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1

Estimating social group size of Eurasian badgers Meles meles by genotyping remotely plucked single hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the Eurasian badger's Meles meles role as an agricultural pest, its potential role in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis and other man- agement problems, accurate estimation of badger abundance is required. At present, no censusing method exists that is accurate, cost-effective and relatively non-invasive. In this article, we test the feasibility of estimating badger social group and population

Thomas L. J. Scheppers; Timothy J. Roper; Alain C. Frantz; Michel Schaul; Edmée Engel; Peter Breyne; Laurent Schley

2007-01-01

2

Male-biased Movement in a High-density Population of the Eurasian Badger (Meles meles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated movement patterns in a high-density population of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) to explore how the costs and benefits of dispersal and other forms of movement differed among individuals in the population. We analyzed a 17-year data set comprising 5,255 trapping events for members of a population of Eurasian badgers at Wytham Woods, Oxford, United Kingdom. For a subset

David W. Macdonald; Christopher Newman; Christina D. Buesching; Paul J. Johnson

2008-01-01

3

Spatial organization, group living and ecological correlates in low-density populations of Eurasian badgers, Meles meles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Territoriality and group living are described in a low-density population of Eurasian badgers, Meles meles L., by studying the patterns of spatial grouping and territory marking, as well as the differences between individuals in some of their characteristics (body condition and dispersal) and in their space use (seasonally, periods of activity and interaction between pairs of individuals) under

Eloy Revilla; Francisco Palomares

2002-01-01

4

Reliable microsatellite genotyping of the Eurasian badger ( Meles meles ) using faecal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential link between badgers and bovine tuberculosis has made it vital to develop accurate techniques to census badgers. Here we investigate the potential of using genetic profiles obtained from faecal DNA as a basis for population size estimation. After trialling several methods we obtained a high amplification success rate (89%) by storing faeces in 70% ethanol and using the

A. C. F RANTZ; L. C. P OPE; P. J. C ARPENTER; T. J. R OPER; G. J. W ILSON; R. J. D ELAHAY; T. BURKE

5

Performance of TB immunodiagnostic tests in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) of different ages and the influence of duration of infection on serological sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background In parts of Great Britain and Ireland, Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) constitute a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection and a potential source of infection for cattle. In vitro diagnostic tests for live badgers are an important component of strategies to control TB in this species. Immunological tests have been developed for badgers, although little is known about the influence of the age of the animal on test performance. To address this, we evaluated the performance of three immunological tests for badgers with respect to the age of the animal: the Brock Test and BrockTB STAT-PAK® serological tests and the recently developed interferon-gamma enzyme immunoassay (IFN? EIA). Data published elsewhere suggested that seropositivity was associated with more progressive forms of TB in the badger. To gain further evidence for this, we used longitudinal data from a well-studied population of badgers to test for an association between the sensitivity of the Brock Test and the duration of TB infection. Results Sensitivity of the two serological tests was approximately 54% for both cubs and adults. Sensitivity of the IFN? EIA was lower in cubs (57%) compared with adults (85%) when a common cut-off value was used to define test positivity. Taking data from the cubs alone, the IFN? EIA cut-off value could be adjusted to increase the sensitivity to 71% with no loss in specificity. As a general observation, specificity of all tests was higher in cubs, although only significantly so in the case of the Brock Test. Using logistic regression analysis to adjust for age, sensitivity of the Brock Test was significantly lower at first culture positive event (58%), but increased to >80% as infection progressed. Conclusion These data suggest that serodiagnosis could be a valuable tool for detecting a higher proportion of badgers with the greatest probability of transmitting infection. The age category of the badger appeared to exert little influence on the performance of the serological tests. Although data were only available for the IFN? EIA in a small number of cubs, reduced sensitivity of the test in these individuals suggests a lower cut-off may be needed when testing younger animals.

2009-01-01

6

Validation of the BrockTB stat-pak assay for detection of tuberculosis in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and influence of disease severity on diagnostic accuracy.  

PubMed

A lateral-flow immunoassay (BrockTB Stat-Pak) for detecting tuberculosis in Eurasian badgers was 49% sensitive and 93% specific against culture for M. bovis (n = 1,464) at necropsy. However, the sensitivity was significantly higher (66 to 78%) in animals with more severe tuberculosis, indicating that the BrockTB Stat-Pak may be useful for the detection of badgers with the greatest risk of transmitting disease. PMID:18272706

Chambers, Mark A; Crawshaw, Tim; Waterhouse, Sue; Delahay, Richard; Hewinson, R Glyn; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P

2008-02-13

7

Comparing Badger (Meles meles) Management Strategies for Reducing Tuberculosis Incidence in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, continues to be a serious economic problem for the British cattle industry. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is partly responsible for maintenance of the disease and its transmission to cattle. Previous attempts to manage the disease by culling badgers have been hampered by social perturbation, which in some situations is associated with increases in the cattle herd incidence of bTB. Following the licensing of an injectable vaccine, we consider the relative merits of management strategies to reduce bTB in badgers, and thereby reduce cattle herd incidence. We used an established simulation model of the badger-cattle-TB system and investigated four proposed strategies: business as usual with no badger management, large-scale proactive badger culling, badger vaccination, and culling with a ring of vaccination around it. For ease of comparison with empirical data, model treatments were applied over 150 km2 and were evaluated over the whole of a 300 km2 area, comprising the core treatment area and a ring of approximately 2 km. The effects of treatment were evaluated over a 10-year period comprising treatment for five years and the subsequent five year period without treatment. Against a background of existing disease control measures, where 144 cattle herd incidents might be expected over 10 years, badger culling prevented 26 cattle herd incidents while vaccination prevented 16. Culling in the core 150 km2 plus vaccination in a ring around it prevented about 40 cattle herd breakdowns by partly mitigating the negative effects of culling, although this approach clearly required greater effort. While model outcomes were robust to uncertainty in parameter estimates, the outcomes of culling were sensitive to low rates of land access for culling, low culling efficacy, and the early cessation of a culling strategy, all of which were likely to lead to an overall increase in cattle disease.

Smith, Graham C.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Wilkinson, David

2012-01-01

8

Observations on marking behaviour in a low-density population of European badgers ( Meles meles )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marking behaviour of the European badger (Meles meles L., 1758) in a low-density population of NW Italy was investigated by examining the distribution and pattern of use of latrines\\u000a in relation to space-use by a badger social group, as assessed by radiotracking. Latrines were mostly placed close to linear\\u000a features and marked the core area of the group. The

Alessandro Balestrieri; Luigi Remonti; Claudio Prigioni

9

Heterogeneity in the risk of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badger (Meles meles) cubs.  

PubMed

The behaviour of certain infected individuals within socially structured populations can have a disproportionately large effect on the spatio-temporal distribution of infection. Endemic infection with Mycobacterium bovis in European badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland is an important source of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Here we quantify the risk of infection in badger cubs in a high-density wild badger population, in relation to the infection status of resident adults. Over a 24-year period, we observed variation in the risk of cub infection, with those born into groups with resident infectious breeding females being over four times as likely to be detected excreting M. bovis than cubs from groups where there was no evidence of infection in adults. We discuss how our findings relate to the persistence of infection at both social group and population level, and the potential implications for disease control strategies. PMID:23522097

Tomlinson, A J; Chambers, M A; Carter, S P; Wilson, G J; Smith, G C; McDonald, R A; Delahay, R J

2013-03-22

10

Variations in scent-marking behaviour of European badgers Meles meles in the vicinity of their setts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For European badgersMeles meles (Linnaeus, 1758), the importance of olfactory signals located at home-range borders in the context of territoriality has\\u000a been widely accepted. Badgers, however, also scent mark far from their borders, often in the vicinity of their communal sett.\\u000a Little is known about the significance of these marks in intraspecific communication. Here, we investigated the patterns of\\u000a object-marking

Christina D. Buesching; David W. Macdonald

2004-01-01

11

Detection and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum in a German badger (Meles meles) by ITS sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A wild badger (Meles meles) with a severe nodular dermatitis was presented for post mortem examination. Numerous cutaneous granulomas with superficial ulceration were present especially on head, dorsum, and forearms were found at necropsy. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed a severe ...

12

Evolution of MHC class I genes in the European badger (Meles meles)  

PubMed Central

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune system and provides a good model with which to understand the evolutionary processes underlying functional genes. Trans-species polymorphism and orthology are both commonly found in MHC genes; however, mammalian MHC class I genes tend to cluster by species. Concerted evolution has the potential to homogenize different loci, whereas birth-and-death evolution can lead to the loss of orthologs; both processes result in monophyletic groups within species. Studies investigating the evolution of MHC class I genes have been biased toward a few particular taxa and model species. We present the first study of MHC class I genes in a species from the superfamily Musteloidea. The European badger (Meles meles) exhibits moderate variation in MHC class I sequences when compared to other carnivores. We identified seven putatively functional sequences and nine pseudogenes from genomic (gDNA) and complementary (cDNA) DNA, signifying at least two functional class I loci. We found evidence for separate evolutionary histories of the ?1 and ?2/?3 domains. In the ?1 domain, several sequences from different species were more closely related to each other than to sequences from the same species, resembling orthology or trans-species polymorphism. Balancing selection and probable recombination maintain genetic diversity in the ?1 domain, evidenced by the detection of positive selection and a recombination event. By comparison, two recombination breakpoints indicate that the ?2/?3 domains have most likely undergone concerted evolution, where recombination has homogenized the ?2/?3 domains between genes, leading to species-specific clusters of sequences. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing MHC domains separately.

Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

2012-01-01

13

Behavioural mechanisms of information transmission and reception by badgers, Meles meles, at latrines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the behavioural mechanisms by which European badgers receive and transmit information at shared defecation sites (latrines). We surveyed locations of 143 latrines to establish factors influencing latrine position, and monitored the behaviour of badgers at latrines. Badger latrines were significantly closer to tree trunks than were random samples, and were more likely to be associated with conifers than

Paul D. Stewart; David W. MacDonald; Chris Newman; Françoise H. Tattersall

2002-01-01

14

Long-term temporal trends and estimated transmission rates for Mycobacterium bovis infection in an undisturbed high-density badger (Meles meles) population.  

