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1

Estimating social group size of Eurasian badgers Meles meles by genotyping remotely plucked single hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the Eurasian badger's Meles meles role as an agricultural pest, its potential role in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis and other man- agement problems, accurate estimation of badger abundance is required. At present, no censusing method exists that is accurate, cost-effective and relatively non-invasive. In this article, we test the feasibility of estimating badger social group and population

Thomas L. J. Scheppers; Timothy J. Roper; Alain C. Frantz; Michel Schaul; Edmée Engel; Peter Breyne; Laurent Schley

2007-01-01

2

Increase of skull size in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Denmark during the  

E-print Network

Increase of skull size in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Denmark in Jutland. In the red fox, three of the four skull characters measured had increased significantly during to the foxes' and badgers' diets. Keywords: body size, Denmark, diet, Eurasian badger, red fox. INTRODUCTION

Yom-Tov, Yoram

3

The first report of sparganosis (Spirometra sp.) in Eurasian badger (Meles meles).  

PubMed

Spirometra sp. is a diphyllobothriid cestode which reproduces mainly in cat-like carnivores and canids. Several animal species that are not definitive hosts function as paratenic hosts, in which plerocercoids migrate to other tissues causing sparganosis. In this paper we describe the first case of sparganosis (Spirometra sp.) in Eurasian badger (Meles meles). It was found in an adult female Eurasian badger killed on the road in the Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland) in April 2013. At necropsy, 128 complete and 40 fragments of plerocercoids (spargana) were found and were located subcutaneously, mainly on the hind legs and along the spine. The average length of spargana was 87±38mm. No adult Spirometra sp. tapeworms were found in the animal intestine, indicating that the investigated badger was a paratenic host for Spirometra sp. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences combined with morphological examination confirmed affiliation of the concerned plerocercoids to genus Spirometra. PMID:24398022

Ko?odziej-Soboci?ska, Marta; Tokarska, Ma?gorzata; Kowalczyk, Rafa?

2014-04-01

4

Physiological stress in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles): effects of host, disease and environment.  

PubMed

A method for monitoring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) to stressors was validated by measuring cortisol excretion in serum and faeces. Serum and faecal samples were collected under anaesthesia from live-captured, wild badgers and fresh faeces was collected from latrines at 15 social groups in County Down, Northern Ireland. Variation in levels of cortisol in wild badgers was investigated relative to disease status, season, age, sex, body mass, body condition and reproductive status and environmental factors that might influence stress. Faecal cortisol levels were significantly higher in animals testing culture-positive for Mycobacterium bovis. Prolonged elevation of cortisol can suppress immune function, which may have implications for disease transmission. There was a strong seasonal pattern in both serum cortisol, peaking in spring and faecal cortisol, peaking in summer. Cortisol levels were also higher in adults with poor body condition and low body mass. Faecal samples collected from latrines in grassland groups had significantly higher cortisol than those collected from woodland groups, possibly as a result of greater exposure to sources of environmental stress. This study is the first to investigate factors influencing physiological stress in badgers and indicates that serological and faecal excretion are valid indices of the HPA response to a range of stressors. PMID:24607571

George, Sheila C; Smith, Tessa E; Mac Cana, Pól S S; Coleman, Robert; Montgomery, William I

2014-05-01

5

Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): Implications for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes.  

PubMed

In the present study, to further understand the phylogenetic relationships among the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora), which are distributed widely in the Palearctic, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (539-545 base-pairs) as a maternal genetic marker, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome gene (SRY: 1052-1058 base-pairs), as a paternal genetic marker, were examined. The present study revealed ten SRY haplotypes from 47 males of 112 individuals of the Eurasian Continent and Japan. In addition, 39 mtDNA haplotypes were identified from those animals. From the phylogeography of both the uniparentally inherited genes, four lineages were recognized as Japanese, eastern Eurasian, Caucasian, and western Eurasian. The distribution patterns of the mtDNA lineages showed the existence of a sympatric zone between the eastern and western Eurasian lineages around the Volga River in western Russia. Furthermore, the present study suggested that in the Japanese badgers, the larger genetic differentiation of the Shikoku population was attributable to geographic history in the Japanese islands. PMID:21466348

Tashima, Sara; Kaneko, Yayoi; Anezaki, Tomoko; Baba, Minoru; Yachimori, Shuuji; Abramov, Alexei V; Saveljev, Alexander P; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-04-01

6

Comparing Badger (Meles meles) Management Strategies for Reducing Tuberculosis Incidence in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, continues to be a serious economic problem for the British cattle industry. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is partly responsible for maintenance of the disease and its transmission to cattle. Previous attempts to manage the disease by culling badgers have been hampered by social perturbation, which in some situations is associated with increases in the cattle herd incidence of bTB. Following the licensing of an injectable vaccine, we consider the relative merits of management strategies to reduce bTB in badgers, and thereby reduce cattle herd incidence. We used an established simulation model of the badger-cattle-TB system and investigated four proposed strategies: business as usual with no badger management, large-scale proactive badger culling, badger vaccination, and culling with a ring of vaccination around it. For ease of comparison with empirical data, model treatments were applied over 150 km2 and were evaluated over the whole of a 300 km2 area, comprising the core treatment area and a ring of approximately 2 km. The effects of treatment were evaluated over a 10-year period comprising treatment for five years and the subsequent five year period without treatment. Against a background of existing disease control measures, where 144 cattle herd incidents might be expected over 10 years, badger culling prevented 26 cattle herd incidents while vaccination prevented 16. Culling in the core 150 km2 plus vaccination in a ring around it prevented about 40 cattle herd breakdowns by partly mitigating the negative effects of culling, although this approach clearly required greater effort. While model outcomes were robust to uncertainty in parameter estimates, the outcomes of culling were sensitive to low rates of land access for culling, low culling efficacy, and the early cessation of a culling strategy, all of which were likely to lead to an overall increase in cattle disease. PMID:22761746

Smith, Graham C.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Wilkinson, David

2012-01-01

7

The taxonomic status of badgers (Mammalia, Mustelidae) from Southwest Asia based on cranial morphometrics, with the redescription of Meles canescens.  

PubMed

The Eurasian badgers (Meles spp.) are widespread in the Palaearctic Region, occurring from the British Islands in the west to the Japanese Islands in the east, including the Scandinavia, Southwest Asia and southern China. The morphometric variation in 30 cranial characters of 692 skulls of Meles from across the Palaearctic was here analyzed. This craniometric analysis revealed a significant difference between the European and Asian badger phylogenetic lineages, which can be further split in two pairs of taxa: meles - canescens and leucurus - anakuma. Overall, European badger populations are very similar morphologically, particularly with regards to the skull shape, but differ notably from those from Asia Minor, the Middle East and Transcaucasia. Based on the current survey of badger specimens available in main world museums, we have recognized four distinctive, parapatric species: Meles meles, found in most of Europe; Meles leucurus from continental Asia; M. anakuma from Japan; and M. canescens from Southwest Asia and the mountains of Middle Asia. These results are in agreement with those based on recent molecular data analyses. The morphological peculiarities and distribution range of M. canescens are discussed. The origin and evolution of Meles species, which is yet poorly understood, is also briefly discussed. PMID:25232583

Abramov, Alexei V; Puzachenko, Andrey Yu

2013-01-01

8

Confirmation of low genetic diversity and multiple breeding females in a social group of Eurasian badgers from microsatellite and field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian badger ( Meles meles ) is a facultatively social carnivore that shows only rudi- mentary co-operative behaviour and a poorly defined social hierarchy. Behavioural evid- ence and limited genetic data have suggested that more than one female may breed in a social group. We combine pregnancy detection by ultrasound and microsatellite locus scores from a well-studied badger population

X. Domingo-Roura; D. W. Macdonald; M. S. Roy; J. Marmi; J. Terradas; R. Woodroffe; T. Burke; R. K. Wayne

2003-01-01

9

Trophic Enrichment Factors for Blood Serum in the European Badger (Meles meles)  

PubMed Central

Ecologists undertaking stable isotopic analyses of animal diets require trophic enrichment factors (TEFs) for the specific animal tissues that they are studying. Such basic data are available for a small number of species, so values from trophically or phylogenetically similar species are often substituted for missing values. By feeding a controlled diet to captive European badgers (Meles meles) we determined TEFs for carbon and nitrogen in blood serum. TEFs for nitrogen and carbon in blood serum were +3.0±0.4‰ and +0.4±0.1‰ respectively. The TEFs for serum in badgers are notably different from those published for the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). There is currently no data for TEFs in the serum of other mustelid species. Our data show that species sharing similar niches (red fox) do not provide adequate proxy values for TEFs of badgers. Our findings emphasise the importance of having species-specific data when undertaking trophic studies using stable isotope analysis. PMID:23300863

Kelly, David J.; Robertson, Andrew; Murphy, Denise; Fitzsimons, Tara; Costello, Eamon; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Marples, Nicola M.

2012-01-01

10

Use of cattle farm resources by badgers (Meles meles) and risk of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) transmission to cattle.  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal observations, radio telemetry and time-lapse camera surveillance were used to investigate visits by badgers (Meles meles L.) to two cattle farms. During 59 half-nights (ca. 295 h) of observation and 17 nights (ca. 154 h) of camera surveillance, 139 separate visits to farm buildings, by at least 26 individually identifiable badgers from two social groups, were recorded. The badgers, which included three individuals infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), used cowsheds, feedsheds, barns, haystacks, slurry pits, cattle troughs and farmyards to exploit a range of food resources, including cattle feed and silage. Cattle feed was contaminated with badger faeces and badgers also came into close contact with cattle. The minimum number of badgers visiting farm buildings per night was negatively correlated with local 24 h rainfall. We conclude that exploitation by badgers of resources provided by cattle farms constitutes a potentially important mechanism for tuberculosis transmission from badgers to cattle. PMID:12137579

Garnett, B T; Delahay, R J; Roper, T J

2002-01-01

11

Culling-Induced Changes in Badger (Meles meles) Behaviour, Social Organisation and the Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

In the UK, attempts since the 1970s to control the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle by culling a wildlife host, the European badger (Meles meles), have produced equivocal results. Culling-induced social perturbation of badger populations may lead to unexpected outcomes. We test predictions from the ‘perturbation hypothesis’, determining the impact of culling operations on badger populations, movement of surviving individuals and the influence on the epidemiology of bTB in badgers using data dervied from two study areas within the UK Government's Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). Culling operations did not remove all individuals from setts, with between 34–43% of badgers removed from targeted social groups. After culling, bTB prevalence increased in badger social groups neighbouring removals, particularly amongst cubs. Seventy individual adult badgers were fitted with radio-collars, yielding 8,311 locational fixes from both sites between November 2001 and December 2003. Home range areas of animals surviving within removed groups increased by 43.5% in response to culling. Overlap between summer ranges of individuals from Neighbouring social groups in the treatment population increased by 73.3% in response to culling. The movement rate of individuals between social groups was low, but increased after culling, in Removed and Neighbouring social groups. Increased bTB prevalence in Neighbouring groups was associated with badger movements both into and out of these groups, although none of the moving individuals themselves tested positive for bTB. Significant increases in both the frequency of individual badger movements between groups and the emergence of bTB were observed in response to culling. However, no direct evidence was found to link the two phenomena. We hypothesise that the social disruption caused by culling may not only increase direct contact and thus disease transmission between surviving badgers, but may also increase social stress within the surviving population, causing immunosuppression and enhancing the expression of disease. PMID:22194946

Riordan, Philip; Delahay, Richard John; Cheeseman, Chris; Johnson, Paul James; Macdonald, David Whyte

2011-01-01

12

Evolution of MHC class I genes in the European badger (Meles meles)  

PubMed Central

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune system and provides a good model with which to understand the evolutionary processes underlying functional genes. Trans-species polymorphism and orthology are both commonly found in MHC genes; however, mammalian MHC class I genes tend to cluster by species. Concerted evolution has the potential to homogenize different loci, whereas birth-and-death evolution can lead to the loss of orthologs; both processes result in monophyletic groups within species. Studies investigating the evolution of MHC class I genes have been biased toward a few particular taxa and model species. We present the first study of MHC class I genes in a species from the superfamily Musteloidea. The European badger (Meles meles) exhibits moderate variation in MHC class I sequences when compared to other carnivores. We identified seven putatively functional sequences and nine pseudogenes from genomic (gDNA) and complementary (cDNA) DNA, signifying at least two functional class I loci. We found evidence for separate evolutionary histories of the ?1 and ?2/?3 domains. In the ?1 domain, several sequences from different species were more closely related to each other than to sequences from the same species, resembling orthology or trans-species polymorphism. Balancing selection and probable recombination maintain genetic diversity in the ?1 domain, evidenced by the detection of positive selection and a recombination event. By comparison, two recombination breakpoints indicate that the ?2/?3 domains have most likely undergone concerted evolution, where recombination has homogenized the ?2/?3 domains between genes, leading to species-specific clusters of sequences. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing MHC domains separately. PMID:22957169

Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

2012-01-01

13

Wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) and other British mammals.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. The European badger (Meles meles) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the UK and New Zealand respectively. The risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. In the UK, surveys by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) have identified M. bovis infection in deer (Cervus sp., Capreolus sp., Dama sp.), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mink (Mustela vison), feral ferret (Mustela furo), mole (Talpa europaea), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and feral cat (Felis catus). However, the potential contribution to cattle herd breakdowns, of reservoirs of M. bovis infection in mammals other than the badger is poorly understood and is the subject of current research. In contrast, M. bovis infection in the badger has been the subject of a long term ecological and epidemiological study at Woodchester Park in South-West England, where the prevalence and distribution of infection in a wild population has been intensively monitored. The pattern of infection in the population and potential risks to cattle, are profoundly influenced by badger social organization and behaviour. The pattern of land use and cattle farming practices in the UK brings badgers into close contact with domestic animals and provides conditions that may enhance the likelihood of disease transfer. PMID:11463223

Delahay, R J; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, R S

2001-01-01

14

Female Receptiveity, Embryonic Diapause, and Superfetation in the European Badger ( Meles Meles : Implications for the Reproductive Tactics of Males and Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European badger Meles meles is thought to mate throughout the year, with two mating peaks occurring in late winter\\/spring and summer\\/autumn. After mating, fertilized ova enter embryonic diapause (delayed implantation) at the blastocyst stage, which lasts up to eleven months. Even if mating is successful, however, the estrous cycle may continue during embryonic diapause, which sug- gests that female

Nobuyuki Yamaguchi; Hannah L. Dugdale; David W. Macdonald

2006-01-01

15

Factors affecting European badger (Meles meles) capture numbers in one county in Ireland.  

PubMed

Understanding factors affecting the number of badgers captured at and around badger setts (burrows) is of considerable applied importance. These factors could be used to estimate probable badger densities for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control and also for monitoring badger populations from a conservation perspective. Furthermore, badger management and vaccination programs would benefit by increasing the probability of efficiently capturing the target badger populations. Within this context, it was investigated whether badger capture numbers can be estimated from field signs and previous capture histories. Badger capture records (initial and repeated capture numbers at a sett) from a large-scale removal program (405 km(2), 643 setts) were used. Univariable count models indicated that there were a number of significant potential predictors of badger numbers, during initial capture attempts. Using a multivariable zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model of initial captures we found that badger capture numbers were significantly affected by sett type, season, year, and the number of sett entrances in active use. Badger capture numbers were also affected by the total previous catch during repeated capture events and by the number of previous capture attempts. There was a significant negative trend in badger captures across events. Measures of the ability of these models to estimate badger captures suggested that the models might be useful in estimating badger numbers across a population; however the confidence intervals associated with these predictions were large. PMID:22995474

Byrne, Andrew W; O'Keeffe, James; Sleeman, D Paddy; Davenport, John; Martin, S Wayne

2013-04-01

16

Climate and the Individual: Inter-Annual Variation in the Autumnal Activity of the European Badger (Meles meles)  

PubMed Central

We establish intra-individual and inter-annual variability in European badger (Meles meles) autumnal nightly activity in relation to fine-scale climatic variables, using tri-axial accelerometry. This contributes further to understanding of causality in the established interaction between weather conditions and population dynamics in this species. Modelling found that measures of daylight, rain/humidity, and soil temperature were the most supported predictors of ACTIVITY, in both years studied. In 2010, the drier year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, RAIN, and30cmTEMP (w?=?0.557), while in 2012, a wetter year, the most supported model included the SOLAR*RH interaction, and the RAIN*10cmTEMP (w?=?0.999). ACTIVITY also differed significantly between individuals. In the 2012 autumn study period, badgers with the longest per noctem activity subsequently exhibited higher Body Condition Indices (BCI) when recaptured. In contrast, under drier 2010 conditions, badgers in good BCI engaged in less per noctem activity, while badgers with poor BCI were the most active. When compared on the same calendar dates, to control for night length, duration of mean badger nightly activity was longer (9.5 hrs ±3.3 SE) in 2010 than in 2012 (8.3 hrs ±1.9 SE). In the wetter year, increasing nightly activity was associated with net-positive energetic gains (from BCI), likely due to better foraging conditions. In a drier year, with greater potential for net-negative energy returns, individual nutritional state proved crucial in modifying activity regimes; thus we emphasise how a ‘one size fits all’ approach should not be applied to ecological responses. PMID:24465376

Noonan, Michael J.; Markham, Andrew; Newman, Chris; Trigoni, Niki; Buesching, Christina D.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Macdonald, David W.

2014-01-01

17

Revisiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations.  

PubMed

Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples from western Europe, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions about the location of refugia, patterns of postglacial expansion and recent demography. In the present study, continent-wide sampling and analyses with multiple markers provided evidence for two glacial refugia (Iberia and southeast Europe) that contributed to the genetic variation observed in badgers in Europe today. Approximate Bayesian computation provided support for a colonisation of Scandinavia from both Iberian and southeastern refugia. In the whole of Europe, we observed a decline in genetic diversity with increasing latitude, suggesting that the reduced diversity in the peripheral populations resulted from a postglacial expansion processes. Although MSVAR v.1.3 also provided evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks in some of these peripheral populations, the simulations performed to estimate the method's power to correctly infer the past demography of our empirical populations suggested that the timing and severity of bottlenecks could not be established with certainty. We urge caution against trying to relate demographic declines inferred using MSVAR with particular historic or climatological events. PMID:24781805

Frantz, A C; McDevitt, A D; Pope, L C; Kochan, J; Davison, J; Clements, C F; Elmeros, M; Molina-Vacas, G; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Balestrieri, A; Van Den Berge, K; Breyne, P; Do Linh San, E; Agren, E O; Suchentrunk, F; Schley, L; Kowalczyk, R; Kostka, B I; Cirovi?, D; Sprem, N; Colyn, M; Ghirardi, M; Racheva, V; Braun, C; Oliveira, R; Lanszki, J; Stubbe, A; Stubbe, M; Stier, N; Burke, T

2014-11-01

18

Estimating population size by genotyping remotely plucked hair: the Eurasian badger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Size is a basic attribute of any population but it is often difficult to estimate, especially if the species under investigation is rare or cryptic. For example, there is currently no cheap and robust way of estimating the abundance of the European badger Meles meles , despite the species' role as an agricultural pest and carrier of bovine

ALAIN C. FRANTZ; MICHEL SCHAUL; LISA C. POPE; FRED FACK; LAURENT SCHLEY; CLAUDE P. MULLER; TIMOTHY J. ROPER

19

Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles).  

PubMed

Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

2014-10-01

20

Diagnostic Accuracy and Optimal Use of Three Tests for Tuberculosis in Live Badgers  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is notoriously difficult in live animals, yet important if we are to understand the epidemiology of TB and devise effective strategies to limit its spread. Currently available tests for diagnosing TB in live Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) remain unvalidated against a reliable gold standard. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and optimal use of three tests for TB in badgers in the absence of a gold standard. Methodology/Principal Findings A Bayesian approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and optimal use of mycobacterial culture, gamma-interferon assay and a commercially available serological test using multiple samples collected from 305 live wild badgers. Although no single test was judged to be sufficiently sensitive and specific to be used as a sole diagnostic method, selective combined use of the three tests allowed guidelines to be formulated that allow a diagnosis to be made for individual animals with an estimated overall accuracy of 93% (range: 75% to 97%). Employing this approach in the study population of badgers resulted in approximately 13 out of 14 animals having their true infection status correctly classified from samples collected on a single capture. Conclusions/Significance This method of interpretation represents a marked improvement on the current procedure for diagnosing M. bovis infection in live badgers. The results should be of use to inform future test and intervention strategies with the aim of reducing the incidence of TB in free-living wild badger populations. PMID:20585404

Drewe, Julian A.; Tomlinson, Alexandra J.; Walker, Neil J.; Delahay, Richard J.

2010-01-01

21

Impacts of removing badgers on localised counts of hedgehogs.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence of the interactions among mammalian predators that eat or compete with one another is rare, due to the ethical and logistical challenges of managing wild populations in a controlled and replicated way. Here, we report on the opportunistic use of a replicated and controlled culling experiment (the Randomised Badger Culling Trial) to investigate the relationship between two sympatric predators: European badgers Meles meles and western European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus. In areas of preferred habitat (amenity grassland), counts of hedgehogs more than doubled over a 5-year period from the start of badger culling (from 0.9 ha-1 pre-cull to 2.4 ha-1 post-cull), whereas hedgehog counts did not change where there was no badger culling (0.3-0.3 hedgehogs ha-1). This trial provides experimental evidence for mesopredator release as an outcome of management of a top predator. PMID:24736454

Trewby, Iain D; Young, Richard; McDonald, Robbie A; Wilson, Gavin J; Davison, John; Walker, Neil; Robertson, Andrew; Doncaster, C Patrick; Delahay, Richard J

2014-01-01

22

BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs.  

PubMed

Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles). Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.52) the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88) in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03). When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02). PMID:23251352

Carter, Stephen P; Chambers, Mark A; Rushton, Stephen P; Shirley, Mark D F; Schuchert, Pia; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Murray, Alistair; Rogers, Fiona; Gettinby, George; Smith, Graham C; Delahay, Richard J; Hewinson, R Glyn; McDonald, Robbie A

2012-01-01

23

BCG Vaccination Reduces Risk of Tuberculosis Infection in Vaccinated Badgers and Unvaccinated Badger Cubs  

PubMed Central

Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles). Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio?=?0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.52) the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio?=?0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.88) in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio?=?0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.76; P?=?0.03). When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio?=?0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.81; P?=?0.02). PMID:23251352

Carter, Stephen P.; Chambers, Mark A.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Schuchert, Pia; Pietravalle, Stephane; Murray, Alistair; Rogers, Fiona; Gettinby, George; Smith, Graham C.; Delahay, Richard J.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; McDonald, Robbie A.

2012-01-01

24

Badger responses to small-scale culling may compromise targeted control of bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Where wildlife disease requires management, culling is frequently considered but not always effective. In the British Isles, control of cattle tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by infection in wild badger (Meles meles) populations. Large-scale badger culling can reduce the incidence of confirmed cattle TB, but these benefits are undermined by culling-induced changes in badger behavior (termed perturbation), which can increase transmission among badgers and from badgers to cattle. Test-vaccinate/remove (TVR) is a novel approach that entails testing individual badgers for infection, vaccinating test-negative animals, and killing test-positive animals. Imperfect capture success, diagnostic sensitivity, and vaccine effectiveness mean that TVR would be expected to leave some infected and some susceptible badgers in the population. Existing simulation models predict that TVR could reduce cattle TB if such small-scale culling causes no perturbation, but could increase cattle TB if considerable perturbation occurs. Using data from a long-term study, we show that past small-scale culling was significantly associated with four metrics of perturbation in badgers: expanded ranging, more frequent immigration, lower genetic relatedness, and elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of TB. Though we could not reject the hypothesis that culling up to three badgers per social group might avoid perturbation, we also could not reject the hypothesis that killing a single badger prompted detectable perturbation. When considered alongside existing model predictions, our findings suggest that implementation of TVR, scheduled for 2014, risks exacerbating the TB problem rather than controlling it. Ongoing illegal badger culling is likewise expected to increase cattle TB risks. PMID:24927589

Bielby, Jon; Donnelly, Christl A; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry; Woodroffe, Rosie

2014-06-24

25

Controlling Badger Damage  

E-print Network

Dens or holes dug by badgers can be a hazard to livestock, horseback riders and machinery. Badgers can be controlled by trapping, shooting, habitat modification or frightening them away with bright lights....

Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service

2004-06-28

26

Steve Jackson's Badger Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this individually-hosted Web site, badger buff Steve Jackson makes it easy "for people around the world to find out more about badgers, the threats they face, and how they can be protected." Jackson's comprehensive Web site is absolutely packed with information and photos. Fortunately, the site is also very well-organized, both by badger species and by specific issue (e.g. conservation, threats, managing badgers in urban settings, etc.). Jackson also provides detailed tips on how to watch and study badgers properly.

27

Use of an Electronic Nose To Diagnose Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers and Cattle  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB. The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has been attributed in part to a reservoir of the infection in badgers (Meles meles). Accurate and reliable diagnosis of infection is the cornerstone of TB control. Bacteriological diagnosis has these characteristics, but only with samples collected postmortem. Unlike significant wild animal reservoirs of M. bovis that are considered pests in other countries, such as the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, the badger and its sett are protected under United Kingdom legislation (The Protection of Badgers Act 1992). Therefore, an accurate in vitro test for badgers is needed urgently to determine the extent of the reservoir of infection cheaply and without destroying badgers. For cattle, a rapid on-farm test to complement the existing tests (the skin test and gamma interferon assay) would be highly desirable. To this end, we have investigated the potential of an electronic nose (EN) to diagnose infection of cattle or badgers with M. bovis, using a serum sample. Samples were obtained from both experimentally infected badgers and cattle, as well as naturally infected badgers. Without exception, the EN was able to discriminate infected animals from controls as early as 3 weeks after infection with M. bovis, the earliest time point examined postchallenge. The EN approach described here is a straightforward alternative to conventional methods of TB diagnosis, and it offers considerable potential as a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means of diagnosing M. bovis infection in cattle and badgers. PMID:15814995

Fend, R.; Geddes, R.; Lesellier, S.; Vordermeier, H.-M.; Corner, L. A. L.; Gormley, E.; Costello, E.; Hewinson, R. G.; Marlin, D. J.; Woodman, A. C.; Chambers, M. A.

2005-01-01

28

Percentage of protein, lipids, and carbohydrates in the diet of badger ( Meles meles ) populations across Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although originally evolved as predators, several species of mammalian carnivores exhibit a great trophic diversity, ranging\\u000a from hypercarnivory to a high consumption of vegetable food. Habitat characteristics influence food availability and consequently\\u000a could affect the nutritional composition of the diet of generalist species. By reviewing the available literature, we tested\\u000a the hypothesis that intraspecific differences in the food habits of

Luigi Remonti; Alessandro Balestrieri; Claudio Prigioni

2011-01-01

29

Impact of external sources of infection on the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in modelled badger populations  

PubMed Central

Background The persistence of bovine TB (bTB) in various countries throughout the world is enhanced by the existence of wildlife hosts for the infection. In Britain and Ireland, the principal wildlife host for bTB is the badger (Meles meles). The objective of our study was to examine the dynamics of bTB in badgers in relation to both badger-derived infection from within the population and externally-derived, trickle-type, infection, such as could occur from other species or environmental sources, using a spatial stochastic simulation model. Results The presence of external sources of infection can increase mean prevalence and reduce the threshold group size for disease persistence. Above the threshold equilibrium group size of 6–8 individuals predicted by the model for bTB persistence in badgers based on internal infection alone, external sources of infection have relatively little impact on the persistence or level of disease. However, within a critical range of group sizes just below this threshold level, external infection becomes much more important in determining disease dynamics. Within this critical range, external infection increases the ratio of intra- to inter-group infections due to the greater probability of external infections entering fully-susceptible groups. The effect is to enable bTB persistence and increase bTB prevalence in badger populations which would not be able to maintain bTB based on internal infection alone. Conclusions External sources of bTB infection can contribute to the persistence of bTB in badger populations. In high-density badger populations, internal badger-derived infections occur at a sufficient rate that the additional effect of external sources in exacerbating disease is minimal. However, in lower-density populations, external sources of infection are much more important in enhancing bTB prevalence and persistence. In such circumstances, it is particularly important that control strategies to reduce bTB in badgers include efforts to minimise such external sources of infection. PMID:22738118

2012-01-01

30

Evidence for a Role of the Host-Specific Flea (Paraceras melis) in the Transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European Badger  

PubMed Central

We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W.; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

2011-01-01

31

Physaloptera sibirica in foxes and badgers from the Western Alps (Italy).  

PubMed

We investigated the presence of Physaloptera sibirica and its distribution as well as the association among the parasite, host (i.e. mange due to Sarcoptes scabiei) and environmental factors (i.e. altitudes) in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and badgers (Meles meles) from the North-West of Italy. From 1996 to 2008 a total of 608 foxes, culled by hunters or road killed, and 39 road killed badgers were examined in order to investigate the presence of nematodes in the stomach. P. sibirica was found in 16 foxes (2.63%) and one badger (2.56%). As regards foxes' habitat type, prevalence was significantly higher (chi(2) = 16.36, p < or = 0.05) in mountain foxes (6.43%; 95%CI 3.25-11.22%) than those from hills (2.22%; 95%CI 0.46-6.36%) or irrigated plains (0.34%; 95%CI 0.01-1.90%). There were no significant differences between sex, age, months and years of the sampling. P. sibirica presence is significantly (chi(2) = 241.63, p > 0.000001) higher (73.33%; 95%CI 44.83-91.09%) in foxes with sarcoptic mange than foxes without mange (0.84%; 95%CI 0.21-1.84%). According to previous studies, in Southern Europe this parasite is associated with mountain areas, probably due to its intermediate hosts which require cold climate. Further studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenic role of P. sibirica in wildlife and its effects on host life history. PMID:19411141

Ferroglio, E; Ragagli, C; Trisciuoglio, A

2009-07-01

32

Laboratory study of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments with badgers infected with Mycobacterium bovis are described. In the first, badgers were infected by intravenous inoculation of a bovine isolate of M bovis. The course of the disease in these and its spread to healthy badgers and calves was monitored by clinical, immunological and bacteriological means. In the second experiment a group of naturally infected badgers were

TW Little; PF Naylor; JW Wilesmith

1982-01-01

33

Badger--an accessible genome exploration environment  

PubMed Central

Summary: High-quality draft genomes are now easy to generate, as sequencing and assembly costs have dropped dramatically. However, building a user-friendly searchable Web site and database for a newly annotated genome is not straightforward. Here we present Badger, a lightweight and easy-to-install genome exploration environment designed for next generation non-model organism genomes. Availability: Badger is released under the GPL and is available at http://badger.bio.ed.ac.uk/. We show two working examples: (i) a test dataset included with the source code, and (ii) a collection of four filarial nematode genomes. Contact: mark.blaxter@ed.ac.uk PMID:23940251

Elsworth, Ben; Jones, Martin; Blaxter, Mark

2013-01-01

34

BADGER MOVEMENT ECOLOGY IN COLORADO AGRICULTURAL AREAS AFTER A FIRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

While investigating the American badger (Taxidea taxus) in eastern Colorado's wheatlands, we studied 3 badgers which were affected by a 2.1 km2 man-made fire and compared them to 2 adjacent badgers unaffected by the fire. All badgers were equipped with radio-telemetry collars and generally located day and night for approximately 1 month pre-fire and 3 weeks post-fire. Three point triangulation

CRAIG A. RAMEY; JEAN B. BOURASSA

35

Habitat associations of American badgers in southeastern British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

American badgers (Taxidea taxus) are endangered in British Columbia due to habitat loss and human-caused mortality. To better understand human impacts and to promote conservation planning, we described badger habitat rela- tionships. At two spatial scales, we analyzed selection by 12 radio-implanted resident badgers for soil composition, for - est overstory, land cover, vegetation productivity, terrain, and human influence. At

Clayton D. Apps; Nancy J. Newhouse; Trevor A. Kinley

2002-01-01

36

Phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the phase diagram of the Kane-Mele model with a long-range Coulomb interaction using an exact quantum Monte Carlo method. Long-range interactions are expected to play a role in honeycomb materials because the vanishing density of states in the semimetallic weak-coupling phase suppresses screening. According to our results, the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model supports the same phases as the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The nonlocal part of the interaction promotes short-range sublattice charge fluctuations, which compete with antiferromagnetic order driven by the onsite repulsion. Consequently, the critical interaction for the magnetic transition is significantly larger than for the purely local Hubbard repulsion. Our numerical data are consistent with SU (2) Gross-Neveu universality for the semimetal to antiferromagnet transition, and with 3D XY universality for the quantum spin Hall to antiferromagnet transition.

Hohenadler, M.; Parisen Toldin, F.; Herbut, I. F.; Assaad, F. F.

2014-08-01

37

Phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model  

E-print Network

We determine the phase diagram of the Kane-Mele model with a long-range Coulomb interaction using an exact quantum Monte Carlo method. Long-range interactions are expected to play a role in honeycomb materials because the vanishing density of states in the semimetallic weak-coupling phase suppresses screening. According to our results, the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model supports the same phases as the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The nonlocal part of the interaction promotes short-range sublattice charge fluctuations, which compete with antiferromagnetic order driven by the onsite repulsion. Consequently, the critical interaction for the magnetic transition is significantly larger than for the purely local Hubbard repulsion. Our numerical data are consistent with $SU(2)$ Gross-Neveu universality for the semimetal to antiferromagnet transition, and with 3D XY universality for the quantum spin Hall to antiferromagnet transition.

Hohenadler, M; Herbut, I F; Assaad, F F

2014-01-01

38

Phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model  

E-print Network

We determine the phase diagram of the Kane-Mele model with a long-range Coulomb interaction using an exact quantum Monte Carlo method. Long-range interactions are expected to play a role in honeycomb materials because the vanishing density of states in the semimetallic weak-coupling phase suppresses screening. According to our results, the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model supports the same phases as the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The nonlocal part of the interaction promotes short-range sublattice charge fluctuations, which compete with antiferromagnetic order driven by the onsite repulsion. Consequently, the critical interaction for the magnetic transition is significantly larger than for the purely local Hubbard repulsion. Our numerical data are consistent with $SU(2)$ Gross-Neveu universality for the semimetal to antiferromagnet transition, and with 3D XY universality for the quantum spin Hall to antiferromagnet transition.

M. Hohenadler; F. Parisen Toldin; I. F. Herbut; F. F. Assaad

2014-07-10

39

Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China  

PubMed Central

Ferret badger–associated human rabies cases emerged in China in 1994. We used a retrospective epidemiologic survey, virus isolation, laboratory diagnosis, and nucleotide sequencing to document its reemergence in 2002–2008. Whether the cause is spillover from infected dogs or recent host shift and new reservoir establishment requires further investigation. PMID:19523299

Zhang, Shoufeng; Tang, Qing; Wu, Xianfu; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fei; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2009-01-01

40

Population subdivision and peripheral isolation in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and implications  

E-print Network

Population subdivision and peripheral isolation in American badgers (Taxidea taxus.J. Kyle Abstract: In Canada, three subspecies of American badgers (Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777 mitochondrial control region sequences within and among badger subspecies (Taxidea taxus jacksoni Schantz, 1946

Swanson, Bradley J.

41

The BADGER Inline Equation of State Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex multiphysics capabilities of radiation hydrodynamics codes require detailed equation of state (EOS) data. These EOS data need to accurately describe the behavior of materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. This is particularly true for integrated high-gain target explosion --- reaction chamber response simulations where conditions ranging from thermonuclear to solid-state are present throughout the simulation. The models employed to facilitate representing the desired material(s) need to represent solid, liquid, gas and plasma states of matter. Each of these states of matter have unique physical phenomena that must be described in an EOS model. In addition to pure material phase information, an ideal EOS model will incorporate phase-change and chemical reaction information. The BADGER Fortran EOS library was created to meet the needs of these multiphysics simulation codes. BADGER incorporates the most recently published ion EOS, electron EOS and ionization models. It was written as a software library with the express intent of being directly linked into external codes to eliminate the requirement of generating tabular data. The library accepts an arbitrary material composition of natural elements or isotopes and calculates the EOS variables and mean ionization based on the density, temperature and plasma condition (local thermodynamic equilibrium or non-LTE). The results are stored in a data array that is accessible to the external code. When an EOS calculation is requested, the material is broken down into individual isotopes and the EOS/ionization calculation is performed on each isotope. BADGER assumes a thermodynamically consistent average atom model, so the final material result is simply the sum of the isotopic constituents. The BADGER ion and electron EOS models have been verified against SESAME tabulated EOS data from Los Alamos National Laboratory for aluminum and tungsten and the ionization model was verified against FLYCHK tabulated mean ionization data from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The BADGER EOS library will allow for the first time modeling of integrated ICF target and chamber systems using a single, consistent EOS and ionization model throughout.

Heltemes, Thad A.

42

BADGERS (Taxidea taxus) AS OCCASIONAL PESTS IN AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The badger (Taxidea taxus). because of its strong propensity for digging, is considered North America's fossorial carnivore, feeding mostly on ground squirrels, pocket gophers, and mice throughout much of the western and midwestern continent. Badger excavations, primarily in search of food, produce mounds and deep holes which can damage alfalfa and other crops and damage farm equipment and water systems.

