekäs, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Arneth, A.; Christensen, T.; Korhonen, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Lappalainen, H.; Kolmonen, P.; Mielonen, T.; Sofiev, M.; Kulmala, M.; Pinnock, S.

2011-08-01

301

An avian influenza A(H11N1) virus from a wild aquatic bird revealing a unique Eurasian-American genetic reassortment  

PubMed Central

Influenza surveillance in different wild bird populations is critical for understanding the persistence, transmission and evolution of these viruses. Avian influenza (AI) surveillance was undertaken in wild migratory and resident birds during the period 2007–2008, in view of the outbreaks of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) H5N1 in poultry in India since 2006. In this study, we present the whole genome sequence data along with the genetic and virological characterization of an Influenza A(H11N1) virus isolated from wild aquatic bird for the first time from India. The virus was low pathogenicity and phylogenetic analysis revealed that it was distinct from reported H11N1 viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene showed maximum similarity with A/semipalmatedsandpiper/Delaware/2109/2000 (H11N6) and A/shorebird/Delaware/236/2003(H11N9) while the neuraminidase (NA) gene showed maximum similarity with A/duck/Mongolia/540/2001(H1N1). The virus thus possessed an HA gene of the American lineage. The NA and other six genes were of the Eurasian lineage and showed closer relatedness to non-H11 viruses. Such a genetic reassortment is unique and interesting, though the pathways leading to its emergence and its future persistence in the avian reservoir is yet to be fully established. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11262-010-0487-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20440548

Pawar, Shailesh; Chakrabarti, Alok; Cherian, Sarah; Pande, Satish; Nanaware, Madhuri; Raut, Satish; Pal, Biswajoy; Jadhav, Santosh; Kode, Sadhana; Koratkar, Santosh; Thite, Vishal

2010-01-01

302

The annual cycle of a trans-equatorial Eurasian–African passerine migrant: different spatio-temporal strategies for autumn and spring migration  

PubMed Central

The small size of the billions of migrating songbirds commuting between temperate breeding sites and the tropics has long prevented the study of the largest part of their annual cycle outside the breeding grounds. Using light-level loggers (geolocators), we recorded the entire annual migratory cycle of the red-backed shrike Lanius collurio, a trans-equatorial Eurasian-African passerine migrant. We tested differences between autumn and spring migration for nine individuals. Duration of migration between breeding and winter sites was significantly longer in autumn (average 96 days) when compared with spring (63 days). This difference was explained by much longer staging periods during autumn (71 days) than spring (9 days). Between staging periods, the birds travelled faster during autumn (356 km d–1) than during spring (233 km d–1). All birds made a protracted stop (53 days) in Sahelian sub-Sahara on southbound migration. The birds performed a distinct loop migration (22 000 km) where spring distance, including a detour across the Arabian Peninsula, exceeded the autumn distance by 22 per cent. Geographical scatter between routes was particularly narrow in spring, with navigational convergence towards the crossing point from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula. Temporal variation between individuals was relatively constant, while different individuals tended to be consistently early or late at different departure/arrival occasions during the annual cycle. These results demonstrate the existence of fundamentally different spatio-temporal migration strategies used by the birds during autumn and spring migration, and that songbirds may rely on distinct staging areas for completion of their annual cycle, suggesting more sophisticated endogenous control mechanisms than merely clock-and-compass guidance among terrestrial solitary migrants. After a century with metal-ringing, year-round tracking of long-distance migratory songbirds promises further insights into bird migration. PMID:21900322

Tøttrup, Anders P.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Strandberg, Roine; Thorup, Kasper; Kristensen, Mikkel Willemoes; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Fox, James; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Rahbek, Carsten; Alerstam, Thomas

2012-01-01

303

Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.  

PubMed

Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing <0.5 m. We deduce that temperature influences beavers at the landscape scale via effects on spring green-up phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and topography on forage growth are instructive, and consequently warrant examination when developing conservation management strategies for populations of medium to large herbivores. PMID:23504905

Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

2013-04-01

304

Land-Bridge Calibration of Molecular Clocks and the Post-Glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian Field Vole Microtus agrestis  

PubMed Central

Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole (Microtus agrestis) mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient) DNA (including that of a congeneric species) suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration. PMID:25111840

Herman, Jeremy S.; McDevitt, Allan D.; Kawa?ko, Agata; Jaarola, Maarit; Wójcik, Jan M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

2014-01-01

305

Molecular characteristics of the complete genome of a J-subgroup avian leukosis virus strain isolated from Eurasian teal in China.  

PubMed

The J-subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) strain WB11098J was isolated from a wild Eurasian teal, and its proviral genomic sequences were determined. The complete proviral sequence of WB11098J was 7868 nt long. WB11098J was 95.3.9 % identical to the prototype strain HPRS-103, 94.2 % identical to the American strain ADOL-7501, 94.5-94.7 % identical to Chinese broiler isolates, 94.8-97.5 % identical to layer chicken isolates, and 94.4-95.0 % identical to Chinese local chicken isolates at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the WB11098J isolate shared the greatest homology with the layer strain SD09DP03 and was included in the same cluster. Interestingly, two 19-bp insertions in the U3 regions of the 5'LTR and 5'UTR that were most likely derived from other retroviruses were found in the WB11098J isolate. These insertions separately introduced one E2BP-binding site in the U3 region of the 5'LTR and a RNA polymerase II transcription factor IIB and core promoter motif of ten elements in the 5'UTR. A 5-bp deletion was identified in the U3 region of the 5'LTR. No nucleotides were deleted in the rTM or DR-1 regions in the 3'UTR. A 1-bp deletion was detected in the E element and introduced a specific and distinct binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study is the first to report the molecular characteristics of the complete genome of an ALV-J that was isolated from a wild bird and will provide necessary information for further understanding of the evolution of ALV-J. PMID:24854142

Zeng, Xiangwei; Gao, Yulong; Li, Delong; Hao, Ruijun; Liu, Wansi; Han, Chunyan; Gao, Honglei; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Xiaomei

2014-10-01

306

Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza (H7) Virus Infection in Mice and Ferrets: Enhanced Virulence of Eurasian H7N7 Viruses Isolated from Humans?  

PubMed Central

Before 2003, only occasional case reports of human H7 influenza virus infections occurred as a result of direct animal-to-human transmission or laboratory accidents; most of these infections resulted in conjunctivitis. An increase in isolation of avian influenza A H7 viruses from poultry outbreaks and humans has raised concerns that additional zoonotic transmissions of influenza viruses from poultry to humans may occur. To better understand the pathogenesis of H7 viruses, we have investigated their ability to cause disease in mouse and ferret models. Mice were infected intranasally with H7 viruses of high and low pathogenicity isolated from The Netherlands in 2003 (Netherlands/03), the northeastern United States in 2002-2003, and Canada in 2004 and were monitored for morbidity, mortality, viral replication, and proinflammatory cytokine production in respiratory organs. All H7 viruses replicated efficiently in the respiratory tracts of mice, but only Netherlands/03 isolates replicated in systemic organs, including the brain. Only A/NL/219/03 (NL/219), an H7N7 virus isolated from a single fatal human case, was highly lethal for mice and caused severe disease in ferrets. Supporting the apparent ocular tropism observed in humans following infection with viruses of the H7 subtype, both Eurasian and North American lineage H7 viruses were detected in the mouse eye following ocular inoculation, whereas an H7N2 virus isolated from the human respiratory tract was not. Therefore, in general, the relative virulence and cell tropism of the H7 viruses in these animal models correlated with the observed virulence in humans. PMID:17686867

Belser, Jessica A.; Lu, Xuihua; Maines, Taronna R.; Smith, Catherine; Li, Yan; Donis, Ruben O.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2007-01-01

307

Dextral transpression and late Eocene magmatism in the trans-Himalayan Ladakh Batholith (North India): implications for tectono-magmatic evolution of the Indo-Eurasian collisional arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trans-Himalayan Ladakh batholith is a result of arc magmatism caused by the northward subduction of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere below the edge of the Eurasian plate. The batholith dominantly consists of calc-alkaline I-type granitoids which are ferromagnetic in nature with the presence of magnetite as the principal carrier of magnetic susceptibility. The mesoscopic and magnetic fabric are concordant and generally vary from WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW for different intrusions of ferromagnetic granites in different parts of the batholith. Strike of magnetic fabric is roughly parallel with the regional trend of the Ladakh batholith in the present study area and is orthogonal to the direction of India-Eurasia collision. In Khardungla and Changla section, the magnetic fabric is distributed in a sigmoidal manner. It is inferred that this sigmoidal pattern is caused by shearing due to transpression induced by oblique convergence between the two plates. U-Pb zircon geochronology of a rhyolite from the southern parts of the batholith gives a crystallization age of 71.7 ± 0.6 Ma, coeval with ~68 Ma magmatism in the northern parts of the batholith. The central part of the batholith is characterized by S-type two-mica granites, which gives much younger age of magmatism at 35.5 ± 0.5 Ma. The magnetic fabric of these two-mica granites is at a high angle to the regional trend of the batholith. It is proposed that these two-mica granites were emplaced well after the cessation of subduction and arc magmatism, along fractures that developed perpendicular to the regional strike of the batholith due to shearing.

Sen, Koushik; Collins, Alan S.

2012-10-01

308

Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel  

PubMed Central

The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than ?9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening ?10?000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at ?6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area. PMID:20234393

Pereira, Luísa; ?erný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vašíková, Alžb?ta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdi?ka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

2010-01-01

309

Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains unresolved, and the systematic position of some segregates of EA Aster requires further study. PMID:22517812

Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

2012-01-01

310

Plio-Quaternary paleostresses in the Atlantic passive margin of the Moroccan Meseta: Influence of the Central Rif escape tectonics related to Eurasian-African plate convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atlantic Moroccan Meseta margin is affected by far field recent tectonic stresses. The basement belongs to the variscan orogen and was deformed by hercynian folding and metamorphism followed by a post-Permian erosional stage, producing the flat paleorelief of the region. Tabular Mesozoic and Mio-Plio-Quaternary deposits locally cover the Meseta, which has undergone recent uplift, while north of Rabat the subsidence continues in the Gharb basin, constituting the foreland basin of the Rif Cordillera. The Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover of the Moroccan Meseta, mainly formed by aeolian and marine terraces deposits, is affected by brittle deformations (joints and small-scale faults) that evidence that this region - considered up to date as stable - is affected by the far field stresses. Striated faults are recognized in the oldest Plio-Quaternary deposits and show strike-slip and normal kinematics, while joints affect up to the most recent sediments. Paleostress may be sorted into extensional, only affecting Rabat sector, and three main compressive groups deforming whole the region: (1) ENE-WSW to ESE-WNW compression; (2) NNW-SSE to NE-SW compression and (3) NNE-SSW compression. These stresses can be attributed mainly to the NW-SE oriented Eurasian-African plate convergence in the western Mediterranean and the escape toward the SW of the Rif Cordillera. Local paleostress deviations may be related to basement fault reactivation. These new results reveal the tectonic instability during Plio-Quaternary of the Moroccan Meseta margin in contrast to the standard passive margins, generally considered stable.