PubMed

We describe epidemiological trends in Mycobacterium bovis infection in an undisturbed wild badger (Meles meles) population. Data were derived from the capture, clinical sampling and serological testing of 1803 badgers over 9945 capture events spanning 24 years. Incidence and prevalence increased over time, exhibiting no simple relationship with host density. Potential explanations are presented for a marked increase in the frequency of positive serological test results. Transmission rates (R0) estimated from empirical data were consistent with modelled estimates and robust to changes in test sensitivity and the spatial extent of the population at risk. The risk of a positive culture or serological test result increased with badger age, and varied seasonally. Evidence consistent with progressive disease was found in cubs. This study demonstrates the value of long-term data and the repeated application of imperfect diagnostic tests as indices of infection to reveal epidemiological trends in M. bovis infection in badgers. PMID:23537573

Delahay, R J; Walker, N; Smith, G C; Smith, G S; Wilkinson, D; Clifton-Hadley, R S; Cheeseman, C L; Tomlinson, A J; Chambers, M A

2013-03-28

15

MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles): characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis.  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the ?1 and ?1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the presentation of peptides. The MHC thus plays an important role in pathogen defense. European badgers (Meles meles) are a good species in which to study the MHC, as they harbor a variety of pathogens. We present the first characterization of MHC class II genes, isolated from genomic DNA (gDNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA), in the European badger. Examination of seven individuals revealed four DRB, two DQB, two DQA, and two DRA putatively functional gDNA sequences. All of these sequences, except DRA, exhibited high variability in exon 2; DRB had the highest variability. The ABS codons demonstrated high variability, due potentially to balancing selection, while non-ABS codons had lower variability. Positively selected sites were detected in DRB and DQA. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated trans-species polymorphism of class II genes. Comparison with cDNA from whole blood revealed that only DRB had a transcription pattern reflecting the alleles that were present in the gDNA, while the other three genes had disparities between gDNA and cDNA. Only one sequence was transcribed, even though two gDNA sequences were present, from each of both DQB and DRA. Our characterization of badger MHC sequences forms a basis for further studies of MHC variability, mate choice, and pathogen resistance in this, and other, species. PMID:22038175

Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

2011-10-26

16

A DNA vaccine encoding MPB 83 from Mycobacterium bovis reduces M bovis dissemination to the kidneys of mice and is expressed in primary cell cultures of the European badger ( Meles meles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid (DNA) vaccination against tuberculosis in the European badger (Meles meles) is one approach to addressing the escalating problem of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain. The aim of vaccination is to reduce the burden of tuberculosis within the badger population and the shedding of Mycobacterium bovis to levels that would break the transmission of infection to cattle. To this

M. A Chambers; D Stagg; D Gavier-Widén; D Lowrie; D Newell; R. G Hewinson

2001-01-01

17

Seasonal rhythms of locomotor activity and thyroid function in male badgers (Meles meles L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult male badgers were housed in outdoor pens equipped with an infra?red actographic system, in the Chizé forest (Western France: 46°19'N; 00°24'W). Various parameters characterizing the diurnal general locomotor activity rhythm were measured: duration of the total activity phase and the actual activity outside the burrow in relation to sunset, sunrise or night duration, activity of passage and profile of

Daniel Maurel; Jean Boissin

1983-01-01

18

BADGER MELES MELES AND FOX WLPES W LPES FOOD IN AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE WESTERN PO PLAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fox and badger diets were studied by means of scat analysis in agricultural land in northern Italy. Earthworms and corn were the staple food for the badger, while foxes fed mainiy on animal food (birds and mammals). Dietary overlap between the two species was low. Fox diets were substantially similar to those in north-central Europe and other areas of Italy.

LUCA CANOVA; PAOLA ROSA

19

Diagnostic Accuracy and Optimal Use of Three Tests for Tuberculosis in Live Badgers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAccurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is notoriously difficult in live animals, yet important if we are to understand the epidemiology of TB and devise effective strategies to limit its spread. Currently available tests for diagnosing TB in live Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) remain unvalidated against a reliable gold standard. The aim of the present

Julian A. Drewe; Alexandra J. Tomlinson; Neil J. Walker; Richard J. Delahay; T. Mark Doherty

2010-01-01

20

Badger, Meles meles (Mustelidae, Carnivora), diet assessed through scat-analysis: a comparison and critique of different methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the diet of the badger through scat analysis and used seven previously described methods to assess their comparability. Methods compared included those based on frequencies of occurrence of different food items and volumetric methods. Our results showed that, depending on the basic methodological procedure, we could classify methods in two groups: frequencies of appearance and volumetric methods. The

Jabi ZABALA; Iñigo ZUBEROGOITIA

21

Evaluation of a Rapid Serological Test for the Determination of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers (Meles meles) Found Dead?  

PubMed Central

Between October 2005 and May 2006, a total of 727 badgers found dead in Wales were reported, and 550 were delivered to the Regional Laboratories of the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA). Of the 459 carcasses suitable for examination, 55 were deemed to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis on the basis of culture, spoligotyping, and variable-number tandem repeat typing. Acid-fast bacteria were observed histologically in a further six badgers, but these bacteria were not confirmed as M. bovis by culture. A rapid serological test (BrockTB Stat-Pak) performed on thoracic blood showed a sensitivity of 35% and a specificity of 99%. Presence of M. bovis infection was 45 times more likely to be confirmed postmortem by culture in BrockTB Stat-Pak-reactive animals than in seronegative ones. Using visible carcass lesions as a marker of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection had a similar sensitivity (38%) but was significantly less specific (84%) than serology. The overall accuracy of the antibody detection was 93% (346 correct results from 374 tests), whereas the accuracy of regarding visible lesions as a marker for bTB infection was 78% (354 correct from 453 carcasses examined). Culture remains the gold standard method for detecting M. bovis infection in badgers. However, where resources are limited and/or an instant result is preferred, the BrockTB Stat-Pak could be used in field surveillance efforts to identify animals which should be examined further by only submitting test-negative animals to more detailed postmortem examination and culture.

Chambers, Mark A.; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; James, Eurig; Barker, Leslie; Jones, Jeff; Watkins, Gavin; Rolfe, Simon

2010-01-01

22

Bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin vaccination reduces the severity and progression of tuberculosis in badgers  

PubMed Central

Control of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has proven particularly challenging where reservoirs of infection exist in wildlife populations. In Britain and Ireland, control is hampered by a reservoir of infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). Badger culling has positive and negative effects on bovine TB in cattle and is difficult, costly and controversial. Here we show that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of captive badgers reduced the progression, severity and excretion of Mycobacterium bovis infection after experimental challenge. In a clinical field study, BCG vaccination of free-living badgers reduced the incidence of positive serological test results by 73.8 per cent. In common with other species, BCG did not appear to prevent infection of badgers subjected to experimental challenge, but did significantly reduce the overall disease burden. BCG vaccination of badgers could comprise an important component of a comprehensive programme of measures to control bovine TB in cattle.

Chambers, Mark A.; Rogers, Fiona; Delahay, Richard J.; Lesellier, Sandrine; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna; Gowtage, Sonya; Dave, Dipesh; Palmer, Si; Brewer, Jacky; Crawshaw, Timothy; Clifton-Hadley, Richard; Carter, Steve; Cheeseman, Chris; Hanks, Chris; Murray, Alistair; Palphramand, Kate; Pietravalle, Stephane; Smith, Graham C.; Tomlinson, Alexandra; Walker, Neil J.; Wilson, Gavin J.; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Gettinby, George; McDonald, Robbie A.; Hewinson, R. Glyn

2011-01-01

23

Mitochondrial DNA reveals a strong phylogeographic structure in the badger across Eurasia.  

PubMed

The badger, Meles meles, is a widely distributed mustelid in Eurasia and shows large geographic variability in morphological characters whose evolutionary significance is unclear and needs to be contrasted with molecular data. We sequenced 512 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 115 Eurasian badgers from 21 countries in order to test for the existence of structuring in their phylogeography, to describe the genetic relationships among their populations across its widespread geographic range, and to infer demographic and biogeographic processes. We found that the Eurasian badger is divided into four groups regarding their mitochondrial DNA: Europe, Southwest Asia, North and East Asia, and Japan. This result suggests that the separation of badgers into phylogeographic groups was influenced by cold Pleistocene glacial stages and permafrost boundaries in Eurasia, and by geographic barriers, such as mountains and deserts. Genetic variation within phylogeographic groups based on distances assuming the Tamura-Nei model with rate heterogeneity and invariable sites (d(T-N) range: 3.3-4.2) was much lower than among them (d(T-N) range: 10.7-38.0), and 80% of the variation could be attributed to differences among regions. Spatial analysis of molecular variance (samova), median-joining network, and Mantel test did not detect genetic structuring within any of the phylogeographic groups with the exception of Europe, where 50% of variation was explained by differences among groups of populations. Our data suggest that the European, Southwest Asian, and North and East Asian badgers evolved separately since the end of Pliocene, at the beginnings of glacial ages, whereas Japanese badgers separated from continental Asian badgers during the middle Pleistocene. Endangered badgers from Crete Island, classified as Meles meles arcalus subspecies, were closely related to badgers from Southwest Asia. We also detected sudden demographic growth in European and Southwest Asian badgers that occurred during the Middle Pleistocene. PMID:16599963

Marmi, J; López-Giráldez, F; Macdonald, D W; Calafell, F; Zholnerovskaya, E; Domingo-Roura, X

2006-04-01

24

Culling and cattle controls influence tuberculosis risk for badgers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. In Britain, European badgers (Meles meles) are implicated in transmitting Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), to cattle. Badger culling has therefore been a component of British TB control policy for many years. However, large-scale field trials have recently shown that badger

Rosie Woodroffe; Christl A. Donnelly; Helen E. Jenkins; W. Thomas Johnston; David R. Cox; F. John Bourne; Chris L. Cheeseman; Richard J. Delahay; Richard S. Clifton-Hadley; George Gettinby; Peter Gilks; R. Glyn Hewinson; John P. McInerney; W. Ivan Morrison

2006-01-01

25

Dealing with the roadside casualty badger  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE European badger (Meles meles) is the largest carnivorous British mammal and is common throughout much of the UK. It is found in most rural areas below an altitude of 500 m, but is especially common in south-west England and southern Wales. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are one of the main reasons veterinary attention is sought for badgers. Indeed, RTAs