Steven C. Minta; Rex E. Marsh

1988-01-01

43

USING COMMERCIAL FORESTRY FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN SENSITIVE BADGER HABITAT  

E-print Network

USING COMMERCIAL FORESTRY FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN SENSITIVE BADGER HABITAT by Melissa Hogg BSc of Thesis: Using commercial forestry for ecosystem restoration in sensitive badger habitat Project Number prescribed fire. Commercial forestry can subsidize restoration work, but machinery may damage important

44

EFFECTS OF A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRUS CANINE DISTEMPER VACCINE ON CAPTIVE BADGERS (TAXIDEA TAXUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We vaccinated six captive badgers housed with five controls, and monitored blood antibody titers and white cell counts of both groups for 63 days postvaccination between 29 August and 3 December 1992. Five vaccinated badgers responded with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024 by 63 days postvaccination, whereas the sixth badger did not respond. Treatment badgers also had significant

J. M. Goodrich; E. S. Williams; S. W. Buskirk

45

Tuberculosis in East Sussex. II. Aspects of badger ecology and surveillance for tuberculosis in badger populations (1976-1984).  

PubMed Central

Following the disclosure of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers in East Sussex in 1976, badgers have been examined from and around farms on which cattle have become infected, but with no other attributable source of infection. These farms are confined to the downland of the south-west of the county and M. bovis has been confirmed in badger populations utilising their land. The available evidence indicates that M. bovis infection in badgers is also confined to this area. A detailed study in one area on the South Downs suggested that M. bovis is endemic in the badger population and therefore presents a continued risk for cattle occupying the area. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 1(Contd.) PMID:3525670

Wilesmith, J. W.; Sayers, P. E.; Bode, R.; Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.; Brewer, J. I.; Hillman, G. D.

1986-01-01

46

Sexual differences in spatio-temporal interaction among badgers  

Microsoft Academic Search

I tested the following hypotheses of territorial polygyny on badgers (Taxidea taxus: Carnivora; Mustelidae): Competition among adult females for food should result in intrasexual territoriality, while male\\u000a competition for females should result in larger territories that encompass multiple female territories. The sagebrush-grassland\\u000a study area (Wyoming, USA) contained a depauperate terrestrial fauna with a dense badger population preying on high densities

Steven C. Minta

1993-01-01

47

Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on the ?-flux honeycomb lattice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with a magnetic ? flux threading each honeycomb plaquette. The resulting model has remarkably rich physical properties. In each spin sector, the noninteracting band structure is characterized by a total Chern number C =±2. Fine-tuning of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling ? leads to a quadratic band crossing point associated with a topological phase transition. At this point, quantum Monte Carlo simulations reveal a magnetically ordered phase that extends to weak coupling. Although the spinful model has two Kramers doublets at each edge and is explicitly shown to be a Z2 trivial insulator, the helical edge states are protected at the single-particle level by translation symmetry. Drawing on the bosonized low-energy Hamiltonian, we predict a correlation-induced gap as a result of umklapp scattering for half-filled bands. For strong interactions, this prediction is confirmed by quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

Bercx, Martin; Hohenadler, Martin; Assaad, Fakher F.

2014-08-01

48

Direction of Association between Bite Wounds and Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers: Implications for Transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Badgers are involved in the transmission to cattle of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a serious problem for the UK farming industry. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between bite wounds and TB infection in badgers which may have implications for M. bovis transmission and control, although the sequence of these two events is unclear. Transmission during aggressive encounters could potentially reduce the effectiveness of policies which increase the average range of a badger and thus its opportunities for interaction with other social groups. Methods Data were obtained on badgers captured during a long term study at Woodchester Park, UK (1998–2006). Many badgers had multiple observations. At each observation, the badger was assigned a “state” depending on presence of bite wounds and/or TB infection. Hence each badger had a “transition” from the previous state to the current state. We calculated the numbers of each type of transition and the time spent in each state. Transition rates were calculated for each transition category, dividing the number of such transitions by the total time at risk. We compared the rate of bite wound acquisition in infected badgers with that for uninfected badgers and the rate of positive M.bovis test results in bitten badgers with that in unbitten badgers. Results The rate of bite wound acquisition in infected badgers (0.291 per year) was 2.09 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.08) times that in uninfected badgers (0.139 per year). The rate of positive M.bovis test results in bitten badgers (0.097 per year) was 2.45 (95% CI: 1.29, 4.65) times that in unbitten badgers (0.040 per year). Conclusions We found strong evidence of both potential sequences of events consistent with transmission via bite wounds and distinctive behaviour in infected badgers. The complex relationship between behaviour and infection must be considered when planning TB control strategies. PMID:23029117

Jenkins, Helen E.; Cox, D. R.; Delahay, Richard J.

2012-01-01

49

Badger Roadkill Risk in Relation to the Presence of Culverts and Jersey Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The subspecies of American badger,found in British Columbia,(Taxidea taxus jeffersonii) is provincially red-listed and nationally endangered.,The primary cause,of mortality is roadkill. Eur opean,badgers,(Melesmeles ) and other carnivores,are known to pass under highways using culverts, and there are indications that American badgers do also, suggesting,that the presence,of more culverts might be associated with lower roadkill risk for American badgers. Furthermore,

Trevor A. Kinley; Nancy J. Newhouse

2009-01-01

50

FOOD HABITS OF THE AMERICAN BADGER (Taxidea taxus) IN SOUTHERN TEXAS: AN OBSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information exists on American badgers (Taxidea taxus) within their southern distribution. Our goal was to gather information on diet of badgers in southern Texas. We collected 6 badgers from private ranches and road sides in 2 counties (Dimmitt and Duval). Percent content of food items was calculated for each sample. Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) bean pods,

Daniel P. Collins; Louis A. Harveson; Donald C. Ruthven

51

HUNTING TECHNIQUES AND TOOL USE BY NORTH AMERICAN BADGERS PREYING ON RICHARDSON'S GROUND SQUIRRELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques used by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) when hunting Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) were assessed over a 15-year period in southern Alberta to determine the relationship between activity of prey and methods used to capture prey. Badgers frequently hunted hibernating squirrels in autumn, sometimes hunted infants in spring, and rarely hunted active squirrels in summer. Badgers always captured

Gail R. Michener

2004-01-01

52

Badger Army Ammunition Plant groundwater data management system  

SciTech Connect

At the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (Badger), there are currently over 200 wells that are monitored on a quarterly basis. Badger has had three active production periods since its construction in 1942. During these periods, various nitrocellulose based propellants were produced including single base artillery propellants were produced including single base artillery propellant, double base rocket propellant and BALL POWDER{reg_sign} propellant. Intermediate materials used in the manufacture of these propellants were also produced, including nitroglycerine, and sulfuric and nitric acids. To meet the challenge of managing the data in-house, a groundwater data management system (GDMS) was developed. Although such systems are commercially available, they were not able to provide the specific capabilities necessary for data management and reporting at Badger. The GDMS not only provides the routine database capabilities of data sorts and queries, but has provided an automated data reporting system as well. The reporting function alone has significantly reduced the time and efforts that would normally be associated with this task. Since the GDMS was developed at Badger, the program can be continually adapted to site specific needs. Future planned modifications include automated reconciliation, improved transfer of data to graphics software, and statistical analysis and interpretation of the data.

Hansen, J.P. [Olin Corp., Baraboo, WI (United States). Badger Army Ammunition Plant

1994-12-31

53

Serologic testing of badgers to monitor plague in southwestern Idaho.  

PubMed

Serologic testing of badgers (Taxidea taxus) was used to monitor plague (Yersinia pestis) in a Townsend ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendi) population in 10,000 ha of the Snake River Birds of Prey Study Area, Idaho. Eighty-six percent of the 294 sera tested in 1975 and in 1976 were positive. Significantly fewer (72%) seropositives occurred in 1977. Seasonal changes in the percentage of seropositives and the decline in 1977 were probably due to the phenology of the Townsend ground squirrel and the proportion of that species in the badger's diet. Eight Townsend ground squirrels found dead had positive bacteriologic tests for plague; however, a high mortality in the ground squirrel population was not observed. Food habits and movement patterns of badgers made them ideal for documenting the geographical and temporal characteristics of the plague focus. PMID:6842729

Messick, J P; Smith, G W; Barnes, A M

1983-01-01

54

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae in United Kingdom Badgers: Prevalence and Spatial Distribution  

PubMed Central

Eighteen (72%) of 25 badger social groups were found to excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Ried, S. enterica serovar Binza, S. enterica serovar Agama, or S. enterica serovar Lomita. Each serovar was susceptible to a panel of antimicrobials. Based on results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the S. enterica serovar Agama and S. enterica serovar Binza isolates were very similar, but two clones each of S. enterica serovar Lomita and S. enterica serovar Ried were found. Badgers excreting S. enterica serovar Agama were spatially clustered. PMID:12839821

Wilson, J. Sian; Hazel, Sarah M.; Williams, Nicola J.; Phiri, Amos; French, Nigel P.; Hart, C. Anthony

2003-01-01

55

Effects of a modified-live virus canine distemper vaccine on captive badgers (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

We vaccinated six captive badgers housed with five controls, and monitored blood antibody titers and white cell counts of both groups for 63 days postvaccination between 29 August and 3 December 1992. Five vaccinated badgers responded with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024 by 63 days postvaccination, whereas the sixth badger did not respond. Treatment badgers also had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in lymphocytes on days 16, 29, and 63. No badgers developed clinical signs of distemper. Control badgers did not produce antibodies against CD virus; thus, the vaccine virus probably was not transmitted between treatment and control animals. The vaccine appears safe for use in healthy badgers, but additional safety and efficacy study is needed. PMID:7760477

Goodrich, J M; Williams, E S; Buskirk, S W

1994-10-01

56

Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.  

PubMed

The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

Bilandži?, Nina; Dež?ek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Doki?, Maja; Simi?, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

2012-01-01

57

Ratio Problem in Single Carbon Nanotube Fluorescence Spectroscopy C. L. Kane and E. J. Mele  

E-print Network

for the nano- tube electronic structure [2­5]. In this Letter we study the ``ratio problem''--the ratio betweenRatio Problem in Single Carbon Nanotube Fluorescence Spectroscopy C. L. Kane and E. J. Mele gaps measured in fluorescence spectroscopy on individual single wall carbon nanotubes isolated within

Kane, Charles

58

Translocation as a Promising Tool to Aid Recovery of Badger Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subspecies of American badger 1 that occurs in British Columbia (Taxidea taxus jeffersonii) is on the provincial Red List, and is listed federally by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) as Endangered. Within the East Kootenay Trench, the badger population in the Kootenay River valley appears to be stable to possibly increasing slightly, but

NANCY J. NEWHOUSE; TREVOR A. KINLEY; G. TIMOTHY; RICHARD W. KLAFKI

59

Badger ( Taxidea taxus) disturbances increase soil heterogeneity in a degraded shrub-steppe ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the western United States, overgrazing, weed invasion and wildfire have resulted in the conversion of shrub-steppe to annual grasslands, with substantial effects on ecosystem function. In these landscapes, badgers disturb large areas of soil while foraging for fossorial animals. Mounds created by badgers contained the lowest concentrations of total carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, mineral nitrogen and mineralizable nitrogen, inter-mound

D. J. Eldridge; W. G. Whitford

2009-01-01

60

Killing technique of North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcasses of 13 Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) cached during autumn by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in southern Alberta, Canada, were inspected to determine the capture and killing technique. Regardless of prey size (251-651 g) or torpor status (normothermic or torpid), badgers killed ground squir - rels with a single grasping bite directed dorsally or laterally to the thorax.

Gail R. Michener; Andrew N. Iwaniuk

2001-01-01

61

Seasonal serum urea-creatinine ratios in wild and captive American badgers, Taxidea taxus.  

PubMed

1. Blood samples were taken from 22 American badgers in the field during different seasons and analysed for urea and creatinine. 2. The urea-creatinine ratio (U/C) of these animals did not decrease during the winter as previously reported for black bears. This suggests that the badger, unlike the bear, does not demonstrate a winter physiological state of protein conservation. 3. This may be the consequence of intermittent ingestion of protein by the badger during the winter, or due to biochemical mechanisms unique to the bear which allows for protein turnover and resynthesis. 4. Captive badgers fasted in the laboratory during the winter also did not exhibit lower U/C ratios and protein catabolism, compared to a summer fast, thereby supporting the latter hypothesis that badgers do not have an adjustment in protein catabolism during the winter season. PMID:1968814

Harlow, H J; Nelson, R A

1990-01-01

62

Effectiveness of Biosecurity Measures in Preventing Badger Visits to Farm Buildings  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Methodology Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; “Control”, “Feed Storage”, “Cattle Housing” and “Both”, whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Results Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle. PMID:22220199

Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A.; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J.

2011-01-01

63

A forensic STR profiling system for the Eurasian badger: A framework for developing profiling systems for wildlife species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing short tandem repeat (STR) profiling systems for forensic identification is complicated in animal species. Obtaining a representative number of individuals from populations, limited access to family groups and a lack of developed STR markers can make adhering to human forensic guidelines difficult. Furthermore, a lack of animal specific guidelines may explain why many wildlife forensic STR profiling systems developed

Nick Dawnay; Rob Ogden; Roger S. Thorpe; Lisa C. Pope; Deborah A. Dawson; Ross McEwing

2008-01-01

64

Bovine tuberculosis in a free ranging red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Doñana National Park (Spain).  

PubMed

During 1997 and 1998, a survey of Iberian carnivores was conducted to study the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in the Doñana National Park and surrounding areas in southwestern Spain. Post-mortem examinations were done on seven red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), one weasel (Mustela nivalis), two genets (Genetta genetta), one Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one Eurasian badger (Meles meles), and two polecats (Mustela putorius). Lesions suggestive of bovine tuberculosis were not detected but, in culture, Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes of one adult male red fox. This is the first report of M. bovis infection in red fox in Spain. PMID:16107680

Martín-Atance, P; Palomares, F; González-Candela, M; Revilla, E; Cubero, M J; Calzada, J; León-Vizcaíno, L

2005-04-01

65

Trial design to estimate the effect of vaccination on tuberculosis incidence in badgers.  

PubMed

The principal wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in Ireland is the European badger. Studies in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) have shown that badgers culled in association with cattle herd tuberculosis breakdowns (focal culling) have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger population at large. This observation is one rationale for the medium term national strategy of focal badger culling. A vaccination strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in badgers is a preferred long-term option. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been shown to decrease disease severity in captive badgers under controlled conditions. As the vaccine has been tested in a controlled environment with precise information on infection pressure, it cannot be assumed a priori that the effects of vaccination are similar in the wild, where other environmental and/or ecological factors prevail. For this reason we have designed a vaccine field trial to assess the impact of vaccination on the incidence of TB infection in a wild badger population. The selected study area for the vaccine trial (approximately 755 square kilometers) is divided into three zones each of which has similar characteristics in terms of size, number of main badger setts, cattle herds, cattle and land classification type. Three vaccination levels (100%, 50% and 0%) will be allocated to the three zones in a way that a gradient of vaccination coverage North to South is achieved. The middle zone (zone B) will be vaccinated at a 50% coverage but zone A and C will be randomly allocated with 100% or 0% vaccination coverage. Vaccination within zone B will be done randomly at individual badger level. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a field tuberculosis vaccination trial for badgers, the epidemiological methods that were used to design the trial and the subsequent data analysis. The analysis will enable us to quantify the magnitude of the observed vaccination effect on M. bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions and to improve our knowledge of the biological effects of vaccination on susceptibility and infectiousness. PMID:21450420

Aznar, Inma; McGrath, Guy; Murphy, Denise; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J; Martin, Wayne; O'Keeffe, James; De Jong, Mart C M

2011-07-01

66

Valence bond phases in S = 1/2 Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model.  

PubMed

The phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model in a classical limit [47] contains disordered regions in the coupling space, as the result of competition between different terms in the Hamiltonian, leading to frustration in finding a unique ground state. In this work we explore the nature of these phases in the quantum limit, for a S = 1/2. Employing exact diagonalization in Sz and nearest neighbour valence bond bases, and bond and plaquette valence bond mean field theories, we show that the disordered regions are divided into ordered quantum states in the form of plaquette valence bond crystals and staggered dimerized phases. PMID:25336537

Zare, Mohammad H; Mosadeq, Hamid; Shahbazi, Farhad; Jafari, S A

2014-11-12

67

Valence bond phases in S = 1/2 Kane–Mele–Heisenberg model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram of the Kane–Mele–Heisenberg model in a classical limit [47] contains disordered regions in the coupling space, as the result of competition between different terms in the Hamiltonian, leading to frustration in finding a unique ground state. In this work we explore the nature of these phases in the quantum limit, for a S = 1/2. Employing exact diagonalization in Sz and nearest neighbour valence bond bases, and bond and plaquette valence bond mean field theories, we show that the disordered regions are divided into ordered quantum states in the form of plaquette valence bond crystals and staggered dimerized phases.

Zare, Mohammad H.; Mosadeq, Hamid; Shahbazi, Farhad; Jafari, S. A.

2014-11-01

68

Subepidermal vesiculobullous filarial dermatitis in free-ranging American badgers (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

Skin and superficial lymph nodes from the 65 juvenile (< 1 year old) and adult free-ranging American badgers (Taxidea taxus) of both sexes that were killed from late July to late October 1991 as part of the recovery program for the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) were examined for evidence of Filaria taxideae. Fifty-one badgers (51/64, 80%) were infected. Both adult badgers (30/32, 94%) and juvenile badgers (21/32, 67%) were infected by adult filarial worms, which occurred most commonly in subcutaneous tissues of the inguinal area, proximal thigh, and ventral abdomen. Sections of formalin-fixed skin and, from many badgers, subcutaneous lymph nodes were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Jones' methenamine silver (for basement membrane), and an avidin biotin peroxidase complex method (for factor VIII-related antigen). Superficial dermatitis attributable to embryonated filarial ova and larvae was present in 26/64 badgers (41%), all of them adult (> 1 year old). Acute lesions consisted of multifocal vesiculobullous dermoepidermal separation and superficial perivascular dermatitis. Ultrastructural examination and Jones' silver-stained sections revealed separation between basal keratinocytes and the basal lamina (subepidermal vesiculation). Older lesions consisted of ulcerative superficial granulomatous dermatitis associated with ova and larvae. Multifocal granulomatous endolymphangitis, which involved afferent lymphatics of subcutaneous lymph nodes, was associated with viable as well as degenerative ova and larvae. Adult filarial worms were found in the subcutis alone and did not provoke an inflammatory reaction. PMID:8212456

O'Toole, D; Williams, E S; Welch, V; Nunamaker, C E; Lynn, C

1993-07-01

69

Complication associated with abdominal surgical implantation of a radio transmitter in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

Radio telemetry has greatly advanced the understanding of wild animal ecology. Telemetry studies must ensure that placement of transmitters does not influence the health and behavior of study animals. Here, 10 American badgers (Taxidea taxus) were implanted with beeswax-coated abdominal radio transmitters under general anesthesia and tracked for an average of 14 mo. Behavior and movements of all badgers indicated successful short-term recovery from implantation; however, three mortalities were observed between 5 mo and 15 mo after capture. Cause of death could not be determined for two badgers due to decomposition of the carcasses. A third badger that was recovered in good postmortem condition died from sepsis secondary to a transmitter-related omental torsion. This study indicates that there is some risk associated with abdominally implanted radio transmitters in badgers. Future studies involving implanted transmitters in mammals should focus on identifying safe and effective telemetry devices that do not affect the health of study animals. American badger, omental adhesion, peritoneal implant, telemetry, Taxidea taxus. PMID:20722276

Quinn, Jessica H; Gaffney, Patricia M; Gilardi, Kirsten; Murray, Michael; Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K

2010-03-01

70

Pathogen and rodenticide exposure in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in California.  

PubMed

Urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. American badgers (Taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in California, USA, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. As such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to control nuisance wildlife on agricultural lands. We evaluated free-ranging badgers in California for exposure to pathogens and anticoagulant rodenticides that pose a risk to wildlife, domestic animals, or public health. We found serologic evidence of badger exposure to Francisella tularensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, canine distemper virus, and three Bartonella species: B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Badger tissues contained anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum and bromadiolone, commonly used to control periurban rodent pests. These data provide a preliminary investigation of pathogen and toxicant exposure in the wild badger population. PMID:22493124

Quinn, Jessica H; Girard, Yvette A; Gilardi, Kirsten; Hernandez, Yvette; Poppenga, Robert; Chomel, Bruno B; Foley, Janet E; Johnson, Christine K

2012-04-01

71

American badgers selectively excavate burrows in areas used by black-footed ferrets: implications for predator avoidance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated how American badgers (Taxidea taxus) might exert selective pressure on black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) to develop antipredator defenses. In a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in South Dakota, badgers concentrated their activities where burrow openings and prairie dogs were abundant, a selective behavior that was exhibited by ferrets in the same colony. Badgers excavated burrows more often when in areas recently used by a ferret, suggesting that badgers hunt ferrets or steal prey from ferrets, or both. We also conducted an analysis of survival studies for ferrets and Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii) released onto prairie dog colonies. This polecat is the ferret's ecological equivalent but evolved without a digging predator. Badgers accounted for 30.0% of predation on polecats and 5.5% of predation on ferrets. In contrast, both polecats and ferrets have evolutionary experience with canids, providing a plausible explanation for the similar relative impact of coyotes (Canis latrans) on them (65.0% and 67.1% of predation, respectively). We hypothesize that ferrets and badgers coexist because ferrets are superior at exploitation competition and are efficient at avoiding badgers, and badgers are superior at interference competition.

Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

2013-01-01

72

Influence of sampling scheme on the inference of sex-biased gene flow in the American badger  

E-print Network

(Taxidea taxus) E.M. Kierepka, E.K. Latch, and B.J. Swanson Abstract: Population genetics has fueled the American badger (Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777)), a highly elusive and poorly understood mustelid. A total: Taxidea taxus, American badger, sex-biased dispersal, sampling, spatial autocorrelation. Résumé : La

Latch, Emily K.

73

Emergent QED$_3$ in an extended weak interacting Kane-Mele-Hubbard model  

E-print Network

We study a Kane-Mele model with weak extended Hubbard interactions. We show that a dynamic massive Maxwell field emerges in the long wavelength limit. In the zero Proca mass limit, the charge confinement in the compact U(1) gauge field is consistent with no gapless excitation in the bulk of the topological insulator. The mass gaps of the photon can be revealed by measuring the dynamic structure function in Bragg scattering. By coupling to an extra fermion, the low energy effective theory turns out to be an emergent "quantum electrodynamics" in 2+1 dimensions with/without a Chern-Simons term. A non-quantized plateau Hall effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect responding to the "electric" field, i.e., the gradient of the spin density, can be observed either individually or combinatorially.

Xi Luo; Yue Yu; Long Liang

2014-08-25

74

Emergent QED$_3$ in an extended weak interacting Kane-Mele-Hubbard model  

E-print Network

We study a Kane-Mele model with weak extended Hubbard interactions. We show that a dynamic massive Maxwell field emerges in the long wavelength limit. In the zero Proca mass limit, the charge confinement in the compact U(1) gauge field is consistent with no gapless excitation in the bulk of the topological insulator. The mass gaps of the photon can be revealed by measuring the dynamic structure function in Bragg scattering. By coupling to an extra fermion, the low energy effective theory turns out to be an emergent "quantum electrodynamics" in 2+1 dimensions with/without a Chern-Simons term. A non-quantized plateau Hall effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect responding to the "electric" field, i.e., the gradient of the spin density, can be observed either individually or combinatorially.

Luo, Xi; Liang, Long

2014-01-01

75

Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 2012–2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the RABV affecting the Taiwan ferret badgers (RABV-TWFB) is a distinct lineage within the group of lineages from Asia and that it has been differentiated from its closest lineages, China I (including isolates from Chinese ferret badgers) and the Philippines, 158–210 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of RABV-TWFB originated 91–113 years ago. Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host. PMID:24751120

Chiou, Hue-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chan, Fang-Tse; Wang, Hurng-Yi

2014-01-01

76

Use of buspirone and enrichment to manage aberrant behavior in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

A captive adult female American badger (Taxidea taxus) suffered periodic episodes of agitation and self-mutilation over the course of its lifetime. Initially environmental enrichment curtailed the aberrant behavior; however, intensifying clinical signs periodically required the use of diazepam for amelioration of the problem. When diazepam treatment failed to effectively manage a series of escalating behavioral problems, alternative therapy with buspirone, an azaperone anxiolytic, was initiated. The badger was treated with 10 mg buspirone p.o. b.i.d. for over 18 mo, during which time no undesirable behaviors or noticeable side effects were observed. PMID:17312776

Gage, Laurie J

2005-09-01

77

Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans.  

PubMed

One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual "Neandertal" features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

2014-07-22

78

14th Annual Conference Central Eurasian  

E-print Network

The State of Social Mobilization in Central Eurasia Book Sales Identity Politic (Pre-)Islamic Rituals: Islam and the State in Central Asia Contemporary Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan Past Eurasian Studies: New Foundations for the Development of Reseach within the Region Post-Soviet State

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

79

QUASISYMMETRY AND RECTIFIABILITY OF QUASISPHERES MATTHEW BADGER, JAMES T. GILL, STEFFEN ROHDE, AND TATIANA TORO  

E-print Network

QUASISYMMETRY AND RECTIFIABILITY OF QUASISPHERES MATTHEW BADGER, JAMES T. GILL, STEFFEN ROHDE quasisphere is rectifiable. In particular, we show that for any > 0 integrability of (ess sup1-t is rectifiable. We also establish estimates for the weak quasisymmetry constant of a global K-quasiconformal map

Toro, Tatiana

80

Estimating the power of a Mycobacterium bovis vaccine trial in Irish badgers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the power, using simulation techniques, of a group randomized vaccine field trial designed to assess the effect of vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers. The effects of sample size (recapture percentage), initial prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test, transmission rate between unvaccinated badgers, Vaccine Efficacy for Susceptibility (VES) and Vaccine Efficacy for Infectiousness (VEI), on study power were determined. Sample size had a small effect on power. Study power increased with increasing transmission rate between non-vaccinated badgers. Changes in VES had a higher impact on power than changes in VEI. However, the largest effect on study power was associated with changes in the specificity of the diagnostic test, within the range of input values that were used for all other modelled parameters. Specificity values below 99.4% yielded a study power below 50% even when sensitivity was 100% and, VEI and VES were both equal to 80%. The effect of changes in sensitivity on study power was much lower. The results from our study are in line with previous studies, as study power was dependent not only on sample size but on many other variables. In this study, additional variables were studied, i.e. test sensitivity and specificity. In the current vaccine trial, power was highly dependent on the specificity of the diagnostic test. Therefore, it is critical that the diagnostic test used in the badger vaccine trial is optimized to maximize test specificity. PMID:23791123

Aznar, I; More, S J; Frankena, K; De Jong, M C M

2013-09-01

81

American Society of Mammalogists Movements and Denning Habits of a Badger  

E-print Network

of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity badger by a leather or cloth shoulder harness. A completed harness with the radio attached weighed in this paper is the area bounded by outer lines connecting consecu- tive radio-locations. Dens refer only

Minnesota, University of

82

Reproductive Den Habitat Characterization of American Badgers (Taxidea taxus) in Central California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American badger (Taxidea taxus) is a species of special concern in California, and, as such, conservation measures are necessary. The goal of this study was to identify potential reproductive den habitat characteristics in order to more accurately predict critical reproductive habitat in central California grasslands. A paired study design was used to examine differences between reproductive and non-reproductive sites,

Katrina Louise Huck

2010-01-01

83

GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SENSITIVE AND ENDANGERED NORTHWESTERN BADGER POPULATIONS (TAXIDEA TAXUS TAXUS AND T. T. JEFFERSONII)  

Microsoft Academic Search

American badgers (Taxidea taxus) are semifossorial carnivores present in many arid regions of central and western North America. Negative demographic trends have prompted recent discussion concerning their conservation status in the northwestern portion of their range. As such, further information regarding the metapopulation structure of this species and factors affecting dispersal is needed. To provide a preliminary assessment of genetic

Christopher J. Kyle; Richard D. Weir; Nancy J. Newhouse; Helen Davis; Curtis Strobeck

2004-01-01

84

Metabolic Adaptations to Prolonged Food-Deprivation by the American Badger Taxidea-Taxus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy expenditures for food processing, maintenance, and activity requirements were determined in the laboratory on the American badger, Taxidea taxus, both with ad lib. food and starved for 7, 20, and 30 days. Body weight decreased at about 76 g per day, resulting in a respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.83 after 30 days of starvation. Energy requirements were calculated from

Henry Harlow

1981-01-01

85

Immunohistochemistry of parasitic subepidermal vesiculobullous disease in American badgers (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

Some populations of free-ranging American badgers (Taxidea taxus) develop a distinctive seasonal dermatitis due to the subcutaneous filariid Filaria taxideae. Subepidermal vesicles that contain filarial ova develop in thinly haired skin of the inguinal area, proximal thigh, and ventral abdomen. The purpose of this study was to establish by immunohistochemistry whether basement membrane components colocalized with the roof or floor of vesicles and to confirm that filarial ova occur in intradermal vessels. Samples of skin with characteristic F. taxideae-induced subepidermal vesicles were collected from 10 adult male (n = 8) and female (n = 2) badgers. Samples were fixed in formalin for 1-4 days and processed routinely into paraffin wax. Immunohistochemical staining for basement membrane was attempted with anti-collagen IV antibodies (AM168-5M, AR079-5R, AB748) and antilaminin antibodies (MA078-5C, AR078-5R, L-9393). Optimal results in skin from badgers were obtained using a biotin-streptavidin technique and AR079-5R (anti-human collagen IV) and AR078-5R (anti-murine laminin). There was positive staining of the floor of vesicles in 5 of 6 badgers tested with antibodies to laminin and collagen IV. In 5/10 badgers, filarial ova and first stage F. taxideae larvae were found in dilated vascular channels of the upper dermis, and these vessels stained positively for factor VIII-related antigen. The results suggest that F. taxideae-induced subepidermal separation occurs consistently in the lamina lucida portion of the basal lamina and that filarial ova occur in dermal vessels. PMID:8011785

O'Toole, D; Welch, V; Williams, B

1994-01-01

86

Architectural specialization of the intrinsic thoracic limb musculature of the American badger (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

Evaluation of the relationships between muscle structure and digging function in fossorial species is limited. Badgers and other fossorial specialists are expected to have massive forelimb muscles with long fascicles capable of substantial shortening for high power and applying high out-force to the substrate. To explore this hypothesis, we quantified muscle architecture in the thoracic limb of the American badger (Taxidea taxus) and estimated the force, power, and joint torque of its intrinsic musculature in relation to the use of scratch-digging behavior. Architectural properties measured were muscle mass, belly length, fascicle length, pennation angle, and physiological cross-sectional area. Badgers possess hypertrophied shoulder flexors/humeral retractors, elbow extensors, and digital flexors. The triceps brachii is particularly massive and has long fascicles with little pennation, muscle architecture consistent with substantial shortening capability, and high power. A unique feature of badgers is that, in addition to elbow joint extension, two biarticular heads (long and medial) of the triceps are capable of applying high torques to the shoulder joint to facilitate retraction of the forelimb throughout the power stroke. The massive and complex digital flexors show relatively greater pennation and shorter fascicle lengths than the triceps brachii, as well as compartmentalization of muscle heads to accentuate both force production and range of shortening during flexion of the carpus and digits. Muscles of most functional groups exhibit some degree of specialization for high force production and are important for stabilizing the shoulder, elbow, and carpal joints against high limb forces generated during powerful digging motions. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis and indicate that forelimb muscle architecture is consistent with specializations for scratch-digging. Quantified muscle properties in the American badger serve as a comparator to evaluate the range of diversity in muscle structure and contractile function that exists in mammals specialized for fossorial habits. PMID:22987341

Moore, Alexis L; Budny, Joseph E; Russell, Anthony P; Butcher, Michael T

2013-01-01

87

Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin-orbit (SO) coupling is the crucial parameter to drive topological-insulating phases in electronic band models. In particular, the generic emergence of SO coupling involves the Rashba term which fully breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry. As soon as interactions are taken into account, however, many theoretical studies have to content themselves with the analysis of a simplified U(1)-conserving SO term without Rashba coupling. We intend to fill this gap by studying the Kane-Mele-Hubbard (KMH) model in the presence of Rashba SO coupling and present the first systematic analysis of the effect of Rashba SO coupling in a correlated two-dimensional topological insulator. We apply the variational cluster approach (VCA) to determine the interacting phase diagram by computing local density of states, magnetization, single particle spectral function, and edge states. Preceded by a detailed VCA analysis of the KMH model in the presence of U(1)-conserving SO coupling, we find that the additional Rashba SO coupling drives new electronic phases such as a metallic regime and a weak topological-semiconductor phase which persist in the presence of interactions.

Laubach, Manuel; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan

2014-10-01

88

Foods of American badgers in west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during the duck nesting season  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the American badger (Taxidea taxus) is common in grasslands and preys on a wide diversity of foods including birds, little is known about badger diet in areas where nesting ducks are common. Small mammals, primarily Muridae and Geomyidae, were the most common food items in the diet of badgers collected from west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during April-July 1987 through 1990, based on analysis of gastrointestinal tracts of 47 adult ( 1/4 -y-old) and 5 juvenile (<6-mo-old) badgers. Remains of mammals occurred in 98% of samples from adult badgers. Small quantities of insects were found in 40% of adult samples. Bird remains were in 32% of adult samples, most birds identified as Anatidae; ducks or ducklings occurred in 27% and duck eggs in 60% of those samples. Remains of reptiles, amphibians and mollusks were present, but were less common than other foods. Insects and bird eggs were more common during spring (April-May) than summer (June-July). Birds were more frequent in diets of adults than juvenile badgers.

Sovada, M. A.; Roaldson, J. M.; Sargeant, A. B.

1999-01-01

89

SEROLOGIC TESTING OF BADGERS TO MONITOR PLAGUE IN SOUTHWESTERN IDAHO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Serologic,testing,of,badgers,(Taxidea,taxus),was,used,to,monitor,plague,(Yersinia pestis) in,a Townsend ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendi) population in 10,000 ha of the Snake River Birds of Prey Study Area, Idaho. Eighty-six percent of the 294 sera tested in 1975 and in 1976 were positive. Significantly,fewer,(72%) seropositives,occurred,in 1977. Seasonal,changes,in the percentage,of seropositives and,the,decline,in,1977 were,probably,due,to,the,phenology,of,the,Townsend,ground,squirrel,and,the proportion,of that,species,in the badger’s,diet. Eight,Townsend,ground,squirrels,found,dead,had,positive bacteriologic tests for plague; however, a high mortality in

John P. Messick; Graham W. Smith; Allan M. Barnes

90

Scent-marking behaviour of the honey badger, Mellivora capensis (Mustelidae), in the southern Kalahari  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated sexual and seasonal patterns in scent-marking behaviour of the honey badger, by direct observations of habituated individuals (five females, four adult males, two young males). Four categories of scent-marking behaviour were identified: (1) scent marking at latrines; (2) token urination in holes along the foraging path; (3) squat marking at single-use sites; and (4) functional excretion. Females and

C. M. Begg; K. S. Begg; J. T. Du Toit; M. G. L. Mills

2003-01-01

91

Shot BADGER, a test of the UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE Series, 18 April 1953. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the activities of DOD personnel in Shot BADGER, the sixth nuclear test in the UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test, conducted on 18 April 1953, involved military personnel in Exercise Desert Rock V, AFSWP, AFSWC, and AEC test activities. The largest activity was the 2d Marine Corps Provisional Atomic Exercise Brigade maneuver involving 2,167 Marines.

J. Massie; C. Maag; S. Rohrer; R. Shepanek

1982-01-01

92

Torpor and Other Physiological Adaptations of the Badger (Taxidea-Taxus) to Cold Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption (Vo2) and heart rate were measured at ambient temperatures between +20 and -40 C. Basal metabolic rate was 0.3 cm3\\/g*h (65 beats\\/min), the body temperature was 38 C, the lower critical temperature (Tlc) was 10 C, and conductance was 0.01225 cm3\\/g*hoC. Fat composition of 79 adult badgers captured during the winter showed maximal fat deposition of 31% body

Henry Harlow

1981-01-01

93

Yellow (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian (P. fluviatilis) perch distinguished in  

E-print Network

292 Yellow (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian (P. fluviatilis) perch distinguished in fried fish to substitute Eurasian perch (P. fluviatilis Linnaeus) or some other species for yellow perch because of the decline of stocks of yellow perch in the Great Lakes and because of rising prices, both of which raise

94

Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982-2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982-2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period.

Brown, R. D.; Derksen, C.

2013-06-01

95

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2011-01-01

96

Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Using Contact Herbicide Phenological Timing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note evaluates the efficacy of the contact herbicide Aquathol-K upon the exotic weed Eurasian watermilfoil (Mynophyllum spicatum L.) when applications are timed to coincide with periods of low carbohydrate storage within the target plant. T...

1998-01-01

97

Influence of Eurasian spring snow cover on Asian summer rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian snow cover anomaly in spring has been considered as one of the important factors affecting Asian summer monsoon variability. Using the long time series (1922-98) of Eurasian spring (March-April) snow cover (ESSC) reconstructed by Brown (2000. Journal of Climate 13: 2339) and snow cover (1973-98) and depth (1979-87) data from satellite observation, the influences of ESSC on the

Xiaodong Liu; Michio Yanai

2002-01-01

98

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa.  