Chabli, Ahmed; Chalouan, Ahmed; Akil, Mostapha; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruano, Patricia; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López-Garrido, Angel Carlos; Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Pedrera, Antonio

2014-07-01

311

The fungal flora of zoo animals' ears.  

PubMed

The mycotic flora of the ears of zoo animals was investigated in a large zoological garden in Germany. Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from the following animals: big ant-eater, brown bear, common wombat, Eurasian badger, Indian elephant, Mangaliza pig and wide-mouthed rhinoceros. Aspergillus and Penicillium species, yeasts and zygomycetes were also isolated from some animals. PMID:7935595

Kuttin, E S; Müller, J

1994-01-01

312

Reassortment of American and Eurasian genes in an influenza A virus isolated from a great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), a species demonstrated to move between these regions.  

PubMed

The primary hosts for influenza A viruses are waterfowl, although gulls and shorebirds are also important in global avian influenza dynamics. Avian influenza virus genes are separated phylogenetically into two geographic clades, American and Eurasian, which is caused by the geographic separation of the host species between these two regions. We surveyed a gregarious and cosmopolitan species, the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), in Newfoundland, Canada, for the presence of avian influenza viruses. We have isolated and determined the complete genome sequence of an H13N2 virus, A/Great Black-backed Gull/Newfoundland/296/2008(H13N2), from one of these birds. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus contained two genes in the American gull clade (PB1, HA), two genes in the American avian clade (PA, NA), and four genes in the Eurasian gull clade (PB2, NP, M, NS). We analyzed bird band recovery information and found the first evidence of trans-Atlantic migration from Newfoundland to Europe (UK, Spain and Portugal) for this species. Thus, great black-backed gulls could be important for movement of avian influenza viruses across the Atlantic Ocean and within North America. PMID:21053031

Wille, Michelle; Robertson, Gregory J; Whitney, Hugh; Ojkic, Davor; Lang, Andrew S

2011-01-01

313

A Eurasian Alga in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since it has not been report ed from other col­ lections of Alaskan algae, it may not occur out­ side of a limited area of the Bering Sea coast. Several mechanisms for the introduction of this algae into Izembek Lagoon can be con­ ceived. The most interesting is the possible introduction by the several hundred thou sand Stellar 's Eiders

PETER McRoy

314

Animal behaviour Eurasian jays (Garrulus  

E-print Network

* Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK *Author for correspondence (nsc22@cam.ac.uk). Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms

Indiana University

315

MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL  

E-print Network

and pectin media; the organisms, when subsequently applied to the plants, accelerated the plants' necrosis OF THIS P ...GE(1I'II_ Data Ent.r.d) 20. ABSTRACT (Continued). pectin are particularly vulnerable target treated controls by the simple addition of sterile cellulose and pectin media to respective test chambers

US Army Corps of Engineers

316

Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the ?stanbul Terrane (Bak?rl?k?ran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kas?mlar Formations; Bey?ehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kas?mlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kas?mlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution of Triassic or Carboniferous (Variscan) arc sources, in marked contrast to those of the Triassic Karakaya subduction complex. In comparison, the ages of the analysed zircons in the Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane range from 294 Ma to 3.1 Ga. Triassic zircons are again absent, while Variscan-aged zircons (294 to 339 Ma) dominate the zircon population. Additional zircon populations are dated at 554 to 655 Ma, 0.9 to 1.2 Ga, 1.5 Ga, 1.65 Ga, 2.0 to 2.15 and 2.5 to 2.8 Ga. The Precambrian zircon age spectra are compatible with derivation from an Avalonian/Amazonian/Baltic crustal provenance. In summary, there is no evidence in either the Triassic sandstones of the ?stanbul Terrane or of the Taurides of the Triassic magmatic arc source that dominates the Triassic Karakaya subduction-accretion complex. Where then was the source of the Karakaya arc detritus? A likely option is that the Karakaya subduction-accretion complex is an exotic terrane that was detached from a source magmatic arc and displaced to its present location, probably prior the initial deposition of the Early Jurassic cover sediments. This study was supported by TUBITAK, Project No: 111R015

Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

2014-05-01

317

Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the Western Mediterranean and especially on Morocco. Exploiting parameters of positions and dispersions of these stations within the 1997-2003 period, the motion and the interaction types of interaction between African and Eurasian tectonic plates can be estimated. Similarly, the crustal dynamic parameters of tension of these sites will be computed. The time occupation on repeated observations sites is at least 72 hours. The measurements are continuous on permanent stations. The precise ephemerides are used in GPS computations. The post-treatments are done using commercial and scientific softwares. The coordinates obtained for two consecutive periods to and t within a period of 8 years will be used by programs established for this purpose to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension as well as to evaluate the appropriate movements. Even crustal dynamic parameters will be determined on each sites of the GPS-Geodynamics network, whose interest of seismic investigations is very important. This will allow best knowledge of substantial seismic activities of the surrounding zones. It can be deduced by measuring the motions and their parameter tensions using GPS. These estimations will contribute on the earthquake prediction by supervising the strain accumulation and its release in the active areas. For the geodetically aspect the GPS-Geodynamics sites computed in the ITRF frame can be used with other similar ounces' of Africa country and some well selected and convenient IGS, EUREF stations..to determine first the NAFREF and the AFRER frames.

Azzouzi, R.

2009-04-01

318

Parasitological survey on wild carnivora in north-western Tohoku, Japan.  

PubMed

In the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These included 7 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two Mustela sibirica itatsi and one M. nivalis namiyei), and one Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma). Roundworms (Toxocara canis in foxes and Toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (Ancylostoma kusimaense and Arthrostoma miyazakiense) and Molineus sp. in the small intestine were the most prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. In martens, Aonchotheca putorii in the stomach, Concinnum ten in the pancreatic duct, Molineus sp. and Euryhelmis costaricensis in the small intestine were the most prevalent. Collected parasites include some new helminth species for this region or Japan; the strobilar stage of Taenia polyacantha from foxes, Pygidliopsis summa from a raccoon dog, Eucoleus aerophilus, A. putorii, and Soholiphyme baturini from martens. PMID:10535507

Sato, H; Inaba, T; Ihama, Y; Kamiya, H

1999-09-01

319

Closed-population capture-recapture modeling of samples drawn one at a time.  

PubMed

Motivated by field sampling of DNA fragments, we describe a general model for capture-recapture modeling of samples drawn one at a time in continuous-time. Our model is based on Poisson sampling where the sampling time may be unobserved. We show that previously described models correspond to partial likelihoods from our Poisson model and their use may be justified through arguments concerning S- and Bayes-ancillarity of discarded information. We demonstrate a further link to continuous-time capture-recapture models and explain observations that have been made about this class of models in terms of partial ancillarity. We illustrate application of our models using data from the European badger (Meles meles) in which genotyping of DNA fragments was subject to error. PMID:25311362

Barker, Richard J; Schofield, Matthew R; Wright, Janine A; Frantz, Alain C; Stevens, Chris

2014-12-01

320

The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding.  

PubMed

Genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (Felis catus, 2n = 38), American mink (Mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula, 2n = 40), Old World badger (Meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (Melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species chromosome painting with a complete set of stone marten probes. In total, 18 stone marten autosomal probes reveal 20, 19, 21, 18 and 21 pairs of homologous chromosomal segments in the respective genomes of American mink, yellow-throated marten. Old World badger, ferret badger and red panda. Reciprocal painting between stone marten and cat delineated 21 pairs of homologous segments shared in both stone marten and cat genomes. The chromosomal painting results indicate that most chromosomes of these species are highly conserved and show one-to-one correspondence with stone marten and cat chromosomes or chromosomal arms, and that only a few interchromosomal rearrangements (Robertsonian fusions and fissions) have occurred during species radiation. By comparing the distribution patterns of conserved chromosomal segments in both these species and the putative ancestral carnivore karyotype, we have reconstructed the pathway of karyotype evolution of these species from the putative 2n = 42 ancestral carnivore karyotype. Our results support a close phylogenetic relationship between the red panda and mustelids. The homology data presented in these maps will allow us to transfer the cat gene mapping data to other unmapped carnivore species. PMID:12067210

Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Fu, Beiyuan; Ying, Tian; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

2002-01-01

321

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

2012-12-28

322

Presence of Cryptosporidium scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Galicia (NW, Spain). A sampling of 209 wild boars shot in different game preserves was carried out during the hunting season in 2009-2010. All samples were examined for Cryptosporidium infection, using both immunological and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples were identified using a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies (DFA). The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA was determined using nested PCR involving amplification of a fragment of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). A total of 35 (16.7%) samples tested positive with both techniques. However, sequencing was only possible in 27 samples. Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were identified in 19, 5 and 3 of the samples, respectively. Moreover, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting all age groups (juveniles, sub adults and adults). Sequence analyses of the glycoprotein (GP60) gene revealed the presence of C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 in 2 juveniles and IIaA13G1R1 in 1 sub adult wild boar. These species and subtypes have previously been described in human patients, indicating that isolates from asymptomatic wild boars might have zoonotic potential. This is the first report of the presence of C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in wild boars (S. scrofa) in Spain. PMID:23643454

García-Presedo, Ignacio; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio

2013-09-23

323

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian ‘avian-like’ H1N1 swine viruses in mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian “avian-like” (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Design Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Sample Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Setting Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Main outcome measures Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Results and Conclusions Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. PMID:24373385

Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

2014-01-01

324

Mortality trajectory analysis reveals the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology in natural wildlife–disease interactions  

PubMed Central

In animal populations, males are commonly more susceptible to disease-induced mortality than females. However, three competing mechanisms can cause this sex bias: weak males may simultaneously be more prone to exposure to infection and mortality; being ‘male’ may be an imperfect proxy for the underlying driver of disease-induced mortality; or males may experience increased severity of disease-induced effects compared with females. Here, we infer the drivers of sex-specific epidemiology by decomposing fixed mortality rates into mortality trajectories and comparing their parameters. We applied Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to a 22-year longitudinal study of a population of badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). At the point of infection, infected male and female badgers had equal mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that acquisition of infection occurs in males with coincidentally high mortality. Males and females exhibited similar levels of heterogeneity in mortality risk, refuting the hypothesis that maleness is only a proxy for disease susceptibility. Instead, sex differences were caused by a more rapid increase in male mortality rates following infection. Males are indeed more susceptible to bTB, probably due to immunological differences between the sexes. We recommend this mortality trajectory approach for the study of infection in animal populations. PMID:25056621

McDonald, Jennifer L.; Smith, Graham C.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Delahay, Richard J.; Hodgson, Dave

2014-01-01

325

14th Annual Conference Central Eurasian  

E-print Network

-Society Relations Central Asian Military History Social Memory and The Material World Conceiving Tajikistan: Islam and the State in Central Asia Contemporary Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan Past