Glen Cousquer

2005-01-01

26

Badger social networks correlate with tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

Although disease hosts are classically assumed to interact randomly [1], infection is likely to spread across structured and dynamic contact networks [2]. We used social network analyses to investigate contact patterns of group-living European badgers, Meles meles, which are an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB). We found that TB test-positive badgers were socially isolated from their own groups but were more important for flow, potentially of infection, between social groups. The distinctive social position of infected badgers may help explain how social stability mitigates, and social perturbation increases, the spread of infection in badgers. PMID:24156807

Weber, Nicola; Carter, Stephen P; Dall, Sasha R X; Delahay, Richard J; McDonald, Jennifer L; Bearhop, Stuart; McDonald, Robbie A

2013-10-21

27

Diagnostic Accuracy and Optimal Use of Three Tests for Tuberculosis in Live Badgers  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is notoriously difficult in live animals, yet important if we are to understand the epidemiology of TB and devise effective strategies to limit its spread. Currently available tests for diagnosing TB in live Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) remain unvalidated against a reliable gold standard. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and optimal use of three tests for TB in badgers in the absence of a gold standard. Methodology/Principal Findings A Bayesian approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and optimal use of mycobacterial culture, gamma-interferon assay and a commercially available serological test using multiple samples collected from 305 live wild badgers. Although no single test was judged to be sufficiently sensitive and specific to be used as a sole diagnostic method, selective combined use of the three tests allowed guidelines to be formulated that allow a diagnosis to be made for individual animals with an estimated overall accuracy of 93% (range: 75% to 97%). Employing this approach in the study population of badgers resulted in approximately 13 out of 14 animals having their true infection status correctly classified from samples collected on a single capture. Conclusions/Significance This method of interpretation represents a marked improvement on the current procedure for diagnosing M. bovis infection in live badgers. The results should be of use to inform future test and intervention strategies with the aim of reducing the incidence of TB in free-living wild badger populations.

Drewe, Julian A.; Tomlinson, Alexandra J.; Walker, Neil J.; Delahay, Richard J.

2010-01-01

28

Modelling the impact of vaccination on tuberculosis in badgers.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) in livestock, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, persists in many countries. In Britain, efforts to control TB through the culling of badgers (Meles meles), the principal wildlife host, have so far been unsuccessful, and there is significant interest in vaccination of badgers as an alternative or complementary strategy [corrected]. Using a simulation model, we show that where TB is self-contained within the badger population and there are no external sources of infection, limited-duration vaccination at a high level of efficacy can reduce or even eradicate TB from the badger population. However, where sources of external infection persist, benefits in TB reduction in badgers can only be achieved by ongoing, annual vaccination. Vaccination is likely to be most effective as part of an integrated disease management strategy incorporating a number of different approaches across the entire host community. PMID:23570613

Hardstaff, J L; Bulling, M T; Marion, G; Hutchings, M R; White, P C L

2013-04-10

29

The impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ireland, the herd prevalence of bovine tuberculosis has remained stable for several decades, and in common with several other countries, progress towards eradication has stalled. There is evidence in support of the potential role of infected badgers (Meles meles, a protected species) in bovine tuberculosis in Ireland and Britain. However, this evidence on its own has not been sufficient

J. M. Griffin; D. H. Williams; G. E. Kelly; T. A. Clegg; I. O’Boyle; J. D. Collins; S. J. More

2005-01-01

30

Positive and negative effects of widespread badger culling on tuberculosis in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. For three decades, European badgers (Meles meles) have been culled by the British government in a series of attempts to limit the spread of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), to cattle. Despite these efforts, the incidence of TB in cattle has

Christl A. Donnelly; Rosie Woodroffe; D. R. Cox; F. John Bourne; C. L. Cheeseman; Richard S. Clifton-Hadley; Gao Wei; George Gettinby; Peter Gilks; Helen Jenkins; W. Thomas Johnston; Andrea M. Le Fevre; John P. McInerney; W. Ivan Morrison

2006-01-01

31

Culling and cattle controls influence tuberculosis risk for badgers  

PubMed Central

Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. In Britain, European badgers (Meles meles) are implicated in transmitting Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), to cattle. Badger culling has therefore been a component of British TB control policy for many years. However, large-scale field trials have recently shown that badger culling has the capacity to cause both increases and decreases in cattle TB incidence. Here, we show that repeated badger culling in the same area is associated with increasing prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers, especially where landscape features allow badgers from neighboring land to recolonize culled areas. This impact on prevalence in badgers might reduce the beneficial effects of culling on cattle TB incidence, and could contribute to the detrimental effects that have been observed. Additionally, we show that suspension of cattle TB controls during a nationwide epidemic of foot and mouth disease, which substantially delayed removal of TB-affected cattle, was associated with a widespread increase in the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers. This pattern suggests that infection may be transmitted from cattle to badgers, as well as vice versa. Clearly, disease control measures aimed at either host species may have unintended consequences for transmission, both within and between species. Our findings highlight the need for policymakers to consider multiple transmission routes when managing multihost pathogens.

Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A.; Jenkins, Helen E.; Johnston, W. Thomas; Cox, David R.; Bourne, F. John; Cheeseman, Chris L.; Delahay, Richard J.; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S.; Gettinby, George; Gilks, Peter; Hewinson, R. Glyn; McInerney, John P.; Morrison, W. Ivan

2006-01-01

32

The Effect of Badger Culling on Breakdown Prolongation and Recurrence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle Herds in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in cattle herds in Great Britain, with a substantial economic impact. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis within the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) population is thought to have hindered disease control. Cattle herd incidents, termed breakdowns, that are either ‘prolonged’ (lasting ?240 days) or ‘recurrent’ (with another breakdown within a specified time period) may be important foci for onward spread of infection. They drain veterinary resources and can be demoralising for farmers. Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) data were re-analysed to examine the effects of two culling strategies on breakdown prolongation and recurrence, during and after culling, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Separate effect estimates were obtained for the ‘core’ trial areas (where culling occurred) and the ‘buffer’ zones (up to 2 km outside of the core areas). For breakdowns that started during the culling period, ‘reactive’ (localised) culling was associated with marginally increased odds of prolongation, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.7 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.1–2.4) within the core areas. This effect was not present after the culling ceased. There was no notable effect of ‘proactive’ culling on prolongation. In contrast, reactive culling had no effect on breakdown recurrence, though there was evidence of a reduced risk of recurrence in proactive core areas during the culling period (ORs and 95% CIs: 0.82 (0.64–1.0) and 0.69 (0.54–0.86) for 24- and 36-month recurrence respectively). Again these effects were not present after the culling ceased. There seemed to be no effect of culling on breakdown prolongation or recurrence in the buffer zones. These results suggest that the RBCT badger culling strategies are unlikely to reduce either the prolongation or recurrence of breakdowns in the long term, and that reactive strategies (such as employed during the RBCT) are, if anything, likely to impact detrimentally on breakdown persistence.

Karolemeas, Katerina; Donnelly, Christl A.; Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Mitchell, Andrew P.; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S.; Upton, Paul; Wood, James L. N.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.

2012-01-01

33

Physaloptera sibirica in foxes and badgers from the Western Alps (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the presence of Physaloptera sibirica and its distribution as well as the association among the parasite, host (i.e. mange due to Sarcoptes scabiei) and environmental factors (i.e. altitudes) in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and badgers (Meles meles) from the North-West of Italy. From 1996 to 2008 a total of 608 foxes, culled by hunters or road killed, and 39

E. Ferroglio; C. Ragagli; A. Trisciuoglio

2009-01-01

34

Mele-Maat Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study provides an evaluation of the quality of immersion instruction in English as a second language in the Mele-Maat School, an English-medium, British-administered Polynesian school in Vanuatu, an independent South Pacific nation. The study consisted of one year of baseline data gathering and a second year for replication using…

Stone, James C.

35

Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds  

PubMed Central

Background The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only). Methodology/Principal Findings New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. Conclusions/Significance The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission.

Vial, Flavie; Johnston, W. Thomas; Donnelly, Christl A.

2011-01-01

36

Evidence for a role of the host-specific flea (Paraceras melis) in the transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European badger.  

PubMed

We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

2011-02-14

37

Evidence for a Role of the Host-Specific Flea (Paraceras melis) in the Transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European Badger  

PubMed Central

We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers.

Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W.; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

2011-01-01

38

USE OF RECOMBINANT VACCINIA-RABIES GLYCOPROTEIN VIRUS FOR ORAL VACCINATION OF WILDLIFE AGAINST RABIES: INNOCUITY TO SEVERAL NONTARGET BAIT CONSUMING SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathiogenicity of a vaccimiia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (\\\\'VTGgRAB) was tested in several wild amiimal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) ins comisuming vaccine baits in Europe. The following species were included in this study: wild boar (Sus scrofa), Eurasian badger (Meles meles), wood mouse (Apodenius sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse

Bernard Brochier; Jean Blancou; Isabelle Thomas; Bernard Languet; Marc Artois; Marie-Paule Kieny; Jean-Pierre Lecocq; Philippe Desmettre; Paul-Pierre Pastoret

39

Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is causing considerable economic loss to farmers and Government in the United Kingdom as its incidence is increasing. Efforts to control bTB in the UK are hampered by the infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) that represent a wildlife reservoir and source of recurrent M. bovis exposure to cattle. Vaccination of

Simon Clark; Martin L. Cross; Alan Smith; Pinar Court; Julia Vipond; Allan Nadian; R. Glyn Hewinson; Hannah K. Batchelor; Yvonne Perrie; Ann Williams; Frank E. Aldwell; Mark A. Chambers

2008-01-01

40

Niche relations among three sympatric Mediterranean carnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies carried out in the Doñana National Park reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were killed by Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), whereas similar-sized Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) were not. Therefore, we predicted that fox would avoid lynx predation risk by niche segregation whereas we did not expect\\u000a such a segregation between badger and lynx. As an approach for evaluating

Jose M. Fedriani; Francisco Palomares; Miguel Delibes

1999-01-01

41

Badger--an accessible genome exploration environment  

PubMed Central

Summary: High-quality draft genomes are now easy to generate, as sequencing and assembly costs have dropped dramatically. However, building a user-friendly searchable Web site and database for a newly annotated genome is not straightforward. Here we present Badger, a lightweight and easy-to-install genome exploration environment designed for next generation non-model organism genomes. Availability: Badger is released under the GPL and is available at http://badger.bio.ed.ac.uk/. We show two working examples: (i) a test dataset included with the source code, and (ii) a collection of four filarial nematode genomes. Contact: mark.blaxter@ed.ac.uk

Elsworth, Ben; Jones, Martin; Blaxter, Mark

2013-01-01

42

Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China  

PubMed Central

Ferret badger–associated human rabies cases emerged in China in 1994. We used a retrospective epidemiologic survey, virus isolation, laboratory diagnosis, and nucleotide sequencing to document its reemergence in 2002–2008. Whether the cause is spillover from infected dogs or recent host shift and new reservoir establishment requires further investigation.