PubMed

The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter-gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter-gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger-Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ?900-1,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe-Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ?2,700-3,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. PMID:24550290

Pickrell, Joseph K; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Reich, David

2014-02-18

99

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa  

PubMed Central

The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter–gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter–gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger–Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ?900–1,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe–Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ?2,700–3,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. PMID:24550290

Pickrell, Joseph K.; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Reich, David

2014-01-01

100

Epithelioid leiomyosarcoma in the visceral peritoneum of an American badger (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

A 12-year-old female American badger was presented to the Taipei city zoo veterinary ward with anorexia and weakness. Treatments were ineffective, and the badger died of chronic interstitial nephritis and uremia. At necropsy, numerous firm white nodules, measuring 0.5-2.0 cm, were present on the surface of the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, pancreas, and diaphragm. Most nodules were encapsulated and well demarcated from the organs to which they were attached. A poorly demarcated mass, measuring 0.5 cm in diameter, had invaded the hepatic parenchyma and appeared to be the origin of all the nodules derived by transcavitary implantation. Histologically, the nodules contained primarily oval or spindle-shaped cells, typical of smooth muscle cells, forming alternating bundles attached to the surface of the various organs. In some nodules, aggregates of individual polyhedral to round cells with round to oval centrally located nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, typical of smooth muscle origin, were noted. Zones of subcapsular necrosis and multifocal necrosis were also observed in some nodules. Tumor cells stained positively for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin and negatively for desmin, cytokeratin, estrogen, and progesterone receptors. This tumor is similar to but distinguishable from the "disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL)" found in women. PMID:15690961

Wang, Fun-In; Chang, Chih-Hua; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Jeng, Chian-Ren

2005-01-01

101

Hybridization Facilitates the Rapid Evolution of Reduced Herbicide Sensitivity in the Widely-managed Invasive Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Watermilfoil.  

E-print Network

??Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) is one of North American’s most invasive and widely managed aquatic weeds. Eurasian watermilfoil also hybridizes with the native northern watermilfoil… (more)

LaRue, Elizabeth Ann

2012-01-01

102

Distinguishing characteristics in underwater images of Northern and Eurasian watermilfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a simple scheme for distinguishing between two very similar watermilfoils, Eurasian or Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Northern or Myriophyllum exalbescens. Leaf images were isolated from underwater images of the plants. Characteristic features consisting of the ratio of black to white pixels within the convex hull of an edge-mapped leaf, the eccentricity of the ellipse surrounding the leaf and a spatial-dependency analysis, measuring the frequency of change of pixel intensity of an edge-mapped leaf were combined to provide a measure which could be used to determine whether a leaf was Northern or Eurasian.

Sutherland, Karen T.

1996-10-01

103

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian

Jin-Won Song; Se Hun Gu; Shannon N Bennett; Satoru Arai; Maria Puorger; Monika Hilbe; Richard Yanagihara

2007-01-01

104

Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:20728995

Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

2010-11-24

105

ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTIONSIN THE EURASIAN BASIN OF THE ARCTIC OCEAN  

E-print Network

ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTIONSIN THE EURASIAN BASIN OF THE ARCTIC OCEAN A THESISSUBMITTEDTO THE GRADUATE,Chair Yuan-Hui Li DouglasS.Luther #12;ABSTRACT samplescollectedfrom the ARKTIS IX/ 4 (7993)and Arctic ocean in an attempt to presenta clearerpicture of the Al distribution in the Arctic Ocean. The unique physical

Luther, Douglas S.

106

Understanding Higher Education Admissions Reforms in the Eurasian Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the twenty years since independence, new Eurasian nation-states of the former Soviet Union have introduced major changes to the way students are admitted to institutions of higher education. Azerbaijan (1992), Uzbekistan (1993), Kazakhstan (1999), Russia (2001), Kyrgyzstan (2002), Ukraine (2004), and Georgia (2005) have all created new state or…

Drummond, Todd W.; Gabrscek, Sergij

2012-01-01

107

The Effect of Eurasian Snow Cover on the Indian Monsoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors successfully model and simulate the observed evidence that anomalously high winter\\/spring Eurasian snow cover is linked to weak rainfall in the following summer Indian monsoon. It is shown that excessive snow cover in February reduces June to September precipitation over India. The excessive snow cover is associated with a weak monsoon characterized by higher sea level pressure over

A. D. Vernekar; J. Zhou; J. Shukla

1995-01-01

108

Call for Proposals Eurasian Center for Food Security  

E-print Network

agricultural performance in the Eurasian Region and to ensure the sustainability of rural development with the World Bank, has established a Collaborative Research Program aimed at fostering collaboration between as a limiting factor for agriculture in Central Asia 3. The use of humic substances for improving soil fertility

Kaplan, Alexander

109

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa  

E-print Network

, 2014 (received for review July 30, 2013) The history of southern Africa involved interactions between in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry en- tered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. prehistory | population genetics | migration

Reich, David

110

The Developmental Performance of the Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Northern Watermilfoil, Eurasian Watermilfoil, and Hybrid (Northern x Eurasian) Watermilfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic milfoil weevil (Euhrychiopsis lecontei) has expanded its range from the native northern watermilfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum) to the non-native Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Previous studies show that it prefers M. spicatum over M. sibiricum for feeding and oviposition and that weevils that develop on M. spicatum are larger and have shorter development times. Eurasian and northern watermilfoil have hybridized,

S. S. Roley; R. M. Newman

2005-01-01

111

Photosynthesis in Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) 1  

PubMed Central

Gas exchange of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) indicated a near-zero CO2 compensation point and a high temperature optimum for photosynthesis. These properties are characteristic of plants fixing CO2 by a ?-carboxylation mechanism. Operation of the Calvin cycle was shown and no evidence for ?-carboxylation was obtained. These results indicate that near-zero CO2 compensation points are not dependent on a ?-carboxylation mechanism. PMID:16658110

Stanley, R. A.; Naylor, A. W.

1972-01-01

112

Aspects of the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in badgers and cattle. I. The prevalence of infection in two wild animal populations in south-west England.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of infections caused by Mycobacterium bovis was estimated in two populations of wild animals in the south west of England. A variety of mammalian species was trapped on farm land where incidents of infection with tuberculosis had occurred in cattle. Bacteriological analysis of lymph node samples and lesions showed that the only animals acting as a reservoir for M. bovis were badgers. Examination of arthropod ectoparasites of infected badgers proved negative for M. bovis and suggests that these are unlikely to act as vectors in transmission of the disease. PMID:7016985

Barrow, P. A.; Gallagher, J.

1981-01-01

113

The phylogeography of Eurasian Fraxinus species reveals ancient transcontinental reticulation.  

PubMed

To investigate the biogeographical history of ashes species of the Eurasian section Fraxinus and to test the hypothesis of ancient reticulations, we sequenced nuclear DNA (nETS and nITS, 1075 bp) for 533 samples and scored AFLP for 63 samples of Eurasian ashes within the section Fraxinus. The nITS phylogeny retrieved the classical view of the evolution of the section, whereas nETS phylogeny indicated an unexpected separation of F. angustifolia in two paraphyletic groups, respectively found in southeastern Europe and in the other parts of the Mediterranean basin. In the nETS phylogeny, the former group was closely related to F. excelsior, whereas the later was closely related to F. mandshurica, a species which is restricted nowadays to northeastern Asia. This topological incongruence between the two loci indicated the occurrence of an ancient reticulation between European and Asian ash species. Several other ancient reticulation events between the two European species and the other species of the section were supported by the posterior predictive checking method. Some of these reticulation events would have occurred during the Miocene, when climatic variations may have lead these species to expand their distribution range and come into contact. The recurrent reticulations observed among Eurasian ash species indicate that they should be considered as conspecific taxa, with subspecific status for some groups. Altogether, the results of the present study provide a rare documented evidence for the occurrence of multiple ancient reticulations within a group of temperate tree taxa with modern disjunct distributions in Eurasia. These ancient reticulation events indicate that the speciation process is slow in ashes, necessitating long periods of geographical isolation. The implications for speciation processes in temperate trees with similar life history and reproductive biology are discussed. PMID:24795215

Hinsinger, Damien D; Gaudeul, Myriam; Couloux, Arnaud; Bousquet, Jean; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

2014-08-01

114

Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999

Hae Ji Kang; Satoru Arai; Andrew G Hope; Jin-Won Song; Joseph A Cook; Richard Yanagihara

2009-01-01

115

Respiration Rates of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis and Ruffe: Lower Energy Costs in Groups  

E-print Network

for yellow perch Perca flavescens, Bajer et al. (2003) found strong evidence of deficiencies in estimatesRespiration Rates of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis and Ruffe: Lower Energy Costs in Groups DIANA and activity of the two shoaling percids, Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus

116

Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes of mortality were described for 245 radio-marked Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in five different Scandinavian study areas. Furthermore, the survival rates and the population growth rates were estimated for three of the study areas where 202 lynx were followed for a total of 314 radio-years. The main causes of mortality in adult Eurasian lynx in all our study areas

Henrik Andrén; John D. C. Linnell; Olof Liberg; Reidar Andersen; Anna Danell; Jens Karlsson; John Odden; P aû l F. Moa; Per Ahlqvist; Tor Kvam; Robert Franzén; Peter Segerström

2006-01-01

117

Survival and Development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and Introduced Eurasian Tree Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introd ucedinto North America, survival andd evelopment of L. monacha on 26 North American andeight introd ucedEurasian tree species were examined . Seven conifer species (Abies concolor,

M. A. Keena

2003-01-01

118

Measures of Plant Surface-areas for Eurasian Watermilfoil and Water Stargrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant surface areas were measured from samples of two common submersed aquatics with widely diverging morphol- ogies: Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and water stargrass ( Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM.). Measures for the highly dissected leaves of Eurasian watermilfoil in- volved development of a regression equation relating leaf length to direct measures of a subsample of leaf parts. Mea-

PINAR BALCI; J. H. KENNEDY

119

Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Naive and Vaccinated Pigs  

E-print Network

, 3 Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, United Kingdom, 4Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Nai�ve and Vaccinated Pigs Pablo R. Murcia1 of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in nai�ve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural

Hammerton, James

120

Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion  

E-print Network

Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion, Myriophyllum spicatum, snail Abstract Exotic species can invade and establish new habitats both as a result that the abundance of the invasive submerged aquatic plant, Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil) is highly

121

Detection of Neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in Great Britain.  

PubMed

Samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (Mustela furo), 83 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 70 European polecats (Mustela putorius), 65 American mink (Neovison vison), 64 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and 9 stoats (Mustela erminea), from around Great Britain. DNA was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested ITS1 PCR for Neospora caninum. The results from the PCR demonstrated that Neospora specific DNA was detected in all species of wild carnivorans with the exception of the stoats (0/9). Neospora DNA positive samples were detected in: polecats 18.6% (13/70), badgers 10.9% (7/64), ferrets 10.1% (10/99), foxes 4.8% (4/83) and mink 4.6% (3/65). In the badgers N. caninum DNA positive samples were found in brain (n=2), liver (n=2) and neck muscle (n=3). Selected positive ITS1 DNA sequences were submitted to Genbank. Sequence UKwildlife1 (accession number JX857862) was found in two badgers, whilst UKwildlife2 and UKwildlife3 (accession numbers JX857863 and JX857864 respectively) were found in ferrets, all three sequences demonstrated point mutations at a single base, while sequence UKwildlife4 (accession number JX857865) was found in all the species that tested positive and showed complete identity when compared against published reference sequences for: N. caninum (Nc Liverpool isolate, EU564166). Our data shows that almost all the wild carnivoran mammal species tested are intermediate hosts for N. caninum and are therefore capable of acting as reservoirs of infection for other species. These species could also act as useful sentinel species, demonstrating the presence of the parasite in particular geographical and environmental locations. PMID:23102760

Bartley, P M; Wright, S E; Zimmer, I A; Roy, S; Kitchener, A C; Meredith, A; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

2013-02-18

122

Experimental oral immunization of ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) with a recombinant canine adenovirus vaccine CAV-2-E3?-RGP and an attenuated rabies virus SRV9.  

PubMed

Ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) are a major reservoir of rabies virus in southeastern China. Oral immunization has been shown to be a practical method for wildlife rabies management in Europe and North America. Two groups of 20 ferret badgers were given a single oral dose of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3?-RGP, or an experimental attenuated rabies virus vaccine, SRV9. At 21 days, all ferret badgers had seroconverted, with serum virus-neutralizing antibodies ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 IU/mL. Titers were >0.50 IU/mL (an acceptable level) in 17/20 and 16/20 animals receiving CAV-2-E3?-RGP or SRV9, respectively. The serologic results indicate that the recombinant CAV-2-E3?-RGP is at least as effective as the attenuated rabies virus vaccine. Both may be considered for additional research as oral rabies vaccine candidates for ferret badgers. PMID:24506428

Zhao, Jinghui; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fang, Lijun; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

2014-04-01

123

Recent Eurasian river discharge to the Arctic Ocean in the context of longer-term dendrohydrological records  

E-print Network

Recent Eurasian river discharge to the Arctic Ocean in the context of longer correlations between annual discharges (AD 1938­1990) of the major Eurasian rivers entering the Arctic Ocean (2007), Recent Eurasian river discharge to the Arctic Ocean in the context of longer

Smith, Laurence C.

124

Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia. PMID:15362842

Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

2004-04-01

125

The effect of Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon  

SciTech Connect

More than a century ago, Blanford suggested the inverse relation between Himalayan winter and spring snow accumulation and subsequent summer monsoon rainfall over India. This relation was later substantiated with additional data by Walker. Because of an inadequate observational network to obtain the spatial variation of snow cover over the Himalayan region, little progress was made until the availability of satellite measurements. Snow cover data derived from satellite observations was used to show that the correlation between winter Eurasian snow cover south of 52{degrees}N and the following Indian summer monsoon rainfall is negative and statistically significant. This result was further supported by additional research. The relationship between snow cover and monsoon circulation is consistent with a suggestion that the Indian monsoon circulation is a dynamically stable system and its interannual variations are largely determined by slowly varying surface boundary conditions. 64 refs., 22 figs.

Vernekar, A.D.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shukla, J. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

1995-02-01

126

Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils: Russia and contiguous countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils is a challenge necessitated by the intensive and exhaustive use of soil resources. The long-term strategy of interaction between humans and the environment should be directed towards the creation of favorable conditions for the development of society and saving of nature via application of new legislative norms aimed at preservation of pedodiversity and especially valuable soils. It is important to develop pedology as a fundamental science and to harmonize the relation-ships between humans and nature. The 30-year-long experience of Russia in the development of the Red Data Books of Soils is analyzed, and several conclusions aimed at improving the efficiency of special protection of soils in Russia and contiguous countries are made.

Nikitin, E. D.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Sabodina, E. P.

2014-03-01

127

An Updated Eurasian Crustal Model Using Multiple Seismic Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated 2 by 2 degree crustal model for greater Eurasia is being completed from (1) synthesizing existing models, such as WENA 1.0, the new Barents Sea model, and WINPAK; (2) Pn/Sn tomography data; (3) our ongoing compilation of published seismic models for the crust, based on active- and passive-source seismology; and (4) observed and calculated seismic surface wave group and phase velocity maps. In particular, three controlled source studies from China and India completed by the U.S. Geological Survey and colleagues in the past year are contributing to this updated Eurasian crustal model. These include: (1) three short (20-35 km) seismic reflection profiles from the immediate region of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj (western India) earthquake that yielded a crustal thickening from 35 to 45 km over a distance of about 50 km from the northern margin of the Gulf of Kutch to the epicentral zone of the earthquake; (2) a compilation of over 90 seismic refraction/wide angle reflection profiles, with a cumulative length of more than sixty thousand kilometers, across mainland China that have shown a mid-crustal low velocity layer in unstable regions; and (3) a 1000- km-long geophysical profile from Darlag-Lanzhou-Jingbian extending from the Songpan-Ganzi terrane to the Ordos basin in the NE margin of the Tibetan plateau that yielded a 2-D seismic velocity profile from which crustal composition and continental dynamics of the Tibetan plateau are inferred. New crustal depth and velocity maps for greater Eurasia have been compiled, which incorporate the results from the above three studies and other relevant controlled source experiments. This updated compilation of Eurasian Pn and Sn data in CRUST 2.2 will yield more detailed models of the Earth's structure and subsequently more accurate seismic monitoring. Well-resolved crustal models are critical for determining event locations and size estimations.

Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.; McDonald, S.

2006-12-01

128

Magnetic Enhancement of Loessic Soils Along a Toposequence at Badger Ridge-Hitchcock Nature Area, Iowa, U.S.A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in magnetic properties of loessic soil have been correlated to changes in contemporary climate and such correlations aid in the interpretation of older, buried soils. While many studies have been conducted on the Loess Plateau of China, investigations of Midwestern Loess in the US are limited. Our aim is to determine the regional processes responsible for the magnetic development of the soil in Western Iowa. A total of 31 soil profiles from the southeast facing slopes of Badger Ridge located within the Hitchcock Nature Center in Honey Creek of Pottawattamie County were taken using a ½ in. manual soil push probe. The concentration-dependent parameters of magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and anhysteric remanent magnetization susceptibility (ARM) were measured. Highly eroded sites exhibited lesser degrees of magnetic enhancement than more stable sites. In depositional sites, the magnetic profiles were more variable and topographically influenced.

Munroe, C.; Geiss, C. E.; Urbano, L. D.

2009-12-01

129

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

PubMed Central

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian common shrew, captured in October 2006 in Graubünden, Switzerland. Pair-wise analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments of SWSV indicated approximately 55%–72% similarity with hantaviruses harbored by Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae rodents. Phylogenetically, SWSV grouped with other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses. Intensified efforts are underway to clarify the genetic diversity of SWSV throughout the geographic range of the Eurasian common shrew, as well as to determine its relevance to human health. PMID:17967200

Song, Jin-Won; Gu, Se Hun; Bennett, Shannon N; Arai, Satoru; Puorger, Maria; Hilbe, Monika; Yanagihara, Richard

2007-01-01

130

Winter site fidelity is higher than expected for Eurasian Teal Anas crecca in the Camargue, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Eurasian Teal show a return rate of 18.9%, or homing rate of 76.3%, to a ringing site in Camargue, Southern France: this is a much higher winter site fidelity than expected from the literature.

Matthieu Guillemain; Jonathan Fuster; Michel Lepley; Grégoire Massez

2009-01-01

131

Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland  

PubMed Central

Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta D?utowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews. PMID:23693084

2013-01-01

132

THE UNUSUAL SPERM MORPHOLOGY OF THE EURASIAN BULLFINCH (PYRRHULA PYRRHULA) IS NOT DUE TO THE PHENOTYPIC  

E-print Network

spermatozoïdes «typique» des passereaux: Carduelis chloris, Fringilla coelebs et Loxia curvirostra. Nous n Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra). We found no evidence that the Eurasian Bullfinch has undergone a reduction

Nottingham, University of

133

Toxicity of heavy metals and salts to eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of various heavy metals and salts to Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) was determined under controlled growth conditions. Toxicants were added to water or to soil in systems with and without woods earth in the substrate.

Ronald A. Stanley

1974-01-01

134

Controlling Hydrilla and Eurasian Watermilfoil With Fungal Pathogens from the People's Republic of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note describes screening of fungal pathogens collected in The People's Republic of China for efficacy on hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil or milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). Results of this research...

J. F. Shearer, J. W. Barko, R. C. Gunkel

1999-01-01

135

Relative abundance of American badger (Taxidea taxus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in landscapes with high and low rodenticide poisoning levels.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, extensive poisoning campaigns have been conducted in southern Saskatchewan to control Richardson's ground squirrel Spermophilus richardsonii (Sabine, 1822) populations. Such campaigns might impact on predator abundance by decreasing prey levels, and also through secondary poisoning. Using spotlighting, we investigated the relative abundance of American badgers Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) and red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) in 2 study areas with road access and crops, but with different levels of poisoning. In the study area with relatively low poisoning (19.6% of the area traversed by roads), there were 2.2 times more American badgers per km of road and 6.4 times more red foxes per km than in the study area with high poisoning (89.7% of the area). It is recommended that an Integrated Pest Management program be developed to conserve natural predators across landscapes. PMID:22405447

Proulx, Gilbert; MacKenzie, Neil

2012-03-01

136

Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

2008-01-01

137

The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (Felis catus, 2n = 38), American mink (Mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula, 2n = 40), Old World badger (Meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (Melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species

Wenhui Nie; Jinhuan Wang; Patricia C. M. O'Brien; Beiyuan Fu; Tian Ying; Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith; Fengtang Yang

2002-01-01

138

The Developmental Performance of the Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Northern Watermilfoil, Eurasian Watermilfoil, and Hybrid (Northern x Eurasian) Watermilfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquatic milfoil weevil (Euhrychiopsis lecontei) has expanded its range from the native northern watermilfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum) to the non-native Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Previous studies show that it prefers M. spicatum over M. sibiricum for feeding and oviposition and that weevils that develop on M. spicatum are larger and have shorter development times. Eurasian and northern watermilfoil have hybridized, and this hybrid has been hypothesized to be more invasive by exhibiting resistance to the milfoil weevil. To test for resistance, we compared development times, mass, and survival of the milfoil weevil on Eurasian, northern and hybrid watermilfoils. Weevil development was followed from egg to adult on individual rooted plants (n = 17 to 20 for each taxa). Mean development times (19.7 to 20.3 d) and mean adult eclosion mass (1.3 to 1.5 mg) were comparable and not significantly different. Weevil survival rates differed significantly among the taxa and were lowest on northern (45%), intermediate on the hybrid (61%), and highest on Eurasian watermilfoil (88%), but stem diameter may account for some of these differences. This study suggests that hybrid watermilfoil is not exceptionally resistant to milfoil weevil herbivory; rather it possesses resistance intermediate between the native and exotic hosts.

Roley, S. S.; Newman, R. M.

2005-05-01

139

Cranial variation in British mustelids.  

PubMed

Nineteen measurements were made on 136 skulls belonging to seven mustelid species: Meles meles (Eurasian badger), Mustela nivalis, (weasel), Mustela erminea (stoat), Mustela putorius (polecat), Lutra lutra (otter), Mustela furo (ferret), and Mustela vison (American mink), and polecat-ferret hybrids. To investigate shape, size-related effects were eliminated by dividing all measurements by their geometric means. Canonical variate analysis was used to reveal major interspecies distinctions. Excluding the ferrets and polecat-ferrets from the analysis, only 3.2% of the skulls misclassified (one mink, one weasel, and two stoats). Three groups separated on the first canonical axis: 1) badgers, 2) polecats, mink, and otters, and 3) stoats and weasels. The important variables were width of zygomatic arch and height of sagittal crest opposed to the postorbital distance, condylobasal length, and basilar length. Otters separated out on the second canonical axis; the most important variables were postorbital breadth and width of the postorbital constriction opposed to the basioccipital width. There was reasonable separation of polecats from mink on a combination of the second and third canonical axes. On the latter the most important variables were postorbital breadth opposed to postorbital distance. Addition of the ferret data showed that they lay closest to, and overlapped with, the polecats. The stoat and weasel data alone gave complete separation, with height of sagittal crest and width of zygomatic arch opposed to basioccipital width. However, using size-in data the best separation was the relationship between postorbital breadth and either basioccipital width or postorbital distance. Sexual dimorphism was demonstrated in the skulls of badgers but was shown to be relatively insignificant when compared to the interspecific differences. PMID:15052596

Lee, S; Mill, P J

2004-04-01

140

Leptospirosis in wild and domestic carnivores in natural areas in Andalusia, Spain.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Carnivores are at the top of the feeding chain, thus being exposed to pathogens through their preys. From June 2004 to April 2007, we analyzed for evidences of contact with 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans Sensu Lato serum (analyzed by indirect Microscopic Agglutination Test) and urine or kidney samples (analyzed by microscopic observation, immunostaining and culture) collected from 201 wild and domestic carnivores, including 26 free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 33 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 25 common genets (Genetta genetta), two Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and one Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), and 53 free-roaming cats and 28 rural dogs in protected areas in Andalusia (southern Spain). Twenty-three percent of the animals presented evidences of contact, being the prevalence similar among wild (23.5%) and domestic species (22.2%). Contact with Lesptospira was detected in all the species but the otter. Prevalence was: lynx (11% by bacteriological detection, 32% by serology), fox (0%, 47%), mongoose (5%, 20%), genet (0%, 12%), badger (0%, 50%), cat (20%, 14%), dog (only serology: 36%). Serovar Icterohemorragiae accounted for 2/3 of the cases. Serovar Canicola was detected in half of the positive dogs and one lynx. Other serovars detected were Ballum, Sejroë, and Australis. No macroscopic lesions were observed in necropsied animals that showed evidence of contact with the agent, although histopathologic lesions (chiefly chronic interstitial nephritis) were observed in 7 out of the 11 microscopically analyzed individuals. Thus, L. interrogans may cause previously unrecorded disease in wild carnivores in Spain. Wild and free-roaming carnivores may not act as reservoir of L. interrogans but as a dead-end hosts, though the dog may act as reservoir of serovar Canicola. Carnivores are apparently good sentinels for the epidemiological monitorization of leptospirosis. PMID:18973450

Millán, Javier; Candela, Mónica G; López-Bao, José Vicente; Pereira, Marian; Jiménez, María Angeles; León-Vizcaíno, Luis

2009-10-01

141

Independent Nonframeshift Deletions in the MC1R Gene Are Not Associated with  

E-print Network

region, while Martes americana, Martes mel- ampus, Martes zibellina, and Martes martes shared a 45 bp coloration of 17 mustelid species in four genera: Gulo (wolverines), Martes (martens), Mustela (weasels), and Meles (badgers). Members of the genera Mustela and Meles, together with Martes flavigula and Martes

Campbell, Kevin L.

142

Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain  

PubMed Central

The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; Garcia-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

2012-01-01

143

Mercury in wild terrestrial carnivorous mammals from north-western Poland and unusual fish diet of red fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations were determined in the kidney (K), liver (L), and pectoral muscle (M) of 19 individuals representing\\u000a wild carnivorous mammals from NW Poland: 10 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758), 3 raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834, 2 badgers Meles meles Linnaeus, 1758, 3 pine martens Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758, and 1 polecat Mustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758. The

El?bieta Kalisi?ska; Piotr Lisowski; Wies?aw Salicki; Teresa Kucharska; Katarzyna Kavetska

2009-01-01

144

Traces of Early Eurasians in the Mansi of Northwest Siberia Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as “Vogul”) of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragment–length polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups. PMID:11845409

Derbeneva, Olga A.; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Sukernik, Rem I.

2002-01-01

145

The behaviors of optimal precursors during wintertime Eurasian blocking onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the optimal precursors for wintertime Eurasian blocking onset are acquired by solving a nonlinear optimization problem whose objective function is constructed based on a blocking index with a triangular T21, three-level, quasi-geostrophic global spectral model. The winter climatological state is chosen as the reference basic state. Numerical results show that the optimal precursors are characterized by a baroclinic pattern with a westward tilt with height, which are mainly located upstream of the blocking region. For an optimization time of 5 days, these perturbations are mainly localized over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and continental Europe. With the extension of the optimization time to 8 days, these perturbations are distributed more upstream and extensively in the zonal direction. Wave spectrum analysis reveals that the optimal precursors are composed of not only synoptic-scale (wave numbers 5-18) waves, but planetary-scale (wave numbers 0-4) waves as well. The synoptic-scale optimal precursors are mainly located in the mid-latitude area, while the planetary-scale optimal precursors focus primarily on the high-latitude region. The formation of a strong planetary-scale positive blocking anomaly is accompanied by the reinforcement of synoptic-scale perturbations and further fragmentation into two branches, in which the northern branch is generally stronger than the southern one. The eddy forcing arising from the self-interaction of synoptic-scale disturbances is shown to be crucial in triggering the dipole blocking anomaly, and the planetary-scale optimal precursor provides the initial favorable background conditions for blocking onset.

Jiang, Zhina; Wang, Donghai

2012-11-01

146

Genetic relationship among eurasian and american larix species based on allozymes  

PubMed

Genetic variation at 16 allozyme loci was studied in both American (Larix occidentalis Nutt., L. laricina (Du Roi) C. Koch, L. lyallii Parl.) and Eurasian (L. sibirica Ledeb., L. gmelinii Rupr., L. olgensis A. Henry, L. kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. (=L. leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.), L. kamtschatica (Rupr.) Carr. and L. decidua (Mill. )) larch species. Species with a limited range, such as L. olgensis and L. lyallii, had lower genetic variation than species with a wider range. Population differentiation within species was of the same order of magnitude among species. The resulting phylogeny indicates a clear separation between American and Eurasian species. This result is in agreement with recent palaeontological findings that suggest that gene flow between American and Eurasian species has been unlikely since the last glaciation. PMID:10447704

Semerikov; Lascoux

1999-07-01

147

The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity  

PubMed Central

The nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of population history. The maintenance of extended haplotypes characteristic of particular geographic regions, despite extensive admixture, allows complex demographic events to be deconstructed. In this study we report the frequencies of 23 Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphism haplotypes in 1,935 men from 49 Eurasian populations, with a particular focus on Central Asia. These haplotypes reveal traces of historical migrations, and provide an insight into the earliest patterns of settlement of anatomically modern humans on the Eurasian continent. Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three major waves of migration leading into Europe, the Americas, and India. The genetic results are interpreted in the context of Eurasian linguistic patterns. PMID:11526236

Wells, R. Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Underhill, Peter A.; Evseeva, Irina; Blue-Smith, Jason; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Shanmugalakshmi, Sadagopal; Balakrishnan, Karuppiah; Read, Mark; Pearson, Nathaniel M.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Webster, Matthew T.; Zholoshvili, Irakli; Jamarjashvili, Elena; Gambarov, Spartak; Nikbin, Behrouz; Dostiev, Ashur; Aknazarov, Ogonazar; Zalloua, Pierre; Tsoy, Igor; Kitaev, Mikhail; Mirrakhimov, Mirsaid; Chariev, Ashir; Bodmer, Walter F.

2001-01-01

148

Hematological and biochemical reference intervals for wild caught Eurasian otter from Spain.  

PubMed

Hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals were determined from 33 wild caught Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra lutra) between November 1995 and May 1998 during a reintroduction project. Blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture after administration of ketamine and medetomidine. The mean, standard deviation, and range for 19 hematology parameters and 28 serum chemistry values are presented. There were no significant differences between sexes in most analytes. The results are in agreement with those reported previously for Eurasian otters with the exception of higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, lower eosinophil and lymphocyte counts and higher activities for aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. The Eurasian otters have lower erythrocyte counts but higher mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin values than the river otter (Lutra canadensis) in North America. PMID:11272491

Fernández-Morán, J; Molina, L; Flamme, G; Saavedra, D; Manteca-Vilanova, X

2001-01-01

149

Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary  

PubMed Central

Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation. PMID:19930716

2009-01-01

150

78 FR 44618 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs; U.S. Participation in the ``Milan...I hereby delegate to the Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs, to the extent authorized by law,...

2013-07-24

151

A Biogeographic Perspective on Eurasian Watermilfoil Declines: Additional Evidence for the Role of Herbivorous Weevils in Promoting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research suggests that a native, herbivorous weevil ( Euhrychiopsis lecontei (Dietz)) may play a major role in pro- moting or causing Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spica- tum L.) declines in North America. When the locations of all unexplained (i.e., not related to a specific management prac- tice) North American Eurasian watermilfoil declines were plotted there was a non-random distribution

ROBERT P. CREED

1998-01-01

152

Risk analysis for species introductions: forecasting population growth of Eurasian ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American distribution of the Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), an ecologically important and costly invasive fish, is presently limited to the Laurentian Great Lakes. Risk analyses for accidental introductions of ruffe to inland lakes should focus on the chance of establishment for small introductions such as those that would result from transporting ruffe as bait. Here I use Akaike's

John M. Drake

2005-01-01

153

Interactions among Zebra Mussel Shells, Invertebrate Prey, and Eurasian Ruffe or Yellow Perch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread

Cynthia S. Kolar; Aimee H. Fullerton; Kristine M. Martin; Gary A. Lamberti

2002-01-01

154

Use of Electric or Bubble Barriers to Limit the Movement of Eurasian Ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) is an aquatic invasive species accidentally introduced via ballast water to the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s. Fish barrier technology is being studied to stop the spread of invasive fish species such as ruffe. Electrical barriers have been constructed, most notably in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, to prevent non-indigenous species such as ruffe from

Heather A. Dawson; Ulrich G. Reinhardt; Jacqueline F. Savino

2006-01-01

155

An evaluation of structured snow-track surveys to monitor Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counts of tracks that passively accumulate on a suitable substrate are commonly used to derive indices of large carnivore abundance. In this study we evaluate the suitability of a similar survey using multiple 3-km long transect-lines to detect changes in population size for Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in central Norway. We used GIS methods to simulate the crossing of transect

John D. C. Linnell; Peder Fiske; John Odden; Henrik Brøseth; Ivar Herfindal; Reidar Andersen

2007-01-01

156

Effect of investigator disturbance on nest attendance and egg predation in Eurasian oystercatchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) breeding on the salt marsh of Schiermonnikoog (Dutch Wadden Sea) lose many eggs to predators, mainly Herring (Larus argentatus) and Mew gulls (L. canus). We estimated that the probability for an egg to survive from laying until hatching was 69ÐDaily egg mortality was higher during the laying period than during the incubation period. When researchers were

Nanette Verboven; Bruno J. Ens; Sharon Dechesne

2001-01-01

157

Habitat selection of the Eurasian woodcock in winter in relation to earthworms availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) is a game species experiencing high hunting pressure, long-term modifications of its habitats, and with questions regarding its current conservation status. Winter is a season of highest concentration of birds and hunting pressure but woodcock precise habitat requirements are poorly known. It is crucial to assess threats and to develop sustainable management options for the

Olivier Duriez; Yves Ferrand; Françoise Binet; Eve Corda; François Gossmann; Hervé Fritz

2005-01-01

158

Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the Oden 91 expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oden 91 North Pole expedition obtained oceanographic measurements on four sections in the Nansen and Amundsen basins of the Eurasian Basin and in the Makarov Basin of the Canadian Basin, thereby proving the feasibility of carrying out a typical oceanographic program using an icebreaker in the Arctic Ocean. The data show greater spatial variability in water structure and circulation

L. G. Anderson; G. Björk; O. Holby; E. P. Jones; G. Kattner; K. P. Koltermann; B. Liljeblda; R. Lindegren; B. Rudels; J. Swift

1994-01-01

159

Rapid removal of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon over the Eurasian shelves of the Arctic Ocean  

E-print Network

Rapid removal of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon over the Eurasian shelves of the Arctic Ocean 2010 Keywords: Arctic Ocean DOC Radium isotopes Terrigenous DOC The fate of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) delivered to the Arctic Ocean by rivers remains poorly constrained on both spatial

Hansell, Dennis

160

Eurasian Math. Journal, 3, N1, (2012), 5-19. Dynamical Systems Method (DSM) for solving  

E-print Network

Eurasian Math. Journal, 3, N1, (2012), 5-19. 1 #12;Dynamical Systems Method (DSM) for solving conditions are given for the validity of the Dynamical Systems Method (DSM) for solving the above operator equation. It is proved that the DSM (Dynamical Systems Method) u(t) = -A-1 a(t)(u(t))[F(u(t)) + a

161

ORIGINAL PAPER Specificity and success of oral-bait delivery to Eurasian wild  

E-print Network

. 1990; Cowled et al. 2006; Twigg et al. 2007) or contraceptives (Linhart et al. 1997). Baiting with oralORIGINAL PAPER Specificity and success of oral-bait delivery to Eurasian wild boar in Mediterranean transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. Bait- ing for oral vaccine delivery is often considered

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Using Scent-Marking Stations to Collect Hair Samples to Monitor Eurasian Lynx Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive sampling of mammalian hairs for surveying their populations and for providing density estimations is widely applicable in wildlife ecology and management. However, the efficiency of the method may differ depending on the species or local circumstances. We modified a method of hair trapping from free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to collect DNA samples to work in a low-density population.

KRZYSZTOF SCHMIDT; RAFA? KOWALCZYK

2006-01-01

163

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +\\/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +\\/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for

David A. Hetherington; Tom C. Lord; Roger M. Jacobi

2006-01-01

164

Fossil mammals resolve regional patterns of Eurasian climate change over 20 million years  

E-print Network

Fossil mammals resolve regional patterns of Eurasian climate change over 20 million years Mikael to 2 million years ago. The pattern seen prior to 11 million years ago are quite different from today proxy that can be used to constrain the regional details of vegetation and climate models. Keywords

Jernvall, Jukka

165

Inside the Melanoplinae: new molecular evidence for the evolutionary history of the Eurasian Podismini (Orthoptera: Acrididae).  

PubMed

The Podismini are melanopline grasshoppers with a Holarctic distribution and well represented in the Eurasian fauna. To investigate their controversial taxonomy and evolutionary history, we studied 86%, 78% and 33% respectively of the Eurasian, European and Asian Palaearctic genera (Otte, 1995; Eades et al., 2013). We reconstructed parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies using fragments of four genes (ITS1, 16S, 12S, CO2). We applied a Bayesian molecular clock to estimate the times of species divergence, and the event-based parsimony method to depict the biogeographic framework of the diversification. Our results suggest that the selected Eurasian Podismini constitute a monophyletic group inside the Melanoplinae, provided it includes the North American genus Phaulotettix. The clades proposed by the present study inside the Podismini do not fit the older morphological or cytological classifications, but are in agreement with more recent proposals. Furthermore, our results can be explained by a plausible biogeographic history in which the present geographical distribution of the Eurasian Podismini resulted from known changes, to the Cenozoic climate and vegetation, induced by major geological events including the genesis of high mountain chains (e.g., Himalayas, Altay, Alps) and large deserts (e.g., Gobi, Karakoum, Taklamakan), and the opening of marginal seas (e.g., Bering, Japanese and Yellow Seas). PMID:24071559

Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana C; Amédégnato, Christiane; Nichols, Richard A; Pompanon, François; Grandcolas, Philippe; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

2014-02-01

166

Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu

C. Torres-Rouff; L. T. Yablonsky

2005-01-01

167

Sanderlings using African-Eurasian flyways: a review of current knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the worldwide occurrence of Sanderlings Calidris alba on popular beaches, strikingly little is known about their biology compared to other common waders. Here we review the limited available knowledge of Sanderlings that use African-Eurasian flyways. The basis for this review was a workshop on Sanderlings, held during the International Wader Study Group conference in Jastrz?bia Góra, Poland in 2008.