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

326

Leg 190 Preliminary Report58 Eurasian plate  

E-print Network

Seamounts 1173 1174 808 1177 1178 1176 1175 582 583 Figure 6 #12;Leg190PreliminaryReport64 VE = ~3x BSR LDR (LTS zone) Frontal out-of- sequence thrust zone (OOST) Imbricate thrust zone Protothrustzone 100 km BSR

327

Uzbekistan: A regional player in Eurasian geopolitics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been a trend towards the development of two rival sets of alliances in Eurasia: in effect, one Western?oriented alignment led by the United States and Turkey, including Israel, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. On the other hand, a group of states resisting American and Turkish influence in the Caucasus and Central Asia is developing, led by Russia and Iran,

Svante E. Cornell

2000-01-01

328

LA ICP MS and Ion Probe U-Pb dating of igneous and metasedimentary units in the NE Pontides, NE Turkey: evidence of Peri-Gondwanan terrane accretion, Late Palaeozoic magmatism/metamorphism and Early Mesozoic extension along the S Eurasian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Artvin area is critical to an understanding of the tectonic development of the S margin of Eurasia and Tethys to the south. We have supplemented recent MTA mapping with 1/25,000-scale mapping of a critical area, combined with integrated stratigraphical, sedimentary, geochemical and geochronological studies. Here, we focus on U-Pb zircon dating of igneous and detrital zircons derived from basement units of the Pontide Autocthon and from overlying slice complexes, carried out by LA ICP MS at Frankfurt University and by Ion Probe at Edinburgh University. The Eastern Pontide Autocthon is overlain by north-vergent thrust sheets, mostly of continental margin origin, whereas Mesozoic (Neotethyan) ophiolites form the uppermost thrust sheet. The Autochton basement (Çaml?kaya pluton) is mainly tonalite, cut by granitic dykes. Both intrusions are of within-plate type, without a chemically identifiable subduction influence. The pluton yielded a concordant age of 330.4 ± 4.2 Ma (Visean), while crosscutting dykes gave an age of 156.3 ± 2.0 Ma (Oxfordian). The overlying lower slice complex (Slice 1) begins with a low-grade meta-clastic basement unit, intruded by coarse-grained granite. Detrital zircons from the meta-clastics yielded late Neoproterozoic (579-700), early Neoproterozoic (0.9 Ga) and Kibaran/Grenvillian (1.1-1.3 Ga) zircon populations. The oldest known zircon has an age of 2719 Ma. Slice 2 above this (Demirkent Intrusive Complex) is represented by foliated amphibolites, cut by granitic veins and, together, cut by swarms of basic-silicic dykes that postdate regional metamorphism and related deformation. A granitic vein yielded a concordia age of 325.4 ± 2.8 Ma (Visean-Serpukhovian). Slice 2 was intruded by two small tonalitic bodies, one of which yielded a concordant age of 179.8 ± 1 Ma (Toarcian). Slice 3 above this begins with granulite-facies gneiss and schist (Karada? Metamorphics). A representative 1 m-wide meta-granitic stock within paragneiss experienced lead loss, with a lower intercept at 326 Ma. One magmatic zircon from this intrusion gave an age of 358 Ma (early Carboniferous), interpreted as the crystallisation age. Metamorphic rims of these zircons cluster around 330 Ma, viewed as the time of peak Variscan metamorphism. We interpret the E Pontide region (e.g. Artvin area) as part of an active S-Eurasian continental margin during Late Palaeozoic. Accretion/collision of Peri-Gondwanan terrane(s) was likely responsible for Variscan deformation/metamorphism. Newly accreted Peri-Gondwanan crust was intruded by granitic rocks during early Carboniferous, possibly in response to delamination/slab-break off processes. Following exhumation, the Eurasian margin remained relatively inactive and erosional during Late Carboniferous-Triassic. Related to regional northward subduction of Palaeotethys, the S-Eurasian margin underwent tectonic extension and deep-marine basin formation during Early Jurassic. The dyke swarm and Toarcian felsic plutons were emplaced into extended crust behind a continental margin magmatic arc. Short-lived Mid-Jurassic compression may reflect collision of an oceanic edifice (seamount/continental fragment) with the subduction trench. Extension resumed during Late Jurassic associated with Oxfordian magmatism. A S-facing subsiding passive margin existed during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, followed by northward subduction and arc magmatism (E Pontide Arc). SSZ-type ophiolites were regionally obducted during latest Cretaceous, followed by Eocene telescoping of the Eurasian margin during final closure of Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean.

Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Ayda Ustaömer, P.

2010-05-01

329

Seasonal abundance and control of the clover head weevil, Hypera meles (Fabr.)  

E-print Network

spread generally throughout the Atlantic seaboard states and westward as far as Kansas, with a known distribution of 23 states. This pest was first reported in Texas on crimson clo- ver, Trifolium incarnatum, during the spring of 1965 (Tnomas... aclditional soecies of Trifolium as hosts of the weevil 12 He also stated that the occurrence o . clove" head s. -ecvils on plants other than crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatun, was "are and that hc collect ec la vao onl!: on species o= izi- Solium. )Ie...

Stanley, Roy Lee

1968-01-01

330

The organized melee: Emergence of collective behavior in concentrated suspensions of swimming bacteria and associated phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspensions of the aerobic bacteria Bacilus subtilis develop patterns and flows from the interplay of motility, chemotaxis and buoyancy. In sessile drops, such bioconvectively driven flows carry plumes down the slanted meniscus and concentrate cells at the drop edge, while in pendant drops such self-concentration occurs at the bottom. These dynamics are explained quantitatively by a mathematical model consisting of oxygen diffusion and consumption, chemotaxis, and viscous fluid dynamics. Concentrated regions in both geometries comprise nearly close-packed populations, forming the collective "Zooming BioNematic" (ZBN) phase. This state exhibits large-scale orientational coherence, analogous to the molecular alignment of nematic liquid crystals, coupled with remarkable spatial and temporal correlations of velocity and vorticity, as measured by both novel and standard applications of particle imaging velocimetry. To probe mechanisms leading to this phase, response of individual cells to steric stress was explored, finding that they can reverse swimming direction at spatial constrictions without turning the cell body. The consequences of this propensity to flip the flagella are quantified, showing that "forwards" and "backwards" motion are dynamically and morphologically indistinguishable. Finally, experiments and mathematical modeling show that complex flows driven by previously unknown bipolar flagellar arrangements are induced when B. subtilis are confined in a thin layer of fluid, between asymmetric boundaries. The resulting driven flow circulates around the cell body ranging over several cell diameters, in contrast to the more localized flows surrounding free swimmers. This discovery extends our knowledge of the dynamic geometry of bacteria and their flagella, and reveals new mechanisms for motility-associated molecular transport and intercellular communication.

Cisneros Salerno, Luis

331

Fernando D. Mele, Gonzalo Guilln-Goslbez, Antonio Espuna and Luis Puigjaner  

E-print Network

plant Manufacturing plant Retailer Warehouse Retailer Customer Customer Customer Raw material extraction Manufacturing plant Manufacturing plant Manufacturing plant Retailer Warehouse Retailer Customer Customer chain management EWO Seminar, 11 December 2007 #12;2 · Introduction · Simulation models for SCM · Multi

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

332

Angry Badgers: The Protests in Wisconsin Have Helped Revive an Old Progressive State of Being: "Badgerness" Has Been Reinvented for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The events in Wisconsin during February and March 2011 will long be considered remarkable in many ways. That includes the documenting of the protests. Perhaps at no previous time have so many journalists--paid and unpaid--gathered so much information about a protest movement and dispersed it in so many formats so quickly. Ubiquitous, touching, and…

Buhle, Mari Jo; Buhle, Paul

2011-01-01

333

Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects.  

PubMed

HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture-mark-recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

2014-06-01

334

Heterozygosity–fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects  

PubMed Central

HFCs (heterozygosity–fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture–mark–recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

2014-01-01

335

Age-Related Declines and Disease-Associated Variation in Immune Cell Telomere Length in a Wild Mammal  

PubMed Central

Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes (‘immune cells’), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

2014-01-01

336

A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland.  

PubMed

The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) samples (n = 91) were positive for Uncinaria stenocephala (38%), Eucoleus aerophilus (26%), Toxocara canis (20%), Trichuris vulpis (4%) and Isospora-like oocysts (9%). Badger (Meles meles) samples (n = 50) were positive for Uncinaria criniformis (40%), E. aerophilus (6%) and Isospora-like oocysts (16%). No parasites were observed in pine marten (n = 48; Martes martes) faeces. Approximately 5% of American mink (Mustela vison) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium by polymerase chain reaction (identified as Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 3) and 'mink' genotype (n = 1)). The results suggest that wild carnivores in Ireland have a range of parasites, although it is unclear from the present study to what extent these infections are associated with morbidity. While it can be expected that, via their faeces, wild carnivores contribute to the spread of these parasites, they are unlikely the primary source of environmental contamination. Therefore, they should not always be the principal target of control measures. PMID:23900557

Stuart, Peter; Golden, Olwen; Zintl, Annetta; de Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; McCarthy, Elaine; Lawton, Colin

2013-10-01

337

Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to cattle. In epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (R0) and critical community size (CCS) thresholds are achieved. Recognized wildlife reservoir hosts of M. bovis include the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, European badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Iberian Peninsula and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA. The epidemiological concepts of R0 and CCS are related to more tangible disease/pathogen characteristics such as prevalence, pathogen-induced pathology, host behaviour and ecology. An understanding of both epidemiological and disease/pathogen characteristics is necessary to identify wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. In some cases, there is a single wildlife reservoir host involved in transmission of M. bovis to cattle. Complexity increases, however, in multihost systems where multiple potential reservoir hosts exist. Bovine tuberculosis eradication efforts require elimination of M. bovis transmission between wildlife reservoirs and cattle. For successful eradication identification of true wildlife reservoirs is critical, as disease control efforts are most effective when directed towards true reservoirs. PMID:24171844

Palmer, M V

2013-11-01

338

Sarcoptic mange in Swedish wildlife.  

PubMed

Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes appeared among red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Scandinavia (south-west Finland) for the first time in this century in 1967. The disease was most probably introduced by foxes crossing the Gulf of Finland from Estonia. The mange epizootic spread northwards through Finland and reached Sweden in late 1975, when mangy foxes appeared in the northern part of the country. In 1984, mange was observed in most parts of Sweden. The disease was observed to spread rapidly in boreal areas, whereas it spread more slowly in agricultural areas. Mortality due to mange was very high. The duration of the disease before death due to emaciation has been shown experimentally to be over 90 days. An outbreak of fox mange among Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) occurred in 1986. The local population of Arctic foxes was caught and successfully treated. The following year, treated foxes were caught again and no signs of disease were found. Sporadic cases of fox mange have also been diagnosed in lynx (Lynx lynx), pine marten (Martes martes) and domestic dogs. Single cases have been observed in other species: wolf (Canis lupus), mountain hare (Lepus timidus), domestic cat and horse. No cases of sarcoptic mange have been recorded in the badger (Meles meles). At present, although fox mange occurs as an epizootic in local populations, the number of foxes has increased again in many parts of Sweden. PMID:1305857

Mörner, T

1992-12-01

339

First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.  