Zhang, Shoufeng; Tang, Qing; Wu, Xianfu; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fei; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2009-01-01

43

Quantum Phase Transitions in the Kane-Mele-Hubbard Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the ground state phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. At half-filling the phase diagram is mapped out using projective auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We present a refined phase boundary for the quantum spin liquid. The topological (quantum spin-Hall) insulator at finite Hubbard interaction strength is adiabatically connected to the ground state of the Kane-Mele model. For the magnetic phase at large Hubbard interaction strength, we show that the magnetic order is restricted to the transverse direction. The transition from the topological band insulator to the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator is in the universality class of the three-dimensional XY model. The numerical data also suggest that the spin liquid to topological insulator and spin liquid to Mott insulator transitions are both continuous.

Meng, Zi Yang; Hohenadler, Martin; Lang, Thomas C.; Wessel, Stefan; Muramatsu, Alejandro; Assaad, Fakher F.

2012-02-01

44

Predicting the status of wild deer as hosts of Mycobacterium bovis infection in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of livestock diseases can become complicated when wild animals are involved. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is considered the principle wildlife host of Mycobacterium bovis (which causes bovine tuberculosis, bTB) in Great Britain and Ireland, but wild deer have also been implicated. Whether wild\\u000a deer are likely to perpetuate bTB in cattle depends on the exposure risks they pose,

Alastair I. Ward; Graham C. Smith

45

Farmers' confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

This paper examines UK farmers' levels of confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and their trust in the Government's ability to deal with bTB. In 2010, a badger vaccine based on the BCG vaccine was licensed following field trials and used as part of the UK Government's Badger Vaccination Deployment Project. A stratified random sample of cattle farmers in five different locations of England was surveyed using a telephone survey to elicit their views of badger vaccination. The survey provided a total of 341 responses with a response rate of 80 per cent. Results suggest that the farmers are cautious about badger vaccination, appearing to be neither overly confident nor unconfident in it. However, the farmers did not reveal high levels of trust in the Government to manage bTB policy or badger vaccination. There were no differences in the levels of confidence or trust between farms that were under bTB restrictions at the time of the survey and those that were not or between farms with historically high levels of bTB. Analysis of principal components suggests that 33 per cent of the farmers accepted badger vaccination, but that acceptance is dependent on the wider social and political environment. PMID:22238199

Enticott, G; Maye, D; Ilbery, B; Fisher, R; Kirwan, J

2012-01-11

46

Illinois Furbearer Investigations: Illinois Badger Studies. Federal Project Aid No. W-103-R-1-6, July 1, 1989 through June 30, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Badger Ecology in Illinois: (Introduction; Study Area and Methods); Results; Badger Distibution in Illinois: (Introduction; Methods; Results; Discussion); Badger Abundance in Illinois: (Introduction; Methods; Results; Discussion); Badger Literat...

R. E. Warner B. Ver Steeg

1995-01-01

47

Historic Properties Report: Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an historic properties survey of the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Prepared for the United States Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command (DARCOM), the report is intended to assist the Army in bringing th...

D. A. Fey

1984-01-01

48

Sexual differences in spatio-temporal interaction among badgers  

Microsoft Academic Search

I tested the following hypotheses of territorial polygyny on badgers (Taxidea taxus: Carnivora; Mustelidae): Competition among adult females for food should result in intrasexual territoriality, while male\\u000a competition for females should result in larger territories that encompass multiple female territories. The sagebrush-grassland\\u000a study area (Wyoming, USA) contained a depauperate terrestrial fauna with a dense badger population preying on high densities

Steven C. Minta

1993-01-01

49

Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.  

PubMed

The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

Bilandži?, Nina; Dež?ek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Doki?, Maja; Simi?, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

2011-10-30

50

Na Mele Ho Ona Auao (The Songs That Instruct). Hawaiian Studies Music Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This music resource book is a compilation of traditional Hawaiian mele (songs) for use as a tool in music instruction and as a means to educate students in both the Hawaiian language and in various aspects of Hawaiian culture. Music and words are provided for each song as well as an English translation. The first section is comprised of songs or…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

51

Mobil/Badger to market zeolite-based cumene technology  

SciTech Connect

Badger (Cambridge, MA) and Mobil (Fairfax, VA) are ready to jointly license a new cumene technology that they say achieves higher yields and product purity than existing processes. The zeolite-based technology is scheduled to be introduced at next month's DeWitt Petrochemical Review in Houston. The Mobil/Badger technology aims to challenge the dominant position of UOP's (Des Plaines, IL) solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst process - which accounts for 80%-90% of the world's cumene production. In addition, Monsanto/Kellogg's aluminum chloride-based technology has gained significant momentum since its introduction in the 1980s. And late last year, ABB Lummus Crest (Bloomfield, NJ) also began marketing a zeolite-based cumene technology. While all the technologies make cumene via the alkylation of benzene with propylene, the Mobil/Badger process uses a zeolite-containing catalyst designed by Mobil to selectively catalyze the benzene/propylene reaction, avoiding unwanted propylene oligomerization. Because the olefin reactions are so fast, says Frank A. Demers, Badger's v.p./technology development and marketing, other zeolite technologies are forced to use complex reactor arrangements to stop the propylene-propylene reactions. However, he says, Mobil has designed a catalyst that wants to react benzene with propylene to make cumene.'

Rotman, D.

1993-02-24

52

Evaluating seasonal bait delivery to badgers using rhodamine B  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK and Ireland, research on the control of bovine tuberculosis in badgers includes the development of a palatable bait\\u000a for oral delivery of a vaccine and a means of its deployment in the field. In the present study, we carried out field deployment\\u000a of bait according to the established method of bait marking in early spring and early

Kate L. Palphramand; Neil Walker; Robbie A. McDonald; Richard J. Delahay

2011-01-01

53

Mobil-Badger technologies for benzene reduction in gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Many refiners will need to reduce the barrels per day of benzene entering the motor gasoline pool. Mobil and Badger have developed and now jointly license three potential refinery alternatives to conventional benzene hydrosaturation to achieve this: Mobil Benzene Reduction, Ethylbenzene and Cumene. The Mobil Benzene Reduction Process (MBR) uses dilute olefins in FCC offgas to extensively alkylate dilute benzene as found in light reformate, light FCC gasoline, or cyclic C[sub 6] naphtha. MBR raises octanes and lowers C[sub 5]+ olefins. MBR does not involve costly hydrogen addition. The refinery-based Mobil/Badger Ethylbenzene Process reacts chemical-grade benzene extracted from light reformate with dilute ethylene found in treated FCC offgas to make high-purity ethylbenzene. EB is the principal feedstock for the production of styrene. The Mobil/Badger Cumene Process alkylates FCC-derived dilute propylene and extracted benzene to selectively yield isopropyl benzene (cumene). Cumene is the principal feedstock for the production of phenol. All three processes use Mobil developed catalysts.

Goelzer, A.R.; Ram, S.; Hernandez, A. (Badger Engineers, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Chin, A.A.; Harandi, M.N.; Smith, C.M. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States) Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States))

1993-01-01

54

The effect of a badger removal programme on the incidence of tuberculosis in an Irish cattle population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of a confirmed tuberculous herd restriction was examined using a logistic model for herds involved in the East Offaly Badger Research Project, Ireland, from 1988–1995. Cattle herds present in the badger-removal area had a significantly lower proportion of new confirmed tuberculous herd restrictions compared with cattle from an area where no systematic badger removal was attempted.

D. Ó Máirtín; D. H. Williams; J. M. Griffin; L. A. Dolan; J. A. Eves

1998-01-01

55

Killing technique of North American badgers preying on Richardson's ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcasses of 13 Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) cached during autumn by North American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in southern Alberta, Canada, were inspected to determine the capture and killing technique. Regardless of prey size (251-651 g) or torpor status (normothermic or torpid), badgers killed ground squir - rels with a single grasping bite directed dorsally or laterally to the thorax.

Gail R. Michener; Andrew N. Iwaniuk

2001-01-01

56

Badger (Taxidea taxus) disturbances increase soil heterogeneity in a degraded shrub-steppe ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the western United States, overgrazing, weed invasion and wildfire have resulted in the conversion of shrub-steppe to annual grasslands, with substantial effects on ecosystem function. In these landscapes, badgers disturb large areas of soil while foraging for prey. Mounds created by badgers cont...