JEROEN RENEERKENS; MARK COlliER; GUNNAR THOR; MARC VAN ROOMEN; RON W. SUMMERS; Mill Crescent

2009-01-01

168

Concept Note for Travel Support for Collaborative Research with the Eurasian Center for  

E-print Network

. This should include: 1. Description of the Research topic: (1-2 pages) (a) Problem Definition (b) Research and proposed methodology for data-gathering II. Relevance of the proposed topic of research (1-2 pages/country of the research (c) how the proposed topic is aligned with the strategic objectives of the Eurasian Center

Kaplan, Alexander

169

Propagation of the MIS4 Eurasian Meltwater Event in the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment records from the Arctic Ocean indicate multiple Pleistocene meltwater events from Eurasian and North American ice sheets. These events may have affected both the Arctic climate and the North Atlantic deep-water formation, and are important for understanding the stability of Pleistocene ice sheets. We investigate the distribution of meltwater during the discharge of large Eurasian proglacial lakes at the end of Marine Isotope Stage 4, approximately 50-60 ka, using stable isotope records in planktic and benthic foraminifers. Studies focused on lithological and radiogenic isotope proxies suggest that this meltwater pulse affected sedimentation in the Eurasian Basin all the way to the Lomonosov Ridge and at least part of the Amerasian Basin (Mendeleev Ridge). The analysis of stable-isotope data provides further insights. The spatial distribution of planktonic oxygen-18, with the lightest values in the Mendeleev Ridge area, reveals a strong cyclonic circulation extending into the western Arctic Ocean, similar to the negative Arctic Oscillation mode. This circulation pattern differs from that inferred from lithostratigraphy and neodymium isotopes indicating a stronger effect of Eurasian discharge on the Lomonosov Ridge. We propose that this discrepancy resulted from a decoupling of surface and deep-water circulation, where deep waters had a significant contribution of brines carrying deglacial sediments (hyperpicnal flows). The propagation of proglacial brines as far as the Amerasian Basin, suggested earlier from neodymium isotope data, is confirmed by benthic stable isotope records.

Polyak, L. V.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Norgaard-Pedersen, N.; Curry, W. B.

2013-12-01

170

A new deep ice core from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, Eurasian Arctic: first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents first results from the upper 54 m of a 723.91 m ice core drilled on Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, Eurasian Artctic, in 1999-2001, supplemented by data from shallow ice cores. The glacier's peculiarity is the infiltration and refreezing of melting water, which changes the original isotopic and chemical signals. Therefore, stratigraphical observations in these ice

Diedrich Fritzsche; Frank Wilhelms; Lev M. Savatyugin; Jean Francis Pinglot; Hanno Meyer; Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten; Heinz Miller

2002-01-01

171

Nestbox provisioning in a rural population of Eurasian Kestrels: breeding performance, nest predation and parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding biology of the Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in nestboxes in farmland was studied to test for differences between artificial and natural sites. We report on the direct effect of nestbox provisioning on some life- history traits and how nestbox use affects nest predation and parasitism. Five types of nest-sites were available: nestboxes on poles and trees (artificial sites),

JUAN A. FARGALLO; GUILLERMO BLANCO; JAIME POTTI; J. Vinuela

2001-01-01

172

Behaviour of female Eurasian Kestrels during laying: are there time constraints on incubation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate time, energy, and temperature constraints on hatching asynchrony in Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnuncuLus), we observed females during the laying period and quantified the time spent hunting to see whether this might limir time spent incubating. We predicted that females would hunt more in years when the density of voles was low in spring. Although females spent more time

Erkki Korpimiiki; Karen L. Wiebet; K. Ingemar Jiinsson; Jiirgen Wiehn; Harri Hakkaraincn

2000-01-01

173

BREEDING RATES OF EURASIAN KESTRELS (FALCO TINNUNCULUS) IN RELATION TO SURROUNDING HABITAT IN SOUTHWEST SPAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied breeding success of Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) in nest boxes in seven different habitat types in the southwest of Spain. A total of 567 nest boxes was installed on power pylons in fallow fields, cereal cropland, holm oak land, olive orchards, pastureland, irrigated cropland, and shrubland. Occupation of boxes did not vary among the habitats and there were

M. SXcI-IEZ

174

Tetrameres (Tetrameres) grusi (Shumakovich, 1946) (Nematoda: Tetrameridae) in Eurasian Cranes (Grus grus) in Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proventriculi of 11 Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) from central Iran were examined for the existence of parasitic hel- minths. Preliminary reports suggested that the death of these birds was related to untimely cold weather. Nine proventriculi (82%) were heavily infected by the nematode Tetrameres grusi. Glandular structure of the infected proventriculi was replaced by epithelial atrophy but significant inflammatory

G. R. Mowlavi; J. Massoud; I. Mobedi; M. J. Gharagozlou; M. Rezaian

175

Diving times and feeding rate by pecking in the Eurasian coot (Fulica atra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We acquired data on diving times and feeding rates by pecking on three different substrates in a small wetland of central Italy, in order to improve the scant knowledge on foraging behaviour of the Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) in the Mediterranean area. Diving times showed a mean value of 2.59 sec (± 1.81 SD; n?=?186). A large proportion of diving

L. Fortunati; C. Battisti

2011-01-01

176

Eurasian Snow Cover versus Indian Monsoon Rainfall--An Extension of the Hahn-Shukla Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent inverse relationship between Eurasian mean winter snow cover extent and the following warm season Indian monsoon rainfall, described by Hahn and Shukla for the 1967-75 period, is substantiated by the addition of five subsequent years of data if known deficiencies in satellite snow observations are accommodated. In this respect, elimination of a bias due to under-observation of snow

Robert R. Dickson

1984-01-01

177

Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, August 20-21, 2012)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents a diverse collection written by a well-respected group of speakers and authors which includes government leaders, policy makers, education experts and administrators from all over the higher education world. The papers collected hereunder represent the conference proceedings of the Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum…

Reagan, Timothy, Ed.; Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.

2013-01-01

178

Strategic bargaining and pipeline politics: Confronting the credible commitment problem in Eurasian energy transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resurgence of Russia's energy diplomacy animates debate among realists, who regard pipelines as instruments of competitive resource nationalism, and their critics, who treat them either as mechanisms for strengthening cooperation or reflecting ‘obsolescing bargains’ that empower transit states upon construction and operation. Yet, this debate conspicuously overlooks the variable record of the arbitrary disruption of Eurasian energy transit. This

Adam N. Stulberg

2012-01-01

179

Fish predation on Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) herbivores and indirect effects on macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effect of fish predation on native and naturalized insect herbivores of the invasive aquatic plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) using manipulative field experiments within lakes and a field survey across lakes. For the field experiments, we manipulated sunfish (Lepomis spp.) density in cages in the littoral plant beds of two contrasting lakes: one with many sunfish, few

Darren M. Ward; Raymond M. Newman

2006-01-01

180

Influence of Dense Growth of Eurasian Watermilfoil on Lake Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a five year period we compared summer temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) at 10 sites within dense beds of Myriophyllum spicatum L. to an unvegetated reference site in a moderately eutrophic Wisconsin lake. Average surface temperatures in the Eurasian watermilfoil beds were significantly elevated in two of the five years, while bottom temperatures were significantly depressed each year. Dissolved

Jean M. L. Unmuth; Richard A. Lillie; David S. Dreikosen; David W. Marshall

2000-01-01

181

Competitive Interactions between Eurasian Watermilfoil and Northern Watermilfoil in Experimental Tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two submersed macrophytes, the exotic Eurasian water- milfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and the native northern watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum sibiricum Kom.), were grown in 0.30-m 3 outdoor experimental tanks in single- and mixed- species cultures of low (75 stems m -2 ) and high densities (150 stems m -2 ). Elongation rates (cm week -1 ) and average individ- ual

RAHMAN D. VALLEY; RAYMOND M. NEWMAN

182

Genetic relationship among Eurasian and American Larix species based on allozymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation at 16 allozyme loci was studied in both American (Larix occidentalis Nutt., L. laricina (Du Roi) C. Koch, L. lyallii Parl.) and Eurasian (L. sibirica Ledeb., L. gmelinii Rupr., L. olgensis A. Henry, L. kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. (=L. leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.), L. kamtschatica (Rupr.) Carr. and L. decidua (Mill.)) larch species. Species with a limited range,

Vladimir L Semerikov; Martin Lascoux

1999-01-01

183

Fourth East Asian Conference on Slavic and Eurasian Studies 4-5 September 2012  

E-print Network

Fourth East Asian Conference on Slavic and Eurasian Studies 4-5 September 2012 Kolkata Venue: Azad Inheritance and Evolution of Northeast Asian Regional Image Hyun G. Park-'Comparing image of neighbour Bhavan, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies IB 166, Sector III Salt Lake City 700106

Tachizawa, Kazuya

184

Species-specific and shared features in vocal repertoires of three Eurasian ground squirrels (genus Spermophilus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along to alarm calls, Eurasian ground squirrels of the genus Spermophilus also produce other call types toward potential predators and rival conspecifics. Individually identified 50 speckled (Spermophilus suslicus), 18 European (S. citellus) and 59 yellow (S. fulvus) ground squirrels were examined for interspecies differences in their vocal repertoires. A separate sample of 116 (90 adult\\u000a and 26 juvenile) S. suslicus

Vera A. Matrosova; Irena Schneiderová; Ilya A. Volodin; Elena V. Volodina

185

New reconstructions of Eurasian Ice Sheet build up and deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a series of new time-slice reconstructions from the DATED Project documenting the changing limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation (40-10 ka BP). Reconstructions are based on a compiled chronology of over 3000 dates representing the accumulated sum of knowledge on the timing of advance and retreat of the Scandinavian-British-Irish-Barents-Kara Sea Ice Sheets. The timing of both maximum extent and retreat were spatially variable across the ice sheet complex likely reflecting regional contrasts in forcing mechanisms and geographical setting. For example, maximum ice extent in the west occurs ~3000 years earlier than in the northeast sector. We expect the time-slices and derived area and volume estimates to be particularly useful for numerical and isostatic modelling requiring regional scale empirical constraints on past ice sheet extent, and design the reconstructions for this purpose. The ice sheet margin is delineated every 1000 years for the last 25 ka BP. Additional intervening snapshots are reconstructed when necessary to capture significant rapid changes in the ice margin. We also present some reconstructions at uneven intervals for earlier periods, reflecting the preservation bias of the chronological record. Uncertainty estimates (represented by maximum, minimum, preferred positions) are given for each time-slice. The ice sheet scale approach highlights instances of conflicting evidence and gaps in the ice sheet chronology. Greatest gaps are found along the western marine margins, in the Barents Sea and western Russia, and the inland areas glaciated during the Younger Dryas. The database and reconstructions will be updated as new information is published and made publically available via the project webpages. Future versions will extend the spatial coverage to include the Icelandic Ice Sheet and additionally include landform evidence to constrain ice sheet geometry (e.g. ice stream locations and thickness) and retreat patterns. In the database, each date is classified on the basis of stratigraphic information to facilitate interpretation of the ice sheet evolution, attributed to the source publication, fully documented with information relevant to its interpretation and searchable by: location, dated material, dating technique, stratigraphic position or setting, derived age and associated errors, pertinent comments from the source publication and sample elevation or depth, core name, laboratory id and/or sample name as applicable. For internal consistency all radiocarbon ages have been recalibrated using the most recent calibration curve (INTCAL09) and all terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure ages are reported using the same production rate and scaling model. The uncalibrated 14C and TCN ages as reported in the source publications are also given. TCN results are additionally reported with all the necessary details required to re-calculate the ages with different production rate and scaling models.

Hughes, A. L.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, O. S.

2012-12-01

186

Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the permafrost areas. Overall, Russia should expect a disproportionate escalation of fire regimes compared to increasing climatic fire danger. Thus, development and implementation of an efficient adaptation strategy is a pressing problem of current forest management of the country. An appropriate system of forest fire protection which would be able to meet challenges of future climates is a corner stone of such a strategy. We consider possible systems solutions of this complex problem including (1) integrated ecological and socio-economic analysis of current and future fire regimes; (2) regional requirements to and specific features of a new paradigm of forest fire protection in the boreal zone of Northern Eurasia; (3) anticipatory strategy of the prevention of large-scale disturbances in forests, including adaptation of forest landscapes to the future climates (regulation of tree composition; setup of relevant spatial structure of forest landscapes; etc.); (4) implementation of an effective system of forest monitoring as part of integrated observing systems; (5) transition to ecologically-friendly systems of industrial development of northern territories; (6) development of new/ improvement of existing legislation and institutional frameworks of forest management which would be satisfactory to react on challenges of climate change; and (6) international cooperation.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

2013-04-01

187

Phylogenetic inference and comparative evolution of a complex microsatellite and its flanking regions in carnivores.  

PubMed

We sequenced locus Mel 08, with complex short repetitive motifs, in 24 carnivore species belonging to five different families in order to explore mutational changes in the region in the context of locus and species evolution. This non-coding locus includes up to four different parts or repetitive motifs showing size variability. The variability consists of repeat additions and deletions; substitutions, insertions and/or deletions creating interruptions in the repeat; and substitutions, insertions and deletions in the flanking regions. The locus has different repeat expansions in different carnivore subfamilies. We hypothesize that the complexity of this locus is due to a high mutation rate at an ancestral DNA sequence and, thus, prompts the emergence of repeats at mutational hotspots. High levels of homoplasy were evident, with nine electromorphs representing 28 haplotypes never shared across species. The variability in flanking regions was informative for phylogenetic inference and their evolutionary content. Tree topologies were congruent with relevant hypotheses on current conflicts in carnivore phylogenies, such as: (i) the monophyly of Lutrinae, (ii) the paraphyly of Mustelinae, (iii) the basal position of the Eurasian badger, Meles meles , in the Mustelidae, (iv) the classification of skunks as a separate family, Mephitidae, and (v) the placement of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens , as a monotypic family, Ailuridae, at a basal position in the Musteloidea. PMID:16174341

Domingo-Roura, Xavier; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Saeki, Midori; Marmi, Josep

2005-06-01

188

Simulation Model for Growth of the Submersed Aquatic Macrophyte Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MILFO (Version 1.0) model simulates growth of a typically monoecious Eurasian watermilfoil community. In the model, growth is considered the plant dry matter accumulation including rhizome/root crown formation, under ample supply of nitrogen and phosp...

E. P. H. Best, W. A. Boyd

1999-01-01

189

Repository of Eurasian influenza A virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase reverse genetics vectors and recombinant viruses.  

PubMed

Reverse genetics can be used to produce recombinant influenza A viruses containing virtually every desired combination of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using the virus backbone of choice. Here, a repository of plasmids and recombinant viruses representing all contemporary Eurasian HA and NA subtypes, H1-H16 and N1-N9, was established. HA and NA genes were selected based on sequence analyses of influenza virus genes available from public databases. Prototype Eurasian HA and NA genes were cloned in bidirectional reverse genetics plasmids. Recombinant viruses based on the virus backbone of A/PR/8/34, and containing a variety of HA and NA genes were produced in 293T cells. Virus stocks were produced in MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. These plasmids and viruses may be useful for numerous purposes, including influenza virus research projects, vaccination studies, and to serve as reference reagents in diagnostic settings. PMID:20600474

Keawcharoen, J; Spronken, M I J; Vuong, O; Bestebroer, T M; Munster, V J; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F; Fouchier, R A M

2010-08-16

190

Eurasian and Sub-Saharan African mitochondrial DNA haplogroup influences pseudoexfoliation glaucoma development in Saudi patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have a role on the development of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG) in the Saudi Arab population. Methods The mtDNA regulatory region and coding regions comprising mtDNA haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms were sequenced in patients with PEG (n=94), healthy matched controls (free of PEG; n=112) and a healthy Saudi Arab population group (n=810). Results The Eurasian haplogroup T and the Sub-Saharan African Haplogroup L2 confer susceptibility to PEG, whereas the Eurasian haplogroup N1 was associated with reduced risk to develop PEG in the Saudi Arab population. Conclusions Mitochondrial haplogroups T and L2 may play a role in the development of PEG in the Saudi Arabian population. PMID:21364909

Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, Jose M.; Osman, Essam A.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.

2011-01-01

191

Enumeration and Characterization of Bacterial Colonists of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.).  

PubMed

A simple procedure for enumerating and grouping the bacterial colonists of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is described. Colony characteristics of bacteria associated with M. spicatum were better defined and more stable on nutrient-poor, diluted nutrient broth agar than on high-nutrient media. Acinetobacter, Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Pseudomonas and/or Alcaligenes, and Vibrio/Aeromonas spp., as well as two highly fastidious unidentified bacterial groups (gram-negative rods and gram-negative cocci), were associated with cultured watermilfoil during January, February, May, June, July, and August 1988. In Lake Wingra (Madison, Wis.), Micrococcus spp. and enterobacters were also associated with Eurasian watermilfoil during July, August, and October 1987. PMID:16348792

Chand, T; Harris, R F; Andrews, J H

1992-10-01

192

Enumeration and Characterization of Bacterial Colonists of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.)  

PubMed Central

A simple procedure for enumerating and grouping the bacterial colonists of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is described. Colony characteristics of bacteria associated with M. spicatum were better defined and more stable on nutrient-poor, diluted nutrient broth agar than on high-nutrient media. Acinetobacter, Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Pseudomonas and/or Alcaligenes, and Vibrio/Aeromonas spp., as well as two highly fastidious unidentified bacterial groups (gram-negative rods and gram-negative cocci), were associated with cultured watermilfoil during January, February, May, June, July, and August 1988. In Lake Wingra (Madison, Wis.), Micrococcus spp. and enterobacters were also associated with Eurasian watermilfoil during July, August, and October 1987. PMID:16348792

Chand, T.; Harris, R. F.; Andrews, J. H.

1992-01-01

193

LE CYCLE SEXUEL DU BLAIREAU MLE (MELES MELES L.)  

E-print Network

testicule et de l'épididyme, la taille et le poids du baculum, les diamètres des tubes séminifères, la'année et non une étude quantitative exacte du nombre de ces éléments. Les baculums ou os péniens

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Relationships between regional indian summer monsoon rainfall and eurasian snow cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, correlation analysis is applied to study the interannual relationships between Indian summer mon-soon rainfall\\u000a of different homogeneous regions and Eurasian Snow Cover (ESC) during winter and spring seasons for the time period from 1973\\u000a to 1992. The monsoon rainfall of the western and central regions of India, as well as the all-India monsoon rainfall, is significantly\\u000a negatively

B. Parthasarathy; Yang Song

1995-01-01

195

Sensitivities of species compositions of the mixed forest in eastern Eurasian continent to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivities of species compositions of the broadleaf–conifer mixed forest in eastern Eurasian continent to climate change were evaluated with three forest gap models, namely KOPIDE, NEWCOP, and ForClim. Testing sites are located on Changbai Mountain, the middle of the distribution range for the mixed forest. Six climate change scenarios characterizing increase in temperature and increase\\/decrease in precipitation were used to

Guofan Shao; Xiaodong Yan; Harald Bugmann

2003-01-01

196

Some like it hot: environmental determinism and the pastoral economies of the later prehistoric Eurasian steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pastoral systems may be envisaged as a product of a number of interacting variables: the characteristics of the animals, the\\u000a environment, and of the human culture. Animal physiological and behavioural characteristics affect their suitability to different\\u000a climatic, topographical and ecological environments. This paper attempts to advance our understanding of the environmental\\u000a factors constraining animal husbandry on the prehistoric Eurasian steppe,

Robin Bendrey

2011-01-01

197

Diet and fish choice of Eurasian otters ( Lutra lutra L.) in fish wintering ponds in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet composition and fish preference of piscivorous Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) were studied in two fish farm systems in Hungary using spraint (otter faeces) analysis during two wintering periods. The\\u000a primary food source of otters in both fish farms was fish (97–99% of biomass). The main fish prey was small-sized, below 100 g\\u000a in weight (96% in both areas), while

József Lanszki; Zsuzsanna S. Pallos; Dénes Nagy; Grace Yoxon

2007-01-01

198

Spatial interactions between grey wolves and Eurasian lynx in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various species of large predators are reported to influence each other through interference or exploitation competition that\\u000a may affect demography and survival of the subordinate species. We analyzed spatial relationships between grey wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF, eastern Poland) to determine how they partitioned the space. The wolves (n = 8) and lynx (n = 14)

Krzysztof Schmidt; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Henryk Okarma; Rafa? Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

199

Genetic structure of the Eurasian lynx population in north-eastern Poland and the Baltic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the genotypes of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from three populations in the westernmost part of the species main range. One population was situated at the distribution\\u000a edge (NE Poland) and the two other (Latvia and Estonia) were located within the main, contiguous range of the species. The\\u000a aim was to determine if the genetic composition varied among these

Krzysztof Schmidt; Rafa? Kowalczyk; Janis Ozolins; Peep Männil; Joerns Fickel

2009-01-01

200

Tool-use and instrumental learning in the Eurasian jay ( Garrulus glandarius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research with Rooks has demonstrated impressive tool-using abilities in captivity despite this species’ classification\\u000a as a non-tool-user in the wild. Here, we explored whether another non-tool-using corvid, the Eurasian Jay, would be capable\\u000a of similar feats and investigated the relative contributions of causal knowledge and instrumental conditioning to the birds’\\u000a performance on the tasks. Five jays were tested on

Lucy G. Cheke; Christopher D. Bird; Nicola S. Clayton

2011-01-01

201

Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta.  

PubMed

The living hyena species (spotted, brown, striped and aardwolf) are remnants of a formerly diverse group of more than 80 fossil species, which peaked in diversity in the Late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma). The fossil history indicates an African origin, and morphological and ancient DNA data have confirmed that living spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) of Africa were closely related to extinct Late Pleistocene cave hyenas from Europe and Asia. The current model used to explain the origins of Eurasian cave hyena populations invokes multiple migrations out of Africa between 3.5-0.35 Ma. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from radiocarbon-dated Chinese Pleistocene hyena specimens to examine the origin of Asian populations, and temporally calibrate the evolutionary history of spotted hyenas. Our results support a far more recent evolutionary timescale (430-163 kya) and suggest that extinct and living spotted hyena populations originated from a widespread Eurasian population in the Late Pleistocene, which was only subsequently restricted to Africa. We developed statistical tests of the contrasting population models and their fit to the fossil record. Coalescent simulations and Bayes Factor analysis support the new radiocarbon-calibrated timescale and Eurasian origins model. The new Eurasian biogeographic scenario proposed for the hyena emphasizes the role of the vast steppe grasslands of Eurasia in contrast to models only involving Africa. The new methodology for combining genetic and geological data to test contrasting models of population history will be useful for a wide range of taxa where ancient and historic genetic data are available. PMID:24320717

Sheng, Gui-Lian; Soubrier, Julien; Liu, Jin-Yi; Werdelin, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Thomson, Vicki A; Tuke, Jonathan; Wu, Lian-Juan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Chen, Quan-Jia; Lai, Xu-Long; Cooper, Alan

2014-02-01

202

Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected\\u000a to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences\\u000a in the predation of the western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated

David Costantini; Emiliano Bruner; Alberto Fanfani; Giacomo Dell’Omo

2007-01-01

203

Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however,\\u000a could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship\\u000a between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years.

Jesús Martínez-Padilla; Juan A. Fargallo

2008-01-01

204

The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

2010-01-01

205

Mesostigmatic mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the Eurasian griffon vulture ( Gyps fulvus ) in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the species composition and community structure of mites of the order Mesostigmata (Acari) in nests of the Eurasian\\u000a griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783) in Croatia. Material collected from 18 nests included 565 mites belonging to seven species. The most abundant\\u000a species were Leiodinychus orbicularis (C.L. Koch, 1839) (Trematuridae) and Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese, 1887) (Laelapidae). The results were

Jerzy B?oszyk; Tvrtko Dražina; Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz; Bruce Halliday; Bart?omiej Go?dyn; Agnieszka Napiera?a; Eliza Rybska

2011-01-01

206

Vigilance patterns of wintering Eurasian Wigeon: female benefits from male low-cost behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased vigilance in male animals has been attributed to mate guarding (male investment hypothesis), to secondary sexual\\u000a characteristics increasing predation risk (male constraint hypothesis) or for the benefit to the female (female benefits\\u000a hypothesis). We studied Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) while they grazed on dry land, a ‘risky’ foraging situation, at two points during the winter period (pre- and post-pair

Steven J. Portugal; Matthieu Guillemain

2011-01-01

207

Mating system, paternity and sex allocation in Eurasian Wrynecks ( Jynx torquilla )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides for the first time an insight into the breeding system of the Eurasian Wryneck (Jynx torquilla). DNA fingerprinting and molecular sexing were used to investigate paternity, mating system and sex allocation in a population\\u000a near the city of Halberstadt, Germany. Similar to other woodpeckers, social and genetic monogamy is the norm in this species.\\u000a The abundance of

Michael Wink; Detlef Becker; Dirk Tolkmitt; Verena Knigge; Hedi Sauer-Gürth; Heidi Staudter

208

Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pal; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-01-01

209

First description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Italy.  

PubMed

Adiaspiromycosis is a pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of the ubiquitous fungus Emmonsia spp., a common soil inhabitant. Information about the replication and dissemination of the fungus from the primary site is lacking. Members of the Family Mustelidae seem to be highly susceptible to this infection, which has been previously reported in otters (Lutra lutra) in Czech Republic/Slovakia, Finland and in the UK. In many cases, Emmonsia?associated lesions have also been reported as incidental findings during necropsies of otherwise healthy animals. A road?killed male Eurasian otter was submitted for the post?mortem examination on 21st December 2009 at the Veterinary Pathology Unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Teramo, as part of the RECAL [RECovery and post?mortem Analysis of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni (Salerno, Italy), and surrounding areas] project. Histologically, multifocal round structures with a PAS?positive thick tri?laminar wall and a central basophilic granular mass were observed within the alveoli. The adiaspores were surrounded by a severe granulomatous reaction with high number of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. Numerous multifocal cholesterol granulomas were observed close to those fungal?induced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter in Italy. PMID:25273962

Malatesta, Daniela; Simpson, Vic R; Fontanesi, Luca; Fusillo, Romina; Marcelli, Manlio; Bongiovanni, Laura; Romanucci, Mariarita; Palmieri, Chiara; Della Salda, Leonardo

2014-01-01

210

Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) - implications for future reintroductions  

PubMed Central

Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487–489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction. PMID:25067948

Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syruckova, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

2014-01-01

211

Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2014-01-01

212

Characteristics of Eurasian snow depth with respect to Indian summer monsoon rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier studies show a strong negative relationship between Eurasian snow cover/depth and Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). In such studies, both the parameters snow and rainfall are seasonally averaged over large areas. Indian summer monsoon has its own characteristics of evolution such as onset, active, break and withdrawal phases which have been studied extensively. However, the evolution of Eurasian snow is yet to be examined. Further, it is interesting to explore the characteristics of evolution of snow over the different regions of Eurasia and their relationship with the evolution characteristics of summer monsoon. In this paper, a detailed examination has been done on the starting and the ending dates of snowfall over different regions of Eurasia and attempts have been made to explore any relationship with onset of ISMR. It is observed that the regions where snowfall started early, it also ended late. Further, in those regions maximum snow depth also occurred late. In some years, more snowfall in East Eurasia is followed by less snowfall in West Eurasia. Also snow depths particularly in the northernmost and southwest regions of East Eurasia are opposite in phase. The results of this study indicate a weak relationship between snow starting dates in Eurasia and summer monsoon onset dates in the Kerala coast. However, the relationship between the northernmost Eurasian snow depth and the summer monsoon precipitation in the Peninsular India is significant.

Mamgain, Ashu; Dash, S. K.; Sarthi, P. Parth

2010-12-01

213

Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC. PMID:22515208

Sindi?i?, Magda; Gomer?i?, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

2012-06-01

214

Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe.  

PubMed

Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA. PMID:22566639

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim Ann; Barker, Graeme; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hanks, Bryan Kent; Li, Shuicheng; Lomitashvili, David; Ochir-Goryaeva, Maria; Sizonov, Grigory V; Soyonov, Vasiliy; Manica, Andrea

2012-05-22

215

Curriculum Vitae Eugene J. Mele  

E-print Network

: Tutorial Session on Topological Insulators, March Meeting of the American Physical Society, Boston MA 2012 Physical Society, Boston MA 2012 Organizer, 5th Lunqvist Conference on the Advancing Frontiers of Condensed, Honors Physics I (Introductory Mechanics) Spring 2007 Physics 171, Honors Physics II (Introductory

Carpick, Robert W.

216

Group Contagion: The Mailbox Melee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a group situation, something goes wrong but no individual feels personal responsibility. This is called the "pie" phenomenon because everybody has a piece of the action, but all believe they are innocent. Each contributes to contagion and chaos but all say, "We didn't do nothing." In this article, the author, a pioneer in work with troubled…

Morse, William C.

2010-01-01

217

The origin of Eurasian Mammoth Faunas (Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleistocene Mammoth Faunas were the most successful, cold-adapted large mammal assemblages in the history of the Earth. However, the causes for their emergence can not be attributed only to the global trend of climate cooling which occurred during the Neogene/Quaternary period. The formation of the Eurasian Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex was a result of interacting tectonic, geographical, climatic, ecological and phylogenetic processes. The key environmental factors controlling the origin and evolution of Palaearctic cold-adapted large mammal faunas were successive aridification of major parts of Eurasia, rhythmic global climatic cooling with prolonged and intensified cold stages, and increasing continentality. Between 2.6 Ma and around 700 ka BP, largely independent mammal faunas became established in continental Asian steppe regions as well as in the circumpolar tundra. Both faunal complexes were adapted to open environmental conditions but were largely separated from each other. The principal requirements in order for species to evolve into members of Mammoth Faunas are progressing adaptation to aridity, decreasing temperatures and rapid temperature fluctuations. Eurasian Mammoth Faunas were mainly composed of the descendants of either Central Asian steppe or Arctic tundra faunal elements. The majority of species of Central Asian origin emerged in regions north of the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. Between 640 and 480 ka BP, saiga, musk-ox and reindeer occasionally spread far beyond the limits of their respective traditional areas, thus anticipating the subsequent merge of steppe and tundra originated species in Eurasian Mammoth Faunas. During the pronounced cold period of MIS 12, tundra species regularly expanded south- and southwestward into a newly formed type of biome, the so-called tundra-steppe. In parallel, species originating from the Asian steppe dispersed into new habitats north and northwest of their ancestral distribution areas. This drastic faunal turnover led to the formation of the earliest pan-Eurasian Mammoth Fauna at around 460 ka BP. The sister taxa of several species involved in Mammoth Faunas underwent separate evolution in Central Asia, thus indicating ecological differences between the Asian core steppe and Eurasian tundra-steppe habitats. During temperate and humid stages of the late Middle to Late Pleistocene periods the transcontinental reach of the steppe-tundra biome collapsed. As a result, the majority of the characteristic mammal species were forced back to continental steppe or Arctic tundra refugia, only returning during subsequent cold stages when the formation of a new and more evolved Mammoth Fauna began. The maximum geographic extension of the Palaearctic Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex occurred during the Late Pleistocene, when it covered an area of up to 190 degrees of longitude and 40 degrees of latitude.

Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

2014-07-01

218

Ancient mitochondrial DNA and the genetic history of Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in Europe.  

PubMed

After centuries of human hunting, the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber had disappeared from most of its original range by the end of the 19th century. The surviving relict populations are characterized by both low genetic diversity and strong phylogeographical structure. However, it remains unclear whether these attributes are the result of a human-induced, late Holocene bottleneck or already existed prior to this reduction in range. To investigate genetic diversity in Eurasian beaver populations during the Holocene, we obtained mitochondrial control region DNA sequences from 48 ancient beaver samples and added 152 modern sequences from GenBank. Phylogeographical analyses of the data indicate a differentiation of European beaver populations into three mitochondrial clades. The two main clades occur in western and eastern Europe, respectively, with an early Holocene contact zone in eastern Europe near a present-day contact zone. A divergent and previously unknown clade of beavers from the Danube Basin survived until at least 6000 years ago, but went extinct during the transition to modern times. Finally, we identify a recent decline in effective population size of Eurasian beavers, with a stronger bottleneck signal in the western than in the eastern clade. Our results suggest that the low genetic diversity and the strong phylogeographical structure in recent beavers are artefacts of human hunting-associated population reductions. While beaver populations have been growing rapidly since the late 19th century, genetic diversity within modern beaver populations remains considerably reduced compared to what was present prior to the period of human hunting and habitat reduction. PMID:24795996

Horn, Susanne; Prost, Stefan; Stiller, Mathias; Makowiecki, Daniel; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Benecke, Norbert; Pucher, Erich; Hufthammer, Anne K; Schouwenburg, Charles; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

2014-04-01

219

Virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

Enterococci are ubiquitous microorganisms found as part of the normal intestinal microbiota of many animals such as the free-ranging Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758). In this work, twenty-nine enterococci isolated from fecal samples of Eurasian otters free-living in reservoirs and associated river stretches in South Portugal were identified and typed by conventional/molecular methods and screened for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Identification allocated the isolates to the species Enterococcus faecalis (19), E. faecium (9) and E. durans (1) and PCR-fingerprinting revealed their high genomic diversity. Regarding virulence factors, three isolates produced cytolysin and six were gelatinase-positive. Genes ace and acm were detected in five enterococci each, ebpABC in seventeen, gelE in fourteen and cylA in three. All isolates showed resistance patterns and antibiotic resistance genes tet(M) and pbp5 were detected in seventeen isolates each, whereas vanB and vanD were identified in thirteen and five, respectively, being most van-harboring isolates members of E. faecium. The aac(6')-Ie-aph (2?) gene, encoding for gentamicin resistance, was observed in all gentamicin-resistant enterococci. Since all isolates harbor virulence and/or antibiotic resistance traits, the role of free-living Eurasian otters in the dissemination of virulent/resistant enterococci among other animals sharing the same ecological niche cannot be disregarded, as well as the health risk they may represent for humans directly interacting with them or their habitat. PMID:23375652

Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Nóbrega, Cláudia Silva; Ribeiro, Tânia; Pedroso, Nuno M; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tenreiro, Rogério; Tavares, Luís; Vilela, Cristina Lobo; Oliveira, Manuela

2013-05-01

220

Mapping the descent of Indian and Eurasian plates beneath the Tibetan Plateau from gravity anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision of India with Asia has produced a complicated continental-continental plate boundary involving folding and faulting of variable trends and styles within and along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Numerous lines of evidence, including the development of two scales of folding in Tibet, suggest that the lowermost crust is behaving in a ductile fashion. This weak lower crust might then decouple the fundamental plate tectonic motions in the uppermost mantle from the complex pattern of surface faulting. In this study, we use Bouguer gravity anomalies to map out the geometry of Indian and Eurasian plate interactions in the mantle beneath the plateau based on both the inferred geometry of the Moho and lateral variations in lithospheric strength determined from mechanical modeling. In our preferred model, the lithosphere beneath Tibet consists of two distinct units: (1) the underthrust (to the north) Indian plate, which sutures with the Eurasian plate in the upper mantle below the Yarlung-Zangpo Suture or the Gangdese igneous belt, 200-400 km north of the Main Boundary Thrust, and (2) the underthrust (to the south) Eurasian plate. A subducting slab of Indian upper mantle extends about 200 km into the asthenosphere north from the mantle suture and exerts a bending moment of about 3.5 × 1017 N on the Indian plate. Thus the mantle lithosphere appears to be behaving in the simple fashion of converging oceanic plates, while the more buoyant continental crust deforms under high gravitational potential in a complex pattern controlled by its lateral and vertical strength heterogeneity.

Jin, Yu; McNutt, Marcia K.; Zhu, Yong-Sheng

1996-05-01

221

Seismicity and Deep Structure of the Joint Area of Eurasian, North American and Okhotomorsk Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern geodynamics and seismicity of Far-Eastern region is mostly determined by interaction of Eurasian, Pacific, North American and supposed Amur and Okhotomorsk plates. The paper presents materials on seismicity, deep structure and space geodesy. These materials are used as a base for research the joint region of the plates. All earthquakes of this zone are aroused in the middle and in the bottom parts of the Earth`s crust at the depth of 7-30km. Seismic investigations and DSS observations materials show that seismic process is proceeding at pressure conditions. According to the DSS materials at the regional geotransect 2-DV (Magadan - Vrangel island) there is registered significant decrease of boundary velocity values (to 7.5-7.7 km/sec) along the Moho in the joint zone and local raise of the Moho. At the deep seismographic section in this zone we can see extremely heterogeneous middle crust, reduction of reflection contrast in the bottom of the crust and in the Moho section. In this zone we can also see reduction of average (effective) velocity in all stratum of the Earth`s crust, it can be an evidence of high fragmentation of the Earth`s crust structures. These materials, along with high seismicity at great depths up to 30 km, show appearance of the joint region of Okhotomorsk and North American plates not only in the upper part of the Earth`s crust, but also in the middle and in the bottom parts of the crust and in the Moho section. Along with the profile data of the geotransect 2-DV there are presented modern materials of areal seismological investigations for a section of joint of three big plates: earthquakes quantity distribution, total dedicated seismic energy and K- parameter, connected with velocities of P- and S-waves within seismic active layer of the Earth`s crust. By these data, the boundary of North American plate with Eurasian plate in the north and with Okhotomorsk plate in the south is more contrasting. The most severe earthquakes are also connected with this boundary. Joint area of Eurasian and Okhotomorsk plates is less contrasting. There are also presented some preliminary materials on sub-latitudinal geophysical profile Yakutsk - Susuman, which was realized by The Federal Subsoil Resources Management Agency in 2011-2012. Further complex interpretation of geology-geophysics materials of this profile allow to specify the boundary of Eurasian and Okhotomorsk plates.