PubMed

Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

Penezi?, Aleksandra; Selakovi?, Sanja; Pavlovi?, Ivan; ?irovi?, Duško

2014-09-01

340

Performance of Proximity Loggers in Recording Intra- and Inter-Species Interactions: A Laboratory and Field-Based Validation Study  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the way in which animals interact through social networks can help to address questions surrounding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of social organisation, and to understand and manage the spread of infectious diseases. Automated proximity loggers are increasingly being used to record interactions between animals, but the accuracy and reliability of the collected data remain largely un-assessed. Here we use laboratory and observational field data to assess the performance of these devices fitted to a herd of 32 beef cattle (Bos taurus) and nine groups of badgers (Meles meles, n ?=?77) living in the surrounding woods. The distances at which loggers detected each other were found to decrease over time, potentially related to diminishing battery power that may be a function of temperature. Loggers were highly accurate in recording the identification of contacted conspecifics, but less reliable at determining contact duration. There was a tendency for extended interactions to be recorded as a series of shorter contacts. We show how data can be manipulated to correct this discrepancy and accurately reflect observed interaction patterns by combining records between any two loggers that occur within a 1 to 2 minute amalgamation window, and then removing any remaining 1 second records. We make universally applicable recommendations for the effective use of proximity loggers, to improve the validity of data arising from future studies. PMID:22745704

Carter, Stephen P.; Bearhop, Stuart; Harrison, Xavier A.; Dall, Sasha R. X.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Delahay, Richard J.

2012-01-01

341

Investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. The only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. This study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. A sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: American mink (Mustela vison), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pine martens (Martes martes), badgers (Meles meles), stoats (Mustela erminea), otters (Lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (Mustela putorius). Approximately 1% of mink and 1% of fox samples were positive by IFAT. According to PCR analysis of DNA extracted from brain tissue, 3% of the mink, 4% of the otters and 6% of the foxes examined were infected with N. caninum. All fecal samples tested negative for N. caninum DNA (n = 311), suggesting that the species that tested positive were intermediate not definitive hosts. This is the first time that tissues from mustelids have tested positive for N. caninum. The need to test 2 relatively large (~200 mg) targeted parts of the brain to avoid false negatives was also identified. The relatively low prevalence of N. caninum in Irish carnivores suggests that the local ecology of a species has an important influence on its epidemiological role. PMID:23068142

Stuart, Peter; Zintl, Annetta; De Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Hawkins, Conall; Lawton, Colin

2013-03-01

342

Use of protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening for antibodies against parapoxvirus in wild animals in Japan.  

PubMed

Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. PMID:10225841

Inoshima, Y; Shimizu, S; Minamoto, N; Hirai, K; Sentsui, H

1999-05-01

343

Use of Protein AG in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening for Antibodies against Parapoxvirus in Wild Animals in Japan  

PubMed Central

Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. PMID:10225841

Inoshima, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shinya; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Hirai, Katsuya; Sentsui, Hiroshi

1999-01-01

344

Pathology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta).  

PubMed

Pathological lesions associated with Mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis; bTB) in free-living meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa are described. The pathology of bTB in meerkats was determined through detailed post-mortem examinations of 57 animals (52 meerkats showing clinical signs of bTB, and five not showing signs of disease). Lymph nodes and tissue lesions thought to be associated with bTB were cultured for mycobacteria. All 52 bTB-infected meerkats showed gross or microscopical granulomatous lesions, but M. bovis was cultured from only 42% (22/52) of these animals. The majority (96%, 50/52) of diseased meerkats had lesions in multiple sites, the pattern of which suggested haematogenous spread of M. bovis infection in this species. The histological characteristics of the tuberculous lesions, together with the gross pathology and the wide range of body systems affected, indicate that infection in meerkats is acquired principally via the respiratory and oral routes, whereas excretion is most likely via the respiratory tract and suppurating skin wounds. Urine and faeces appear to be unlikely sources of infection. The findings of this study provide information on the transmission, pathogenesis and epidemiology of bTB in meerkats that is likely to be relevant to the understanding of M. bovis infection in other social mammal species such as the European badger (Meles meles). PMID:19070868

Drewe, J A; Foote, A K; Sutcliffe, R L; Pearce, G P

2009-01-01

345

Badger History, Vol. 31, No. 2, November 1977. Tracing Your Roots [And] Teacher Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school pupils are introduced to a genealogical approach to state and local history. Although the examples in the booklet pertain to Wisconsin, the format can be easily adapted for classroom use by teachers in other locations. A teacher's supplement accompanies the booklet and offers a bibliography, background information, additional…

Kanetzke, Howard W., Ed.

346

Use of an Electronic Nose To Diagnose Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers and Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB. The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has

R. Fend; R. Geddes; S. Lesellier; H.-M. Vordermeier; L. A. L. Corner; E. Gormley; E. Costello; R. G. Hewinson; D. J. Marlin; A. C. Woodman; M. A. Chambers

2005-01-01

347

Integrated Laboratory and Field Investigations: Assessing Contaminant Risk to American Badgers  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript provides an example of integrated laboratory and field approach to complete a toxicological ecological risk assessment at the landscape level. The core findings from the study demonstrate how radio telemetry data can allow for ranking the relative risks of contam...

348

76 FR 25302 - Executive-Led Eurasian Trade Mission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Communication Technologies (ICT) market size is estimated...billion USD in Information Technologies. The Turkish ICT market...personalized services, music download, games, multi-play... VDSL 3G & 4G related technologies/services Commercial...

2011-05-04

349

Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of

G. Zhang; G. Jiang; Z. Jia; R. Gao; R. Fu

2010-01-01

350

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa  

E-print Network

The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter–gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two ...

Pickrell, Joseph K.

351

Endoparasites of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland.  

PubMed

We sampled 339 fecal samples, 296 intestines, and 82 lungs from 371 lynx hunted during the 2010-2011 season in Finland. The fecal samples were analyzed for endoparasites by a quantitative flotation method, and helminths from intestines were studied morphologically, while lungs were investigated for pulmonary parasites. From fecal samples, eggs and oocysts of at least 6 different endoparasite species were identified, with a mean of 1.5 (range 0-4) parasite species per host. In the intestines, at least 4 different helminth species were found, with the mean of 2.0 (range 1-4) species per infected host. The prevalence of eggs in feces and the prevalence of worms in intestines were 71% and 93% for Toxocara cati , 29% and 68% for Taenia spp., and 5% and 2% for Diphyllobothrium sp., respectively. Only eggs were detected for Capillaria sp. (46%) and Uncinaria sp. (0.6%) nematodes, and only adults were detected for Mesocestoides sp. cestodes (0.3%). Significant positive correlations were evident between the number of T. cati (r = 0.664; P = 0.01) and Diphyllobothrium sp. (r = 0.645; P = 0.01) eggs per gram of feces and adult worms detected in intestine. In addition to the metazoan parasites, protozoan Isospora sp. oocysts were also found (0.6%). Pulmonary samples were all negative for parasites. These data demonstrate that lynx commonly harbor various endoparasites, some of which are zoonotic. PMID:23016871

Deksne, Gunita; Laakkonen, Juha; Näreaho, Anu; Jokelainen, Pikka; Holmala, Katja; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

2013-04-01

352

Anomalous Eurasian snow extent and the wintertime AO  

E-print Network

The winter mode of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is the dominating influence on extratropical winter climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) . The phase of the Arctic Oscillation is characterized by trends in ...

Lundgren, Elizabeth Whitin

2009-01-01

353

The interests of Russia in the Eurasian transport space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the development of the transport infrastructure by the example of railway transport depending on the strategic\\u000a goals of the government and indicates the processes of stagnation and new reference points tied to the openness of the economy\\u000a and its resource orientation. The place and role of Russian railways in external ties as well as the transit potential

V. N. Filina

2010-01-01

354

INTRODUCTION The continental promontory of the Eurasian plate in SE  

E-print Network

, comprising Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Thai­Malay Peninsula and Indochina, was assembled during the Triassic for a long period. This stability is a myth. The region is today surrounded by subduction and collision zones explains the main- tenance of relief and hence sediment supply over long time periods. #12;which opened

Royal Holloway, University of London

355

Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins  

PubMed Central

Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

2013-01-01

356

Effects of Grazing on the Hydrology and Biology of the Badger Wash Basin in Western Colorado, 1953-66  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An intensive study of the effect of grazing on the hydrologic and biotic characteristics of small drainage basins on the Colorado Plateau was begun in the fall of 1953. This report presents data obtained during the first 13 years of the proposed 20-year study. For the period of record 1954-66, runoff from grazed watersheds has averaged about 33 acre-feet per square mile per year. Runoff from ungrazed watersheds averaged from 71 to 76 percent of that from grazed watersheds. During the last 6 years of the period, however, ungrazed watersheds produced 69 to 71 percent as much runoff as grazed watersheds. The sediment yield frown grazed watersheds during the same period was about 3 acre-feet per square mile per year. Sediment yield from ungrazed watersheds ranged from 51 to 75 percent of that from grazed watersheds and averaged 66 percent. The largest change in these relations occurred about 2 years after livestock were excluded from certain watersheds. The causative factors for changes in the runoff and sediment yield relations are not entirely clear. At the end of 13 years, a significant change had occurred in the amount of bare soil and rock. in the ground-cover index, and in the litter and moss on the grazed watersheds. These items remained essentially unchanged on ungrazed watersheds. The changes in ground-cover factors were not of large magnitude and did not occur at the same rate as the changes in runoff and sediment yield. A large part of the difference appears to have been caused by a change in the structure of surface soil. which was brought about by the elimination of trampling by livestock. Deer mice were the most common rodent present on the experimental watersheds, but even their population was not great enough to affect the composition of range vegetation. Deer mice populations remained comparable on grazed and ungrazed watersheds during the study. Other rodents were not present in sufficient numbers to allow their comparison on grazed and ungrazed range. Desert cottontail rabbits and black-tailed jackrabbits were more plentiful in ungrazed watersheds but were not present in large enough numbers to affect range vegetation.

Lusby, Gregg C.; Knipe, O.D.

1971-01-01

357

75 FR 21663 - Maysteel, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff One, Badger Tech, Boyd Hunter, Seek...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seek, QPS, and Service First, Menomonee Falls, WI; Amended Certification Regarding...Boyd Hunter, Seek, and QPS, Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin. The notice will soon be published...were employed on-site at the Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin location of Maysteel,...