57

A forensic STR profiling system for the Eurasian badger: A framework for developing profiling systems for wildlife species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing short tandem repeat (STR) profiling systems for forensic identification is complicated in animal species. Obtaining a representative number of individuals from populations, limited access to family groups and a lack of developed STR markers can make adhering to human forensic guidelines difficult. Furthermore, a lack of animal specific guidelines may explain why many wildlife forensic STR profiling systems developed

Nick Dawnay; Rob Ogden; Roger S. Thorpe; Lisa C. Pope; Deborah A. Dawson; Ross McEwing

2008-01-01

58

Complication associated with abdominal surgical implantation of a radio transmitter in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

Radio telemetry has greatly advanced the understanding of wild animal ecology. Telemetry studies must ensure that placement of transmitters does not influence the health and behavior of study animals. Here, 10 American badgers (Taxidea taxus) were implanted with beeswax-coated abdominal radio transmitters under general anesthesia and tracked for an average of 14 mo. Behavior and movements of all badgers indicated successful short-term recovery from implantation; however, three mortalities were observed between 5 mo and 15 mo after capture. Cause of death could not be determined for two badgers due to decomposition of the carcasses. A third badger that was recovered in good postmortem condition died from sepsis secondary to a transmitter-related omental torsion. This study indicates that there is some risk associated with abdominally implanted radio transmitters in badgers. Future studies involving implanted transmitters in mammals should focus on identifying safe and effective telemetry devices that do not affect the health of study animals. American badger, omental adhesion, peritoneal implant, telemetry, Taxidea taxus. PMID:20722276

Quinn, Jessica H; Gaffney, Patricia M; Gilardi, Kirsten; Murray, Michael; Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K

2010-03-01

59

Ferret badger rabies origin and its revisited importance as potential source of rabies transmission in Southeast China  

PubMed Central

Background The frequent occurrence of ferret badger-associated human rabies cases in southeast China highlights the lack of laboratory-based surveillance and urges revisiting the potential importance of this animal in rabies transmission. To determine if the ferret badgers actually contribute to human and dog rabies cases, and the possible origin of the ferret badger-associated rabies in the region, an active rabies survey was conducted to determine the frequency of rabies infection and seroprevalence in dogs and ferret badgers. Methods A retrospective survey on rabies epidemics was performed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces in southeast China. The brain tissues from ferret badgers and dogs were assayed by fluorescent antibody test. Rabies virus was isolated and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The sera from ferret badgers and dogs were titrated using rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) test. Results The ferret badgers presented a higher percentage of rabies seroconversion than dogs did in the endemic region, reaching a maximum of 95% in the collected samples. Nine ferret badger-associated rabies viruses were isolated, sequenced, and were phylogenetically clustered as a separate group. Nucleotide sequence revealed 99.4-99.8% homology within the ferret badger isolates, and 83-89% homology to the dog isolates in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes in the same rabies endemic regions. Conclusions Our data suggest ferret badger-associated rabies has likely formed as an independent enzootic originating from dogs during the long-term rabies infestation in southeast China. The eventual role of FB rabies in public health remains unclear. However, management of ferret badger bites, rabies awareness and control in the related regions should be an immediate need.

2010-01-01

60

Pathogen and rodenticide exposure in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in California.  

PubMed

Urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. American badgers (Taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in California, USA, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. As such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to control nuisance wildlife on agricultural lands. We evaluated free-ranging badgers in California for exposure to pathogens and anticoagulant rodenticides that pose a risk to wildlife, domestic animals, or public health. We found serologic evidence of badger exposure to Francisella tularensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, canine distemper virus, and three Bartonella species: B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Badger tissues contained anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum and bromadiolone, commonly used to control periurban rodent pests. These data provide a preliminary investigation of pathogen and toxicant exposure in the wild badger population. PMID:22493124

Quinn, Jessica H; Girard, Yvette A; Gilardi, Kirsten; Hernandez, Yvette; Poppenga, Robert; Chomel, Bruno B; Foley, Janet E; Johnson, Christine K

2012-04-01

61

EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL MANAGEMENT USING NEWLY DEVELOPED TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In British Columbia, Canada, managing Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) integrates harvesting, tillage, bottom barrier applications, and diver-operated dredging methods in annual control programs in nine lakes. Two tillage technologies developed in British Columbia for removing plant roots in high use public areas are not known to have been applied in other jurisdictions. Barge-mounted rototillers achieve 80 to 97 percent

Peter R. Newroth; Roger J. Soar

1986-01-01

62

Tuberculosis in East Sussex. IV. A systematic examination of wild mammals other than badgers for tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

A detailed investigation of the possible role of wild mammals, other than badgers, in the maintenance of Mycobacterium bovis in an area on the South Downs of East Sussex was carried out over 3 years. Estimates of population sizes were made where possible and minimum sample sizes were selected to be 95% certain of including at least one infected animal if the prevalence was at least 5%. Samples of wild mammals were taken from populations which had the highest potential direct or indirect contact rate with known infected badgers. M. bovis was not isolated from any of the 15 species of wild mammals. It was concluded that badgers are able to maintain M. bovis in an area independently of other species, and that in the area studied other species were not a source of infection for the cattle herds.

Wilesmith, J. W.; Sayers, P. E.; Little, T. W.; Brewer, J. I.; Bode, R.; Hillman, G. D.; Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.

1986-01-01

63

Tuberculosis in East Sussex. III. Comparison of post-mortem and clinical methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in badgers.  

PubMed Central

Following epidemiological and ecological studies of a defined badger population in an area of East Sussex, removal of all badgers by cage trapping was attempted. Trapping was incomplete due to the activities of protesters. Forty-seven badgers were caught from the eight social groups. All badgers were examined clinically and samples of faeces, urine and tracheal aspirate were taken, together with swabs from any bite wounds, for bacteriological examinations. Forty-five animals were skin tested using whole killed cells of Mycobacterium bovis strain AN5, bovine PPD Weybridge and new human tuberculin. Skin test results were recorded after 24 and 72 h. All badgers were killed and subjected to a post-mortem and bacteriological examination. M. bovis was detected in 10 (21.3%) badgers at post-mortem and in 2 badgers from clinical samples. Four social groups were infected. Positive skin test results were recorded at 72 h with bovine PPD (2 micrograms and 20 micrograms/ml), strain AN5 (1 mg/ml) and human tuberculin (2 micrograms/ml), but not with human tuberculin at 20 micrograms/ml. Histological sections of the skin test reactions showed the cellular types typical of delayed-type hypersensitivity. The skin test reactions observed were neither sensitive nor specific enough to be of practical value.

Pritchard, D. G.; Stuart, F. A.; Wilesmith, J. W.; Cheeseman, C. L.; Brewer, J. I.; Bode, R.; Sayers, P. E.

1986-01-01

64

Zero-temperature phase diagram of the classical Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model is obtained using three complementary methods: Luttinger-Tisza, variational minimization, and the iterative minimization method. Six distinct phases were obtained in the space of the couplings. Three phases are commensurate with long-range ordering: planar Néel states in horizontal plane (phase I), planar states in the plane vertical to the horizontal plane (phase VI), and collinear states normal to the horizontal plane (phase II). However, the other three are infinitely degenerate due to the frustrating competition between the couplings, and they are characterized by a manifold of incommensurate wave vectors. These phases are planar helical states in a horizontal plane (phase III), planar helical states in a vertical plane (phase IV), and non-coplanar states (phase V). Employing the linear spin-wave analysis, it is found that the quantum fluctuations select a set of symmetrically equivalent states in phase III through the quantum order-by-disorder mechanism. Based on some heuristic arguments, it is argued that the same scenario may also occur in the other two frustrated phases VI and V.

Zare, Mohammad H.; Fazileh, Farhad; Shahbazi, Farhad

2013-06-01

65

Preinvestigation evaluation of corrective measure technologies for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report briefly describes and evaluates the suitability of corrective measure technologies for possible use at the solid waste management units (SWMUs) at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), near Baraboo, Wisconsin. Corrective measure technologies considered for contaminated soils include excavation plus on- or off-site disposal in landfills or by incineration, use of solidification or stabilization methods, and in-situ methods

P. A. Benioff; S. Y. Tsai

1989-01-01

66

Architectural specialization of the intrinsic thoracic limb musculature of the American badger (Taxidea taxus).  

PubMed

Evaluation of the relationships between muscle structure and digging function in fossorial species is limited. Badgers and other fossorial specialists are expected to have massive forelimb muscles with long fascicles capable of substantial shortening for high power and applying high out-force to the substrate. To explore this hypothesis, we quantified muscle architecture in the thoracic limb of the American badger (Taxidea taxus) and estimated the force, power, and joint torque of its intrinsic musculature in relation to the use of scratch-digging behavior. Architectural properties measured were muscle mass, belly length, fascicle length, pennation angle, and physiological cross-sectional area. Badgers possess hypertrophied shoulder flexors/humeral retractors, elbow extensors, and digital flexors. The triceps brachii is particularly massive and has long fascicles with little pennation, muscle architecture consistent with substantial shortening capability, and high power. A unique feature of badgers is that, in addition to elbow joint extension, two biarticular heads (long and medial) of the triceps are capable of applying high torques to the shoulder joint to facilitate retraction of the forelimb throughout the power stroke. The massive and complex digital flexors show relatively greater pennation and shorter fascicle lengths than the triceps brachii, as well as compartmentalization of muscle heads to accentuate both force production and range of shortening during flexion of the carpus and digits. Muscles of most functional groups exhibit some degree of specialization for high force production and are important for stabilizing the shoulder, elbow, and carpal joints against high limb forces generated during powerful digging motions. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis and indicate that forelimb muscle architecture is consistent with specializations for scratch-digging. Quantified muscle properties in the American badger serve as a comparator to evaluate the range of diversity in muscle structure and contractile function that exists in mammals specialized for fossorial habits. PMID:22987341

Moore, Alexis L; Budny, Joseph E; Russell, Anthony P; Butcher, Michael T

2012-09-15

67

Public Health Assessment for US Army Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Sauk County, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WI9210020054.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) is located in Sauk County, Wisconsin, near the city of Baraboo. Over a 33 year period, until 1975, the plant operated intermittently to produce propellants for cannon, rocket, and small arms ammunition. Past industrial ...

1999-01-01

68

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hard; Morner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2011-01-01

69

Epidemic and maintenance of rabies in Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) indicated by epidemiology and the molecular signatures of rabies viruses.  