Soloviev, V. M.; Seleznev, V. S.; Salnikov, A. S.; Timofeev, V. Y.; Shibaev, S. V.; Petrov, A.; Liseikin, A. V.; Shenmayer, A. E.

2013-05-01

222

What are the physical links between Arctic sea ice loss and Eurasian winter climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid sea ice retreat and increases in temperature have characterised the Arctic basin in the last few decades. A number of studies have suggested that these changes have had a direct impact on extremes of weather and climate in the midlatitudes, while others have submitted that the evidence for this may not be robust. Sato et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 084009) cast considerable light on this divergence of perspectives by revealing that apparent links between Barents Sea ice coverage and cold Eurasian winters form just a sector of a teleconnection pattern which originates remotely in the North Atlantic Gulf Stream region.

Simmonds, Ian; Govekar, Pallavi D.

2014-10-01

223

[Distribution of the male lineages of Genghis Khan's descendants in northern Eurasian populations].  

PubMed

Data on the variation of 12 microsatellite loci of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3 were used to screen lineages included in the cluster of Genghis Khan's descendants in 18 northern Eurasian populations (Altaian Kazakhs, Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Khakassians, Shorians, Tyvans, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Buryats, Khamnigans, Evenks, Mongols, Kalmyks, Tajiks, Kurds, Persians, and Russians; the total sample size was 1437 people). The highest frequency of haplotypes from the cluster of the Genghis Khan's descendants was found in Mongols (34.8%). In Russia, this cluster was found in Altaian Kazakhs (8.3%), Altaians (3.4%), Buryats (2.3%), Tyvans (1.9%), and Kalmyks (1.7%). PMID:17486763

Derenko, M V; Maliarchuk, B A; Wozniak, M; Denisova, G A; Dambueva, I K; Dorzhu, C M; Grzybowski, T; Zakharov, I A

2007-03-01

224

Structure of the Mitochondrial Control Region of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): Patterns of Genetic Heterogeneity and Implications for Conservation of the Species in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven

V. Ketmaier; C. BERNARDINI

2005-01-01

225

Responses of lake macrophyte beds dominated by Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum) to best management practices in agricultural sub-watersheds: Declines in biomass but not species dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term studies of macrophyte beds growing near streams in Conesus Lake, New York, have revealed a high biomass and continuing dominance of the invasive rooted species Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). We tested whether agricultural best management practices (BMPs) designed to reduce tributary nutrient and soil loss from the watershed could reduce populations of Eurasian watermilfoil downstream in the lake littoral.

Isidro Bosch; Joseph C. Makarewicz; Elizabeth A. Bonk; Cristopher Ruiz; Michael Valentino

2009-01-01

226

Susceptibility of Eurasian Watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) and a Milfoil Hybrid ( M. spicatum × M. sibiricum ) to Triclopyr and 2,4-D Amine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization of the exotic Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myrio- phyllum spicatum L.) with the native northern watermilfoil ( M. sibiricum Komarov) has been verified in the Great Lake and Pacific Northwest regions. To determine if a milfoil hy- brid was susceptible to aquatic herbicides typically used to control Eurasian watermilfoil, we conducted a small-scale ex- periment evaluating the comparative response of

ANGELA G. POOVEY; JEREMY G. SLADE; MICHAEL D. NETHERLAND

227

High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.  

PubMed

We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:21104273

Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

2011-05-01

228

Pilfering Eurasian jays use visual and acoustic information to locate caches.  

PubMed

Pilfering corvids use observational spatial memory to accurately locate caches that they have seen another individual make. Accordingly, many corvid cache-protection strategies limit the transfer of visual information to potential thieves. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) employ strategies that reduce the amount of visual and auditory information that is available to competitors. Here, we test whether or not the jays recall and use both visual and auditory information when pilfering other birds' caches. When jays had no visual or acoustic information about cache locations, the proportion of available caches that they found did not differ from the proportion expected if jays were searching at random. By contrast, after observing and listening to a conspecific caching in gravel or sand, jays located a greater proportion of caches, searched more frequently in the correct substrate type and searched in fewer empty locations to find the first cache than expected. After only listening to caching in gravel and sand, jays also found a larger proportion of caches and searched in the substrate type where they had heard caching take place more frequently than expected. These experiments demonstrate that Eurasian jays possess observational spatial memory and indicate that pilfering jays may gain information about cache location merely by listening to caching. This is the first evidence that a corvid may use recalled acoustic information to locate and pilfer caches. PMID:24889656

Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

2014-11-01

229

Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins.  

PubMed

Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol (14)C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3-6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic. PMID:23940354

Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E; van Dongen, Bart E; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P; Dudarev, Oleg V; Wang, Zhiheng; Montluçon, Daniel B; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I

2013-08-27

230

Response of Submersed Macrophyte Communities to Selective Removal in Eurasian Watermilfoil Dominated Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasive species such are thought to dominate communities through competitive superiority. When invasive species are controlled, revegetation by native plants is desired, but often difficult. The response of submersed macrophytes communities to selective removal of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native plants was investigated in three lakes: a lake with high water clarity and few herbivores, a lake with poor clarity and few herbivores, and a clear lake with a high density of milfoil herbivores. At each lake, 16 to 20 2mX2m plots were identified and delineated with a pvc frame on the bottom and each plot was assigned to one of 4 treatments in a randomized block design. Treatments were: remove all plants, remove Eurasian watermilfoil, remove all non-milfoil plants or remove no plants. Prior to treatment duplicate biomass samples were collected from each plot. Visual estimates of plant cover were made every 2-4 weeks and biomass samples were collected at the end of the summer. Plots were resampled similarly in the year following the manipulation. The treatments were successful at manipulating the plant community in each lake, but overall did not reveal dramatic shifts or competitive interactions. Within one year the communities reverted to their premanipulation state.

Newman, R. R.

2005-05-01

231

Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge  

PubMed Central

Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci. PMID:24204668

Mazieres, Stephane; Myres, Natalie M.; Lin, Alice A.; Temori, Shah Aga; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Witzel, Michael; King, Roy J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Chiaroni, Jacques

2013-01-01

232

Intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher (Martes pennanti) and a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

Intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes was diagnosed in a 6-year-old fisher (Martes pennanti) and a geriatric Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Clinical signs included lethargy and inappetance in both animals and vomiting and occasional diarrhea in the fisher. The diagnosis in both cases was made using cytology of fresh tissue, histology of fixed tissues, and immunohistochemistry. Granules were seen most clearly on cytologic examination of direct impressions from fresh tissue. Because granules were absent in most histologic sections, cytology of fresh tissue was essential for the diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry determined that the neoplastic cells had positive membranous immunoreactivity to CD3 and were negative for CD79a, which was consistent with alimentary T-cell lymphoma. The disease course in both animals was presumed to be aggressive, with rapid progression of clinical signs, high mitotic index and effacement of local intestinal architecture in both cases, and metastatic disease in the fisher. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher and a Eurasian otter. PMID:20597223

Bartlett, Susan L; Imai, Denise M; Trnpkiewicz, John G; Garner, Michael M; Ogasawara, Seigo; Stokol, Tracy; Kiupel, Matti; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V

2010-06-01

233

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

1994-12-01

234

Injured Eurasian Ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, Release an Alarm Pheromone that Could be Used to Control their Dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian ruffe, an undesirable species of fish that was introduced into the Great Lakes from Eurasia, employs an alarm pheromone which might be useful in bio-control. This pheromone is released from ruffe skin when it is damaged and serves to reduce the swimming and feeding activity of exposed conspecifics while repelling fish from areas treated with it. Responsiveness to this

Peter J. Maniak; Ryan D. Lossing; Peter W. Sorensen

2000-01-01

235

Is Predation by Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) an Important Source of Mortality for the Eurasian Watermilfoil Biocontrol Agent Euhrychiopsis lecontei?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic weevil Euhrychiopsis lecontei is a potential control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Predation by fishes may influence populations of this beneficial insect. To determine if fish predation is an important source of mortality for E. lecontei, fish stomachs from two Minnesota lakes, Lake Auburn and Cedar Lake, were sampled monthly during the summer of 1994. None of

Thomas J. Sutter; Raymond M. Newman

1997-01-01

236

Sex-specific recruitment and brood sex ratios of Eurasian kestrels in a seasonally and annually fluctuating  

E-print Network

Sex-specific recruitment and brood sex ratios of Eurasian kestrels in a seasonally and annually-ordinating editor: J. Tuomi Abstract. Timing of birth and food availability may select for biased offspring sex in brood sex ratio during the breeding season in a long-term data from 8 years. As far as we know

Laaksonen, Toni

237

Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2007, 48, No. 1, pp. 1636. Copyright 2007 by Bellwether Pulishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

16 Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2007, 48, No. 1, pp. 16­36. Copyright © 2007 by Bellwether of such research, highlighting the important role of institutions and geography, as well as emerging theoretical facing America where "geography matters." Oddly, despite the currents of globalization

Wei, Yehua Dennis

238

Potential impacts of northeastern Eurasian snow cover on generation of dust storms in northwestern China during spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the northeastern Eurasian snow cover on the frequency of spring dust storms in northwestern China have been examined for the period 1979-2007. Averaged over all 43 stations in northwestern China, a statistically significant relationship has been found between dust-storm frequency (DSF) and Eurasian snow-water equivalent (SWE) during spring: mean DSF of 7.4 and 3.3 days for years of high- and low SWE, respectively. Further analyses reveal that positive SWE anomalies enhance the meridional gradients of the lower tropospheric temperatures and geopotential heights, thereby strengthening westerly jets and zonal wind shear over northwestern China and western Inner Mongolia of China, the regions of major dust sources. The anomalous atmospheric circulation corresponding to the Eurasian SWE anomalies either reinforces or weakens atmospheric baroclinicity and cyclogenesis, according to the sign of the anomaly, to affect the spring DSF. This study suggests that Eurasian SWE anomalies can be an influential factor of spring DSF in northwestern China and western Inner Mongolia of China.

Lee, Yun Gon; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Jinwon

2013-08-01

239

Increasing river discharge in the Eurasian Arctic: Consideration of dams, permafrost thaw, and fires as potential agents of change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge from Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean has increased significantly in recent decades, but the reason for this trend remains unclear. Increased net atmospheric moisture transport from lower to higher latitudes in a warming climate has been identified as one potential mechanism. However, uncertainty associated with estimates of precipitation in the Arctic makes it difficult to confirm whether or

J. W. McClelland; R. M. Holmes; B. J. Peterson; M. Stieglitz

2004-01-01

240

Major, trace element, and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: Interaction of hydrous EM1-rich asthenosphere with thinned Eurasian lithosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraplate magmatism affected much of Indochina following the mid-Miocene cessation of South China Sea opening. Thick basalt plateaus formed on accreted terrains of varying age as extensional fractures were reactivated following the Indo-Eurasian collision. The basalts are part of a diffuse igneous province affecting much of eastern and southeastern Asia and western Pacific marginal basins. Most Indochina basalt centers comprise

Hoang Nguyen; Martin F. J. Flower; Richard W. Carlson

1996-01-01

241

Indiana University Department of Central Eurasian Studies invites applications for the new Balassi Institute Graduate Fellowship in Hungarian Studies.  

E-print Network

Indiana University Department of Central Eurasian Studies invites applications for the new Balassi admitted to the University Graduate School at Indiana University-Bloomington and is primarily engaged to Hungarian culture and history. Indiana University is a research university with world-class programs in both

Indiana University

242

Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed climatologies and CMIP3  

E-print Network

Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed statistical tools including a maximum covariance analysis. The snow­monsoon relationship is explored using an east­west snow dipole over Eurasia and the Indian summer monsoon precipitation. However, our results

Ribes, Aurélien

243

Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed climatologies and CMIP3  

E-print Network

Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed using sev- eral statistical tools including a maximum covariance analysis. The snow­monsoon relationship between an east­west snow dipole over Eurasia and the Indian summer monsoon precipitation. However, our

Ribes, Aurélien

244

Combined Analysis of Land Cover Change and NDVI Trends in the Northern Eurasian Grain Belt and the Aral Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional environmental change can be assessed using remote sensing in two ways: by looking for trends in image time series in terms of spectral indices, like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), or through post-classification change analysis to identify land cover change (LCC). Here we demonstrate the efficacy of combined trend-LCC analysis using the Northern Eurasian grain belt (NEGB) and

C. K. Wright; G. M. Henebry

2010-01-01

245

Epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities on Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and Myriophyllum alterniflorum in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the survival and proliferation of invertebrates in freshwater eco- systems. Epiphytic invertebrate communities may be altered through the replacement of native macrophytes by exotic mac- rophytes, even when the macrophytes are close relatives and have similar morphology. We sampled an invasive exotic macrophyte, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and

Sarah J. Wilson; Anthony Ricciardi

2009-01-01

246

Within-brood size differences, sex and parasites determine blood stress protein levels in Eurasian Kestrel nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Brood hierarchies established through hatching asynchrony are supposed to be costly for small chicks because of impaired growth and survival. An additional cost that has remained unexplored is the stress imposed by competition for resources in the nest. 2. In the present study of broods of Eurasian kestrels, we have used the level of heat shock proteins such

J. MARTINEZ-PADILLA; J. MARTINEZ; J. A. DAVILA; S. MERINO; J. MORENO; J. MILLAN

2004-01-01

247

The University of Texas at Austin -College of Liberal Arts Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies Degree Plan  

E-print Network

hours in each of two of the following subjects: _______, _______ Anthropology, Economics, Geography, literature or culture:* _______ 3 hours Russian, East European and Eurasian history, economics or government one of these courses must focus on an area other than European Russia 12 hours additional Russian

Texas at Austin, University of

248

The intestinal helminths of the red fox and some other carnivores in Southwest Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

In south-west Germany between 1975 and 1980, 3,573 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 84 badgers (Meles meles), 47 stone martens (Martes foina), and 387 cats (Felis catus) were examined for intestinal helminths. In foxes the extent of infections was:Taenia crassiceps 24%,T. polyacantha 8%,T. taeniaeformis 0.6%,T. serialis 0.5%Mesocestoides leptothylacus 20%,Mesocestoides sp. 0.2%,Toxocara canis 32%,Toxascaris leonina 3%,Uncinaria stenocephala 26%. One to three foxes

B. Loos-Frank; E. Zeyhle

1982-01-01

249

Increasing river discharge in the Eurasian Arctic: Consideration of dams, permafrost thaw, and fires as potential agents of change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge from Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean has increased significantly in recent decades, but the reason for this trend remains unclear. Increased net atmospheric moisture transport from lower to higher latitudes in a warming climate has been identified as one potential mechanism. However, uncertainty associated with estimates of precipitation in the Arctic makes it difficult to confirm whether or not this mechanism is responsible for the change in discharge. Three alternative mechanisms are dam construction and operation, permafrost thaw, and increasing forest fires. Here we evaluate the potential influence of these three mechanisms on changes in discharge from the six largest Eurasian Arctic rivers (Yenisey, Ob', Lena, Kolyma, Pechora, and Severnaya Dvina) between 1936 and 1999. Comprehensive discharge records made it possible to evaluate the influence of dams directly. Data on permafrost thaw and fires in the watersheds of the Eurasian Arctic rivers are more limited. We therefore use a combination of data and modeling scenarios to explore the potential of these two mechanisms as drivers of increasing discharge. Dams have dramatically altered the seasonality of discharge but are not responsible for increases in annual values. Both thawing of permafrost and increased fires may have contributed to changes in discharge, but neither can be considered a major driver. Cumulative thaw depths required to produce the observed increases in discharge are unreasonable: Even if all of the water from thawing permafrost were converted to discharge, a minimum of 4 m thawed evenly across the combined permafrost area of the six major Eurasian Arctic watersheds would have been required. Similarly, sensitivity analysis shows that the increases in fires that would have been necessary to drive the changes in discharge are unrealistic. Of the potential drivers considered here, increasing northward transport of moisture as a result of global warming remains the most viable explanation for the observed increases in Eurasian Arctic river discharge.

McClelland, J. W.; Holmes, R. M.; Peterson, B. J.; Stieglitz, M.

2004-09-01

250

Increasing River Discharge in the Eurasian Arctic: Consideration of Dams, Permafrost Thaw, and Fires as Potential Agents of Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge from Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean has increased significantly in recent decades, but the reason for this trend remains unclear. Increased net moisture transport from lower to higher latitudes in a warming climate has been identified as one potential mechanism. However, uncertainty associated with estimates of precipitation in the Arctic makes it difficult to confirm whether or not this mechanism is responsible for the change in discharge. Three alternative mechanisms are dam construction and operation, permafrost thaw, and increasing forest fires. Here we evaluate the potential influence of these three mechanisms on changes in discharge from the six largest Eurasian arctic rivers (Yenisey, Ob', Lena, Kolyma, Pechora, and Severnaya Dvina) between 1936 and 1999. Comprehensive discharge records made it possible to evaluate the influence of dams directly. Data on permafrost thaw and fires in the watersheds of the Eurasian arctic rivers are more limited. We therefore use a combination of data and modeling scenarios to explore the potential of these two mechanisms as drivers of increasing discharge. Dams have dramatically altered the seasonality of discharge, but are not responsible for increases in annual values. Both thawing of permafrost and increased fires may have contributed to changes in discharge, but neither can be considered a major driver. Cumulative thaw depths required to produce the observed increases in discharge are unreasonable: Even if all of the water from thawing permafrost were converted to discharge, a minimum of 4 meters thawed evenly across the combined permafrost area of the six major Eurasian arctic watersheds would have been required. Similarly, sensitivity analysis shows that the increases in fires that would have been necessary to drive the changes in discharge are unrealistic. Of the potential drivers considered here, increasing northward transport of moisture as a result of global warming remains the most viable for explaining the observed increases in Eurasian arctic river discharge.

McClelland, J. W.; Holmes, R. M.; Peterson, B. J.; Stieglitz, M.

2004-05-01

251

Contraction along a previously extended plate boundary; analogue modelling of the Iberian - Eurasian suture zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iberian - Eurasian plate boundary can be roughly subdivided into a continent-continent and a continent-ocean collision zone in the east and west, respectively. This is due to the extensional phase that predates the contraction that formed the present day mountains in the area. A narrow ocean seaway separated the Iberian and Eurasian plates, whereas a wider ocean opened up towards west, where the present day Bay of Biscay lies. The deep seismic structures under the eastern segment show a subduction of the Iberian plate under the Eurasian plate, whereas the western segment is less well constrained and leave room for discussion regarding deep geometries and the nature of the collision zone. An analogue experiment was designed to represent the tectonic setting at the boundary at the culmination of the extensional phase in the early Cretaceous and then contracted to explore how surface topography and deep structures are affected by changes in upper mantle strength and contraction rate. The model is composed of layers of silicone putty and sand, tailored to simulate the assumed lithospheric geometries and strength-viscosity profiles along the plate boundary zone, and comprises two 'continental' plates separated by a thinner 'oceanic' plate that represents the narrow seaway that separated the eastern areas, and opens up to a 30° angle in the west, representing the Bay of Biscay. The experiment floats on a substrate of sodium polytungstate, representing mantle. The experiment was run 24 times, varying the thickness (and thus strength) of the upper mantle lithosphere, and the contraction rate. Keeping all other parameters identical for each experiment, the models were shortened by a computer-controlled jackscrew while time-lapse images were recorded. After completion, the models were saturated with water and frozen, allowing for sectioning and profile inspection. Of the 19 successful iterations of the experiment, three shortening rates were tested, each value representing an order of magnitude higher than the previous, and three thickness values (and thus strength) were applied to the sand layer representing upper mantle lithosphere. The results show how upper mantle strength appears to be the most important factor in determining whether an inversion of subduction direction occurs. A weak upper mantle layer (weaker than the oceanic crust) leads to obduction of the oceanic crust in the western segment of the model, forcing a significantly different scenario compared to observations in NW Spain today. In model iterations where the upper mantle is stronger than the oceanic crust, most model outcomes show a reversal in subduction polarity from northerly in the east, to southerly in the west. The transition zone is located where the narrow, parallel 'seaway' opens up towards west, near the centre of the model. Surface inspection of the models also show consistent patterns of faults breaking the surface, and are comparable to the present day major fault patterns mapped along the Pyrenean and Cantabrian mountains. It is concluded that both deep and surface structures are at least in part a result of the inherent zone of weakness that developed along the Iberian - Eurasian plate boundary.

Midtkandal, I.; Gabrielsen, R. H.; Brun, J.; Huismans, R. S.

2011-12-01

252

Parasitic helminths of Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) from Florida.  

PubMed

Sixty-three Eurasian collared-doves (ECDs) (Streptopelia decaocto) from Florida were examined for parasitic helminths from June to December 2001. Nine species of helminths were identified (5 nematodes, 2 cestodes, and 2 trematodes). The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia columbae (73.0%), Fuhrmannetta crassula (28.6%), Ornithostrongylus quadriradiatus (12.7%), and Bruscapillaria obsignata (11.1%). The helminths with the greatest mean intensity were Tanaisia bragai (13.5), A. columbae (9.3), and O. quadriradiatus (7.1). In Florida, the mean intensity of A. columbae in ECDs (9.3) was similar to that found in white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) (9.1) (P = 0.461), and both the intensities were significantly higher than that in the native mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) (3.7) (P = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively). Fuhrmannetta crassula is reported for the first time in columbids from Florida. PMID:15856898

Bean, Diane L; Rojas-Flores, Edith; Foster, Garry W; Kinsella, John M; Forrester, Donald J

2005-02-01

253

Distribution of Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, in the St. Clair-Detroit River system in 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submersed macrophytes were surveyed at 595 stations located throughout the St. Clair-Detroit River system between Lakes Huron and Erie, 23 August to 13 October, 1978. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), first recorded in the system in 1974, became the fourth most common submersed macrophyte in the system by 1978. However, it has not been reported as a widespread nuisance in this system as it has in many other large water bodies in the United States. Observations made during the present study, and interpretations of an aerial photograph, suggest that M. spicatum was a minor nuisance to small boat navigation in portions of the system. Information presented in this study provides a baseline against which future changes in the occurrence of M. spicatum in the St. Clair-Detroit River system can be measured.

Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

1984-01-01

254

Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella isolated from Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) in Portugal.  

PubMed

Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) are present in a wide range of aquatic environments. Salmonella isolates have been obtained from otters at rehabilitation centers and in the wild and are sometimes associated with serious illnesses. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella were isolated from otter fecal samples collected in March 2006, September 2007, and March 2008 in two river basins in southern Portugal. From 67 samples tested, five were positive for Salmonella (7.58%). None of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and all were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. Our results confirm the role of otters as potential carriers of Salmonella and the importance of environmental exposure to antimicrobial agents in selection for resistance in bacteria. PMID:20966276

Oliveira, Manuela; Pedroso, Nuno Miguel; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Tavares, Luís; Vilela, Cristina Lobo

2010-10-01

255

Seasonal variation of metabolic thermogenesis in Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) over a latitudinal gradient.  

PubMed

Phenotypic flexibility of various morphological and physiological characters is widespread in animals. Resident endothermic animals of temperate climates provide a natural experiment in phenotypic flexibility. In this study, we took an integrative approach to assess seasonal and geographic influences on metabolism in Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR), masses of internal organs, mitochondrial respiration capacities in liver and muscle, cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activities in liver and muscle, and circulating levels of plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in summer and winter sparrows at two sites from southeastern (Wenzhou) and northeastern (Qiqihar) China that differ in climate. Body masses of tree sparrows were significantly higher in winter than in summer at both sites but did not differ with latitude. RMRs of tree sparrows varied significantly with both latitude and season, with RMRs of Qiqihar birds being higher than those of Wenzhou birds and with RMRs being higher in winter than in summer. Consistently, dry masses of brain, lung, liver, gizzard, small intestine, rectum, and total digestive tract varied significantly with either latitude or season. State 4 respiration and COX activity in liver and muscle were remarkably higher in Qiqihar and increased significantly in winter. Circulating levels of plasma T3 also showed significant seasonal and latitudinal variation and was higher in Qiqihar in winter than in other groups. These data suggest that tree sparrows mainly coped with cold by enhancing thermogenic capacities through heightened activity of respiratory enzymes and higher levels of plasma thyroid hormones (T3). These results are consistent with a pronounced seasonal and latitudinal phenotypic flexibility mediated through physiological and biochemical adjustments in Eurasian tree sparrows. PMID:25244382

Zheng, Wei-Hong; Li, Ming; Liu, Jin-Song; Shao, Shu-Li; Xu, Xing-Jun

2014-01-01

256

Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.  

PubMed

Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas. PMID:12650343

Keena, M A

2003-02-01

257

Nest desertion is not predicted by cuckoldry in the Eurasian penduline tit  

PubMed Central

Engagement in extra-pair copulations is an example of the abundant conflicting interests between males and females over reproduction. Potential benefits for females and the risk of cuckoldry for males are expected to have important implications on the evolution of parental care. However, whether parents adjust parental care in response to parentage remains unclear. In Eurasian penduline tits Remiz pendulinus, which are small polygamous songbirds, parental care is carried out either by the male or by the female. In addition, one third of clutches is deserted by both male and female. Desertion takes place during the egg-laying phase. Using genotypes of nine microsatellite loci of 443 offspring and 211 adults, we test whether extra-pair paternity predicts parental care. We expect males to be more likely to desert cuckolded broods, whereas we expect females, if they obtain benefits from having multiple sires, to be more likely to care for broods with multiple paternity. Our results suggest that parental care is not adjusted to parentage on an ecological timescale. Furthermore, we found that male attractiveness does not predict cuckoldry, and we found no evidence for indirect benefits for females (i.e., increased growth rates or heterozygosity of extra-pair offspring). We argue that male Eurasian penduline tits may not be able to assess the risk of cuckoldry; thus, a direct association with parental care is unlikely to evolve. However, timing of desertion (i.e., when to desert during the egg-laying phase) may be influenced by the risk of cuckoldry. Future work applying extensive gene sequencing and quantitative genetics is likely to further our understanding of how selection may influence the association between parentage and parental care. PMID:20802790

Meszaros, Lidia A.; van der Velde, Marco; Szekely, Tamas; Pogany, Akos; Szabad, Janos; Komdeur, Jan

2010-01-01

258

The dynamics of the Eurasian plate and the intraplate stress field in the Middle-Late Eocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces driving and resisting plate motion together with the resulting intraplate stresses are analyzed for the Eurasian plate at 40 Ma with the aim to obtain a force model for which the stresses give the best fit to stress observations. Forces acting on a lithospheric plate can be categorized into three groups: i) edge forces due to interaction with neighboring plates; ii) lithospheric body forces and iii) mantle tractions. The direction of the edge forces is based on the boundary types of the Eurasian plate taken from the Lausanne Plate Tectonic Reconstruction (LPTR) from Stampfli and colleagues. Lithospheric body forces include ridge push, slab pull and topographic body forces and for these forces both the direction and magnitude can be computed. Since the uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas is only incompletely constrained, the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the topography (and thus the topographic body forces) at 40 Ma is investigated. Mantle tractions acting on the bottom of a lithospheric plate consist of (i) 'passive' tractions due to the relative motion of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle and ii) 'active' tractions due to the actively convecting mantle. Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2012) found that for the present-day Eurasian plate both passive and active tractions are relevant. This suggests that these tractions were also important in the past. Here we use tractions for the Eurasian plate from the global mantle circulation model by Webb (2012), which is based on mantle convection code TERRA, driven by a 300 Myr integration of the LPTR. The Eurasian plate is assumed to be in mechanical equilibrium. The modeled intraplate stress field resulting from different force sets is compared to paleostress observations to select the force model that best fits the data. We find that in models with small active tractions and lithospheric body forces, the magnitude of collision forces at the boundary between India and Eurasia is small. Warners-Ruckstuhl, K. N., R. Govers, and M. J. R. Wortel (2012), Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian plate, Geophys. J. Int., 189: 1253-1276. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05427. P. J. Webb (2012), Mantle circulation models: constraining mantle dynamics, testing plate motion history and calculating dynamic topography, Ph.D. Thesis Cardiff University, UK, Promotor: J. Huw Davies.

van der Burgt, Janneke; Govers, Rob; Webb, Peter; Stampfli, Gérard; Vérard, Christian; Hochard, Cyril; Davies, J. Huw; Wortel, Rinus

2013-04-01

259

How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

2011-01-01

260

Genetic structure of Eurasian and North American Leymus (Triticeae) wildryes assessed by chloroplast DNA sequences and AFLP profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leymus is a genomically defined allopolyploid of genus Triticeae with two distinct subgenomes. Chloroplast DNA sequences of Eurasian\\u000a and North American species are distinct and polyphyletic. However, phylogenies derived from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences\\u000a are confounded by polyploidy and lack of polymorphism among many taxa. The AFLP technique can resolve phylogenetic relationships\\u000a between closely related species, with a curvilinear

C. Mae Culumber; Steven R. Larson; Kevin B. Jensen; Thomas A. Jones

2011-01-01

261

Impacts of a Habitat-Forming Exotic Species on Estuarine Structure and Function: An Experimental Assessment of Eurasian Milfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that successful colonization of ecosystems by non-native species will have catastrophic consequences\\u000a for the recipient system. Within the Mobile–Tensaw Delta, AL, exotic Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) has been reported to trigger degradation of ecosystem structure and function. We evaluated the impacts of structurally complex\\u000a milfoil on food web structure and predator-prey interactions via comparisons with two

Charles W. Martin; John F. Valentine

2011-01-01

262

Characterizing habitat preference of Eurasian river otter ( Lutra lutra ) in streams using a self-organizing map  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the habitat preferences of Eurasian river otters (Lutra lutra) using the distribution patterns of the numbers of spraints and sprainting spots of otters, as well as related environmental\\u000a variables (habitat zone, river management, bank type, vegetation coverage, width, depth, etc.) in two streams. The numbers\\u000a of otter spraints and sprainting spots were sampled monthly in two streams on

Hee-Sun Cho; Kwang-Hee Choi; Sang-Don Lee; Young-Seuk Park

2009-01-01

263

Organochlorine residues in blood of cinereous vultures and Eurasian griffon vultures in a northeastern Mediterranean area of nature conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the National Park of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest (Dadia NP, Greece), seven “target” PCBs and 16 organochlorine pesticides\\u000a (OCs) were analysed in blood samples of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) and Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus). PCB congeners 138, 153 and 180 predominated in both species’ blood samples. In both species, no differences were detected\\u000a in congener levels between successive age classes,

Vassilis Goutner; Theodora Skartsi; Ioannis K. Konstantinou; Theophanes M. Sakellarides; Triantafyllos A. Albanis; Dimitrios Vasilakis; Javier Elorriaga; Kostas Poirazidis

264

The GBFM radar mosaic of the Eurasian Taiga: selected topics on geo-location and preliminary thematic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of the Global Boreal Forest Mapping project (GBFM), an initiative of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), a continental scale radar mosaic of the Eurasian Taiga was compiled. The mosaic is composed of some 520 strip-images (typically covering 80 km by 2500 km each) acquired in 1997-98 by the L-band SAR aboard the JERS-1 spacecraft. The mosaic

Gianfranco De Grandi; Valeria Spirolazzi; Y. A. Rauste; L. Curto; A. Rosenqvist; M. Shimada

2004-01-01

265

Metal levels in tissues of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from Hungary: variation with sex, age, condition and location.  

PubMed

Liver samples of Eurasian otters from various parts of Hungary were analysed for mercury, copper, zinc, lead and cadmium. Only zinc concentration was significantly higher in females. Higher mercury and cadmium concentrations in adults and higher zinc values in immature otters were measured. Accumulation of mercury, copper and zinc in tissues increased with the declining condition of animals. Mercury and copper were detected with higher values in samples from large rivers. PMID:19036400

Lanszki, József; Orosz, Eniko; Sugár, László

2009-02-01

266

Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Howard, R. J.; Travis, S. E.; Sikes, B. A.

2008-01-01

267

Innovative Techniques for Estimating Illegal Activities in a Human-Wildlife-Management Conflict  

PubMed Central

Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management. PMID:23341973

Cross, Paul; St. John, Freya A. V.; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

2013-01-01

268

Hybrid watermilfoil lineages are more invasive and less sensitive to a commonly used herbicide than their exotic parent (Eurasian watermilfoil)  

PubMed Central

Hybridization may stimulate the evolution of invasiveness in human-impacted habitats if unique hybrid genotypes have higher fitness than parental genotypes. Human efforts to control invasive taxa frequently involve the intentional alteration of habitats, but few studies have considered whether hybridization can result in decreased sensitivity to control measures. Here, we investigate whether interspecific hybrids between introduced Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum) are more invasive than parental Eurasian watermilfoil, especially in regard to their relative responses to an herbicide commonly applied for their control (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D). In two separate laboratory experiments, hybrids on average grew faster and were less sensitive to 2,4-D compared with parental Eurasian watermilfoil. These two invasive traits appear to be common in hybrid watermilfoils, as opposed to being restricted to a few unique lineages, because they were found in a diversity of hybrid genotypes from several independent hybridization events. In addition, we found that hybrids occurred more frequently than parental species in natural lakes previously treated with 2,4-D. Our results provide compelling empirical evidence that hybridization is associated with the evolution of increased invasiveness in watermilfoils, and have important implications for their management. PMID:23745138

LaRue, Elizabeth A; Zuellig, Matthew P; Netherland, Michael D; Heilman, Mark A; Thum, Ryan A

2013-01-01

269

Hybrid watermilfoil lineages are more invasive and less sensitive to a commonly used herbicide than their exotic parent (Eurasian watermilfoil).  

PubMed

Hybridization may stimulate the evolution of invasiveness in human-impacted habitats if unique hybrid genotypes have higher fitness than parental genotypes. Human efforts to control invasive taxa frequently involve the intentional alteration of habitats, but few studies have considered whether hybridization can result in decreased sensitivity to control measures. Here, we investigate whether interspecific hybrids between introduced Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum) are more invasive than parental Eurasian watermilfoil, especially in regard to their relative responses to an herbicide commonly applied for their control (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D). In two separate laboratory experiments, hybrids on average grew faster and were less sensitive to 2,4-D compared with parental Eurasian watermilfoil. These two invasive traits appear to be common in hybrid watermilfoils, as opposed to being restricted to a few unique lineages, because they were found in a diversity of hybrid genotypes from several independent hybridization events. In addition, we found that hybrids occurred more frequently than parental species in natural lakes previously treated with 2,4-D. Our results provide compelling empirical evidence that hybridization is associated with the evolution of increased invasiveness in watermilfoils, and have important implications for their management. PMID:23745138

Larue, Elizabeth A; Zuellig, Matthew P; Netherland, Michael D; Heilman, Mark A; Thum, Ryan A

2013-04-01

270

Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

2012-05-01

271

A statistical discrimination experiment for eurasian events using a twenty-seven-station network. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was performed to test the effectiveness of a multivariate method of analysis for distinguishing earthquakes from explosions. The data base for the experiment consisted of digital recordings made at twenty-seven stations, including four large arrays, of one hundred thirty-three Eurasian events. Spectral magnitudes were measured in three frequency bands of the six phases P, Lg, long-period P, long-period S, LR, and LQ. Complexities of the P-waves were measured in three time windows, and corner frequencies and low-frequency spectral levels were computed for the P-wave spectra. When signals could not be detected, spectral magnitudes were measured of noise samples, and these were taken to be detection thresholds. Signal magnitudes and detection thresholds from all the stations were used to find maximum-likelihood estimates of the spectral magnitudes for each event. On account of gaps in the data, many different combinations of different numbers of variables were used in the classification of the one hundred thirty-three events. The variables which were applicable to the most events were short-period P-wave spectral ratios. The most effective discriminants were spectral ratios of Love waves to P waves.

Rivers, D.W.; von Seggern, D.H.; Elkins, B.L.; Sproules, H.S.

1980-07-08

272

Multiple origins of tetraploid taxa in the Eurasian Bufo viridis subgroup.  

PubMed

We used Q-banding and analyzed nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) to study the cytogenetic evolution of tetraploids within the Palearctic Bufo viridis subgroup, the only known amphibian complex comprising di-, tri- and tetraploid bisexually reproducing taxa. We examined three diploid (2n) nominal taxa (Bufo viridis viridis, B. v. turanensis, B. v. kermanensis) from five Eurasian localities and six tetraploid (4n) nominal taxa (B. oblongus, B. o. danatensis, B. pewzowi pewzowi, B. p. taxkorensis, B. p. unicolor, B. p. strauchi) from eight Central Asian localities. Homeologous chromosomes of 2n and 4n toads exhibit a similar morphology. Silver-staining and in situ hybridization revealed terminal NORs in the long arms of chromosomes 6 in all 2n but in only two out of four chromosomes 6 in all 4n taxa. Q-banding and a rapidly evolving mitochondrial marker suggest at least two origination events for Asian 4n toads: "Western Central Asian tetraploids" (B. oblongus Nikolsky, 1896) exhibit distinct differences within some chromosome quartets, which are divisible into pairs of chromosomes and may be allopolyploid. In contrast, "Central Asian tetraploids" (B. pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898) showed homogenous Q-banding patterns within each quartet, suggesting autopolyploidy. In Northeastern Iran, we discovered a zone of either common ancestry or hybridization of 2n and Western Central Asian 4n toads. This raises intriguing questions about how diploid and tetraploid taxa may evolve by exchanging genetic material. PMID:16134338

Stöck, Matthias; Steinlein, Claus; Lamatsch, Dunja K; Schartl, Manfred; Schmid, Michael

2005-07-01

273

Immunity and fitness in a wild population of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The immune system of vertebrates consists of several components that partly interact and complement each other. Therefore, the assessment of the overall effectiveness of immune defence requires the simultaneous measurement of different immune components. In this study, we investigated intraspecific variability of innate [i.e. natural antibodies (NAb) and complement] and acquired (i.e. leucocyte profiles) immunity and its relationship with fitness correlates (i.e. blood parasite load and reproductive success in adults and body mass and survival until fledging in nestlings) in the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Immunity differed between nestlings and adults and also between adult males and females. Adult kestrels with higher levels of complement were less parasitised by Haemoproteus, and males with higher values of NAbs showed a higher reproductive success. In nestlings, the H/L ratio was negatively related to body mass. Survival until fledging was predicted by all measured immunological variables of nestlings as well as by their fathers' level of complement. This is the first time that innate immunity is linked to survival in a wild bird. Thus, intraspecific variation in different components of immunity predicts variation in fitness prospects in kestrels, which highlights the importance of measuring innate immune components together with components of the acquired immunity in studies assessing the effectiveness of the immune system in wild animals.