2010-04-26

358

Magnetic Enhancement of Loessic Soils Along a Toposequence at Badger Ridge-Hitchcock Nature Area, Iowa, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in magnetic properties of loessic soil have been correlated to changes in contemporary climate and such correlations aid in the interpretation of older, buried soils. While many studies have been conducted on the Loess Plateau of China, investigations of Midwestern Loess in the US are limited. Our aim is to determine the regional processes responsible for the magnetic development

C. Munroe; C. E. Geiss; L. D. Urbano

2009-01-01

359

75 FR 44783 - Combined Notice of Filings #1  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ER10-1839-000. Applicants: Badger Windpower, LLC. Description: Badger Windpower, LLC submits tariff filing per 35.12: Badger Baseline Filing to be effective...ER10-1841-000. Applicants: Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC....

2010-07-29

360

Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.  

PubMed

In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

2014-03-01

361

The concept of superfetation: a critical review on a 'myth' in mammalian reproduction.  

PubMed

Superfetation is understood as another conception during an already ongoing pregnancy. This implies the existence of young of different developmental stages within the female reproductive tract during certain periods of pregnancy. Nevertheless, a clear definition of the term as well as distinct criteria to identify the occurrence of superfetation in a species is missing. The variable anatomy of mammalian reproductive tracts seems to make the occurrence of superfetation more or less likely but impedes the simple evaluation of whether it is present or not. Additionally, adequate determination methods are missing or are difficult to apply at the right time. Superfetation or rather superfetation-like pregnancies are reported for numerous species including humans, livestock and rodents. The usual criteria to assume a case of superfetation include the finding of discordantly developed young within the uterus during post mortem or parturition of young after a birth interval shorter than the assumed pregnancy length. Often the occurrence of superfetation is concluded because other explanations of reproductive artifacts are missing. Even severe reproductive pathologies are often confused with superfetation. True superfetation or superfetation as a reproductive strategy may exist in some mammals. In the American mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison) and the European badger (Meles meles) superfetation occurs in combination with embryonic diapause. In the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), superfetation has long been assumed to exist but evidence is still controversial. Superfetation definitely occurs in certain species of poeciliid and zenarchopterid fish, some of which also exhibit viviparity and maternal care. In mammals, the evolution of such a reproductive mechanism poses many interesting evolutionary, endocrine, microbial and immunological questions that require further investigation. Here we review the scant and at times ancient literature on this poorly understood topic. The different manifestations of superfetation are defined and reliable criteria to detect superfetation are outlined. Also, the differentiation of superfetation into a reproductive strategy or as a disrupted, abnormal reproductive function is discussed. Due to the different discussed functional aspects of superfetation, it is appropriate to establish a more detailed scheme to classify the true natural superfetation cases into superfertilization, superconception and superfetation proper. To date, there is no mammal species known for which superfetation proper in terms of finding discordantly developed fetuses has been conclusively demonstrated to be not only a rare occurence but an evolved reproductive strategy. PMID:20394608

Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

2011-02-01

362

Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Naïve and Vaccinated Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence,

Pablo R. Murcia; Joseph Hughes; Patrizia Battista; Lucy Lloyd; Gregory J. Baillie; Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez; Doug Ormond; Karen Oliver; Debra Elton; Jennifer A. Mumford; Mario Caccamo; Paul Kellam; Bryan T. Grenfell; Edward C. Holmes; James L. N. Wood

2012-01-01

363

Paleomagnetism in the Tajikistan: continental shortening of European margin in the Pamirs during Indian Eurasian collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable and well defined magnetization with D = 350°, I = 55.5° and alpha95 = 4°, carried by hematite, is isolated in the red beds of the Tajik basin. The fold test is positive (99% probability) and this magnetization predates the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene folding phase in the Tajik basin. The coordinates of the VGP are: 82°N, 323°E, dp

Jean-Pierre Pozzi; Hugues Feinberg

1991-01-01

364

GENDER DETERMINATION OF EURASIAN EAGLE-OWLS (BuBo Buo) BY MORPHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Museum of Madrid. All eagle-owls analyzed came from Spain and gender was previously determined by internal examination of reproductive organs. To avoid the con- founding effect of age, we only used skins of adult indi- viduals when morphometric differences seem to be most- ly related to gender rather than age. Length of claws, tarsus, bill including cere, exposed culmen without

MARIA DEL MAR DELGADO; VINCENZO PENTERIANI

2004-01-01

365

Abandonment of farmland and vegetation succession following the Eurasian plague pandemic of AD 1347-52  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This paper reviews the available documentary, archaeological and palaeoecological evidence for the abandonment of agricultural land and consequent regeneration of the forest in Europe after the Black Death. Location: Western and northern Europe. Methods: This review is the result of an exhaustive search of the historical, archaeological and palaeoecological literature for evidence indicating agricultural decline and forest regeneration in

Dan Yeloff; Bas van Geel

2007-01-01

366

Eurasian Arctic greening reveals teleconnections and the potential for structurally novel ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice and tundra vegetation remain poorly understood. Here we reveal a 50-year growth response over a >100,000km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for alder (Alnus) and willow (Salix), the most abundant shrub genera respectively at and north of the continental treeline. We demonstrate that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate is important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation is especially responsive to temperature in early summer. These results have significant implications for modelling present and future Low Arctic vegetation responses to climate change, and emphasize the potential for structurally novel ecosystems to emerge from within the tundra zone.

Macias-Fauria, Marc; Forbes, Bruce C.; Zetterberg, Pentti; Kumpula, Timo

2012-08-01

367

First report of the Eurasian poplar leaf rust fungus, Melampsora larici-populina, in North America  

SciTech Connect

Melampsora larici-populina, native to Eurasia, was found in October 1991 in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa X P. deltoides) plantations along the Columbia River near Woodland, Washington, and Scapposse, Oregon. Clavate to broadly ellipsoid urediniospores measured 30--49 X 13--16 [mu]M and were echinulate except for an apical smooth patch. Telia were exclusively epiphyllous. Detached leaf inoculations were used to investigate the telial (poplar) host range of three different monouredinial isolates in the laboratory. Clones known to be susceptible in Europe and Australia to M. larici-populina (i.e., P. nigra var. italica and P. X euramericana cv. I-488) were susceptible in these tests, as were 20 clones of P. trichocarpa, the native black cottonwood of the Pacific Northwest. In general, the pattern of susceptibility among 50 clones representing many poplar taxa, including interspecific hybrid classes, was in accord with what is known of the host range of M. larici-populina in Europe and Australia. Pathogenic variation among the three isolates was not observed. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Newcombe, G.; Chastagner, G.A. (Washington State Univ., Puyallup (United States))

1993-05-01

368

An Apparent Relationship between Eurasian Snow Cover and Indian Monsoon Rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short record of year-to-year variations of summer monsoon rainfall over India is compared with that of winter snow cover over Eurasia as derived from satellite data. An inverse relationship between these two quantities is indicated, i.e., winters with extensive (little) snow cover over Eurasia tend to be followed by summers with less (more) rainfall over India.

Douglas G. Hahn; J. Shukla

1976-01-01

369

Two sources of the Russian patrilineal heritage in their Eurasian context.  

PubMed

Progress in the mapping of population genetic substructure provides a core source of data for the reconstruction of the demographic history of our species and for the discovery of common signals relevant to disease research: These two aspects of enquiry overlap in their empirical data content and are especially informative at continental and subcontinental levels. In the present study of the variation of the Y chromosome pool of ethnic Russians, we show that the patrilineages within the pre-Ivan the Terrible historic borders of Russia have two main distinct sources. One of these antedates the linguistic split between West and East Slavonic-speaking people and is common for the two groups; the other is genetically highlighted by the pre-eminence of haplogroup (hg) N3 and is most parsimoniously explained by extensive assimilation of (or language change in) northeastern indigenous Finno-Ugric tribes. Although hg N3 is common for both East European and Siberian Y chromosomes, other typically Siberian or Mongolian hgs (Q and C) have negligible influence within the studied Russian Y chromosome pool. The distribution of all frequent Y chromosome haplogroups (which account for 95% of the Y chromosomal spectrum in Russians) follows a similar north-south clinal pattern among autosomal markers, apparent from synthetic maps. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots comparing intra ethnic and interethnic variation of Y chromosome in Europe show that although well detectable, intraethnic variation signals do not cross interethnic borders, except between Poles, Ukrainians, and central-southern Russians, thereby revealing their overwhelmingly shared patrilineal ancestry. PMID:18179905

Balanovsky, Oleg; Rootsi, Siiri; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Kivisild, Toomas; Churnosov, Michail; Evseeva, Irina; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Boldyreva, Margarita; Yankovsky, Nikolay; Balanovska, Elena; Villems, Richard

2008-01-01

370

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

371

78 FR 48765 - Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (EUR) Request for Proposals for the Fundraising...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pavilion/Exhibition at Universal Expo Milan Italy 2015, Hereafter Referred to as Milan Expo 2015 Correction In notice document 13-18171 beginning...to the General Regulations of the Milan Expo 2015 and the guidelines stated herein. [FR...

2013-08-09

372

Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context  

PubMed Central

Progress in the mapping of population genetic substructure provides a core source of data for the reconstruction of the demographic history of our species and for the discovery of common signals relevant to disease research: These two aspects of enquiry overlap in their empirical data content and are especially informative at continental and subcontinental levels. In the present study of the variation of the Y chromosome pool of ethnic Russians, we show that the patrilineages within the pre-Ivan the Terrible historic borders of Russia have two main distinct sources. One of these antedates the linguistic split between West and East Slavonic-speaking people and is common for the two groups; the other is genetically highlighted by the pre-eminence of haplogroup (hg) N3 and is most parsimoniously explained by extensive assimilation of (or language change in) northeastern indigenous Finno-Ugric tribes. Although hg N3 is common for both East European and Siberian Y chromosomes, other typically Siberian or Mongolian hgs (Q and C) have negligible influence within the studied Russian Y chromosome pool. The distribution of all frequent Y chromosome haplogroups (which account for 95% of the Y chromosomal spectrum in Russians) follows a similar north-south clinal pattern among autosomal markers, apparent from synthetic maps. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots comparing intra ethnic and interethnic variation of Y chromosome in Europe show that although well detectable, intraethnic variation signals do not cross interethnic borders, except between Poles, Ukrainians, and central-southern Russians, thereby revealing their overwhelmingly shared patrilineal ancestry. PMID:18179905

Balanovsky, Oleg; Rootsi, Siiri; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Kivisild, Toomas; Churnosov, Michail; Evseeva, Irina; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Boldyreva, Margarita; Yankovsky, Nikolay; Balanovska, Elena; Villems, Richard

2008-01-01

373

[Comparative phylogenetic study of native north Eurasian populations from a panel of autosomal microsatellite loci].  