PubMed

An epidemic of Chinese ferret badger-associated human rabies was investigated in Wuyuan county, Jiangxi province and rabies viruses isolates from ferret badgers in different districts in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces were sequenced with their nucleotides and amino acids and aligned for epidemiological analysis. The results showed that the human rabies in Wuyuan are only associated with ferret badger bites; the rabies virus can be isolated in a high percentage of ferret badgers in the epidemic areas in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces; the isolates share the same molecular features in nucleotides and have characteristic amino acid signatures, i.e., 2 sites in the nucleoprotein and 3 sites in the glycoprotein, that are distinct from virus isolates from dogs in the same region. We conclude that rabies in Chinese ferret badgers has formed an independent transmission cycle and ferret badgers may serve as another important rabies reservoir independent of dog rabies in China. PMID:23689981

Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Ye; Hou, Yanli; Zhao, Jinghui; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Hu, Rongliang

2013-05-21

70

Foods of American badgers in west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during the duck nesting season  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the American badger (Taxidea taxus) is common in grasslands and preys on a wide diversity of foods including birds, little is known about badger diet in areas where nesting ducks are common. Small mammals, primarily Muridae and Geomyidae, were the most common food items in the diet of badgers collected from west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during April-July 1987 through 1990, based on analysis of gastrointestinal tracts of 47 adult ( 1/4 -y-old) and 5 juvenile (<6-mo-old) badgers. Remains of mammals occurred in 98% of samples from adult badgers. Small quantities of insects were found in 40% of adult samples. Bird remains were in 32% of adult samples, most birds identified as Anatidae; ducks or ducklings occurred in 27% and duck eggs in 60% of those samples. Remains of reptiles, amphibians and mollusks were present, but were less common than other foods. Insects and bird eggs were more common during spring (April-May) than summer (June-July). Birds were more frequent in diets of adults than juvenile badgers.

Sovada, M. A.; Roaldson, J. M.; Sargeant, A. B.

1999-01-01

71

Investigation of Two Insect Species for Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the evaluation of two species of insects for the biological control of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). One of the species is a native weevil, Litodactylus leucogaster (Marsh.), which attacks the flower...

G. R. Buckingham C. A. Bennett B. M. Ross

1981-01-01

72

Metagenomic Analysis of the Viral Flora of Pine Marten and European Badger Feces  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the diversity of viruses in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about potential pathogens. Metagenomic analysis of the enteric viral flora revealed a new anellovirus and bocavirus species in pine martens and a new circovirus-like virus and geminivirus-related DNA virus in European badgers. In addition, sequences with homology to viruses from the families Paramyxo- and Picornaviridae were detected.

van den Brand, Judith M. A.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Schapendonk, Claudia M.; Simon, James H.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

2012-01-01

73

Analysis of badger urine volatiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pattern recognition techniques.  

PubMed

The potential for badger urine to signal olfactory information relating to sex, age class and seasonality was investigated by performing GCMS headspace analysis followed by pattern recognition statistical analysis on 84 urine samples collected from different categories of animal. Approximately 300 compounds were identified using library searching, and GCMS peak areas were recorded for the 33 most common. PCA was performed on the normalised and standardised data from all badgers, through which significant seasonal trends and groupings of homologous series of compounds were detected. PCA was also performed on the three subgroups of adults in the spring, summer and autumn, and a level of sexual discrimination was possible during the latter two seasons. Malanobis distances on the scores of the first five principal components provided good discrimination for these three subgroups, but discrimination was poor when all samples were analysed together. This, combined with the initial results of the PCA, confirms that a strong seasonal trend is imposed upon the sexual trend in this dataset. Our initial analysis indicates that badger urine potentially contains olfactory cues relating to sex and season. The relevance of these findings to understanding olfactory communication in mammals is discussed. PMID:11394302

Service, K M; Brereton, R G; Harris, S

2001-05-01

74

Targeted badger removal and the subsequent risk of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in county Laois, Ireland.  

PubMed

We investigated the impact of targeted removal of badgers on the subsequent bovine tuberculosis (BTB) risk in cattle herds in county Laois, Ireland. The study period was 1989-2005. For each of 122 targeted badger-removal licenses (permit to remove badgers in the proximity of cattle herds undergoing a serious BTB episode), the herd number (index herd) for which the license was given was obtained. The herds in the proximity of the index herd were identified from another database. The main "exposure" in our study was the geographical location of herds relative to the area in which targeted badger removal was conducted. We categorized herds into five different exposure groups: herds were classified as non-exposed and denoted as group 0 (reference group) if they were located 500 m or more from the edge of any parcel of land of the index herd; group 1, was the index herds, group 2 the immediate (contiguous) neighbors of the index herd, group 3 herds were not immediate neighbors but within 150 m and group 4 herds were between 150 m and 500 m distance from the edge of any parcel of land of the index herd, respectively. We conducted a survival analysis (allowing multiple failures per herd) to compare the hazard of having a BTB episode in any of the four groups of exposed herds vs. the hazard in herds in the reference group. We controlled for other known risk factors as well taking into account a temporal component. Our analysis showed that the hazard ratio for the index herds (group 1) were non-significantly increased, indicating that there was no difference in the hazard of failing a BTB test (after the targeted badger removal was conducted) between index herds and reference herds. For the rest of the herds farther away from badger removal activities the hazards were lower than herds in areas not under badger removal. The hazard in the reference group decreased over the study period. PMID:18945503

Olea-Popelka, F J; Fitzgerald, P; White, P; McGrath, G; Collins, J D; O'Keeffe, J; Kelton, D F; Berke, O; More, S; Martin, S W

2008-10-21

75

"My Business Was Not with Lost Souls and the Underprivileged": The Contribution of Colin Badger (1906-1993) to Adult Education in Victoria, Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colin Badger was an adult educator who contributed to Victorian adult education in Australia. After graduating from the University of Adelaide in 1936, Badger became a tutor for the South Australian Workers Education Association (WEA), where he became aware of the possibilities of adult education. After study in London, he returned to Australia to…

Rushbrook, Peter

76

Preinvestigation evaluation of corrective measure technologies for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly describes and evaluates the suitability of corrective measure technologies for possible use at the solid waste management units (SWMUs) at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), near Baraboo, Wisconsin. Corrective measure technologies considered for contaminated soils include excavation plus on- or off-site disposal in landfills or by incineration, use of solidification or stabilization methods, and in-situ methods such as bioreclamation and chemical or physical methods. Technologies considered for treatment of contaminated groundwater include groundwater pumping followed by discharge or treatment by air stripping and use of subsurface barriers. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Benioff, P.A.; Tsai, S.Y.

1989-02-01

77

Understanding Higher Education Admissions Reforms in the Eurasian Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the twenty years since independence, new Eurasian nation-states of the former Soviet Union have introduced major changes to the way students are admitted to institutions of higher education. Azerbaijan (1992), Uzbekistan (1993), Kazakhstan (1999), Russia (2001), Kyrgyzstan (2002), Ukraine (2004), and Georgia (2005) have all created new state or…

Drummond, Todd W.; Gabrscek, Sergij

2012-01-01

78

Islam and Orthodox Russia: From Eurasianism to Islamism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing and increasingly politically active Russian Muslims of diverse ethnic backgrounds provide various political models for their relationship with Russians. Some still accept Eurasianism but assume that it is Muslims not Orthodox Russians who should be the “older brothers” in the alliance or, in any case, that the very notion of older and younger brother should be put to an

Dmitry Shlapentokh

2008-01-01

79

Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide variation in an approximately 490 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) was used to describe the genetic variation and phylogeographical pattern in the Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber ) over its entire range. The sampling effort was focused on the relict populations that survived a drastic population bottleneck, caused by overhunting, at the end of

WALTER DURKA; WIESLAW BABIK; JEAN-FRANCOIS DUCROZ; DIETRICH HEIDECKE; FRANK ROSELL; RAVCIGIJN SAMJAA; ALEXANDER P. SAVELJEV; ANNEGRET STUBBE; ALIUS ULEVICIUS; MICHAEL STUBBE

2005-01-01

80

The Effect of Eurasian Snow Cover on the Indian Monsoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors successfully model and simulate the observed evidence that anomalously high winter\\/spring Eurasian snow cover is linked to weak rainfall in the following summer Indian monsoon. It is shown that excessive snow cover in February reduces June to September precipitation over India. The excessive snow cover is associated with a weak monsoon characterized by higher sea level pressure over

A. D. Vernekar; J. Zhou; J. Shukla

1995-01-01

81

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. II. The badger population, its ecology and tuberculosis status.  

PubMed Central

Following a major outbreak of tuberculosis in cattle on a farm in Dorset, badgers were discovered to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Two hundred and forty sets were found in the 1200 hectares of the study area. The sets were found predominantly in areas of Portland Sand. A high prevalence of tuberculosis was found in the badger population which was removed and repopulation prevented for 3 years. The removal of the infected badgers led to the resolution of the problem in cattle. Re-colonization of the area has progressed slowly and the cattle have remained free from infection for a period of 5 years.

Little, T. W.; Swan, C.; Thompson, H. V.; Wilesmith, J. W.

1982-01-01

82

Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:20728995

Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

2010-08-06

83

Studies on Southeast Asian Haemaphysalis Ticks (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae). Redescription of Type Material of H. (Rhipistoma) Heinrichi Schulze, a Parasite of the Ferret-Badger in Burma and Vietnam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The male and female of Haemaphysalis (Rhipistoma) heinrichi Schulze, 1939, are redescribed from material in the type series, from a ferret-badger, Melogale p. personata Geoffrey, near Mandalay, Burma. This poorly known species, which was also recorded par...

H. Hoogstraal G. M. Kohls

1968-01-01

84

Is There Current Competition between Sympatric Siberian Weasels (Mustela sibirica) and Ferret Badgers (Melogale moschata) in a Subtropical Forest Ecosystem of Taiwan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hai-Yin Wu (1999) Is there current competition between sympatric Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) and ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) in a subtropical forest ecosystem of Taiwan? Zoological Studies 38(4): 443-451. The Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) and ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) sympatric in the Guandaushi Forest are of particular interest because, with low density of rodent prey most of the time, weasels

Hai-Yin Wu

85

Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used extensively to determine origin and diversity of taurine cattle (Bos taurus) but global surveys of paternally inherited Y-chromosome diversity are lacking. Here, we provide mtDNA information on previously uncharacterised Eurasian breeds and present the most comprehensive Y-chromosomal microsatellite data on domestic cattle to date. The mitochondrial haplogroup T3 was the most frequent,

J Kantanen; C J Edwards; D G Bradley; H Viinalass; S Thessler; Z Ivanova; T Kiselyova; M ?inkulov; R Popov; S Stojanovi?; I Ammosov; J Vilkki

2009-01-01

86

Water conservation study. Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin. A leak detection survey was performed on all process water piping with a diameter of 6 inches or greater. The leak detection analysis was performed using a combination of listening devices and preamplified-transducer systems to identify the majority of leak locations. When the location of the leak could not be readily identified using these methods, a leak correlator was used. The leak correlator determines leak location based on the time it takes for sound to travel from the leak to a waterline connection point.