Parejo, Deseada; Silva, Nadia

2009-10-01

274

Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes.  

PubMed

This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River deltas are discussed. Temporal changes in the pattern of modification are also investigated, especially the dramatic homogenization of the custom resulting from the conquests of the Huns. This is contrasted with incidences of cranial modification in the south-central Andes, including the appearance of deliberate head shaping as well as shifts in the practice during the expansion of the Bolivian Altiplano state of Tiwanaku. Similarities in the use of cranial vault modification between these unrelated areas and in the alterations of the practice resulting from foreign contact are considered in light of vault modification's role as a malleable cultural artifact. PMID:15901115

Torres-Rouff, C; Yablonsky, L T

2005-01-01

275

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

2006-01-01

276

Silver nanoparticles disrupt olfaction in Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).  

PubMed

The present study investigates the effect of silver nanoparticles on olfaction in Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). The electro-olfactogram (EOG) signal was recorded by stimulating the olfactory epithelium with pulses of the odorant L-alanine during the pre-exposure, silver exposure and recovery periods, respectively. The nanosilver suspension concentrations applied were 0.00, 0.45 and 45 ?g L?¹, respectively. Secondly, to compare the toxicity of silver nanoparticles with silver ions, perch were exposed to ionic silver. During exposure to nanosilver suspension, the olfactory epithelium rapidly hyperpolarized, which was not found after exposure to silver ion solution. Exposure to 0.45 ?g L?¹ nanosilver suspension led to enhanced EOG responses, whereas exposure to 45 ?g L?¹ silver nanoparticle suspension and silver ion solution resulted in suppressed EOG signals. The EOG signals partly recovered in silver-free water. The silver nanoparticle olfactory toxicity is believed to be a combination of silver particles and released silver ions. PMID:21570937

Bilberg, Katrine; Døving, Kjell B; Beedholm, Kristian; Baatrup, Erik

2011-07-01

277

Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays  

PubMed Central

State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one’s own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others’ actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female’s current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males’ sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate’s behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males’ own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates. PMID:23382187

Ostojic, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

2013-01-01

278

Nonparametric spatial regression of survival probability: visualization of population sinks in Eurasian woodcock.  

PubMed

Both evolutionary ecologists and wildlife managers make inference based on how fitness and demography vary in space. Spatial variation in survival can be difficult to assess in the wild because (1) multisite study designs are not well suited to populations that are continuously distributed across a large area and (2) available statistical models accounting for detectability less than 1.0 do not easily cope with geographical coordinates. Here we use penalized splines within a Bayesian state-space modeling framework to estimate and visualize survival probability in two dimensions. The approach is flexible in that no parametric form for the relationship between survival and coordinates need be specified a priori. To illustrate our method, we study a game species, the Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola, based on band recovery data (5000 individuals) collected over a > 50 000-km2 area in west-central France with contrasted habitats and hunting pressures. We find that spatial variation in survival probability matches an index of hunting pressure and creates a mosaic of population sources and sinks. Such analyses could provide guidance concerning the spatial management of hunting intensity or could be used to identify pathways of spatial variation in fitness, for example, to study adaptation to changing landscape and climate. PMID:21905433

Péron, Guillaume; Ferrand, Yves; Gossmann, François; Bastat, Claudine; Guenezan, Michel; Gimenez, Olivier

2011-08-01

279

Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels.  

PubMed

Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences in the predation of the western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated whether the rate of predation differed during the 8-year study period and among the three habitats studied. We collected lizard remains from nest boxes of kestrels. Freshly killed lizards were sexed by visual inspection, whilst the sex of head remains was assigned by analysing the cephalic scale morphology using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that the risk of being predated by a kestrel in our population was overall about 3.55 times higher for males than for females. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a male-biased predation in a lizard species. The selective predation of males was consistent between years over the 8-year study period (1999-2006) and also consistent between the three types of kestrel hunting habitat. Overall predation rates on lizards differed between habitats, depending on the year. We propose that the observed sex-biased predation is mainly due to sex differences in lizard behaviour. PMID:17634907

Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

2007-12-01

280

Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences in the predation of the western green lizard ( Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated whether the rate of predation differed during the 8-year study period and among the three habitats studied. We collected lizard remains from nest boxes of kestrels. Freshly killed lizards were sexed by visual inspection, whilst the sex of head remains was assigned by analysing the cephalic scale morphology using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that the risk of being predated by a kestrel in our population was overall about 3.55 times higher for males than for females. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a male-biased predation in a lizard species. The selective predation of males was consistent between years over the 8-year study period (1999-2006) and also consistent between the three types of kestrel hunting habitat. Overall predation rates on lizards differed between habitats, depending on the year. We propose that the observed sex-biased predation is mainly due to sex differences in lizard behaviour.

Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

2007-12-01

281

A VLBI baseline post-adjustment approach for station velocity estimation in Eurasian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baseline lengths and their time-derivatives among 58 geodetic VLBI stations were fitted by using 4439 observing sessions from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). First, the velocities of eight stations in Eurasian continent were set as unknown quantities. Then, two standard global solutions from 3523 IVS sessions and 1110 sessions from database code XA, respectively, were applied prior to all-station coordinates and the non-estimated station velocities. Finally, from the relations among the coordinates, velocities, baseline length and its time-derivative, two types of baseline post-adjustment (BPA) were used to estimate the velocities of the eight stations. We discuss the data processing details, including the effect of different prior values for the stations and the optimal solution. The results suggest that the precision of the station velocities based on the proposed approach is comparable to that of the global solution of the XA sessions. The baseline structure and the prior values of the stations affect the velocity estimates. Compared to the standard method of velocity estimation, there are no external constrains and conditions used in the proposed method.

Zhang, Zhibin; Liu, Xiang

2014-10-01

282

Limitations of gravity models in predicting the spread of Eurasian watermilfoil.  

PubMed

The effects of non-native invasive species are costly and environmentally damaging, and resources to slow their spread and reduce their effects are scarce. Models that accurately predict where new invasions will occur could guide the efficient allocation of resources to slow colonization. We assessed the accuracy of a model that predicts the probability of colonization of lakes in Wisconsin by Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). We based this predictive model on 9 years (1990-1999) of sequence data of milfoil colonization of lakes larger than 25 ha (n =1803). We used milfoil colonization sequence data from 2000 to 2006 to test whether the model accurately predicted the number of lakes that actually were colonized from among the 200 lakes identified as being most likely to be colonized. We found that a lake's predicted probability of colonization was not correlated with whether a lake actually was colonized. Given the low predictability of colonization of specific lakes, we compared the efficacy of preventing milfoil from leaving occupied sites, which does not require predicting colonization probability, with protecting vacant sites from being colonized, which does require predicting colonization probability. Preventing organisms from leaving colonized sites reduced the likelihood of spread more than protecting vacant sites. Although we focused on the spread of a single species in a particular region, our results show the shortcomings of gravity models in predicting the spread of numerous non-native species to a variety of locations via a wide range of vectors. PMID:20964712

Rothlisberger, John D; Lodge, David M

2011-02-01

283

Converging migration routes of Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo crossing the African equatorial rain forest  

PubMed Central

Autumn migration of adult Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo from Europe to southern Africa was recorded by satellite telemetry and observed routes were compared with randomly simulated routes. Two non-random features of observed routes were revealed: (i) shifts to more westerly longitudes than straight paths to destinations and (ii) strong route convergence towards a restricted area close to the equator (1°?S, 15°?E). The birds migrated south or southwest to approximately 10°?N, where they changed to south-easterly courses. The maximal spread between routes at 10°?N (2134?km) rapidly decreased to a minimum (67?km) close to the equator. We found a striking relationship between the route convergence and the distribution of continuous rainforest, suggesting that hobbies minimize flight distance across the forest, concentrating in a corridor where habitat may be more suitable for travelling and foraging. With rainforest forming a possible ecological barrier, many migrants may cross the equator either at 15°?E, similar to the hobbies, or at 30–40°?E, east of the rainforest where large-scale migration is well documented. Much remains to be understood about the role of the rainforest for the evolution and future of the trans-equatorial Palaearctic-African bird migration systems. PMID:18986977

Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Hake, Mikael; Olofsson, Patrik; Alerstam, Thomas

2008-01-01

284

Recent Shift in Eurasian Boreal Vegetation Growth Response Associated with Increasing Drought Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high-latitudes are currently experiencing drastic climatic changes. Initial findings suggested that in response to warming these regions increase productivity as low temperature constraints on plant growth are diminished. Recently, however, multiple lines of evidence have shown that boreal forests may be increasingly vulnerable to warming-related factors, including temperature-induced drought stress as well as shifts in fire regimes and insect outbreaks. Here, we analyzed interannual variations in boreal forest growth pattern and relationships with abiotic drivers in the period 1982-2008 using satellite vegetation and freeze-thaw records in conjunction with climate and upscaled ecosystem flux data. Our results suggest that due to continued summer warming and shifts to earlier spring onsets in the absence of sustained increases in precipitation a turning point has been reached around the mid-1990s that shifted portions of the western central Eurasian boreal forests into a more water-limited regime despite increasing CO2 and related water use efficiency. This has resulted in large-scale and spatially pervasive negative year-to-year relationships between summer temperatures and plant growth. If this regime shift is sustained into the future, the dieback of the boreal forest induced by drought stress as predicted by vegetation models may start earlier and proceeds more rapidly than anticipated.

Buermann, W.; Parida, B.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Reichstein, M.

2013-12-01

285

Density Structure of the Eurasian Lithosphere from Seismic Velocity and Gravity Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to obtain new information on the density structure of the mantle below the Eurasian continent. For this we develop a methodology for regional density determination by combining seismic velocity data with gravity data derived from different sources, i.e. land gravity data, geopotential models and the GOCE gravity gradients. A newly compiled database on the seismic crustal structure allows us to correct for the crustal effects with additional constraints from petrological analysis of near-surface rocks and xenoliths for the lower crust. The depth to Moho (the Mohorovi?i? discontinuity) is well constrained in most of the area from the seismic information. We show how uncertainties in the conversion from P-wave velocity to density propagate into the gravity model and the density model of the upper mantle. The results are compared with regional and world-wide mantle-derived xenolith data on the upper mantle densities. A particular focus of the study is on the development of a new regional density model for the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin, which will complement an on-going study of the regional crustal structure as well as the upper mantle by seismic tomography and RF analysis for the region.

Herceg, M.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.

2012-12-01

286

Genetic diversity of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) population in Israel.  

PubMed

The Israeli population of Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) marks the Palearctic southern boundary of the species' distribution in the Levant. During the 20th century, the otter population in Israel experienced a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic habitat alterations. Currently, the otter population in Israel is estimated at about 100 individuals and defined as "Critically Endangered". The aim of this research was to characterize the Israeli otter population in order to determine its genetic diversity and fragmentation state for conservation purposes. Monitoring spraint sites during 2000-2011 along active and historic otter distribution regions indicate both stable and unstable otter subpopulations, mainly along the Jordan River. Four otter subpopulations, representing 57 individuals, were characterized by 12 microsatellites, previously used to characterize the European otter populations. The genetic results indicated three subpopulations correlating with three geographical regions: the Hula Valley, Sea of Galilee, and the Harod Valley. A moderate genetic diversity (F (st) = 0.087-0.123) was found among the subpopulations, suggesting sporadic interactions between individuals from distinct geographical locations along the Jordan Rift Valley. The Israeli otter population was found to be very small, demographically remote and genetically distinct, harboring unique alleles absent from the studied European populations. Therefore, immediate conservation actions are recommended to prevent the deterioration of the isolated, unique, and critically endangered otter population in Israel. PMID:23225879

Cohen, Tali Magory; Narkiss, Tamar; Dolev, Amit; Ben-Ari, Yossi; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Guter, Amichai; Saltz, David; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

2013-03-01

287

Canine adenovirus type 1 infection of a Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

A 10-year-old female Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra) died after prolonged anorexia and weight loss in the Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Seoul, Republic of Korea. On necropsy, the liver was found to be swollen and friable with 1 lobe enlarged and necrotic. The other organs showed no significant alterations except for mild atrophy of the right kidney. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic necrosis. The hepatocytes around the necrotic areas were swollen and contained large basophilic intranuclear inclusions. Periportal infiltration by plasma cells and lymphocytes was also evident. Transmission electron microscopy revealed characteristic hexagonal virus particles sized approximately 70 nm in diameter in the nuclei of the hepatocytes, which were consistent with an adenovirus. Polymerase chain reaction of the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver sections was used to determine whether the virus was either the canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), or some other viral agent. The results of these tests showed that the virus was CAV-1. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a CAV-1 infection in an otter. PMID:17606519

Park, N Y; Lee, M C; Kurkure, N V; Cho, H S

2007-07-01

288

Habitat correlates of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra recolonizing Central Poland.  

PubMed

The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14 years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15 % in 1993, 38 % in 1998, and 89 % in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river width while negatively affected by presence of buildings at the site and river regulation. During the most intensive colonization process in the 1990s, the habitat preferences of the otter did not change. However, the sites inhabited by otters after 1998 were characterized by lower river width and tree cover and were more often located on regulated river sections, suggesting change in habitat tolerance during expansion. The otter abundance in transformed habitats is a result of increasing population numbers and the necessity to inhabit suboptimal sections of watercourses. Thus, it seems that presence-absence data for otter populations cannot be considered a reliable indicator of habitat quality, being depended of the population density. PMID:23538688

Romanowski, Jerzy; Brzezi?ski, Marcin; Zmihorski, Micha?

2013-04-01

289

Long Term Seasonality Changes and Short Term Climate Variability Recorded in Eurasian Loess: Examples from Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent are well studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of considerable debate. While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are modified and transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmosphere and ocean processes and regulate teleconnection patterns of the Northern Hemisphere. The distribution of Eurasian loess deposits allows interregional palaeoclimatic investigations along a west-east transect across the entire Eurasian loess belt of the Northern Hemisphere, offering the potential to reconstruct Pleistocene atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust dynamics on a wide spatial scale. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from several loess sequences across Eurasia (Serbia, Romania, Kazakhstan, and China) that provide a detailed signal of glacial-interglacial atmospheric dynamics and long term, semi-continuous trends in the aeolian dust record since marine isotope stage 10. In consideration of the modern synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust transport across the Eurasian landmass, we propose that the observed data reflect oscillations superimposed on a long term signal of seasonality, triggered by changes in duration and permanency of the seasonal shift of the Eurasian polar front during the middle to late Pleistocene. As the activity of the polar front jet is intimately connected with the high level planetary frontal zone (HPFZ), the Eurasian loess archives may also serve as a recorder of intra-hemispheric climate connections in past atmospheric circulation. Although there are large scale similarities in the dust transport record from numerous sites across Eurasia, the data reveal distinct differences in short-term climate variability along the studied transect from SE Europe over Central Asia to China. In Central and East Asia the observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror ?18O and fine dust variations seen in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, the presented data represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to verify hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing theories, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker of suborbital global climate changes and an initiator of abrupt climate oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Haam, E.; Lai, Z. P.; Endlicher, W.

2012-04-01

290

Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2014-01-01

291

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2014-01-01

292

Successes and Failures in Combating Desertification in the Eastern Edge of Eurasian Grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eurasian Grassland is one of the important biomes in the world. However, this biome is severely desertified since the middle of last century, particularly in the northeastern Inner-Mongolia of China. The Eastern Edge of Eurasian Grassland in Inner Mongolia covers 740.0th km² and the desertified grassland is approximately 225.98th km² in 2005, about 30.5% desertified. The desertified land in Horqin Sand Land is 43,200 km² in 1959, 56,571 km² in 1975, and 61,008 km² in 1987, and since then decreased to 50,197 in 2000 and 50,167km² in 2005. Reversion of desertification in Horqin Sand Land is mainly attributed to the successes in combating desertification, including large scale of tree planting, increase of irrigated cropland for reduction of rain-fed cropland to meet the need of growing expectation for capital income and grain production, and later combination of planting bushes and grasses with natural restoration. Large scale of tree planting is only effective in a short term but more fragile to drought. As a result, about 1.66m trees, equal to 830m hm² of planted woodland, died of water depletion. And the grassland productivity is reduced from 520g/m² in the middle of 1930 to 360 g/m² in 1982 and 220 g/m²in 2005. Rapid increase of irrigated cropland resulted in reduction of water availability, which is characterized with drying-up of lakes and wetland, stop-running of rivers, and reduction of underground water table. Observation found that the averaged reduction of water table is about 2-3m in this area, with a maximum of 16m in last ten years. The Xiliao River, one of the largest river in northeastern China, is dried up in 1999. These failures still put severe impacts on combating desertification in this region and even in the whole northern China, driven by improper land use, which is identified as one of the immediate causes of desertification in this region. Concerning these failures, in-depth researches have been launched since 2000 to reveal the mechanism of consistent restoration of desertified grassland in relation to sustainable water use. Keyword: Horqin Sand Land, Desertification, Water availability, Success, Failure Acknowledgement: the authors give gratitude to the staff in Naiman Desertification Research Station, Chinese Ecosystems Research network. This research is funded by the projects 2009CB421303 and KZCX2-YW-431. Reference 1 Tao Wang, Xian Xue and Guangting Chen, 2005. Map of Desert and Desertified Land in China. China Map Press. Beijing. 2 Zhao Xueyong, Zhao Halin, Zuo Xiaoan, Luo Yayong, Wang Shaokun, Kou Zhiqiang, Qu Hao. Restoration of desertified grassland and challenges in northern China-for the possibility of sustained desertification reversion. Multifunctional Grasslands in a Changing World Volume I, P:720-724. 3 Comprehensive Investigating Team on Natural Resources in Inner-Mongolia and Ningxia, 19885. Vegetation in Inner-Mongolian. P:467. China Academic Press. Beijing.

Zhao, X.-Y.; Huang, Gang; Huang, Ying-Xin; Wang, Shao-Kun; Luo, Ya-Yong; Qu, Hao; Lian, Jie

2009-04-01

293

Developmental impairment in eurasian dipper nestlings exposed to urban stream pollutants.  

PubMed

Avian studies of endocrine disruption traditionally have focused on reproductive impairment, given that many environmental contaminants affect sex steroid hormones. There is also increasing interest in altered thyroid function, and associated early development, particularly in altricial species with extended developmental windows. Both types of effect are relevant under the complex pollutant conditions created in streams draining urban areas, but case studies are scarce. Therefore, the authors measured breeding performance, as well as nestling growth, condition, and plasma thyroid hormones, in 87 Eurasian dipper (Cinclus cinclus) nests on 36 urban and rural streams in south and mid-Wales (UK); invertebrate prey data were also collected. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether urban stream pollution or food scarcity might affect reproduction or development in this specialized aquatic songbird. Clutch sizes and egg fertility were similar on rural and urban streams, whereas nest success was actually higher at urban sites and food abundance was not significantly reduced. However, subtle but important differences were apparent. Urban nestlings were significantly lighter than rural nestlings for their body size (condition index), and brood sex ratios were increasingly male biased with increasing urbanization. The nestling thyroid hormone profile closely reflected urban land use, whereas depressed triiodothyronine (T3) hormones and poorer body condition were associated with higher exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at urbanized sites. These data suggest that PCBs, PBDEs, and/or accompanying contaminants in urban streams could be affecting dipper nestling development, with potential consequences for the birds' fitness. PMID:24648128

Morrissey, Christy A; Stanton, David W G; Tyler, Charles R; Pereira, M Glória; Newton, Jason; Durance, Isabelle; Ormerod, Steve J

2014-06-01

294

Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Na?ve and Vaccinated Pigs  

PubMed Central

Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies. PMID:22693449

Murcia, Pablo R.; Hughes, Joseph; Battista, Patrizia; Lloyd, Lucy; Baillie, Gregory J.; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H.; Ormond, Doug; Oliver, Karen; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Caccamo, Mario; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wood, James L. N.

2012-01-01

295

Evolution of an Eurasian avian-like influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pigs.  

PubMed

Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies. PMID:22693449

Murcia, Pablo R; Hughes, Joseph; Battista, Patrizia; Lloyd, Lucy; Baillie, Gregory J; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H; Ormond, Doug; Oliver, Karen; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Caccamo, Mario; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N

2012-01-01

296

Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus  

PubMed Central

Background Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. Methodology To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Principal Findings Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal) on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. Significance These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood. PMID:18545646

Laaksonen, Toni; Negro, Juan J.; Lyytinen, Sami; Valkama, Jari; Ots, Indrek; Korpimäki, Erkki

2008-01-01

297

Low-level temperature inversions of the eurasian arctic and comparisons with Soviet drifting station data  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal and regional variations in characteristics of the Arctic low-level temperature inversion are examined using up to 12 years of twice-daily rawinsonde data from 31 inland and coastal sites of the Eurasian Arctic and a total of nearly six station years of data from three Soviet drifting stations near the North Pole. The frequency of inversions, the median inversion depth, and the temperature difference across the inversion layer increase from the Norwegian Sea eastward toward the Laptev and East Siberian seas. This effect is most pronounced in winter and autumn, and reflects proximity to oceanic influences and synoptic activity, possibly enhanced by a gradient in cloud cover. East of Novaya Zemlya during winter, inversions are found in over 95% of all soundings and tend to be surface based. For all locations, however, inversions tend to be most intense during winter due to the large deficit in surface net radiation. The strongest inversions are found over eastern Siberia, and reflect the effects of local topography. The frequency of inversions is lowest during summer, but is still >50% at all locations. Most summer inversions are elevated, and are much weaker than their winter counterparts. Data from the drifting stations reveal an inversion in every sounding from December to April. The minimum frequency of 85% occurs during August. While the median inversion depth is over 1200 m during March, it decreases to approximately 400 m during August, with median temperature differences across the inversion layer of 12.6[degrees]and 2.8[degrees]C, respectively. The median depth of the summertime mixed layer below inversions at the drifting stations ranges from 300 to 400 m. Seasonal changes in these inversion characteristics show a strong relationship with seasonal changes in cloud cover. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Serreze, M.C.; Schnell, R.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kahl, J.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1992-06-01

298

Silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate cause respiratory stress in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are utilised in an increasing amount of products, and discharge to the aquatic environment is inevitable. Fish gills are in direct contact with the ambient water, making them potential exposed and vulnerable to suspended silver nanoparticles. The present study investigates the effect of silver nanoparticles (average 81 nm) on the oxygen consumption (M(O2)) in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), expressed by the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and the critical oxygen tension (P(crit)) below which the fish can no longer maintain aerobic metabolism. For comparison, the impact of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)), was examined as well. Perch were exposed to nominal concentrations of 63, 129 and 300 microg L(-1) silver nanoparticles and 39 and 386 microg L(-1) AgNO(3), respectively, plus controls which were not exposed to silver. M(O2) measured by automated intermittent closed respirometry. After one day acclimatization in the respirometer, the pre-exposure BMR was determined together with P(crit). Hereafter, nanoparticles or silver nitrate were added to the test tank and BMR and P(crit) were measured again the following day. The results demonstrate that nanosilver had no impact on the BMR, whereas exposure to 386 microg L(-1) AgNO(3) resulted in a significant raise in BMR. P(crit) was increased approximately 50% after exposure to 300 microg L(-1) nanosilver plus 31% and 48% by 39 microg L(-1)and 386 microg L(-1) silver nitrate, respectively. These findings reveal that exposure to nanosilver results in impairment of the tolerance to hypoxia. Possibly, nanosilver affects the gills externally, reducing the diffusion conductance which then leads to internal hypoxia during low water oxygen tensions (P(O2)). PMID:19923013

Bilberg, Katrine; Malte, Hans; Wang, Tobias; Baatrup, Erik

2010-01-31

299

Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values  

PubMed Central

Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995–2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

Olden, Julian D.; Tamayo, Mariana

2014-01-01

300

Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)  

PubMed Central

Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35–48% and 41–46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models. PMID:25354270

Scheidt, Spencer N.; Hurlbert, Allen H.

2014-01-01

301

Towards modelling the evolution of intra plate stress: the Eurasian plate 20 Ma.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investige the evolution of the intra plate stress field. We use the classical characterisation of forces acting regionally on a plate such as 'slab pull/suction', 'ridge push' and 'mantle drag' as used by Forsyth & Uyeda (1975), Chapple & Tullis (1977) and later by Wortel et al. (1991) and Govers & Meijer (2001). So far, the interaction between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle flow was oversimplified and implemented via a coupling cœfficient in the direction of the plate motion and we propose improving this specific interaction. As the shear stress field at the base of the plates is unknown in the past, we propose using a mantle flow simulation induced by the imposition of past plate motions on top of a 3D spherical mantle convective code. To that purpose, we employ the new plate motion reconstruction developed by Stampfli et al. (2008) and a 3D convective code where plates are dynamically coupled to the mantle (Quéré & Forte, 2006). The first plate on which we apply this method is the Eurasian plate as Eurasia is a large plate with a small velocity (not attached to its own subduction zone) and the debate on the main driving forces acting on Eurasia is still going on. The stress field 20 Ma resulting from all plate tectonic forces is calculated by assuming mechanical equilibrium in an homogeneous elastic shell using the plane stress approximation. As direct stress indicators for the past are rare, the predicted paleo-stress field is compared to pertinent data from orogens and extensional basins which will provide new clues to oil exploration teams.

Quéré, Sandrine; Ruckstuhl, Karin; Wortel, Rinus; Govers, Rob; Hochard, Cyril; Stampfli, Gérard

2010-05-01

302

Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).  

PubMed

Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35-48% and 41-46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models. PMID:25354270

Scheidt, Spencer N; Hurlbert, Allen H

2014-01-01

303

Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Fargallo, Juan A.

2008-05-01

304

Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian ruffe or yellow perch  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread to areas with more dense zebra mussel populations, the zone of interaction among zebra mussels, yellow perch, and ruffe will increase and intensify. In the laboratory, the effect of zebra mussel shells on the ability of these fishes to forage on amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) and chironomids (Chironomus plumosus) was examined in light and darkness. In 12 h, ruffe consumed more amphipods than did similar-sized yellow perch, particularly in darkness on bare cobble, and in light within zebra mussels. Amphipods decreased activity more in the presence of ruffe than yellow perch. More amphipods were found in zebra mussel shells than in bare cobble, whether or not fish were present. In darkness, when ruffe consumed more amphipods on bare cobble, amphipods became more associated with zebra mussel shells. Although ruffe consumed more amphipods than yellow perch, perch consumed more chironomids than ruffe on bare cobble. The presence of zebra mussel shells altered the relative consumption of invertebrates in some substrate-light combinations. Experiments such as these help to improve understanding of the direct and indirect effects of predation between and among native and nonindigenous species that may exert structuring forces on the nearshore communities of the Great Lakes currently or in the future.

Kolar, C.S.; Fullerton, A.H.; Martin, K.M.; Lamberti, G.A.

2002-01-01

305

Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Depth across Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow depth is one of the important parameters of snow cover, and it affects the surface energy balance, assessment of snow water equivalent, ecosystem, soil temperatures, and water cycle as a whole. In this study, the long-term observed snow depth from 1972 meteorological stations and snow course sites were used to investigate snow depth climatology and its spatiotemporal variations over Eurasian Continent from 1966 to 2008. Preliminary results showed that snow depth was affected by latitude, which in general snow depth increased with the increasing latitude. The higher values of snow depth were found in the northeastern European Russia, the east of western Siberia, the west of central Siberia, Kamchatka Peninsula, and some areas of Sakhalin. While the lower snow accumulation occurred in most areas of China except for the north of Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, Northeast China, and some regions of the southwestern Tibet. Both of the trends in inter-annual variability of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were not significant. However, the long-term monthly mean snow depth had obvious increasing trends from February to May. There were similar spatial distributions of linear trend coefficients of annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth across the former Soviet Union (USSR). The most significant trends of changes in annual mean snow depth and annual maximum snow depth were found between 40° to 70°N. The obvious trends of variability in monthly mean snow depth appeared in the areas between 50° to 60°N. The significant decreasing trends in monthly mean snow depth were observed in most areas of China from February to March. This may be largely influenced by climate change, which leads to an advancing of the end date of snow cover.

Zhong, X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, K.

2013-12-01

306

Trends in Eurasian Arctic runoff timing and their relationship to snow cover changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pronounced land surface process changes have occurred in the Arctic and sub-Arctic in recent decades. Apparent earlier ablation of snow cover in spring implies that some of the energy that was once used to melt snow is now absorbed by the ground, thereby lowering the albedo and thus leading to more snowmelt. To date, however, confirmation of such causal explanations for hydrologic trends has been elusive, primarily because of short record lengths and/or absence of requisite data records. We examine changes in the timing of runoff from 53 unregulated Eurasian Arctic streamflow gauges distributed over the Lena, Ob and Yenisei River basins for the period 1958 - 1999. Variables examined include the onset date of the spring runoff pulse, the centroid of timing of spring runoff, and seasonal fractional flows. These results were compared with surface air temperature anomalies and (satellite) snow cover trends to diagnose the sensitivity of runoff in each of the basins to snow cover disappearance, snow-free duration and period of snowmelt. We find that there are consistent trends indicating an earlier onset of runoff in spring across many of the basins, which can be linked to changes in snowmelt timing, and an increase in winter flows, which appears to be related to shorter snow cover duration. Surface air temperature trends have less obvious linkages with the streamflow timing changes, with the exception of the Yenisei basin where an increase in May temperatures are associated with lower snowmelt season runoff, but increases in June temperatures are associated with increased June runoff.

Tan, A.; Adam, J. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2008-12-01

307

Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.  

PubMed

Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

2014-01-01

308

Colonization of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by Fungi under Controlled Conditions  

PubMed Central

A laboratory assay to assess colonization of a submersed aquatic plant, Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by fungi was developed and used to evaluate the colonization potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Acremonium curvulum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, a Paecilomyces sp., and an unidentified sterile, septate fungus. Stem segments of plants were first immersed in suspensions of fungal propagules for 24 h and then washed to remove all but the tightly attached component of the population. Inoculation was followed by two growth cycles of 3 days each. At the start of each cycle, washed plants were transferred to a mineral salts medium to provide an opportunity for the attached fungal populations to grow. After each growth period, plants were again washed, and fungal populations in the medium (nonattached), loosely attached and tightly attached to the plant, and within the plant (endophytic) were assayed by dilution plating. The fungi differed in the extent to which they attached to water milfoil and in their ability to grow in association with it. There were relatively few significant differences among the tightly attached fungal populations after 24 h, but growth of the better colonizers led to a greater number of significant differences after 4 and 7 days. In addition, the better colonizers showed sustained regrowth of loosely and nonattached fungal propagules in the face of intermittent removal by washing. A milfoil pathogen, C. gloeosporioides, was the only endophytic colonizer; it was also among the best epiphytic colonizers but was not demonstrably better than A. curvulum, a fungus commonly found as an epiphyte on watermilfoil. The yeastlike hyphomycete Aureobasidium pullulans was the only fungus that consistently failed to establish an increasing population on the plant. Images PMID:16348013

Smith, Craig S.; Chand, Tara; Harris, Robin F.; Andrews, John H.

1989-01-01

309

Colonization of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by Fungi under Controlled Conditions.  

PubMed

A laboratory assay to assess colonization of a submersed aquatic plant, Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by fungi was developed and used to evaluate the colonization potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Acremonium curvulum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, a Paecilomyces sp., and an unidentified sterile, septate fungus. Stem segments of plants were first immersed in suspensions of fungal propagules for 24 h and then washed to remove all but the tightly attached component of the population. Inoculation was followed by two growth cycles of 3 days each. At the start of each cycle, washed plants were transferred to a mineral salts medium to provide an opportunity for the attached fungal populations to grow. After each growth period, plants were again washed, and fungal populations in the medium (nonattached), loosely attached and tightly attached to the plant, and within the plant (endophytic) were assayed by dilution plating. The fungi differed in the extent to which they attached to water milfoil and in their ability to grow in association with it. There were relatively few significant differences among the tightly attached fungal populations after 24 h, but growth of the better colonizers led to a greater number of significant differences after 4 and 7 days. In addition, the better colonizers showed sustained regrowth of loosely and nonattached fungal propagules in the face of intermittent removal by washing. A milfoil pathogen, C. gloeosporioides, was the only endophytic colonizer; it was also among the best epiphytic colonizers but was not demonstrably better than A. curvulum, a fungus commonly found as an epiphyte on watermilfoil. The yeastlike hyphomycete Aureobasidium pullulans was the only fungus that consistently failed to establish an increasing population on the plant. PMID:16348013

Smith, C S; Chand, T; Harris, R F; Andrews, J H

1989-09-01

310

Food Availability and Animal Space Use Both Determine Cache Density of Eurasian Red Squirrels  

PubMed Central

Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years. PMID:24265833

Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

2013-01-01

311

Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

Chen, Shuangyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Huang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Liu, Gongshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Botany (IB), Beijing

2013-01-01

312

Impact and implications of the Afro-Eurasian collision south of Cyprus from reflection seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyprus Arc in the Eastern Mediterranean represents the active collision front between the African and Eurasian (Anatolian) Plates. Along the Cyprus Arc, the Eratosthenes Seamount is believed to have been blocking the northward motion of the African Plate since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Based on a dense grid of 2D reflection seismic profiles covering the Eratosthenes Seamount and western Levant Basin offshore Cyprus, new observations regarding the Cyprus Arc collision front at the triple transition zone Eratosthenes Seamount-Levant Basin-Hecataeus Rise are presented. The data show that the Levant Basin is filled with ~ 10 km of sediments of Early Mesozoic (probably Jurassic) to Plio-Quaternary age with only a localized deformation affecting the Miocene-Oligocene rock units. The sediments onlap directly against the steep eastern flank of the Eratosthenes Seamount to the west and the southern flank of the Hecataeus Rise to the north. The sediments show no deformation that could be associated with collision and are undeformed even very close to the two prominent structures. Pinching out of the Base Miocene reflector in the Levant Basin due to onlapping of the Middle Miocene reflector indicates uplift of the Eratosthenes Seamount and the Hecataeus Rise. In contrast to the Messinian Evaporites north of the Eratosthenes Seamount, the salt in the Levant Basin, even close to the Hecataeus Rise, is tectonically undeformed. It is proposed that the Eratosthenes Seamount, the western Levant Basin and the Hecataeus Rise act as one tectonic unit. This implies that the collision front is located north of this unit and that the Hecataeus Rise shields the sediments south of it from deformation associated with collision of the African and Anatolian Plates.

Klimke, Jennifer; Ehrhardt, Axel

2014-06-01

313

Macroparasite community of the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris): poor species richness and diversity.  

PubMed

The Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is the only naturally occurring tree squirrel throughout its range. We aim at improving current knowledge on its macroparasite fauna, expecting that it will have a poor parasite diversity because in species that have no sympatric congeners parasite richness should be lower than in hosts sharing their range with several closely related species, where host-switching events and lateral transmission are promoted. We examined gastro-intestinal helminth and ectoparasite communities (excluding mites) of, respectively, 147 and 311 red squirrel roadkills collected in four biogeographic regions in Italy and France. As expected, the macroparasite fauna was poor: we found five species of nematodes and some unidentified cestodes, three fleas, two sucking lice and two hard ticks. The helminth community was dominated by a single species, the oxyurid Trypanoxyuris (Rodentoxyuris) sciuri (prevalence, 87%; mean abundance, 373 ± 65 worms/host). Its abundance varied among seasons and biogeographic regions and increased with body mass in male hosts while decreased in females. The most prevalent ectoparasites were the flea Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) sciurorum (28%), whose presence was affected by season, and the generalist tick Ixodes (Ixodes) ricinus that was found only in France (34%). All the other helminths and arthropod species were rare, with prevalence below 10%. However, the first record of Strongyloides robustus, a common nematode of North American Eastern grey squirrels (S. carolinensis), in two red squirrels living in areas where this alien species co-inhabits, deserves further attention, since low parasite richness could result in native red squirrels being particularly vulnerable to parasite spillover. PMID:23873618

Romeo, Claudia; Pisanu, Benoît; Ferrari, Nicola; Basset, Franck; Tillon, Laurent; Wauters, Lucas A; Martinoli, Adriano; Saino, Nicola; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

2013-10-01

314

Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) overcome their current desires to anticipate two distinct future needs and plan for them appropriately.  