PubMed

Genetic relationships among eighth Siberian and Central Asian ethnic groups were examined using autosomal microsatellite loci. Genetic similarity of Buryats and Evenks, as well as close relationships between Tuvinians and Kyrgyzes, most likely resulting from the Altai-Slavic co-ancestry of their gene pools, was demonstrated. Studies of gene flow in these populations demonstrated that, in general, Turkic ethnic groups of Southern Siberia (Altaians and Tuvinians) were the recipients of more intense gene flow compared to Eastern Siberian populations belonging to Altaic family. The local Buryat populations displayed substantial differences in the direction and the level of deviation of the observed gene diversity from the expected one, which was probably caused by the differences in the degree of isolation and/or in effective population sizes. PMID:14714470

Stepanov, V A; Spiridonova, M G; Puzyrev, V P

2003-11-01

374

Concentrations and risks of organic and metal contaminants in Eurasian caviar.  

PubMed

Caviar (fish roe of sturgeon) may contain high levels of contaminants. Concentrations of organic contaminants, including DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), and 23 metals were measured in three species of caviar (Acipenser Huso huso, Acipenser gueldenstaedti, and Acipenser stellatus) imported from Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Iran, and Russia just prior to the 2006 export ban. PCB concentrations averaged 15.4+/-25.8 ng/g wet weight basis (wwt), DDT averaged 79+/-139 ng/g wwt, arsenic (As) averaged 960+/-486 ng/g, and PBDEs were detected in all samples. Cluster analyses grouped most of the Huso huso samples together, while most of the remaining clusters were grouped by origin. Trends of contaminant concentrations, estimated by incorporating data from earlier studies, show that PCB and DDT levels have been declining since 1978, and HCH levels since 2000. The maximum allowable daily consumption rate of caviar is limited by PCBs, DDTs and As. While the health risks are uncertain since consumption rates are unknown, declining concentrations and low consumption rates suggest that health advisories for caviar are unwarranted. PMID:17681601

Wang, Wei; Batterman, Stuart; Chernyak, Sergei; Nriagu, Jerome

2008-09-01

375

Natural selection among Eurasians at genomic regions associated with HIV1 control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  HIV susceptibility and pathogenicity exhibit both interindividual and intergroup variability. The etiology of intergroup variability\\u000a is still poorly understood, and could be partly linked to genetic differences among racial\\/ethnic groups. These genetic differences\\u000a may be traceable to different regimes of natural selection in the 60,000 years since the human radiation out of Africa. Here,\\u000a we examine population differentiation and haplotype

Yann C Klimentidis; Brahim Aissani; Mark D Shriver; David B Allison; Sadeep Shrestha

2011-01-01

376

Interactions between Eurasian lynx and wolverines in the reindeer husbandry area.  

E-print Network

??In conservation and management, carnivore species are often treated as isolated units, even though interspecific interactions can have important implications for the behaviour, demography and… (more)

Mattisson, Jenny

2011-01-01

377

Evaluation of North Eurasian snow-off dates in the ECHAM5.4 atmospheric GCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of springtime end of snow melt (snow-off date) in Northern Eurasia in version 5.4 of the ECHAM5 atmospheric GCM is evaluated through comparison with a snow-off date dataset based on space-borne microwave radiometer measurements and with Russian snow course data. ECHAM5 reproduces well the observed gross geographical pattern of snow-off dates, with earliest snow-off (in March) in the Baltic region and latest snow-off (in June) in the Taymyr Peninsula and in northeastern parts of the Russian Far East. The primary biases are (1) a delayed snow-off in southeastern Siberia (associated with too low springtime temperature and too high surface albedo, in part due to insufficient shielding by canopy); and (2) an early bias in the western and northern parts of Northern Eurasia. Several sensitivity experiments were conducted, where biases in simulated atmospheric circulation were corrected through nudging and/or the treatment of surface albedo was modified. While this alleviated some of the model biases in snow-off dates, 2 m temperature and surface albedo, especially the early bias in snow-off in the western parts of the Northern Eurasia proved very robust and was actually larger in the nudged runs. A key issue underlying the snow-off biases in ECHAM5 is that snow melt occurs at too low temperatures. Very likely, this is related to the treatment of the surface energy budget. On one hand, the surface temperature Ts is not computed separately for the snow-covered and snow-free parts of the grid cells, which prevents Ts from rising above 0 °C before all snow has vanished. Consequently, too much (too little) of the surface net radiation is consumed in melting snow (heating the air). On the other hand, ECHAM5 does not include a canopy layer. Thus, while the albedo reduction due to canopy is accounted for, the shielding of snow on ground by the overlying canopy is not considered, which leaves too much solar radiation available for melting snow.

Räisänen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Järvinen, H.; Takala, M.; Jylhä, K.; Bulygina, O. N.; Riihelä, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Koskinen, J.; Pulliainen, J.

2014-06-01

378

Cross-amplification and sequence variation of microsatellite loci in Eurasian hard pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite transfer across coniferous species is a valued methodology because de novo development for each species is costly and there are many species with only a limited commodity value. Cross-species amplification of orthologous microsatellite regions provides valuable information on mutational and evolutionary processes affecting these loci. We tested 19 nuclear microsatellite markers from Pinus taeda L. (subsection Australes) and three

S. C. González-Martínez; J. J. Robledo-Arnuncio; C. Collada; A. Díaz; C. G. Williams; R. Alía; M. T. Cervera

2004-01-01

379

Regional patterns in recent trends in sediment yields of Eurasian and Siberian rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multipurpose hydrological and statistical analysis of long-term changes in suspended sediment yield has been made for large Russian rivers discharging to the Arctic Ocean. Factors affecting sediment yield formation, e.g., snow pack duration, mean air temperature and mean water discharge, have been analyzed as well. The duration of observations at 13 selected meteorological stations varies from 56 to 113

Nelly N Bobrovitskaya; Alexander V Kokorev; Nataly A Lemeshko

2003-01-01

380

New estimates of annual and seasonal variability in river discharge across the Eurasian pan-Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River runoff is an important integrator of hydrological behavior across large regions and it plays a significant role in the fresh-water budget of the Arctic Ocean. Ocean salinity and sea ice formation are critically affected by river input. Changes in the fresh water flux to the Arctic Ocean may slow down global ocean circulation by affecting North Atlantic deep water formation. Eurasia contributes 75% of the total terrestrial runoff to the Arctic Ocean and has three of the four major arctic rivers. Observations of combined river discharge from the six largest Russian arctic rivers (N.Dvina, Pechora, Ob, Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma) have demonstrated an increase of 7% over the period 1936-1999. Our more recent estimates have shown this increase has continued into the 21st Century with a new historical maximum observed in 2007 when a record minimum in Arctic Ocean sea ice was observed. Analysis of the long-term sea-ice and discharge records showed a significant correlation between sea ice minimum extent and Russian river discharge (r = -0.7), which suggests an increase in atmospheric moisture transport to land surface due to extension of ice free Arctic Ocean during summer-fall. To better understand the physical mechanisms driving the observed runoff changes we explore alterations due to both global climate change and local anthropogenic influences. To estimate the contribution of each of these factors we used reconstructions of naturalized hydrographs with a newly developed Hydrograph Transformation Model. A combined analysis of observed and naturalized river discharge characteristics showed a significant redistribution of seasonal discharge along the Yenisei River due to reservoir regulation. However, naturalized discharge records also demonstrate a significant increase during the winter. This suggests that natural causes such as permafrost changes, increasing number and magnitude of winter snowmelt events, and an increase in the ground water table may be important contributing factors to the winter discharge change.

Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.; Golovanov, O. Ph.; Rawlins, M. A.; Tretjaykov, M.

2009-04-01

381

Regional patterns in recent trends in sediment yields of Eurasian and Siberian rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multipurpose hydrological and statistical analysis of long-term changes in suspended sediment yield has been made for large Russian rivers discharging to the Arctic Ocean. Factors affecting sediment yield formation, e.g., snow pack duration, mean air temperature and mean water discharge, have been analyzed as well. The duration of observations at 13 selected meteorological stations varies from 56 to 113 years and covers the period from 1883 to 1995. The duration of water discharge measurements at 22 hydrological stations varies from 20 to 120 years; measurements were made from 1881 to 2000. The duration of sediment yield observations is shorter (from 1936 to 2000) and varies from 14 to 62 years. The air temperature rise is evident for 10 stations while temperature fall is observed at 3 stations (Dickson Island, Narjan Mar, Kiusiur). These three stations are established in the coastal area of the Arctic Ocean. The most impressive coincidence of trends towards an increase of mean air temperature and mean annual water discharge is observed in the Pechora, Angara, Lena, Aldan, Yana and Indugirka river basins, and in the lower reaches of the Ob and Yenisei river basins. A decrease of water discharge is observed in the Severnaya Dvina river, probably refracting by the effect of cut forest on water availability in the river. The decrease of water discharges in the upper parts of the Ob and Yenisei river basins refracts reservoirs. Changes in suspended sediment yield depend more on man's activity than on climate change. Construction of reservoirs in the upper reaches of the Ob and Yenisei rivers explains the decreased sediment yield. An increase of sediment yield in the Kolyma river basin has been observed due to the gold mining there.

Bobrovitskaya, Nelly N.; Kokorev, Alexander V.; Lemeshko, Nataly A.

2003-10-01

382

Eurasian Reindeer Pastoralism in a Changing Climate: Indigenous Knowledge and NASA Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is intended that Reindeer Mapper/EALAT will be able to provide reindeer herders with an efficient tool for managing the real-time movements and migrations of their herds through enabling improved efficiency in linking different members of the herder settlements or communities and providing real-time local, satellite or other data (e.g., ice melt in lakes and rivers, weather events), thus enabling real time adjustments to herd movements to avoid problems such as changing weather/climate conditions, freeze-thaw "lock-out" problems, or take advantage of availability of better pasturelands along migration routes. The system is being designed to incorporate local data to allow users to bring their own data into the system for analysis in addition to the data provided by the system itself. With the local information of the population, up to date environmental data and habitat characteristics, the system could generate maps depicting important features of interest for reindeer managers. One of the products derived from the planned Reindeer Mapper system will be a web-based graphic display that allows analysts to quickly pinpoint areas of interest such as those with large concentrations of reindeer and provide surrounding environmental information. The system could be automatically updated with near-real-time information such as hourly precipitation and snowfall rate and accumulation, daily surface and air temperatures, and vegetation cover conditions. The system could bring attention to the proximity of human and animal populations as part of the need for control response. A local GIS will bring these many layers together with several supporting models, showing only a straightforward graphic of the real-time situation in the field. Because the system proposed will be operating in the Internet environment, it should be virtually accessible from any network computers and wireless remote access from the field. The International Center for Reindeer Husbandry in Kautokeino, Norway, is providing regional and international coordination of and access to data sets and expertise, and will act as overall clearinghouse for EALAT information.

Maynard, N. G.; Burgess, P.; Oskal, P.; Turi, A.; Mathiesen, J. M.; Gaup, I. G. E.; Yurchak, B.; Etylin, V.; Gebelein, J.