NONE

1995-05-01

87

Biology of Eurasian Ruffe from Slovakia and Adjacent Central European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research information on Eurasian ruffe from previously published peer-review literature, reports, and previously unavailable or unpublished research from Slovakia and central Europe is synthesized. The synthesis focuses on geographical distribution, habitat requirements, reproductive biology, early development, diet, morphology, age and growth, and karyotype analysis. In Slovakia, the Eurasian ruffe prefers lentic to lotic environment. It is benthic but does not

Vladimír Ková?

1998-01-01

88

Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes of mortality were described for 245 radio-marked Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in five different Scandinavian study areas. Furthermore, the survival rates and the population growth rates were estimated for three of the study areas where 202 lynx were followed for a total of 314 radio-years. The main causes of mortality in adult Eurasian lynx in all our study areas

Henrik Andrén; John D. C. Linnell; Olof Liberg; Reidar Andersen; Anna Danell; Jens Karlsson; John Odden; P aû l F. Moa; Per Ahlqvist; Tor Kvam; Robert Franzén; Peter Segerström

2006-01-01

89

78 FR 45593 - Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (EUR) Request for Proposals for the Fundraising...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...European And Eurasian Public Affairs (EUR/PD) and U.S. diplomatic officers in Italy...subject to review and approval by EUR/PD. Eligible applicants: Applications may...European and Eurasian Public Diplomacy, EUR/PD, Room 3249, U.S. Department of...

2013-07-29

90

The Effect of Eurasian Snow Cover on Regional and Global Climate Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of the global climate system to interannual variability of he Eurasian snow cover has been investigated with numerical models. It was found that heavier than normal Eurasian snow cover in spring leads to a `poor' monsoon over Southeast Asia thereby verifying an idea over 100 years old. The poor monsoon was characterized by reduced rainfall over India and

T. P. Barnett; L. Dümenil; U. Schlese; E. Roeckner; M. Latif

1989-01-01

91

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. III. The prevalence of tuberculosis in mammals other than badgers and cattle.  

PubMed Central

A large sample of the wild mammals found on a farm in South Dorset were trapped and examined for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis following the discovery of widespread infection in cattle and badgers. M. bovis was isolated from the lymph nodes of two out of 90 rats (rattus norvegicus) and one out of seven foxes (Vulpes vulpes) but no lesions of tuberculosis were observed. It was concluded that the badger was the only species of wild mammal which was a reservoir of M. bovis in this area.

Little, T. W.; Swan, C.; Thompson, H. V.; Wilesmith, J. W.

1982-01-01

92

The effect of Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon  

SciTech Connect

More than a century ago, Blanford suggested the inverse relation between Himalayan winter and spring snow accumulation and subsequent summer monsoon rainfall over India. This relation was later substantiated with additional data by Walker. Because of an inadequate observational network to obtain the spatial variation of snow cover over the Himalayan region, little progress was made until the availability of satellite measurements. Snow cover data derived from satellite observations was used to show that the correlation between winter Eurasian snow cover south of 52{degrees}N and the following Indian summer monsoon rainfall is negative and statistically significant. This result was further supported by additional research. The relationship between snow cover and monsoon circulation is consistent with a suggestion that the Indian monsoon circulation is a dynamically stable system and its interannual variations are largely determined by slowly varying surface boundary conditions. 64 refs., 22 figs.

Vernekar, A.D.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shukla, J. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

1995-02-01

93

The effect of eurasian snow cover on global climate.  

PubMed

Numerical simulations with a global atmospheric circulation model suggest that largescale variations in the amount of snowfall over Eurasia in the springtime are linked to the subsequent strength of the Asian summer monsoon. Large-scale changes in Eurasian snow cover are coupled to larger scale changes in the global climate system. There is a large, strong teleconnection to the atmospheric field over North America. The model results also show snow cover effects to subsequently alter other climatic fields known to be intimately associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Thus the model results seem to challenge the current dogma that the ENSO phenomenon is solely the result of close coupling between the atmosphere and ocean by suggesting that processes over continental land masses may also have to be considered. PMID:17838886

Barnett, T P; Dümenil, L; Schlese, U; Roeckner, E

1988-01-29

94

Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus).  

PubMed

Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used extensively to determine origin and diversity of taurine cattle (Bos taurus) but global surveys of paternally inherited Y-chromosome diversity are lacking. Here, we provide mtDNA information on previously uncharacterised Eurasian breeds and present the most comprehensive Y-chromosomal microsatellite data on domestic cattle to date. The mitochondrial haplogroup T3 was the most frequent, whereas T4 was detected only in the Yakutian cattle from Siberia. The mtDNA data indicates that the Ukrainian and Central Asian regions are zones where hybrids between taurine and zebu (B. indicus) cattle have existed. This zebu influence appears to have subsequently spread into southern and southeastern European breeds. The most common Y-chromosomal microsatellite haplotype, termed here as H11, showed an elevated frequency in the Eurasian sample set compared with that detected in Near Eastern and Anatolian breeds. The taurine Y-chromosomal microsatellite haplotypes were found to be structured in a network according to the Y-haplogroups Y1 and Y2. These data do not support the recent hypothesis on the origin of Y1 from the local European hybridization of cattle with male aurochsen. Compared with mtDNA, the intensive culling of breeding males and male-mediated crossbreeding of locally raised native breeds has accelerated loss of Y-chromosomal variation in domestic cattle, and affected the contribution of genetic drift to diversity. In conclusion, to maintain diversity, breeds showing rare Y-haplotypes should be prioritised in the conservation of cattle genetic resources. PMID:19603063

Kantanen, J; Edwards, C J; Bradley, D G; Viinalass, H; Thessler, S; Ivanova, Z; Kiselyova, T; Cinkulov, M; Popov, R; Stojanovi?, S; Ammosov, I; Vilkki, J

2009-07-15

95

Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 1. Feasibility study report  

SciTech Connect

This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferred alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.

NONE

1994-08-01

96

Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Feasibility study report  

SciTech Connect

This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferred alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.

NONE

1994-08-01

97

Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland  

PubMed Central

Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta D?utowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews.

2013-01-01

98

Successes and Failures in Combating Desertification in the Eastern Edge of Eurasian Grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian Grassland is one of the important biomes in the world. However, this biome is severely desertified since the middle of last century, particularly in the northeastern Inner-Mongolia of China. The Eastern Edge of Eurasian Grassland in Inner Mongolia covers 740.0th km² and the desertified grassland is approximately 225.98th km² in 2005, about 30.5% desertified. The desertified land in Horqin

X.-Y. Zhao; Gang Huang; Ying-Xin Huang; Shao-Kun Wang; Ya-Yong Luo; Hao Qu; Jie Lian

2009-01-01

99

Frugivory and seed dispersal by a small carnivore, the Chinese ferret-badger, Melogale moschata, in a fragmented subtropical forest of central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity for the Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata), a small carnivorous mustelid mammal, as a frugivore and endozoochorous seed disperser was evaluated over the main fruiting period during 2 years of study in a fragmented subtropical forest of central China. Seeds of eight plant species were dispersed by M. moschata, based on the analysis of the 163 faecal samples. Three

You-Bing Zhou; Liang Zhang; Yayoi Kaneko; Chris Newman; Xiao-Ming Wang

2008-01-01

100

Individual trade-offs between nutrition and risk of interspecific transmission of disease by grazing: cows, badger latrines and bovine tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. We examine whether various measures of herbivore current physiological state (age, breed- ing and immune status) and genetic potential can be used as indicators of exposure to and risk from disease. We use dairy cattle and the risks of tuberculosis (TB) transmission posed to them by pasture contaminated with badger excreta (via the fecal-oral route) as a model

M. Scantlebury; S. Harris; D. J. Allcroft; M. R. Hutchings

2006-01-01

101

Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

Aradis, A.; Miller, M. W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

2008-01-01

102

Renal calculi in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in England.  

PubMed

Macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild Eurasian otters found dead in England from 1988 to 2007. Forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. Calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. There was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequency. Calculi occurred in both kidneys but were more common in the right kidney. They varied greatly in shape and size; larger calculi were mostly seen in the calyces while the smallest ones were commonly found in the renal medulla. Calculi from 45 cases were examined by x-ray diffraction analysis; in 43 (96 per cent), they were composed solely of ammonium acid urate. Affected otters had heavier adrenal glands relative to their body size than unaffected otters (P<0.001). There was no significant association between body condition index and the presence of calculi (P>0.05). Many otters had fresh bite wounds consistent with intraspecific aggression. The proportion bitten increased over time and this coincided with the increased prevalence of renal calculi. PMID:21676988

Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M; Lawson, B; Rogers, K D

2011-06-15

103

Investigations of Eurasian seismic sources and upper mantle structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new set of waveform-analysis procedures to recover phase and amplitude information from seismograms was evaluated. These procedures appear to be capable of making fundamentally new observations about the structure of the earth's interior. They were used to measure travel times and quality factors of body waves, including those embedded in complex wavetrains, as well as dispersion and attenuation of surface waves, including higher modes. These techniques were applied to three component seismograms to investigate the structure of the Eurasian upper mantle, made observations of shear wave splitting on long period records of multiply reflected S waves bottoming in the upper mantle beneath the Russian and Siberian platforms. Dispersion of Love and Rayleigh waves over these paths shows discrepancies of comparable or larger magnitude with respect to smooth isotropic structures, consistent with a model of the uppermost mantle having significant apparent vertical anisotropy. Although the splitting and dispersion data can be fit by smooth anisotropic models, we investigated the apparent anisotropy associated with fine-scale (rough) structure beneath stable Eurasia. The data was fitted with a rough isotropic model having an rms shear velocity fluctuation that varies from 14 percent in the uppermost mantle to zero at 400-km depth. The fluctuations are larger than the variation expected for even a diverse assemblage of upper mantle ultrabasic rocks, which was taken as evidence for some sort of intrinsic (local) anisotropy.

Jordan, Thomas H.; Revenaugh, Justin S.; Gee, Lind S.