PubMed

Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present satiety to cache food they will desire in the future. Here, we show that another corvid, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), can distinguish between two distinct future desires and plan for each appropriately, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms of previous work, and suggest a way in which associative learning processes and future-oriented cognition may combine to allow prospective behaviour. PMID:22048890

Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

2012-04-23

315

Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) overcome their current desires to anticipate two distinct future needs and plan for them appropriately  

PubMed Central

Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present satiety to cache food they will desire in the future. Here, we show that another corvid, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), can distinguish between two distinct future desires and plan for each appropriately, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms of previous work, and suggest a way in which associative learning processes and future-oriented cognition may combine to allow prospective behaviour. PMID:22048890

Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

2012-01-01

316

Tuberculous sialoadenitis in a badger  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractTuberculous lesions in the skin of carnivorous species such as the mustelids have often been associated with the contamination of bite wounds inflicted during intra-species conflict (Muirhead et al., 1974; Cheeseman et al., 1988; Clifton-Hadley et al., 1993; Nolan and Wilesmith, 1994; Ragg et al., 1995; Lugton et al., 1997). A strong association between tuberculous tonsillitis and recovery of Mycobacterium

M. M. Cooke

2000-01-01

317

Ryan Badger Summer 2011 REU  

E-print Network

is then infiltrated and the CNTs are burned out leaving very small tube-like voids (pores) in the solid. These pores of this possibility would also need to be determined by researching methods used in current dialysis machines

Hart, Gus

318

Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus  

PubMed Central

Background The trade-off between current and future parental investment is often different between males and females. This difference may lead to sexual conflict between parents over care provisioning in animals that breed with multiple mates. One of the most obvious manifestations of sexual conflict over care is offspring desertion whereby one parent deserts the young to increase its reproductive success at the expense of its mate. Offspring desertion is a wide-spread behavior, and its frequency often varies within populations. We studied the consistency of offspring desertion in a small passerine bird, the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus, that has an extremely variable breeding system. Both males and females are sequentially polygamous, and a single parent (either the male or the female) incubates the eggs and rears the young. About 28–40% of offspring are abandoned by both parents, and these offspring perish. Here we investigate whether the variation in offspring desertion in a population emerges either by each individual behaving consistently between different broods, or it is driven by the environment. Results Using a three-year dataset from Southern Hungary we show that offspring desertion by females is consistent between nests. Male desertion, however, depends on ambient environment, because all males desert their nests early in the season and some of them care late in the season. Therefore, within-population variation in parental care emerges by sexually different mechanisms; between-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern of offspring desertion in females, whereas within-individual variation was responsible for the observed pattern in males. Conclusion To our knowledge, our study is the first that investigates repeatability of offspring desertion behavior in nature. The contrasting strategies of the sexes imply complex evolutionary trajectories in breeding behavior of penduline tits. Our results raise an intriguing question whether the sexual difference in caring/deserting decisions explain the extreme intensity of sexual conflict in penduline tits that produces a high frequency of biparentally deserted (and thus wasted) offspring. PMID:18761745

2008-01-01

319

Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can improve the characterization of emission locations, magnitudes and trends over sparsely monitored areas such as seas or oceans.

Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

2013-04-01

320

Role for Eurasian Arctic shelf sea ice in a secularly varying hemispheric climate signal during the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypothesized low-frequency climate signal propagating across the Northern Hemisphere through a network of synchronized climate indices was identified in previous analyses of instrumental and proxy data. The tempo of signal propagation is rationalized in terms of the multidecadal component of Atlantic Ocean variability—the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Through multivariate statistical analysis of an expanded database, we further investigate this hypothesized signal to elucidate propagation dynamics. The Eurasian Arctic Shelf-Sea Region, where sea ice is uniquely exposed to open ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as a strong contender for generating and sustaining propagation of the hemispheric signal. Ocean-ice-atmosphere coupling spawns a sequence of positive and negative feedbacks that convey persistence and quasi-oscillatory features to the signal. Further stabilizing the system are anomalies of co-varying Pacific-centered atmospheric circulations. Indirectly related to dynamics in the Eurasian Arctic, these anomalies appear to negatively feed back onto the Atlantic`s freshwater balance. Earth's rotational rate and other proxies encode traces of this signal as it makes its way across the Northern Hemisphere.

Wyatt, Marcia Glaze; Curry, Judith A.

2014-05-01

321

Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) - Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam  

PubMed Central

Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

2014-01-01

322

Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens.

Schuler, Krysten L.; Green, David E.; Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J.; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Ip, Hon S.

2012-01-01

323

Structure of the Fram Strait branch of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent mooring-based observations at several locations along the continental slope of the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin showed a transformation of the Boundary Current (BC) from a mostly barotropic flow in Fram Strait to a jet-like baroclinic current northeast of Svalbard, and the reemergence of the barotropic structure of the flow in the eastern Eurasian Basin. This transformation is accompanied by a weakening of the flow from ?24 cm/s in Fram Strait to ?5 cm/s at the Lomonosov Ridge. The maximum of the baroclinic component of the BC at an intermediate depth (?200-370 m) is associated with the Atlantic Water core. The depth range of the baroclinic current maximum is controlled by cross-slope density gradients above and below the baroclinic velocity maximum as follows from the geostrophic balance of forces. According to the model simulations, the BC splits into shallow and deep branches in the proximity of Svalbard due to a divergence of isobaths, confirming topographically-controlled BC behavior. The shallow branch is located at a shelf break with a typical bottom depth of ?200 m and current speed of up to ?24 cm/s. The discussed results, which provide insight on some basic aspects of the dynamics of the BC (the major oceanic heat source for the Arctic Ocean), may be of importance for understanding of the ocean's role in shaping the arctic climate system state.

Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Kikuchi, Takashi

2013-06-01

324

A New Experimental Infection Model in Ferrets Based on Aerosolised Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

There is significant interest in developing vaccines to control bovine tuberculosis, especially in wildlife species where this disease continues to persist in reservoir species such as the European Badger (Meles meles). However, gaining access to populations of badgers (protected under UK law) is problematic and not always possible. In this study, a new infection model has been developed in ferrets (Mustela furo), a species which is closely related to the badger. Groups of ferrets were infected using a Madison infection chamber and were examined postmortem for the presence of tuberculous lesions and to provide tissue samples for confirmation of Mycobacterium bovis by culture. An infectious dose was defined, that establishes infection within the lungs and associated lymph nodes with subsequent spread to the mesentery lymph nodes. This model, which emphasises respiratory tract infection, will be used to evaluate vaccines for the control of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species. PMID:21547237

McCallan, Lyanne; Corbett, David; Andersen, Peter L.; Aagaard, Claus; McMurray, David; Barry, Claire; Thompson, Suzan; Strain, Samuel; McNair, Jim

2011-01-01

325

A comparison between the effects of snow albedo and infiltration of melting water of Eurasian snow on East Asian summer monsoon  

E-print Network

on East Asian summer monsoon rainfall Kazuyoshi Souma1 and Yuqing Wang1 Received 3 April 2009; revised 7 amount on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall has previously been studied on the basis of both of snow albedo and infiltration of melting water of Eurasian snow on East Asian summer monsoon rainfall, J

Wang, Yuqing

326

Predicting habitat use and trophic interactions of Eurasian ruffe, round gobies, and zebra mussels in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laurentian Great Lakes have been subject to numerous introductions of nonindige- nous species, including two recent benthic fish invaders, Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) and round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus), as well as the benthic bivalve, zebra mussel (Dreis- sena polymorpha). These three exotic species, or ''exotic triad,'' may impact nearshore benthic communities due to their locally high abundances and expanding

Candice R. Bauer; Angela M. Bobeldyk; Gary A. Lamberti

2006-01-01

327

On behalf of the president of KASS, Professor Duckjoon Chang, I am delighted to announce this most recent news on our East Asian Conference on Slavic Eurasian  

E-print Network

are especially welcome: 1) Trust-Building Process on the Korean Peninsula and Eurasian Countries 2) Peace Cooperation: Dynamism and Tasks Dear Colleagues, The Korean Association of Slavic Studies (KASS) cordially-making Policies and Security Issues in East Asian Countries 3) Theory and Politics in Social Sciences

Ishii, Hitoshi

328

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east–west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of

Wei-Hua Shou; En-Fa Qiao; Chuan-Yu Wei; Yong-Li Dong; Si-Jie Tan; Hong Shi; Wen-Ru Tang; Chun-Jie Xiao; C-J Xiao

2010-01-01

329

Differences in the susceptibility of Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian common carp (Cyprinus carpio), identified by mitochondrial DNA typing, to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).  

PubMed

In 2004, a massive mortality of wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) due to CyHV-3 infection occurred in Lake Biwa. Although common carp of two different mitochondrial types (Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian) occur in the lake, the majority of the dead fish seemed to be the indigenous type. The apparent high mortality in the indigenous type implies a higher susceptibility of this type to CyHV-3. To test the hypothesis that the susceptibility of indigenous and Eurasian types differ, we performed experimental infections with CyHV-3 among 2 groups of the indigenous type, and for the Eurasian type 4 groups of domesticated common carp and 4 groups of koi carp. Fish were immersed in CyHV-3 isolate and kept at 24°C. Both groups of the indigenous type died more rapidly compared with the 8 groups of the Eurasian type. Cumulative mortality in both indigenous groups reached 95-100%, whereas the cumulative mortalities of domesticated common carp (30-95%) and koi carp (35-100%) were more varied. CyHV-3 genome in the organs of the indigenous type increased more rapidly after the viral exposure and reached higher peak levels than those of the domesticated strain. These findings revealed that susceptibility of the indigenous type of carp to CyHV-3 can be considered especially high. PMID:24690375

Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Yuasa, Kei

2014-06-25

330

Seasonal body mass changes in Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria staging in the Netherlands: decline in late autumn mass peak correlates with increase in raptor numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria staging in the Netherlands during the non- breeding season show strikingly constant seasonal changes in body mass with a first mass peak in late November and December and a second peak in late April and May. Despite huge sample sizes, variations in this pattern over successive years in the 1990s and among age classes were

Anita Koolhaas; Theunis Piersma; Joop Jukema

2003-01-01

331

Seasonal Changes in Chemical Composition of Eurasian Watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and Water Temperature at Two Sites in Northern California: Implications for Herbivory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared seasonal changes in Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L.) characteristics and water tempera- ture for a shallow pond in Davis, CA, and the Truckee River, near Tahoe City, CA. Tissue C and N were 15% lower in plants from the Truckee River than in plants from the Davis pond. Seasonal fluctuations in tissue N were also different. Mean

DAVID F. SPENCER; GREGORY G. KSANDER

332

Masha Udensiva-Brenner: Can you tell us about Russia's role in the Eurasian gas market before and after the Central Asia-  

E-print Network

Masha Udensiva-Brenner: Can you tell us about Russia's role in the Eurasian gas market before Russia's oil pipeline monopoly. But gas remained a major issue, and unlike petroleum, which can that looked like they could threaten its monopoly, without which Central Asian and Caspian countries could

Qian, Ning

333

Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2011, 52, No. 1, pp. 3055. DOI: 10.2747/1539-7216.52.1.30 Copyright 2011 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

30 Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2011, 52, No. 1, pp. 30­55. DOI: 10/Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, United States) in terms of their responses and/or susceptibilities to these various elements of change. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F500

Smith, Laurence C.

334

Contribution of agricultural and forest fires in Ukraine to impact of Eurasian burnings on Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning potentially can occur on major part of lands of Ukraine (total 57.93 million ha) and, first of all, on agricultural ones - that occupy 71% of total area of the country. Forests occupy 17.6% of the area of country, where from 2 to 4 thousands fires happens annually. Good wildfire statistics, as well as proper fire management system only for part of forest lands of Ukraine - 68% is established, in particularly, for forests that managed by State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. While other 2 million ha of forests that managed by other Ministries are out of regular fire management action, detection and protection. There are no reliable detection and accounting of wildfires, outdated or absent fire engines, lack of fire crews and facilities on most part of agricultural, grass, abandoned lands, pastures. During emergency wildfires situation in Ukraine in August 2010 only full mobilization of forest personal together with forces of internal affairs (police) for patrolling of wildfire situation nationwide allows to avoid catastrophic scenario in spite of general low preparedness and unsatisfactory technical provision of fire management on agricultural lands. That year in forest lands totally 3065 cases of fires were registered with total area burned 8916 ha (fire season 2010) and 3145 cases of wildfires on agricultural lands (August 2010). There are no reliable statistics and effective fire management system on grass and agricultural lands in Ukraine even agricultural fires burned much larger area of lands then forest fires and produce significant amount of black carbon both during spring and summer fire events. Results of analysis of wildfire cases in Ukraine at 1x1 km spatial resolution for the period 2006-2008 based on active detection of thermals anomaly by MODIS shows that annually, during the period nearly 20,000 cases of wildfires were detected. In extreme years like 2008, amount of fires doubled. Wildfires in Ukraine make important input in total Eurasian impact of biomass burning on Arctic. In particularly, the fire hazard period, characterized by highest fire activity - 30% of the total cases of detected active ignitions, occurs in the spring (March, April, May) and 55% in summer (July, August and September). Analysis of land use type of burnings shows that 93% of fires for the period occur on agricultural land and other 7% - on forest lands. Near 23% of forest fires could be ignited as a result of transfer of fires from nearest agricultural lands. Comparing of remote sensing data with official forest fire statistics of State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine shows that only 15% of the total official amount of forest fires was detected by MODIS. This is because the accordingly to statistics, average area of forest fires in Ukraine is near 1.1 ha, and large part of fires do not exceed 0.5 ha and less, while this area is lowest threshold of detection by MODIS.

Zibtsev, S.; Goldammer, J. G.; Gilitukha, D.

2012-04-01

335

Stability of permafrost and gas hydrates in Arctic coastal lowlands and on the Eurasian shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last Glacial period thick continuous permafrost developed on the Siberian coastal lowlands and large shelf areas due to the up to 120 m lower sea level and the exposure of these areas to cold temperatures. With the beginning of the Holocene transgression, complex interaction processes of sea water with the permafrost landscape occurred. The occurrence of gas hydrates captured in permafrost is a characteristic feature of the the Eurasian Arctic shelf areas, especially on the shelf of the Kara, Laptev and East Siberia seas. In some of the shelf areas oceanic rift zones stretch to the continent, as for example in the Laptev Sea area where the Gakkel Ridge continues into the land. Great differences in geothermal heat flow values and in the properties of the sediments and rocks have to be assumed in undisturbed lithosphere block and in fault zones like as in continental rifts (such as Momskii and Baikalskii rifts, etc.). As a result differences in the thickness of permafrost and the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) within these structures are expected. The thickness of permafrost and the GHSZ change essentially and irregularly in the stages of regressions and transgressions of the sea. Models show that the thickness of offshore (subsea) permafrost in the stages of climatic warming and transgressions essentially decrease however, rather irregular. The possibilities and the boundary conditions for the occurrence of open taliks, which may result in an emission of greenhouse gases from sub-permafrost gases and hydrates, have been estimated. Ice-bearing and ice-bonded permafrost in the northern regions of Arctic lowlands and in the inner shelf zone, have been preserved during at least four Pleistocene climatic and glacial-eustatic cycles. Presently, they are subjected to degradation from the bottom under the impact of geothermal heat flux as well as from interaction with warmer sea water at the top. Subsea permafrost formed on the arctic continental shelves that were inundated following the end of the last Glacial period 18,000 years ago. This inundation has increased the mean annual temperature at the sediment surface since the mean annual sea bottom water temperature is higher than the temperature of the land surface before the transgression. This increase in temperature leads to the thawing of permafrost below the seabed, which can occur as a result of temperature increase, but also due to the penetration of salt-water into the seabed, which lowers the freezing point of the sediment's pore water. Coastal and subsea permafrost are important components in the global carbon system. It contains significant amounts of methane and organic carbon, which may be released to the atmosphere during permafrost warming and degradation. Gas hydrates, and in particular methane hydrates, have been observed trapped within and below arctic permafrost. Recent observations of high methane concentrations in Siberian shelf waters may indicate a shift in release rates connected to submarine permafrost degradation.

Hubberten, H. W.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Romanovskii, N.; Wetterich, S.

2011-12-01

336

Drivers of Increasing River Discharge in the Eurasian Arctic: Consideration of Dam/Reservoir Construction, Permafrost Thaw, and Fire Frequency as Potential Agents of Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While long-term records of discharge from Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean show significant increases from the mid 1930s to present, the mechanisms driving these changes remain unclear. Increased moisture transport from lower to higher latitudes in a warming climate has been identified as one potential mechanism. Other suggested mechanisms have emphasized local factors including permafrost thaw, changes in fire frequency, and the influence of dam/reservoir construction. Here we evaluate the potential influence of these local factors on long-term changes in discharge from the 6 largest Eurasian arctic rivers. Particular attention is given to the influence of dams/reservoirs. Detailed records of dam/reservoir construction in combination with discharge data throughout the Russian monitoring network made it possible to clearly identify effects on river discharge. Dams/reservoirs have been responsible for pronounced shifts in the seasonality of discharge from the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma rivers. However, there is no evidence that dams/reservoirs were responsible for long-term increases in annual discharge. In fact, our analysis revealed that increases in annual discharge from the 6 largest Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean would have been even larger in the absence of dams constructed for reservoirs and associated water diversions. Lack of comprehensive historical data on fire and permafrost parameters in the Eurasian Arctic make conclusions about their effects on river discharge more tentative. Nonetheless, it appears unlikely that either permafrost thaw or changes in fire frequency can account for the long-term changes in river discharge. Thus, of the potential drivers considered here, increasing northward transport of moisture as a result of global warming remains the most viable for explaining the observed increases in Eurasian river discharge to the Arctic Ocean.

McClelland, J. W.; Holmes, R. M.; Peterson, B. J.; Stieglitz, M.

2003-12-01

337

Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?  

PubMed

Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans. PMID:24671829

Ostoji?, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W; Shaw, Rachael C; Cheke, Lucy G; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S

2014-03-01

338

Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.  

PubMed

Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers. PMID:20582437

Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

2010-09-01

339

Coprological study on helminth fauna in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland.  

PubMed

One hundred fecal samples were collected during research on Eurasian lynx ecology and food habits in the Polish part of the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest (BPF) from 2001 to 2006. Seventy-three percent of samples contained eggs or larvae of helminths. A total of 10 species of helminths was identified, including 3 Cestoda (Diphyllobothrium latum, Spirometra janickii, and unidentified species of Taeniidae), 1 Trematoda (Alaria alata), and 6 Nematoda (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Eucoleus aerophilus, Metastrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., and Toxocara cati). Alaria alata has not been reported previously in lynx. A statistical comparison of the 2 techniques used to isolate eggs, i.e., flotation and sedimentation, indicates that sedimentation was more effective. PMID:18576790

Szczesna, J; Popio?ek, M; Schmidt, K; Kowalczyk, R

2008-08-01

340

Fluctuating feather asymmetry in relation to corticosterone levels is sex-dependent in Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) nestlings  

PubMed Central

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been widely used as a stress-related phenotypic marker of developmental instability. However, previous studies relating FA to various stressful conditions have produced inconsistent results and we still lack quantitative individual-level evidence that high FA is related to stress in wild vertebrate species. We studied how baseline plasma levels of corticosterone predicted FA of wing and tail feathers in free-living Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) nestlings. We found a sex-specific association between corticosterone levels and FA: high corticosterone levels were related to an increased FA in male but not in female nestlings. These results suggest that in treecreepers, FA may correlate with individual stress hormone levels, male developmental trajectory being potentially more sensitive to stress than that of the female. PMID:20129951

Helle, Samuli; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

2010-01-01

341

Rapid courtship evolution in grouse (Tetraonidae): contrasting patterns of acceleration between the Eurasian and North American polygynous clades  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection is thought to be a powerful diversifying force, based on large ornamental differences between sexually dimorphic species. This assumes that unornamented phenotypes represent evolution without sexual selection. If sexual selection is more powerful than other forms of selection, then two effects would be: rapid divergence of sexually selected traits and a correlation between these divergence rates and variance in mating success in the ornamented sex. I tested for these effects in grouse (Tetraonidae). For three species pairs, within and among polygynous clades, male courtship characters had significantly greater divergence than other characters. This was most pronounced for two species in Tympanuchus. In the Eurasian polygynous clade, relative courtship divergence gradually increased with nucleotide divergence, suggesting a less dramatic acceleration. Increase in relative courtship divergence was associated with mating systems having higher variance in male mating success. These results suggest that sexual selection has accelerated courtship evolution among grouse, although the microevolutionary details appear to vary among clades. PMID:17284413

Spaulding, Allen

2007-01-01

342

Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?  

PubMed Central

Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans. PMID:24671829

Ostojic, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W.; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S.

2014-01-01

343

Lead levels in Eurasian otters decline with time and reveal interactions between sources, prevailing weather, and stream chemistry.  

PubMed

The uptake of contaminants by biota varies spatially and temporally due to a complex range of interacting environmental variables, but such complexities are typically disregarded in studies of temporal change. Here, we use linear modeling to explore spatial and temporal variation in bone Pb levels measured in samples taken from 329 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) found dead in southwest England. Between 1992 and 2004 Pb levels in otters fell by 73%, following UK legislative control of Pb emissions implemented since the mid 1980s. Spatial variation in bone Pb was positively correlated with modeled Pb emissions and stream sediment Pb, which interacted negatively with wind-speed and sediment Ca, respectively. Opportunistic collection of samples from wildlife mortalities provided a valuable opportunity for monitoring environmental contamination, interpretation of which was aided by spatially explicit analysis of environmental variables. PMID:21294545

Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Simpson, Victor R; Nicholls, Abigail E L; Slater, Frederick M

2011-03-01

344

Plant-substrate interactions and below substrate biomass dynamics: a continuation of studies concerning potential restriction of the introduced aquatic weed 'Myriophyllum spicatum' l. (Eurasian water milfoil) II  

SciTech Connect

From the study's data analysis, it was concluded that the prediction of nuisance growth of Eurasian watermilfoil depends not only on sediment phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen, but potassium levels as well. Higher water temperatures, together with non-exposure to wave action and water stream flow, likely accounts for the development of the larger standing crop of Eurasian water milfoil within the study of the Melton Hill Reservoir. Myriophyllum spicatum was collected monthly from five study sites. Whole plant samples were collected from similar bottom contour plots via SCUBA. Sediment samples were collected using a Ponar Grab, and water column measurements were taken with a YSI temperature and conductivity meter. Sediment samples were air dried and sieved. Organic matter, available phosphorus, potassium and sediment pH, and sediment nitrate were determined. Sediment texture was determined gravimetrically.

Brenkert, A.L.; Amundsen, C.C.

1982-04-01

345

Predicting habitat use and trophic interactions of Eurasian ruffe, round gobies, and zebra mussels in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laurentian Great Lakes have been subject to numerous introductions of nonindigenous species, including two recent benthic\\u000a fish invaders, Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) and round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus), as well as the benthic bivalve, zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). These three exotic species, or “exotic triad,” may impact nearshore benthic communities due to their locally high abundances\\u000a and expanding distributions. Laboratory

Candice R. Bauer; Angela M. Bobeldyk; Gary A. Lamberti

2007-01-01

346

Stages of geodynamic rearrangements of the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent in the Cenozoic: The amur river-sea of the Okhotsk region  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed in literature that the convergent boundary between the Pacific Plate and the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent permanently existed through the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. However, new data in combination with recent publications on the Sikhote Alin?Sakhalin [1?5] and the East China? Japan [6?8] regions testify to geodynamic and tectonic instability of the eastern margin

N. I. Filatova

2006-01-01

347

Comparison of adrenocortical responses to acute stress in lowland and highland Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus): similar patterns during the breeding, but different during the prebasic molt.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate most free-living avian species in both extreme and temperate environments seasonally modulate the adrenocortical responses to acute stress, and those breeding in harsh environments always express reduced adrenocortical responses, which may allow them to obtain maximal reproductive success. However, recent investigations showing a human commensal species, house sparrows (Passer domesticus), expressed similar corticosterone (CORT) responses in both benign and harsh environments. In this study, focusing on another human commensal species, Eurasian tree sparrows (P. montanus), we examined the adrenocortical response to acute stress in lowland populations, among the early and late breeding, the prebasic molt, and the wintering stages, and compared them with previously published data from populations on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results show: (1) similar to highland Eurasian tree sparrows, lowland populations show no differences in baseline CORT levels among life history stages, and the stress-induced CORT (maximal CORT, total and corrected integrated CORT) levels are lower during the early breeding and the prebasic molt stages than those in the late breeding and the wintering stages; (2) highland Eurasian tree sparrows show stronger adrenocortical responses during the prebasic molt stage than lowland populations, whereas there are no differences between the early and the breeding stages (except for maximal CORT). Our results suggest that Eurasian tree sparrows from both harsh and benign environments have similar patterns of adrenocortical responses in the breeding stage, whereas they are different in the prebasic molt stage. In highland birds, the increased maximal CORT levels during the late breeding and the small increases in adrenocortical responses during the prebasic molt are interesting but remain unexplained. PMID:21815272

Li, Dongming; Wu, Junzhe; Zhang, Xiaorui; Ma, Xiaofei; Wingfield, John C; Lei, Fumin; Wang, Gang; Wu, Yuefeng

2011-11-01

348

Eurasian-Origin Gene Segments Contribute to the Transmissibility, Aerosol Release, and Morphology of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological success of pandemic and epidemic influenza A viruses relies on the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplet (RD) transmission of influenza viruses requires efficient replication and release of infectious influenza particles into the air. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus originated by reassortment of a North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) virus with a Eurasian swine virus that contributed the neuraminidase (NA) and M gene segments. Both the TRS and Eurasian swine viruses caused sporadic infections in humans, but failed to spread from person-to-person, unlike the pH1N1 virus. We evaluated the pH1N1 and its precursor viruses in a ferret model to determine the contribution of different viral gene segments on the release of influenza virus particles into the air and on the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. We found that the Eurasian-origin gene segments contributed to efficient RD transmission of the pH1N1 virus likely by modulating the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air. All viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of infected ferrets, suggesting that factors other than viral replication are important for the release of influenza virus particles and transmission. Our studies demonstrate that the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air correlates with increased NA activity. Additionally, the pleomorphic phenotype of the pH1N1 virus is dependent upon the Eurasian-origin gene segments, suggesting a link between transmission and virus morphology. We have demonstrated that the viruses are released into exhaled air to varying degrees and a constellation of genes influences the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. PMID:22241979

Lakdawala, Seema S.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Wang, Weijia; Santos, Celia P.; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindsley, William G.; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

2011-01-01

349

Blood lead levels and ?-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl ( Bubo bubo ) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl\\u000a chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations.\\u000a However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site (“Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union”)

P. Gómez-Ramírez; E. Martínez-López; P. María-Mojica; M. León-Ortega; A. J. García-Fernández

2011-01-01

350

Genetic structure of the Far Eastern population of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope inferred from sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence variation of the 5? end of the mitochondrial DNA control region (600 bp) was examined in the population samples of\\u000a Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope from Anadyr’ and Primorye. A total of 11 different mtDNA haplotypes were identified, with one of these belonging to American\\u000a wigeon Anas americana. The presence of the mtDNA haplotype from the species closely relative to

I. V. Kulikova; Yu. N. Zhuravlev

2010-01-01

351

Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. PMID:25066418

Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

2014-09-15

352

Major, trace element, and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: Interaction of hydrous EM1-rich asthenosphere with thinned Eurasian lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraplate magmatism affected much of Indochina following the mid-Miocene cessation of South China Sea opening. Thick basalt plateaus formed on accreted terrains of varying age as extensional fractures were reactivated following the Indo-Eurasian collision. The basalts are part of a diffuse igneous province affecting much of eastern and southeastern Asia and western Pacific marginal basins. Most Indochina basalt centers comprise two eruptive episodes, an early (lower) series of high-Si0 2, low-FeO ? quartz and olivine tholeiites, tapping a relatively-refractory, lithospheric mantle-type source, and a later (upper) series of low-SiO 2, high-FeO ? olivine tholeiites, alkali basalts, and basanites, tapping a fertile, asthenospheric source. This pattern is observed elsewhere in the region (e.g., Hainan Island) and resembles several continental flood basalt provinces. While some crustal contamination is suggested, incompatible trace element and strontium, neodymium, and lead isotopic compositions reflect secular changes from the inferred lithospheric to asthenospheric reservoirs. Lower Series basalts reflect hybrids of 206Pb/204Pb- rich EM2 and N-MORB reservoirs, with high K2O/P 2O5 and low Rb/Sr and Ba/Nb ratios, consistent with the involvement of lithospheric mantle. In contrast, Upper Series basalts show lower K2O/P 2O5 and higher Rb/Sr and Ba/Nb ratios and reflect hybrids of 206Pb/204Pb- poor EM1 and N-MORB sources. These resemble anomalous (A) -MORB compositions that are typical of eastern/southeastern Asian and western Pacific marginal basin asthenosphere. Despite its resemblance to Indian Ocean (I-) MORB, A-MORB "plum-pudding" asthenosphere may be explained in terms of an endogenous Asian model whereby EM1-rich subcratonic lithosphere was entrained by asthenosphere extruded by the Indo-Eurasian collision. This model is consistent with the restriction of diffuse regional magmatism to the late Cenozoic (i.e., following tectonic extrusion), evidence for shallow, thermally-anomalous mantle, and absence of A-MORB signatures from the pre-extrusion continental mantle.

Nguyen, Hoang; Flower, Martin F. J.; Carlson, Richard W.

1996-11-01

353

Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) in three different scenarios of heavy metal exposure.  

PubMed

The main aim of the present study is the assessment of oxidative stress related to metals in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) from three areas (agricultural and rural area, industrial area, and mining area) of Murcia, Southern Spain. Mean blood metal concentrations were Cd=0.07±0.21, Pb=3.27±5.21, Cu=10.62±4.77, Zn=311.47±67.14, Hg=2.32±3.83 ?g/dl wet weight. Although individuals from the mining area had significant higher Pb and Hg concentrations, and significant lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in red blood cells (RBC); the lack of differences in oxidative damage to membrane lipids (TBARS) among areas suggests that the antioxidant capacity of the different populations is able to deal with oxidant species and maintain TBARS levels in the same amount. Despite the low levels of metals, several oxidative stress biomarkers were correlated with metal concentrations. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals cause effects on the antioxidant system in Eagle owls. Blood Cd concentrations greater than 0.3 ?g/dl produced an inhibition in GPx (32%) and CAT (26%) activity in RBC. However, Cd concentrations higher than 0.02 ?g/dl were enough to produce an inhibition of these enzymes. Regarding Pb levels, blood concentrations above 2 ?g/dl produced an inhibition of 8% and 10.5% in GPx and CAT activities, respectively, in RBC. A depletion of 16% and 4% in tGSH levels was associated with Pb concentrations higher than 15 and 3 ?g/dl, respectively, in individuals from the ancient mine site. In addition, Pb concentrations above 2 and 10 ?g/dl produced a TBARS induction of 10% and 28%, respectively, in individuals from both the industrial and the mining area. Finally, Hg concentrations greater than 3 and 10 ?g/dl resulted in a TBARS induction of 102% and 190%, respectively, in Eurasian eagle owls from the industrial area. Our findings show that Pb may produce effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in Strigiformes at lower concentrations than those typically accepted for considering physiological effects in Falconiformes (20 µg/dl in blood). In addition, we provide new data on Hg and Cd concentrations related to effects in the antioxidant system. PMID:24721131

Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; León-Ortega, Mario; Martínez, José Enrique; García-Fernández, Antonio Juan

2014-05-01

354

Sensory and textural attributes and fatty acid profiles of fillets of extensively and intensively farmed Eurasian perch (Percafluviatilis L.).  

PubMed

Sensory attributes, texture and fatty acid profiles of fillets of Eurasian perch (Percafluviatilis L.) reared under two conditions were compared. Perch were reared either in an extensive pond-based (EC) system in polyculture with carp, or intensively cultured (IC) in a recirculation system. Attributes of raw and cooked fillets of marketable perch (120-150g) were compared. No significant differences were found between groups for odour, flavour, aftertaste, or consistency in subjective evaluation of cooked fillets. The texture profile analysis (TPA) showed raw fillets from the EC group to exhibit higher values of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess than the IC group. Fish from the IC group had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in comparison to EC perch. The proportion of iso- and anteiso-SFAs was 2.6% in the EC group and 0.75% in the IC group. The content of n-3 PUFA was lower in IC than in EC, while the content of n-6 PUFA was higher in IC than in EC. The ratio of n-3:n-6 PUFA was 1.42 for the IC group and 2.85 for the EC group. PMID:25212336

Stejskal, V; Vejsada, P; Cepak, M; Spi?ka, J; Vacha, F; Kouril, J; Policar, T

2011-12-01

355

The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.  

PubMed

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-09-01

356

Histochemical investigations on the secretory cells in the oesophagogastric tract of the Eurasian green toad, Bufo viridis.  

PubMed

The secretory cells of the oesophagogastric tract of the Eurasian toad, Bufo viridis, were examined using standard histochemical methods and lectin histochemistry. Two goblet cell types were found in the oesophageal epithelium, differing in their morphology and the histochemical features of the secretory granules. These contained mainly acidic glycoconjugates, both sulphated and carboxylated, and a small amount of pepsinogen. Type I goblet cells contained stable class-III mucosubstances, which were absent in Type II. No pluricellular oesophageal glands were found. The oesophagogastric junction had a superficial epithelium similar to that of the oesophageal epithelium, with alveolar pluricellular glands, secreting stable class-III mucins, and few oxynticopeptic cells. The gastric mucosa presented secretory cells both in the surface epithelium and in the gastric glands. Superficial and foveolar cells produced neutral mucins with Gal(beta)1,3GalNAc residues. Neck cells, oxynticopeptic cells and endocrine cells were found in the gastric glands. Neck cells produced stable class-III mucosubstances. A functional gradient was observed in the oxynticopeptic cells from the oral to the aboral fundus, with a decrease in pepsinogen secretion towards the aboral fundus and a possible increase in HCl secretion. In the pyloric mucosa, the oxynticopeptic cells disappeared and the glands produced only neutral mucins, without stable class-III mucosubstances. PMID:12945734

Liquori, Giuseppa E; Scillitani, Giovanni; Mastrodonato, Maria; Ferri, Domenico

2002-10-01

357

Intrageneric diversity of the cytochrome B gene and phylogeny of eurasian species of the genus mustela (mustelidae, carnivora).  

PubMed

To illuminate molecular phylogenetic relationships among Eurasian species of the genus Mustela (Mustelidae, Carnivora), we determined nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region (1,140 base pairs). Molecular phylogenetic trees, constructed using the neighbor-joining and the maximum likelihood methods, showed the common topology of species relationships to each other. The American mink M. vison first branched off and was positioned very remotely from the other species of Mustela. Excluding M. vison, the ermine M. erminea first split from the rest of the species. Two small body-sized weasels, the least weasel M. nivalis and the mountain weasel M. altaica, comprised one cluster (named "the small weasel group"). The other species formed another cluster, where the remarkably close relationships among the domestic ferret M. furo, the European polecat M. putorius, and the steppe polecat M. eversmanni were noticed with 87-94% bootstrap values (named "the ferret group"), supporting the history that the ferret was domesticated from M. putorius and/or M. eversmanni. The European mink M. lutreola was the closest to the ferret group. The genetic distance between the Siberian weasel M. sibirica and the Japanese weasel M. itatsi corresponded to differences of interspecific level, while the two species were relatively close to M. lutreola and the ferret group. These results provide invaluable insight for understanding the evolution of Mustela as well as for investigating the hybridization status between native and introduced species for conservation. PMID:18517304

Kurose, N; Abramov, A V; Masuda, R

2000-07-01

358

Effect of incubation on bacterial communities of eggshells in a temperate bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica).  

PubMed

Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica). We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent) bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce. PMID:25089821

Lee, Won Young; Kim, Mincheol; Jablonski, Piotr G; Choe, Jae Chun; Lee, Sang-im

2014-01-01

359

The emerging tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs.  

PubMed Central

Variation in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is now routinely described and used to infer the histories of peoples, by means of one of two procedures, namely, the assaying of RFLPs throughout the genome and the sequencing of parts of the control region (CR). Using 95 samples from the Near East and northwest Caucasus, we present an analysis based on both systems, demonstrate their concordance, and, using additional available information, present the most refined phylogeny to date of west Eurasian mtDNA. We describe and apply a nomenclature for mtDNA clusters. Hypervariable nucleotides are identified, and the relative mutation rates of the two systems are evaluated. We point out where ambiguities remain. The identification of signature mutations for each cluster leads us to apply a hierarchical scheme for determining the cluster composition of a sample of Berber speakers, previously analyzed only for CR variation. We show that the main indigenous North African cluster is a sister group to the most ancient cluster of European mtDNAs, from which it diverged approximately 50,000 years ago. PMID:9915963

Macaulay, V; Richards, M; Hickey, E; Vega, E; Cruciani, F; Guida, V; Scozzari, R; Bonné-Tamir, B; Sykes, B; Torroni, A

1999-01-01

360

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

361

Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.  

PubMed Central

Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year. PMID:12061951

Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

2002-01-01

362

Organochlorine residues in blood of cinereous vultures and Eurasian griffon vultures in a northeastern Mediterranean area of nature conservation.  

PubMed

In the National Park of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest (Dadia NP, Greece), seven "target" PCBs and 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCs) were analysed in blood samples of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) and Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus). PCB congeners 138, 153 and 180 predominated in both species' blood samples. In both species, no differences were detected in congener levels between successive age classes, but in cinereous vulture, there were significant differences between adult and nestling in levels of PCB 28, 52, 101, 118 and between nestling and immature in levels of PCB 101. Regarding pesticides, p,p'-DDE dominated in both vultures followed by ?-HCH, lindane and endosulfan sulphate, but ?OCs were higher in griffon vulture. Significant differences were detected only between nestling and sub-adult cinereous vultures in heptachlor levels and between nestling and adult in p,p'-DDT. The origin of pollutants differs between the two vulture species and pollution patterns may not reflect those at Dadia NP. PMID:21336480

Goutner, Vassilis; Skartsi, Theodora; Konstantinou, Ioannis K; Sakellarides, Theophanes M; Albanis, Triantafyllos A; Vasilakis, Dimitrios; Elorriaga, Javier; Poirazidis, Kostas

2011-12-01

363

Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37-0.47 and 0.14-0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

2013-11-01

364

Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37–0.47 and 0.14–0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

2013-01-01

365

Population susceptibility to North American and Eurasian swine influenza viruses in England, at three time points between 2004 and 2011.  