2008-01-01

383

The Future of Eurasian Boreal Forests: Ecological Modeling Projections in the Russian Federation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological modeling is one of the primary methodologies for making predictions on future changes in forested ecosystems such as those occurring in Northern Eurasia and Siberia. In particular, combining ecological modeling with global circulation model simulation outputs is a method in which scientists can forecast the impact of climate change on biodiversity (Thuiller, 2007) as well as the forested landscape. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have been designed for specifically this purpose, however, these vegetation models run at large spatial scales and as a result make predictions that are highly uncertain (Purves and Pacala, 2008). In previous papers, we discussed the FAREAST forest gap model and its ability to accurately predict boreal forest dynamics at smaller scales and higher resolution than DGVMs. This presentation investigates the use of the FAREAST gap model, modified for spatial expansion to cover the entire country of Russia, to predict future land cover trends under different warming scenarios. The poster provides the initial framework for the project, as well as some initial results. The collection of input variables needed by FAREAST to model the Russian continent will involve collaboration with the Russian Academy of Sciences (CEPF). Together we have developed a framework in which to amalgamate both original (temperature, precipitation, soil values) parameters as well as new parameters (fire probability, logging probability) into a GIS database that can be integrated with the FAREAST model. This framework will be capable of providing visual and graphical output for interpretation of large model runs. In order to ensure accuracy in FAREAST's ability to simulate the current environment, a run of the model under current-day conditions will be compared to recent remote sensing land cover maps. The GLC2000 land cover classification project (EU JRC) will be the primary validation method with additional validation through other biophysical variables extracted by remote sensing such as biomass and LAI. These steps will ensure that the model's predictions of forests under future climate will be acceptable. The updated and expanded version of FAREAST will be run for several future climate scenarios using projections from the PCMDI. Comparison between future and present FAREAST runs of the Russian federation will provide information regarding potential changes of the region's forests and land cover. Implications for biodiversity and climate interactions from these results will be analyzed, as well as socio-economic impacts for regional and local economies.

Lutz, D.; Shugart, H.

2008-12-01

384

Author's personal copy A complete species-level molecular phylogeny for the ``Eurasian"  

E-print Network

-Saharan Africa. Two species in this group--the European starling Sturnus vulgaris and the common Myna. Keywords: Sturnidae; Starling; Sturnus vulgaris; Phylogeny; Taxonomy 1. Introduction Starlings have (Sturnidae: Sturnus, Acridotheres, and allies): Recent diversification in a highly social and dispersive

Rubenstein, Dustin R.

385

Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The trade-off between current and future parental investment is often different between males and females. This difference\\u000a may lead to sexual conflict between parents over care provisioning in animals that breed with multiple mates. One of the most\\u000a obvious manifestations of sexual conflict over care is offspring desertion whereby one parent deserts the young to increase\\u000a its reproductive success at

Ákos Pogány; István Szentirmai; Jan Komdeur; Tamás Székely

2008-01-01

386

Fungi associated with the southern Eurasian orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall.  

PubMed

The hitherto unknown relationships between the European orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall and its internally associated fungi were explored by a combined approach involving microscopy-based investigations at a morpho-histological level as well as by molecular analyses of the identity of the eukaryotic endophytes present in the root tissue of the plant. We found that this orchid which is currently reported to have a vulnerable status in northern Italy, can host and interact with at least nine types of fungi. Some of these fungi show similarity to mycorrhizal genera found in orchids such as the Ceratobasidium-Rhizoctonia group. Other fungi found are from the genera Davidiella (Ascomycota), Leptosphaeria (Ascomycota), Alternaria (Ascomycota), and Malassezia (Basidiomycota), some of which until have not previously been reported to have an endophytic relationship with plants. The repeated occurrence of often pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Alternaria sp., within healthy specimens of this orchid suggests a tempered interaction with species that are sometimes deleterious to non-orchid plants. The fact is reminiscent of the symbiotic compromise established by orchids with fungi of the rhizoctonia group. PMID:22483052

Tondello, Alessandra; Vendramin, Elena; Villani, Mariacristina; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea

2012-04-01

387

The Potential Distance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Dispersal by Mallard, Common Teal and Eurasian  

E-print Network

investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos Don~ana-CSIC, C/ Ame´rico Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain Abstract: Waterbirds represent the major, approximately 1­5% of migratory mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and other dabbling ducks are infected with LP AIV

Green, Andy J.

388

The Columbia Center for International History presents Late Imperial Epistemologies: A Eurasian Studies Workshop  

E-print Network

' Language of Racial Redescription of the Russian Empire Emese Lafferton, "Multi-Ethnicity, Race and Imperial Century" Anna Afanasyeva, "Imperial Doctors, the State, and the Politics of Knowledge in the Late Russian" Pey-Yi Chu, "The Trans-Siberian Railway and the Reification of Frozen Earth, 1880s-1920s" Ruth Rogaski

Qian, Ning

389

PanEurasian Experiment (PEEX): Modelling Platform for Earth System Observations and Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the part of the PEEX initiative, for the purpose of supporting the PEEX observational system and answering on the PEEX scientific questions, a hierarchy/ framework of modern multi-scale models for different elements of the Earth System integrated with the observation system is needed. One of the acute topics in the international debate on land-atmosphere interactions in relation to global change is the Earth System Modeling (ESM). The question is whether the ESM components actually represent how the Earth is functioning. The ESMs consist of equations describing the processes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, terrestrial and marine biosphere. ESMs are the best tools for analyzing the effect of different environmental changes on future climate or for studying the role of whole processes in the Earth System. These types of analysis and prediction of the future change are especially important in the Arctic latitudes, where climate change is proceeding fastest and where near-surface warming has been about twice the global average during the recent decades. The processes, and hence parameterization, in ESMs are still based on insufficient knowledge of physical, chemical and biological mechanisms involved in the climate system and the resolution of known processes is insufficient. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere-ocean interactions using ESMs provides a way to explore the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of land system and on climate. There is a lack, however, ways to forward a necessary process understanding effectively to ESMs and to link all this to the decision-making process. Arctic-boreal geographical domain plays significant role in terms of green-house gases and anthropogenic emissions and as an aerosol source area in the Earth System. The PEEX Modelling Platform (PEEX-MP) is characterized by: • An ensemble approach with the integration of modelling results from different models/ countries etc.; • A hierarchy of models, analysing scenarios, inverse modelling, modelling based on measurement needs and processes; • Model validation by remote sensing data and assimilation of satellite observations to constrain models to better understand processes, e.g., emissions and fluxes with top-down modelling; • Geophysical/ chemical model validation with experiments at various spatial and temporal scales. Added value of the comprehensive multi-platform observations and modeling; network of monitoring stations with the capacity to quantify those interactions between neighboring areas ranging from the Arctic and the Mediterranean to the Chinese industrial areas and the Asian steppes is needed. For example, apart from development of Russian stations in the PEEX area a strong co-operation with surrounding research infrastructures in the model of ACTRIS network needs to be established in order to obtain a global perspective of the emissions transport, transformation and ageing of pollutants incoming and exiting the PEEX area. The PEEX-MP aims to simulate and predict the physical aspects of the Earth system and to improve understanding of the bio-geochemical cycles in the PEEX domain, and beyond. The environmental change in this region implies that, from the point-of-view of atmospheric flow, the lower boundary conditions are changing. This is important for applications with immediate relevance for society, such as numerical weather prediction. The PEEX infrastructure will provide a unique view to the physical properties of the Earth surface, which can be used to improve assessment and prediction models. This will directly benefit citizens of the North in terms of better early warning of hazardous events, for instance. On longer time-scales, models of the bio-geochemical cycles in the PEEX domain absolutely need support from the new monitoring infra-structure to better measure and quantify soil and vegetation properties. In the most basic setup, the atmospheric and oceanic Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are connected to each other, sharing e.g. fluxes of momentum, water vapour and CO2.

Baklanov, Alexander; Mahura, Alexander; Penenko, Vladimir; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

2014-05-01

390

Anthropogenic heavy metals in the environment of Eurasian Arctic Nature Reserves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian Arctic Nature Reserves are situated far from the main industrial regions. In spite of this, there are anthropogenic constituents (for example, heavy metals - HM) in the environmental objects (air, water, etc.) and in food chains (plants, birds, and so on). We studied the long-range atmospheric transport of some heavy metals (such as nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, and so on) to four Nature Reserves situated near the shore of the Arctic Ocean - in the Deltas of the Pechora River (Nenets reserve), the Ob River (Gydansky reserve), the Lena River (Ust-Lensky reserve), and at Wrangel Island. The air mass trajectories to each reserve were calculated with the help of the site (www.arl.noaa.gov/ready) for each day of January, April, July, and October for the period of 2001-2010. Analyzing the spatial distributions of these trajectories we studied seasonal variations in air transport of pollution to different Russian Arctic points. Modeling the HM transport in the atmosphere was as in [1]. The main assumption is that HM are transported with submicron aerosol particles. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The main important source-regions were found for each point. Mean anthropogenic HM concentrations in air and precipitations, as well as HM fluxes onto the surface were estimated at different arctic regions. The spatial distributions of so called "potential function of pollution" were calculated and presented on the maps. These results allow to analyze the role of a real pollution source or of a planned source for each reserve. So, the influence of northern oil and gas industry may be of great importance because of its proximity to the reserves under investigation. The work was partly supported by RFBR, grant No. 14-05-00059. Authors thank the NOAA service for possibility to use their data and products. ________________ 1. Vinogradova A.A. and Ponomareva T.Ya. Atmospheric Transport of Anthropogenic Impurities to the Russian Arctic (1986-2010) // Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics. 2012. V. 25. No. 6. P. 414-422. (Engl. Transl.)

Vinogradova, Anna; Ivanova, Yulia; Karpov, Alexey

2014-05-01

391

76 FR 537 - Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey AGENCY: International Trade Administration...and Services Mission to Kazakhstan and Turkey from June 20-24, 2011. Led by a senior...of oil and gas equipment/services in Turkey and Kazakhstan. Participants will...

2011-01-05

392

THE SPREAD OF EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL MYRIOPHYLLUM SPICATUM IN DEVILS LAKE, SAUK COUNTY, WISCONSIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative survey of the submersed aquatic macrophytes of Devils Lake, a 151 ha softwater seepage lake, was conducted July 30–August 1, 1984, in an effort to assess historical changes in the lake's macrophytes and water quality. Biomass (oven dry weight) and frequency of occurrence data were obtained from 28 transects spaced 200 m apart. Sample quadrats of 0.1 m

Richard A. Lillie

1986-01-01

393

Variation in wing length in Eurasian natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 16 natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia has revealed a cline in wing length associated with geographical position of the populations. Wing length was shown to be positively correlated with temperature. The coefficient of variation in wing length was significantly different in town and orchard populations. The existence of a

Alexandra G Imasheva; Oleg A Bubli; Oleg E Lazebny

1994-01-01

394

The Center for Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies presents: Piotr Kosicki  

E-print Network

_____________________________________________________________________ Prof. Kosicki was formerly an ACLS New Faculty Fellow in the Corcoran Department of History in the 20th century that eclipses standard analytical paradigms of Church, State, and nation. This talk

Acton, Scott

395

Creative Cities and the Film Industry: Antalya's Transition to a Eurasian Film Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the knowledge era, cites are competing to attract and retain creative industries and workers for securing their economic, social and urban growth as well as ensuring their creative city formation. During the last decade rapidly grow- ing popularity of creative cities has encouraged many cities seeking creativity to specialise in specific sectors of the crea- tive industries. In this

Bahar Durmaz; Tan Yigitcanlar; Koray Velibeyoglu

2008-01-01

396

Individuals' diet diversity influences gut microbial diversity in two freshwater fish (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch)  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates' diets profoundly influence the composition of symbiotic gut microbial communities. Studies documenting diet-microbiota associations typically focus on univariate or categorical diet variables. However, in nature individuals often consume diverse combinations of foods. If diet components act independently, each providing distinct microbial colonists or nutrients, we expect a positive relationship between diet diversity and microbial diversity. We tested this prediction within each of two fish species (stickleback and perch), in which individuals vary in their propensity to eat littoral or pelagic invertebrates or mixtures of both prey. Unexpectedly, in most cases individuals with more generalised diets had less diverse microbiota than dietary specialists, in both natural and laboratory populations. This negative association between diet diversity and microbial diversity was small but significant, and most apparent after accounting for complex interactions between sex, size and diet. Our results suggest that multiple diet components can interact non-additively to influence gut microbial diversity. PMID:24847735

Bolnick, Daniel I; Snowberg, Lisa K; Hirsch, Philipp E; Lauber, Christian L; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard; Post, David

2014-01-01

397

TransCultural Tricksters in between Empires: Eurasian Islamic Borderlands in Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

I would like to point out from the start that I am not ei- ther an Islamic intellectual or a Western style area specialist in Islamic thought. I do not share the view point typical of most Western Sovietologists, who after the collapse of the Soviet Union hastily reoriented themselves to the typical area studies discourse, based almost entirely on

Madina Tlostanova

398

Molecular genetic analysis among subspecies of two Eurasian sturgeon species, Acipenser baerii and A. stellatus.  

PubMed

Two species, the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, and stellate sturgeon, A. stellatus, were studied using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (D-loop, cytochrome b (cyt-b) and ND5/6 genes) sequencing to determine whether traditionally defined subspecies correspond to taxonomic entities and conservation management units. Initially, several mtDNA regions for each taxon (A. baerii: 737 bp D-loop, 750 bp ND5, 200 bp ND6, and 790 bp cyt-b; A. stellatus: 737 bp D-loop and 600 bp ND5) were examined. The D-loop was the most variable region and was sequenced for 35 A. baerii and 82 A. stellatus individuals. No fixed, diagnostic differences were found between any of the subspecies. Geographical structuring of haplotypes was observed within A. baerii, and gene flow estimates suggest isolation of the A. baerii baicalensis subspecies and the Yenisie and Lena River populations. No intraspecific subdivisioning was found within the genetic data for A. stellatus. The use of the phylogenetic criterion (fixed diagnostic differences) for identifying conservation units is compared to the rationale and results of other methods. Overall, morphologically and geographically based subspecies designations within Acipenseridae may not directly correspond to the biological entities appropriate for management and should not be used for conservation programmes without genetic support. PMID:10703555

Doukakis, P; Birstein, V J; Ruban, G I; Desalle, R

1999-12-01

399

78 FR 45593 - Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (EUR) Request for Proposals for the Fundraising...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...food demonstration or exhibition/gift shop area; a VIP hospitality area, and administrative/staff area. Further information...food demonstration or exhibition/ gift shop area, a VIP hospitality area, and administration/staff lounge area. The...

2013-07-29

400

High-latitude diversification within Eurasian least shrews and Alaska tiny shrews (Soricidae)  

E-print Network

their distribution spans Beringia, a large Pleistocene nonglaciated area that connected Asia and North America. Beringia was repeatedly divided due to raised sea levels during Pleistocene interglacials and subsequently skyline plot, Beringia, ecological niche model, multiple loci, phylogeography, Pleistocene refugia, Sorex

401

Food supply during prelaying period modifies the sex-dependent investment in eggs of Eurasian kestrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of sex allocation suggests that if the reproductive value and the cost of producing\\/rearing offspring differ between\\u000a male and female offspring, parents should invest differently in sexes depending on environmental conditions. Female parents\\u000a could allocate more resources to eggs of one sex to compensate potential sex-dependent constraints later during the nestling\\u000a period. In this study, we tested the

Jesús Martínez-Padilla; Juan A. Fargallo

2007-01-01

402

Genetic Variation and Population Structure in a Eurasian Collection of Isatis tinctoria L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isatis tinctoria L. is a biennial species which was cultivated in Europe until the 18th century to produce indigo, a pigment used for dyestuffs. Today there is renewed interest in this ancient crop because of a market demand for natural dyes. Cultivation of the species appears to be particularly suitable for marginal areas. Information about the evolutionary and genetic patterns

Giorgia Spataro; Paola Taviani; Valeria Negri

2007-01-01

403

Interspecific competition between native Eurasian red squirrels and alien grey squirrels: does resource partitioning occur?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In heterogeneous environments, differential niche selection by two competing species will result in niche partitioning so that individuals of each species can maximise their fitness under different sets of environmental variables. Thus, niche partitioning is considered essential to allow co-existence of ecologically related species. To assess whether niche partitioning was occurring between native red squirrels and alien grey squirrels living

Luc A. Wauters; John Gurnell; Adriano Martinoli; Guido Tosi

2002-01-01

404

Are Vegetative Reproduction Capacities the Cause of Widespread Invasion of Eurasian Salicaceae in Patagonian River Landscapes?  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, invasive willows and poplars (Salicaceae) have built dense floodplain forests along most of the rivers in Patagonia, Argentina. These invasion processes may affect Salix humboldtiana as the only native floodplain tree species in this region. It is assumed, that the property to reproduce vegetatively can play an important role in the establishment of invasive species in their new range. Thus, in order to contribute to a better understanding of willow and poplar invasions in riparian systems and to assess the potential impacts on S. humboldtiana the vegetative reproduction capacities of native and invasive Salicaceae were analysed. In a greenhouse experiment, we studied cutting survival and growth performance of the three most dominant invasive Salicaceae of the Patagonian Río Negro region (two Salix hybrids and Populus spec.), as well as S. humboldtiana, taking into account three different moisture and two different soil conditions. In a subsequent experiment, the shoot and root biomass of cuttings from the former experiment were removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to re-sprout. The two invasive willow hybrids performed much better than S. humboldtiana and Populus spec. under all treatment combinations and tended to re-sprout more successfully after repeated biomass loss. Taking into account the ecology of vegetative and generative recruits of floodplain willows, the results indicate that the more vigorous vegetative reproduction capacity can be a crucial property for the success of invasive willow hybrids in Patagonia being a potential threat for S. humboldtiana. PMID:23226531

Thomas, Lisa K.; Tölle, Lena; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Leyer, Ilona

2012-01-01

405

Physiological ecology and functional traits of North American native and Eurasian introduced Phragmites australis lineages  

PubMed Central

Physiological ecology and plant functional traits are often used to explain plant invasion. To gain a better understanding of how traits influence invasion, studies usually compare the invasive plant to a native congener, but there are few conspecific examples in the literature. In North America, the presence of native and introduced genetic lineages of the common reed, Phragmites australis, presents a unique example to evaluate how traits influence plant invasion. We reviewed the literature on functional traits of P. australis lineages in North America, specifically contrasting lineages present on the Atlantic Coast. We focused on differences in physiology between the lineage introduced from Eurasia and the lineage native to North America, specifically seeking to identify the causes underlying the recent expansion of the introduced lineage. Our goals were to better understand which traits may confer invasiveness, provide predictions of how these lineages may respond to interspecific competition or imminent global change, and provide guidance for future research. We reviewed published studies and articles in press, and conducted personal communications with appropriate researchers and managers to develop a comparative dataset. We compared the native and introduced lineages and focused on plant physiological ecology and functional traits. Under both stressful and favourable conditions, our review showed that introduced P. australis consistently exhibited greater ramet density, height and biomass, higher and more plastic relative growth rate, nitrogen productivity and specific leaf area, higher mass specific nitrogen uptake rates, as well as greater phenotypic plasticity compared with the native lineage. We suggest that ecophysiological and other plant functional traits elucidate potential mechanisms for the introduced lineage's invasiveness under current and predicted global change conditions. However, our review identified a disconnect between field surveys, experiments, natural competition and plant ecophysiology that must be addressed in future field studies. Given the likelihood of hybridization between lineages, a better understanding of plant traits in native, non-native and hybrid lineages is needed to manage current invasions and to predict the outcome of interactions among novel genotypes. Comparative physiology and other plant functional traits may provide additional tools to predict the trajectory of current and potential future invasions.

Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Brisson, Jacques; Hazelton, Eric L. G.

2013-01-01

406

Variability in river runoff distribution in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of freshwater within the Arctic Ocean and its export from it are intimately involved in climate and climate change processes both within and outside the Arctic Ocean. River runoff in the Arctic Ocean constitutes a major part of the Arctic Ocean freshwater budget. Within the Arctic Ocean, variability in the distribution of river runoff will be reflected in

Leif G. Anderson; Sara Jutterström; Staffan Kaltin; E. Peter Jones; Göran Björk

2004-01-01

407

Evidence for widespread Leishmania infantum infection among wild carnivores in L. infantum periendemic northern Spain.  

PubMed

Leishmania spp. infection was investigated in tissue samples of wild carnivores from the Spanish Basque Country (BC), by PCR and DNA sequencing. The region is at the northern periphery of Leishmania infantum endemic Iberian Peninsula and infection in the dog (reservoir) or other species has not been previously reported. Leishmania kinetoplast DNA was detected by real-time PCR (rtPCR) in 28% (44/156) of animals. Specifically, in 26% of Eurasian badgers (n=53), 29% of foxes (n=48), 29% of stone martens (n=21) and in 25-50% of less numerous species including genets, wild cats, pole cats, European mink and weasels. Infected animals particularly badgers, were most prevalent in the southernmost province of the BC (Araba) in areas dominated by arable land. Subsequent amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) from a subset of rtPCR positives samples confirmed the species as L. infantum, showing a high sequence homogeneity with ITS2 sequences of L. infantum from dogs and humans from southern Spain. In summary, this study reports for the first time L. infantum infection in wild carnivores from the BC including in stone martens, pole cats and minks in which infection has not been previously described. It supports the need to study infection in dogs and people in this region and is an example of the value of infection surveillance in wildlife to assess potential risks in the domestic environment and their role in spreading infections in non-endemic areas. PMID:24380572

Del Río, L; Chitimia, L; Cubas, A; Victoriano, I; De la Rúa, P; Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Muñoz-García, C I; Goyena, E; García-Martínez, D; Fisa, R; Riera, C; Murcia, L; Segovia, M; Berriatua, E

2014-03-01

408

Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.  

PubMed

Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of management according to the degree of urbanization. PMID:23741495