PubMed

Age-stratified sera collected in 2004, 2008 and 2010 in England were evaluated for antibody to swine influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) viruses from the United States or Europe as a measure of population susceptibility to the emergence of novel viruses. Children under 11 years of age had little or no measurable antibody to recent swine H3N2 viruses despite their high levels of antibody to recent H3N2 seasonal human strains. Adolescents and young adults (born 1968–1999) had higher antibody levels to swine H3N2 viruses. Antibody levels to swine H3N2 influenza show little correlation with exposure to recent seasonal H3N2 (A/Perth/16/2009) strains, but with antibody to older H3N2 strains represented by A/Wuhan/359/1995. Children had the highest seropositivity to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, and young adults had the lowest antibody levels to A/Perth/16/2009. No age group showed substantial antibody levels to A/Aragon/RR3218/2008, a European swine H1N1 virus belonging to the Eurasian lineage. After vaccination with contemporary trivalent vaccine we observed evidence of boosted reactivity to swine H3N2 viruses in children and adults, while only a limited boosting effect on antibody levels to A/Aragon/RR3218/2008 was observed in both groups. Overall, our results suggest that different vaccination strategies may be necessary according to age if swine viruses emerge as a significant pandemic threat. PMID:24079379

Hoschler, K; Thompson, C; Casas, I; Ellis, J; Galiano, M; Andrews, N; Zambon, M

2013-01-01

366

Complete mitochondrial DNA analysis of eastern Eurasian haplogroups rarely found in populations of northern Asia and eastern Europe.  

PubMed

With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin. PMID:22363811

Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

2012-01-01

367

X-chromosome as a marker for population history: linkage disequilibrium and haplotype study in Eurasian populations  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium structure is still unpredictable because the interplay of regional recombination rate and demographic history is poorly understood. We have compared the distribution of LD across two genomic regions differing in crossing-over activity – Xq13 (0.166 cM/Mb) and Xp22 (1.3 cM/Mb) – in 15 Eurasian populations. Demographic events predicted to increase the LD level – genetic drift, bottleneck and admixture – had a very strong impact on extent and patterns of regional LD across Xq13 compared to Xp22. The haplotype distribution of the DXS1225-DXS8082 microsatellites from Xq13 exhibiting strong association in all populations was remarkably influenced by population history. European populations shared one common haplotype with a frequency of 25-40%. The Volga-Ural populations studied, living at the geographic borderline of Europe, showed elevated LD as well as harboring a significant fraction of haplotypes originating from East Asia, thus reflecting their past migrations and admixture. In the young Kuusamo isolate from Finland, a bottleneck has led to allelic associations between loci and shifted the haplotype distribution, but has much less affected single microsatellite allele frequencies compared to the main Finnish population. The data show that the footprint of a demographic event is longer preserved in haplotype distribution within a region of low crossing-over rate, than in the information content of a single marker, or between actively recombining markers. As the knowledge of LD patterns is often chosen to assist association mapping of common disease, our conclusions emphasise the importance of understanding the history, structure and variation of a study population. PMID:15657606

Laan, Maris; Wiebe, Victor; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Remm, Maido; Paabo, Svante

2005-01-01

368

A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

2013-01-01

369

Use of water exchange information to improve chemical control of eurasian watermilfoil in Pacific Northwest rivers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The submersed plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), continues to adversely impact areas in the high water exchange environment of the Columbia River system. Studies designed to characterize water movement and to evaluate a slow release matrix device (SRMD) for improving the chemical control of that target plant were conducted in the Pend Oreille and Columbia Rivers, Washington, in August 1990. A series of rhodamine WT dye treatments were applied (using conventional, liquid application techniques) to 4-ha plots representing milfoil-dominated riverine and cove sites to estimate potential herbicide contact time. In addition, dye-impregnated SRMDs were deployed in 0.4-ha plots and evaluated for their potential as slow-release herbicide carriers. Dye dissipation data were used to calculate water-exchange half-lives in plots treated with conventional application techniques. Mean half-lives ranged from 8.8 to 12.2 hr in riverine plots, to 36.3 hr in a plot situated in a protected embayment. Half-lives from these 4-ha plots were two to four times longer than half-lives measured in smaller plots (0.4 ha) from previous dye studies conducted in similar locations. In most cases, dye release rates from SRMDs provided water concentrations near the target level of 10 micrograms/L through 7 days after deployment (DAD). Dye concentrations peaked at 105 to 130 micrograms/L at 2 DAD in Plot I (main channel plot) and 4.5 to 82 micrograms/L at I DAD in Plot 2 (side channel plot).

Getsinger, K.D.; Sisneros, D.; Tumer, E.G.

1993-01-01

370

Regional differences in the distribution of the sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian mtDNA lineages in Yemen.  

PubMed

Despite its key location for population movements out of and back into Africa, Yemen has not yet been sampled on a regional level for an investigation of sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian genetic contributions. In this study, we present mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data for regionally distinct Yemeni populations that reveal different distributions of mtDNA lineages. An extensive database of mtDNA sequences from North and East African, Middle Eastern and Indian populations was analyzed to provide a context for the regional Yemeni mtDNA datasets. The groups of western Yemen appear to be most closely related to Middle Eastern and North African populations, while the eastern Yemeni population from Hadramawt is most closely related to East Africa. Furthermore, haplotype matches with Africa are almost exclusively confined to West Eurasian R0a haplogroup in southwestern Yemen, although more sub-Saharan L-type matches appear in more northern Yemeni populations. In fact, Yemeni populations have the highest frequency of R0a haplotypes detected to date, thus Yemen or southern Arabia may be the site of the initial expansion of this haplogroup. Whereas two variants of the sub-Saharan haplogroup M1 were detected only in southwestern Yemen close to the Bab el-Mandeb Strait, different non-African M haplotypes were detected at low frequencies (approximately 2%) in western parts of the country and at a higher frequency (7.5%) in the Hadramawt. We conclude that the Yemeni gene pool is highly stratified both regionally and temporally and that it has received West Eurasian, Northeast African, and South Asian gene flow. PMID:18257024

Cerný, Viktor; Mulligan, Connie J; Rídl, Jakub; Zaloudková, Martina; Edens, Christopher M; Hájek, Martin; Pereira, Luísa

2008-06-01

371

Genomic analyses detect Eurasian-lineage H10 and additional H14 influenza A viruses recovered from waterfowl in the Central United States  

PubMed Central

The accurate and timely characterization of influenza A viruses (IAV) from natural reservoirs is essential for responses to animal and public health threats. Differences between antigenic and genetic subtyping results for 161 IAV isolates recovered from migratory birds in the central United States during 2010–2011 delayed the recognition of four isolates of interest. Genomic sequencing identified the first reported Eurasian-origin H10 subtype in North America and three additional H14 isolates showing divergence from previously reported H14 isolates. Genomic analyses revealed additional diversity among IAV isolates not detected by antigenic subtyping and provided further insight into interhemispheric spread of avian-origin IAVs. PMID:24698181

Fries, Anthony C; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Bowman, Andrew S; Killian, Mary L; Wentworth, David E; Slemons, Richard D

2014-01-01

372

Evaluation of DNA damage in Eurasian marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) by comet assay for determination of possible pollution in the different lakes in central Anatolia, Turkey.  

PubMed

In the present study, adult Eurasian marsh frogs, Pelophylax ridibundus, and water samples were collected from a reference lake and three water bodies in central Anatolia, Turkey, to evaluate the water for chemical pollutants and possible effects of pollutants on the DNA of frog erythrocytes by using a comet assay. The results for DNA damage parameters of the comet assay (total comet length, tail intensity, and olive tail moment) and their statistical analysis by ANOVA demonstrated that P. ridibundus and the comet assay together represent an useful approach for the early detection of polluted water bodies. PMID:23563591

Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Ci?erci, ?brahim Hakki; Konuk, Muhsin

2013-06-01

373

Phylogeographical lineages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in North America: divergence, origins and affinities with Eurasian Thymallus.  

PubMed

The number and location of Arctic glacial refugia utilized by taxa during the Pleistocene are continuing uncertainties in Holarctic phylogeography. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are widely distributed in freshwaters from the eastern side of Hudson Bay (Canada) west to central Asia. We studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA variation in North American T. arcticus to test for genetic signatures of survival in, and postglacial dispersal from, multiple glacial refugia, and to assess their evolutionary affinities with Eurasian Thymallus. In samples from 32 localities, we resolved 12 mtDNA haplotypes belonging to three assemblages that differed from each other in sequence by between 0.75 and 2.13%: a 'South Beringia' lineage found from western Alaska to northern British Columbia, Canada; a 'North Beringia' lineage found on the north slope of Alaska, the lower Mackenzie River, and to eastern Saskatchewan; and a 'Nahanni' lineage confined to the Nahanni River area of the upper Mackenzie River drainage. Sequence analysis of a portion of the control region indicated monophyly of all North American T. arcticus and their probable origin from eastern Siberian T. arcticus at least 3 Mya. Arctic grayling sampled from 25 localities displayed low allelic diversity and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) across five microsatellite loci (means of 2.1 alleles and 0.27 H(E), respectively) and there were declines in these measures of genetic diversity with distance eastward from the lower Yukon River Valley. Assemblages defined by mtDNA divergences were less apparent at microsatellite loci, but again the Nahanni lineage was the most distinctive. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that between 24% (microsatellite DNA) and 81% (mtDNA) of the variance was attributable to differences among South Beringia, North Beringia and Nahanni lineages. Our data suggest that extant North American Arctic grayling are more diverse phylogeographically than previously suspected and that they consist of at least three major lineages that originated in distinct Pleistocene glacial refugia. T. arcticus probably originated and dispersed from Eurasia to North America in the late to mid-Pliocene, but our data also suggest more recent (mid-late Pleistocene) interactions between lineages across Beringia. PMID:15140096

Stamford, M D; Taylor, E B

2004-06-01

374

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores.

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2011-01-01

375

Impacts of the Indian Ocean Dipole on climate variations in the southern part of the Eurasian Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in 1999, various regional climate variations have been identified as outcomes of IOD rather than El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, based on recent studies, we show two typical examples in the southern part of the Eurasian Continent. Using reanalysis data and snow cover data derived from satellite observations, respective influences of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Tibetan snow cover in early winter are investigated. It is found that the snow cover shows a significant positive partial correlation with IOD. In the pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrences of El Nino, negative geopotential height anomalies north of India are associated with warm and humid southwesterlies to enter the plateau from the Bay of Bengal after rounding cyclonically and supply more moisture. This leads to more precipitation, more snow cover, and resultant lower surface temperature over the plateau. These negative geopotential height anomalies north of India are related to the equivalent barotropic stationary Rossby waves in the South Asian wave guide. The waves can be generated by the IOD-related convection anomalies over the western/central Indian Ocean. Using monthly data during 1974-2005 from 183 meteorological stations in the southern part of Iran, the interannual variation of precipitation are also examined. The precipitation in this region occurs during the rainy season from October to May. The interannual variation in fall and early winter during the first part of the rainy season shows an apparently significant positive correlation with both IOD and ENSO. However, a partial correlation analysis used to extract the respective influence of IOD and ENSO shows a significant positive correlation only with the IOD and not with ENSO. The southeasterly moisture flux anomaly over the Arabian Sea turns anticyclonically and transport more moisture to the southern part of Iran from the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf during the positive IOD. During the latter part of the rainy season in late winter and spring, however, the interannual variation of precipitation is more strongly influenced by modes of variability over the Mediterranean Sea. The induced largescale atmospheric circulation anomaly controls moisture supply from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Identification of the true cause of regional climate variations is very important for societal applications of climate forecast information.

Yamagata, T.; Pourasghar, F.; Tozuka, T.; Yuan, C.

2012-12-01

376

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates.  

PubMed

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores. PMID:21080153

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2011-01-01

377

Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.  

PubMed

Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum, their ability to serve as vectors of M. bovis, and their propensity to ingest contaminated sources of M. bovis requires additional research in Michigan, USA. PMID:23531427

Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

2013-07-01

378

Eurasians: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing rates of out-marriages among the Asian communities indicate the Asian-American's acceptance by the dominant American culture while posing a potential social problem for their children. Given two divergent cultures the children face conflicts over cultural values accepted and cultural communities embraced. Some of these possible…

Moritsugu, John; And Others

379

ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 284291. Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009. Original Russian Text E.V. Shein, 2009, published in Pochvovedenie, 2009, No. 3, pp. 309317.  

E-print Network

284 ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 284­291. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009. Original Russian Text © E.V. Shein, 2009, published in Pochvovedenie, 2009, No. 3, pp. 309 application in many fields of soil science and in neighboring sciences. Any quantita- tive characterization

Ahmad, Sajjad

380

Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian ( Lynx lynx), the Iberian ( L. pardinus), the Canada lynx ( L. canadensis) and the bobcat ( L. rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal

M. Dehnhard; K. Fanson; A. Frank; S. V. Naidenko; A. Vargas; K. Jewgenow

2010-01-01

381

Combined Analysis of Land Cover Change and NDVI Trends in the Northern Eurasian Grain Belt and the Aral Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional environmental change can be assessed using remote sensing in two ways: by looking for trends in image time series in terms of spectral indices, like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), or through post-classification change analysis to identify land cover change (LCC). Here we demonstrate the efficacy of combined trend-LCC analysis using the Northern Eurasian grain belt (NEGB) and Aral Basin (AB) as examples. NDVI time series from 2001-2008 were derived from 500m MODIS NBAR 8-d composites spanning the growing season from March to October of each year. LCC analysis was based on the 500m MODIS Global Land Cover product for the years 2001 and 2008. Seasonal Kendall trend tests showed, on a per-pixel basis, that statistically significant (p<0.05) NDVI trends were largely negative, with declining seasonal NDVI covering 57% of the NEGB’s land area and 15% of the AB. Among pixels exhibiting negative NDVI trends, we found elevated LCC rates (relative to pixels exhibiting no trend) from: (1) cropland mosaic to pure cropland in the northern portion of the NEGB, largely in Russia (RU); (2) cropland to grassland in the southern portion of the NEGB, largely in Kazakhstan (KZ); (3) cropland to grassland, and shrub to grassland, in the AB. Statistically significant (p<0.05) positive NDVI trends were rare, covering less than 1% of the NEGB and AB. Among pixels exhibiting positive NDVI trends, we found elevated LCC rates from: (1) cropland to cropland mosaic in relatively small clusters of pixels in the northern NEGB, mostly in RU; (2) grassland to cropland in the southern NEGB, largely in KZ, and also in small clusters; (3) grassland to cropland (largely along the Amu Darya river), in addition to more widespread conversion of grassland and barren classes to shrub, in the AB. In the NEGB, the overall direction of regional change was toward agricultural de-intensification in KZ, likely reflecting persistent drought, in contrast with agricultural intensification in RU - perhaps due to overriding effects of socioeconomic forces, relative to climatic drivers, on land use decisions in RU. In the AB, we find agricultural intensification (grassland to cropland conversion) associated with positive NDVI trends; concentration of positive trends along the Amu Darya in Karakalpakstan suggests an expansion of irrigation. We also find both shrub decline and shrub encroachment in the AB, with likely effects on ecosystem function reflected in negative NDVI trends (declining GPP) where shrubs are declining and positive NDVI trends (increasing GPP) where shrubs are increasing. In sum, LCC analysis complements NDVI trend analyses. LCC analysis focuses on discrete, abrupt, and principally human-caused change. NDVI trend analysis is better suited to identifying continuous, gradual change, primarily driven by climatic conditions. However, land surface changes are both discrete and continuous, depending on perspective, and can be mutually reinforcing. Here we find that LCC results inform our interpretation of NDVI trends and vice versa. Each analysis, alone, provides an incomplete picture of the complexities of land surface change.

Wright, C. K.; Henebry, G. M.

2010-12-01

382

Strike-slip fault system in the Earth's crust of the Bering Sea: A relic of boundary between the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study based on computation of D-function anomalies (method of joint gravity and magnetic data analysis) along profiles in the Bering Sea has been performed in both the Aleutian Basin with oceanic crust and the Bering continental shelf. This study revealed extended faults that affect not only the Earth's crust but also the upper mantle. This is supported by seismic profiling. The calculated palinspastic reconstructions of the position of North America relative to "immobile" Eurasia 80, 52-50, 50-47, and 15-20 Ma ago allowed us to show that the revealed strike-slip faults are probable relics of an echeloned transform boundary between the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates. The formation of this boundary beginning from the Late Cretaceous was apparently related to opening of the North Atalantic, which determined the large rate of displacement of North America relative to Eurasia.

Chekhovich, V. D.; Sheremet, O. G.; Kononov, M. V.

2014-07-01

383

[Genetic structure of the Far Eastern population of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope inferred from sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region].  

PubMed

Sequence variation of the 5' end of the mitochondrial DNA control region (600 bp) was examined in the population samples of Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope from Anadyr' and Primorye. A total of 11 different mtDNA haplotypes were identified, with one of these belonging to American wigeon Anas americana. The presence of the mtDNA haplotype from the species closely relative to A. penelope in the Anadyr' sample can be considered as the genetic evidence in favor of interspecific hybridization. This suggestion is in the good agreement with ornithological data. Genetic differentiation of the Primorye and Anadyr' populations was low (phi(ST) = 0.096). The phylogeographic structure was not pronounced. PMID:20873206

Kulikova, I V; Zhuravlev, Iu N

2010-08-01

384

Persistence of 2,4-D and its effects on benthic macroinvertebrates following spring treatment of Eurasian Watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum L. in two lakes in southeastern Wisconsin, USA.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the persistence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) applied to two lakes (one mesotrophic and one eutrophic) for the control of Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM), and to determine the impacts of 2,4-D on benthic macroinvertebrates in one of the lakes. One lake was treated with a liquid formulation, and the other with a slow release granular formulation of 2,4-D. Concentrations of 2,4-D in the water column were highest 1 and 2 days post-treatment and declined to below detection limits by 7 and 10 days post-treatment. We observed negative correlations between days post-treatment and taxa richness, and between days post-treatment and abundance of three of 12 taxonomic groups of macroinvertebrates. Lake managers need to balance control of EWM with possible impacts of 2,4-D to nontarget organisms. PMID:24458246

Harrahy, E A; Edwards, D S; Hedman, C J

2014-04-01

385

Glenn NP Nowak 10426 Badger Ravine Street  

E-print Network

($30,000 + $44,000) o Studio of fifteen students having advanced 3D scanning and 3D printing costs Award Nominee 2011 · School of Architecture Robert Fielden Faculty of the Year Award Recipient 2009 Outstanding Faculty of the Year Nominee (2010) EXPERIENCE Assistant Professor Aug 2007 ­ present UNLV, School

Hemmers, Oliver

386

Observations of water masses and circulation with focus on the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies). The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY). Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the water to the Atlantic layer in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream, north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, suggesting a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600-800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending, saline boundary plumes may also contribute to the warming of the deeper layers.

Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Björk, G.; Korhonen, M.; Pisarev, S.; Rabe, B.; Wisotzki, A.

2013-02-01

387

Observations of water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modelling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies). The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY). Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the Atlantic layer that is found in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the Northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, implying a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600-800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending boundary plumes may also contribute to the warming of the deeper layers.

Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Björk, G.; Korhonen, M.; Pisarev, S.; Rabe, B.; Wisotzki, A.

2012-08-01

388

Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18%?per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently £74 million. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10?397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is ?2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur. PMID:16543179

Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G. Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

2005-01-01

389

Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. PMID:23611846

Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2013-01-01

390

Reassortment of American and Eurasian genes in an influenza A virus isolated from a great black-backed gull ( Larus marinus ), a species demonstrated to move between these regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary hosts for influenza A viruses are waterfowl, although gulls and shorebirds are also important in global avian\\u000a influenza dynamics. Avian influenza virus genes are separated phylogenetically into two geographic clades, American and Eurasian,\\u000a which is caused by the geographic separation of the host species between these two regions. We surveyed a gregarious and cosmopolitan\\u000a species, the Great Black-backed

Michelle Wille; Gregory J. Robertson; Hugh Whitney; Davor Ojkic; Andrew S. Lang

2011-01-01

391

Haku Mele O Hawaii (Poet of Hawaii), Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proving the efficacy of Hawaii's Poets-in-the-Schools program, this collection of descriptive statements by some of Hawaii's leading poets and teachers of poetry, and accompanied by illustrative poems produced by classroom pupils, describes the theories that were generally accepted as a working basis and the related methods each writer used in the…

Garrett, Caroline, Ed.

392

234Th-derived surface export fluxes of POC from the Northern Barents Sea and the Eurasian sector of the Central Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Settling-based surface ocean export of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the western Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean was investigated from the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the northern Barents Sea to the North Pole area. Upper ocean profiles of POC were combined with corresponding dissolved and particulate 234Th activities measured with a low-volume at-sea direct beta counting protocol to constrain the 234Th-derived POC export in July and August of 2001 to 6-32 mmol m-2 d-1 for the Barents Sea MIZ dropping to 2-6 mmol m-2 d-1 for multi-year-ice (MYI) covered central Arctic stations in Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins. Secular equilibrium between 234Th and 238U activities in intermediate to deep waters in the Amundsen Basin (n=10) demonstrated that the at-sea measurement protocol was functioning satisfactorily. There was no distinction in POC export efficiency between the MIZ and the MYI-covered interior basins with an average ratio between 234Th-derived POC export and primary production (so-called ThE ratio) of 44%. A projected increase in primary production with retreat in areal extent of sea ice is thus likely to yield increased POC sequestration in the Arctic Ocean interior.

Gustafsson, Örjan; Andersson, Per S.

2012-10-01

393

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.  

PubMed

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak. PMID:20414255

Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie

2010-05-01

394

Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, heavy metals and anticoagulant rodenticides in tissues of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from upper Loire River catchment (France).  

PubMed

In this study, tissues of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from a naturally expanding population along upper Loire River (France) catchment were used for contaminants analyses. nine organochlorine pesticides, 16 PCB congeners, five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and arsenic) and three anticoagulant rodenticides were quantified in livers of road-traffic killed otters. Organochlorine compounds and heavy metals were found in 100% of the samples, and occasional contamination by anticoagulant rodenticides was confirmed. Total organochlorine pesticides reached a maximum of 9.4 mg kg(-1) lipid weight. Higher data were observed for other contaminants, especially total PCBs and mercury. Maximal total PCBs values reached 64.8 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, and maximal measured mercury concentration was 8.2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight. Considering the expansion noted in the study area, global contamination does not seem to threat the short-term species conservation. Nevertheless, important values at some individual scale were noticed, suggesting high inter-individual variations in populations. PMID:20594572

Lemarchand, Charles; Rosoux, René; Berny, Philippe

2010-08-01

395

Oral re-vaccination of Eurasian wild boar with Mycobacterium bovis BCG yields a strong protective response against challenge with a field strain  

PubMed Central

Background Field vaccination trials with Mycobacterium bovis BCG, an attenuated mutant of M. bovis, are ongoing in Spain, where the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is regarded as the main driver of animal tuberculosis (TB). The oral baiting strategy consists in deploying vaccine baits twice each summer, in order to gain access to a high proportion of wild boar piglets. The aim of this study was to assess the response of wild boar to re-vaccination with BCG and to subsequent challenge with an M. bovis field strain. Results BCG re-vaccinated wild boar showed reductions of 75.8% in lesion score and 66.9% in culture score, as compared to unvaccinated controls. Only one of nine vaccinated wild boar had a culture-confirmed lung infection, as compared to seven of eight controls. Serum antibody levels were highly variable and did not differ significantly between BCG re-vaccinated wild boar and controls. Gamma IFN levels differed significantly between BCG re-vaccinated wild boar and controls. The mRNA levels for IL-1b, C3 and MUT were significantly higher in vaccinated wild boar when compared to controls after vaccination and decreased after mycobacterial challenge. Conclusions Oral re-vaccination of wild boar with BCG yields a strong protective response against challenge with a field strain. Moreover, re-vaccination of wild boar with BCG is not counterproductive. These findings are relevant given that re-vaccination is likely to happen under real (field) conditions. PMID:24766746

2014-01-01

396

Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel.  

PubMed

The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area. PMID:20234393

Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vasíková, Alzbeta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

2010-08-01

397

Trends in Land Surface Phenologies Across Central Asia and the Central Eurasian Grain Belt as Viewed From MODIS Collection 5 NBAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 precipitated a multitude of institutional changes, including the disestablishment of a centrally-planned agricultural sector. Our previous work with AVHRR data has shown that among the environmental consequences were significant shifts in land surface phenologies (LSPs) across Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Here we explored trends in LSPs across Central Asia and the central Eurasian Grain Belt that stretches westward across northern Kazakhstan and southern Russia into eastern Ukraine. We used the recently released of MODIS Collection 5 Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) product and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4, a monthly 0.5 degree product. We characterized trends from 2000-2007 using the nonparametric seasonal Mann- Kendall trend test on a per-pixel basis, thereby generating surfaces of per-pixel trend estimates with corresponding estimates of model uncertainty at each pixel. In the Pontic Steppe ecoregion of northwestern Kazakhstan, a region characterized by temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, we found spatially coherent, highly significant (p<0.01) negative trends in MODIS NDVI. This appears to be driven by regional drought, and visual inspection of Landsat TM imagery from the study area indicates drying of relatively abundant depressional wetlands accompanied by a number of large fires over the period of interest. In the neighboring Kazakh Steppe ecoregion, a landscape dominated by small-grain production, we find similar, but noisier negative trends (typically p<0.05), likely reflecting a combination of drought and highly heterogeneous land use practices. By contrast, in the Central Asian Southern Desert ecoregion of Uzbekistan, we find highly significant (p<0.01) positive trends in NDVI from 2000-2007. These xeric shrublands are nearly entirely dependent on winter and spring precipitation for water inputs. GPCC trends indicate in some regions that changes in precipitation may be partly responsible for observed changes in LSPs, but it is clear that land use change is also a factor.

Wright, C. R.; Henebry, G. M.; Kovalskyy, V.; de Beurs, K. M.

2008-12-01

398

Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains unresolved, and the systematic position of some segregates of EA Aster requires further study. PMID:22517812

Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

2012-01-01

399

Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.  

PubMed

Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing <0.5 m. We deduce that temperature influences beavers at the landscape scale via effects on spring green-up phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and topography on forage growth are instructive, and consequently warrant examination when developing conservation management strategies for populations of medium to large herbivores. PMID:23504905

Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

2013-04-01

400

Land-bridge calibration of molecular clocks and the post-glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian field vole Microtus agrestis.  

PubMed

Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole (Microtus agrestis) mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient) DNA (including that of a congeneric species) suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration. PMID:25111840

Herman, Jeremy S; McDevitt, Allan D; Kawa?ko, Agata; Jaarola, Maarit; Wójcik, Jan M; Searle, Jeremy B

2014-01-01

401

Stress responses of testosterone and corticosterone-binding globulin in a multi-brooded species, Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus): Does CBG function as a mediator?  

PubMed

In avian plasma, testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT) compete to bind with corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG). Elevation of CBG may function to "buffer" the tissues against high circulating levels of T and stress-induced levels of CORT. To demonstrate the effects of acute stress on CBG and T levels and their biological functions, we investigated seasonal changes of baseline and stress-induced T and CBG levels in Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) during different life stages using the capture-handling-restraint stress method. Our results show that (1) male sparrows had significantly higher baseline T levels and CBG capacities during the nest building, the first egg-laying, and the first nestling stages, and significantly decreased stress-induced T levels only during the nest building and the first egg-laying stages. They also expressed significantly increased stress-induced CBG capacities during the second nestling stage. (2) Females showed significantly higher baseline CBG capacities but significantly decreased stress-induced CBG capacities during the nest building stage, and females also showed significantly increased stress-induced CBG capacities during the second egg-laying and the second nestling stages. Therefore, the seasonal fluctuations of baseline CBG in both sexes and baseline T in males reflect their adaptive strategies for optimizing their physiological and behavioral states to the life history cycle. The different patterns of stress-induced CBG in females suggest CBG functions as an essential mediator in regulating stress response to unpredictable perturbations. Our results highlight the need for future studies of stress-induced CBG and T levels on a wide range of vertebrate species that vary in different life history stages to gain a full understanding of the mechanisms that underlie biological functions of CBG and T for unpredictable stressors. PMID:22366504

Li, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaorui; Li, Yaqing; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Yuefeng

2012-04-01

402

The annual cycle of a trans-equatorial Eurasian-African passerine migrant: different spatio-temporal strategies for autumn and spring migration.  

PubMed

The small size of the billions of migrating songbirds commuting between temperate breeding sites and the tropics has long prevented the study of the largest part of their annual cycle outside the breeding grounds. Using light-level loggers (geolocators), we recorded the entire annual migratory cycle of the red-backed shrike Lanius collurio, a trans-equatorial Eurasian-African passerine migrant. We tested differences between autumn and spring migration for nine individuals. Duration of migration between breeding and winter sites was significantly longer in autumn (average 96 days) when compared with spring (63 days). This difference was explained by much longer staging periods during autumn (71 days) than spring (9 days). Between staging periods, the birds travelled faster during autumn (356 km d(-1)) than during spring (233 km d(-1)). All birds made a protracted stop (53 days) in Sahelian sub-Sahara on southbound migration. The birds performed a distinct loop migration (22 000 km) where spring distance, including a detour across the Arabian Peninsula, exceeded the autumn distance by 22 per cent. Geographical scatter between routes was particularly narrow in spring, with navigational convergence towards the crossing point from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula. Temporal variation between individuals was relatively constant, while different individuals tended to be consistently early or late at different departure/arrival occasions during the annual cycle. These results demonstrate the existence of fundamentally different spatio-temporal migration strategies used by the birds during autumn and spring migration, and that songbirds may rely on distinct staging areas for completion of their annual cycle, suggesting more sophisticated endogenous control mechanisms than merely clock-and-compass guidance among terrestrial solitary migrants. After a century with metal-ringing, year-round tracking of long-distance migratory songbirds promises further insights into bird migration. PMID:21900322

Tøttrup, Anders P; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Thorup, Kasper; Kristensen, Mikkel Willemoes; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Fox, James; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Rahbek, Carsten; Alerstam, Thomas

2012-03-01

403

Lutetian arc-type magmatism along the southern Eurasian margin: New U-Pb LA-ICPMS and whole-rock geochemical data from Marmara Island, NW Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rocks of Turkey, Greece and Syria preserve evidence for the destruction of Tethys, the construction of much of the continental crust of the region and the formation of the Tauride orogenic belt. These events occurred between the Late Cretaceous and Miocene, but the detailed evolution of the southern Eurasian margin during this period of progressive continental accretion is largely unknown. Marmara Island is a basement high lying at a key location in the Cenozoic Turkish tectonic collage, with a Palaeogene suture zone to the south and a deep Eocene sedimentary basin to the north. North-dipping metamorphic thrust sheets make up the island and are interlayered with a major metagranitoid intrusion. We have dated the intrusion by Laser Ablation ICP-MS analysis of U and Pb isotopes on zircon separates to 47.6 ± 2 Ma. We also performed major- and trace-elemental geochemical analysis of 16 samples of the intrusion that revealed that the intrusion is a calc-alkaline, metaluminous granitoid, marked by Nb depletion relative to LREE and LIL-element enrichment when compared to ocean ridge granite (ORG). We interpret the metagranitoid sill as a member of a mid-Eocene magmatic arc, forming a 30 km wide and more than 200 km long arcuate belt in NW Turkey that post-dates suturing along the ?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture zone. The arc magmatism was emplaced at the early stages of mountain building, related to collision of Eurasia with the Menderes-Taurus Platform in early Eocene times. Orogenesis and magmatism loaded the crust to the north creating coeval upward-deepening marine basins partially filled by volcanoclastic sediments.

Ustaömer, P. Ayda; Ustaömer, Timur; Collins, Alan S.; Reischpeitsch, Jörg

2009-07-01

404

Land-Bridge Calibration of Molecular Clocks and the Post-Glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian Field Vole Microtus agrestis  

PubMed Central

Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole (Microtus agrestis) mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient) DNA (including that of a congeneric species) suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration. PMID:25111840

Herman, Jeremy S.; McDevitt, Allan D.; Kawalko, Agata; Jaarola, Maarit; Wojcik, Jan M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

2014-01-01

405

Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps  

PubMed Central

Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5?±?2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6?±?25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8?±?12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

2013-01-01

406

Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn. PMID:12547524

Mañosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

2003-01-01

407

Parasitological survey on wild carnivora in north-western Tohoku, Japan.  

PubMed

In the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These included 7 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two Mustela sibirica itatsi and one M. nivalis namiyei), and one Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma). Roundworms (Toxocara canis in foxes and Toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (Ancylostoma kusimaense and Arthrostoma miyazakiense) and Molineus sp. in the small intestine were the most prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. In martens, Aonchotheca putorii in the stomach, Concinnum ten in the pancreatic duct, Molineus sp. and Euryhelmis costaricensis in the small intestine were the most prevalent. Collected parasites include some new helminth species for this region or Japan; the strobilar stage of Taenia polyacantha from foxes, Pygidliopsis summa from a raccoon dog, Eucoleus aerophilus, A. putorii, and Soholiphyme baturini from martens. PMID:10535507

Sato, H; Inaba, T; Ihama, Y; Kamiya, H

1999-09-01

408

ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 12041217. Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009. Original Russian Text M.P. Lebedeva (Verba), D.L. Golovanov, S.A. Inozemtsev, 2009, published in Pochvovedenie, 2009, No. 11, pp. 12941307.  

E-print Network

1204 ISSN 1064-2293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2009, Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 1204­1217. © Pleiades University, Moscow, 119991 Russia c Faculty of Soil Science, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia E for various (includ- ing soil) indicators of this phenomenon, and the prob- lem of reversibility

Ahmad, Sajjad

409

Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the ?stanbul Terrane (Bak?rl?k?ran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kas?mlar Formations; Bey?ehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kas?mlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kas?mlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution of Triassic or Carboniferous (Variscan) arc sources, in marked contrast to those of the Triassic Karakaya subduction complex. In comparison, the ages of the analysed zircons in the Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane range from 294 Ma to 3.1 Ga. Triassic zircons are again absent, while Variscan-aged zircons (294 to 339 Ma) dominate the zircon population. Additional zircon populations are dated at 554 to 655 Ma, 0.9 to 1.2 Ga, 1.5 Ga, 1.65 Ga, 2.0 to 2.15 and 2.5 to 2.8 Ga. The Precambrian zircon age spectra are compatible with derivation from an Avalonian/Amazonian/Baltic crustal provenance. In summary, there is no evidence in either the Triassic sandstones of the ?stanbul Terrane or of the Taurides of the Triassic magmatic arc source that dominates the Triassic Karakaya subduction-accretion complex. Where then was the source of the Karakaya arc detritus? A likely option is that the Karakaya subduction-accretion complex is an exotic terrane that was detached from a source magmatic arc and displaced to its present location, probably prior the initial deposition of the Early Jurassic cover sediments. This study was supported by TUBITAK, Project No: 111R015

Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

2014-05-01

410

Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the Western Mediterranean and especially on Morocco. Exploiting parameters of positions and dispersions of these stations within the 1997-2003 period, the motion and the interaction types of interaction between African and Eurasian tectonic plates can be estimated. Similarly, the crustal dynamic parameters of tension of these sites will be computed. The time occupation on repeated observations sites is at least 72 hours. The measurements are continuous on permanent stations. The precise ephemerides are used in GPS computations. The post-treatments are done using commercial and scientific softwares. The coordinates obtained for two consecutive periods to and t within a period of 8 years will be used by programs established for this purpose to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension as well as to evaluate the appropriate movements. Even crustal dynamic parameters will be determined on each sites of the GPS-Geodynamics network, whose interest of seismic investigations is very important. This will allow best knowledge of substantial seismic activities of the surrounding zones. It can be deduced by measuring the motions and their parameter tensions using GPS. These estimations will contribute on the earthquake prediction by supervising the strain accumulation and its release in the active areas. For the geodetically aspect the GPS-Geodynamics sites computed in the ITRF frame can be used with other similar ounces' of Africa country and some well selected and convenient IGS, EUREF stations..to determine first the NAFREF and the AFRER frames.

Azzouzi, R.

2009-04-01

411

Evidence for Paleocene-Eocene evolution of the foot of the Eurasian margin (Kermanshah ophiolite, SW Iran) from back-arc to arc: Implications for regional geodynamics and obduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature and significance of the Kermanshah ophiolite (Zagros Mountains, Iran), traditionally identified as one of the remnants of the Peri-Arabic ophiolite system obducted onto Arabia in the Late Cretaceous, is reinvestigated in this study. We assess the geochemistry of magmatic rocks from two distinct areas: the Kamyaran Paleocene-Eocene arc and the so-called Harsin-Sahneh ophiolite complex. Volcanic rocks associated with Triassic to Liassic sediments display a clear alkali signature, whereas the Paleocene volcanic rocks show a geochemical signature similar to that of tholeiitic back-arc basin basalts. The presumed ophiolitic gabbros of the Harsin-Sahneh complex and some of the associated dykes that intrude harzburgites or gabbros also have a back-arc basin signature. Eocene volcanics, gabbros and dykes intruding the harzburgites display clear low to medium-K calc-alkaline signatures with variable negative Nb, Ta, and Ti and positive Sr, Ba, Th, and U anomalies. Field relationships and geochemical evidence indicate that the Eocene magmatic rocks were intruded into a mantle substratum close to the ocean-continent transition. The geochemistry of magmatic rocks from Paleocene to Eocene suggests that an Eocene arc was constructed in a Paleocene back-arc basin along the Eurasian continental margin. In the Kermanshah region this magmatic activity, which extended further to the northwest into Turkey, coincided with a marked slowing down of the convergence of Arabia with Eurasia. Furthermore, it occurred after the Mesozoic Sanandaj-Sirjan magmatism had ceased but before the development of the Tertiary Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc. We tentatively relate this transient magmatic activity to a slab retreat and a back-arc extension at the Eurasian continental margin.

Whitechurch, H.; Omrani, J.; Agard, P.; Humbert, F.; Montigny, R.; Jolivet, L.

2013-12-01