1989-05-01

104

Magnetic Enhancement of Loessic Soils Along a Toposequence at Badger Ridge-Hitchcock Nature Area, Iowa, U.S.A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in magnetic properties of loessic soil have been correlated to changes in contemporary climate and such correlations aid in the interpretation of older, buried soils. While many studies have been conducted on the Loess Plateau of China, investigations of Midwestern Loess in the US are limited. Our aim is to determine the regional processes responsible for the magnetic development of the soil in Western Iowa. A total of 31 soil profiles from the southeast facing slopes of Badger Ridge located within the Hitchcock Nature Center in Honey Creek of Pottawattamie County were taken using a ½ in. manual soil push probe. The concentration-dependent parameters of magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and anhysteric remanent magnetization susceptibility (ARM) were measured. Highly eroded sites exhibited lesser degrees of magnetic enhancement than more stable sites. In depositional sites, the magnetic profiles were more variable and topographically influenced.

Munroe, C.; Geiss, C. E.; Urbano, L. D.

2009-12-01

105

Traces of early Eurasians in the Mansi of northwest Siberia revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as "Vogul") of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragment--length polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups. PMID:11845409

Derbeneva, Olga A; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Wallace, Douglas C; Sukernik, Rem I

2002-02-13

106

Predicting Eurasian watermilfoil's (Myriophylum spicatum L.) distribution and its likely response to biological control in a spring fed river  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), was first observed in Fall River, California in approximately 2001. Its presence has had impacts on the river. During 2009 and 2010 we determined Eurasian watermilfoil abundance and distribution. We also determined water temperature and total P conce...

107

GCM Study of Interannual Variability of Indian Summer Monsoon: the Impact of Anomalous Spring Eurasian Snow Cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently improved version of the COLA GCM, which simulates the Indian monsoon circulation and precipitation pattern closely, together with snow data derived from SMMR observations, were used to investigate the effect of anomalous spring Eurasian snow cover on the interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon. We have successfully simulated the observed evidence that excessive winter\\/spring Eurasian snow cover

Jiayu Zhou

1994-01-01

108

Collisional tectonics between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates from tomography evidences in Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper mantle structure of Southeast China is important for us to understand the deformation and mantle dynamics process associated with the interaction between the Eurasian plate and Philippine Sea (PHS) slab. We determined a detailed three-dimensional P-wave velocity (Vp) structure of the crust and upper mantle down to 400 km depth beneath Southeast China by applying teleseismic tomography to 6869 high-quality P-wave arrival times. The data were collected very carefully from the original seismograms of 635 teleseismic events recorded by 65 broadband stations deployed in Southeast China. Our images show that the high-Vp PHS slab subducts toward the north along the Ryukyu trench at the latitude of about 24°N and extends down to 350 km depth and even more. High-Vp anomalies are imaged in the upper mantle under central and southern Taiwan, which represent the subducted Eurasian plate. Break-off Eurasian plate at a big angle subducting eastward is revealed under central Taiwan at depths from the upper mantle to 400 km. While continuous Eurasian plate under South Taiwan is mainly imaged from the Moho down to 400 km depth, a torn mantle window within the Eurasian continent beneath central and northern Taiwan created by the northward motion of the Philippine Sea plate is the upwelling path of the asthenosphere. The tomographic images also show the low-Vp anomalies spread widely under the coastal areas of Mainland China and Taiwan Strait. The structure of the crust and upper mantle suggests that the mountain building process in the central part of Taiwan is mainly attributed to the subduction–collision tectonics at the boundary between the Eurasian continental lithosphere and the subducting oceanic lithosphere of the PHS slab.

Zheng, Hong-Wei; Gao, Rui; Li, Ting-Dong; Li, Qiu-Sheng; He, Ri-Zheng

2013-10-01

109

Relative abundance of American badger (Taxidea taxus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in landscapes with high and low rodenticide poisoning levels.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, extensive poisoning campaigns have been conducted in southern Saskatchewan to control Richardson's ground squirrel Spermophilus richardsonii (Sabine, 1822) populations. Such campaigns might impact on predator abundance by decreasing prey levels, and also through secondary poisoning. Using spotlighting, we investigated the relative abundance of American badgers Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) and red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) in 2 study areas with road access and crops, but with different levels of poisoning. In the study area with relatively low poisoning (19.6% of the area traversed by roads), there were 2.2 times more American badgers per km of road and 6.4 times more red foxes per km than in the study area with high poisoning (89.7% of the area). It is recommended that an Integrated Pest Management program be developed to conserve natural predators across landscapes. PMID:22405447

Proulx, Gilbert; MacKenzie, Neil

2012-03-01

110

Public health assessment for US Army, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Sauk County, Wisconsin, Region 5: CERCLIS number WI9210020054. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) is located in Sauk County, Wisconsin, near the city of Baraboo. Over a 33 year period, until 1975, the plant operated intermittently to produce propellants for cannon, rocket, and small arms ammunition. Past industrial activities at this site have resulted in surface soil and groundwater contamination by organic and inorganic chemicals. A groundwater contamination plume originating from the Propellant Burning Ground extends beyond the plant's southern boundary. In April 1990, chloroform and/or carbon tetrachloride were found at concentrations above the Wisconsin Division of Health completed a public health assessment for the BAAP. The report documented the evaluation of investigations of environmental conditions and environmentally-related activities taking place at Badger. The Division concluded that people exposed to groundwater contaminants had a slight increased risk of developing cancer.

Not Available

1999-05-28

111

Enumeration and Characterization of Bacterial Colonists of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.)  

PubMed Central

A simple procedure for enumerating and grouping the bacterial colonists of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is described. Colony characteristics of bacteria associated with M. spicatum were better defined and more stable on nutrient-poor, diluted nutrient broth agar than on high-nutrient media. Acinetobacter, Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Pseudomonas and/or Alcaligenes, and Vibrio/Aeromonas spp., as well as two highly fastidious unidentified bacterial groups (gram-negative rods and gram-negative cocci), were associated with cultured watermilfoil during January, February, May, June, July, and August 1988. In Lake Wingra (Madison, Wis.), Micrococcus spp. and enterobacters were also associated with Eurasian watermilfoil during July, August, and October 1987.

Chand, T.; Harris, R. F.; Andrews, J. H.

1992-01-01

112

The Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) is apparently not a host to blood parasites in Norway.  

PubMed

Parasites can alter the physiology and behaviour of host species and negatively impact on their fitness thus affecting population densities. This is the first investigation into the presence of blood parasites in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber); a species that has been the subject of many translocation and reintroduction programmes. Two hundred and seventy blood slides prepared from the blood of 27 beavers from southern Norway were microscopically analysed for the presence of blood parasites. This study reports an absence of blood parasites in the Norwegian Eurasian beavers sampled. PMID:22770707

Cross, Hannah B; Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Girling, Simon; Rosell, Frank

2012-06-17

113

The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (Felis catus, 2n = 38), American mink (Mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula, 2n = 40), Old World badger (Meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (Melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species

Wenhui Nie; Jinhuan Wang; Patricia C. M. O'Brien; Beiyuan Fu; Tian Ying; Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith; Fengtang Yang

2002-01-01

114

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992October 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization

J. P. Walker; R. G. Fortmann

1994-01-01

115

Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in wild animals: report of new host species and ecological implications.  

PubMed

Thelazia callipaeda infects the eyes of carnivores and humans in Far Eastern Asiatic and European countries. Studies have demonstrated the occurrence of T. callipaeda in foxes from areas where canine thelaziosis is endemic. However, there is little information on the role of wild carnivores as hosts of this nematode. From May 2003 to May 2009, a total of 130 carcasses of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes; n=75), wolves (Canis lupus; n=2), beech martens (Martes foina; n=22), brown hares (Lepus europaeus; n=13), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles; n=10), and wild cats (Felis silvestris; n=8) were examined in an area of southern Italy where canine thelaziosis is highly prevalent. At necropsy, animals were examined and nematodes were collected from the conjunctival sacs of both eyes. All nematodes were morphologically identified and at least five specimens from each of the five host species were molecularly processed by PCR amplification and sequencing of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Five out of the six wild animal species examined were found to be infected with eyeworms. The overall infection rate, excluding the Eurasian badgers that were all negative, was 39.1%. All the 189 adult nematodes collected (intensity of infection=4+/-2.2) were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda. The molecular analysis confirmed that the only haplotype of T. callipaeda circulating in Europe (i.e., haplotype 1) is present in that area. The competence of red foxes, wolves, beech martens, brown hares, and wild cats as definitive hosts for T. callipaeda is discussed in relationship to their ecology and their likely exposure to the vector Phortica variegata in the study area. The role the wild fauna plays in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals is also discussed. PMID:19782474

Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; DiGeronimo, Peter M; Brianti, Emanuele; Testini, Gabriella; Traversa, Donato; Lia, Riccardo P

2009-09-04

116

Mercury in wild terrestrial carnivorous mammals from north-western Poland and unusual fish diet of red fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations were determined in the kidney (K), liver (L), and pectoral muscle (M) of 19 individuals representing\\u000a wild carnivorous mammals from NW Poland: 10 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758), 3 raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834, 2 badgers Meles meles Linnaeus, 1758, 3 pine martens Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758, and 1 polecat Mustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758. The

El?bieta Kalisi?ska; Piotr Lisowski; Wies?aw Salicki; Teresa Kucharska; Katarzyna Kavetska

2009-01-01

117

Use of Protein AG in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening for Antibodies against Parapoxvirus in Wild Animals in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fus- cata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japa- nese wild boar

YASUO INOSHIMA; SHINYA SHIMIZU; NOBUYUKI MINAMOTO; KATSUYA HIRAI; HIROSHI SENTSUI

1999-01-01

118

A new deep ice core from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, Eurasian Arctic: first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents first results from the upper 54 m of a 723.91 m ice core drilled on Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, Eurasian Artctic, in 1999-2001, supplemented by data from shallow ice cores. The glacier's peculiarity is the infiltration and refreezing of melting water, which changes the original isotopic and chemical signals. Therefore, stratigraphical observations in these ice

Diedrich Fritzsche; Frank Wilhelms; Lev M. Savatyugin; Jean Francis Pinglot; Hanno Meyer; Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten; Heinz Miller

2002-01-01

119

Use of space and movement patterns in monogamous adult Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogamy in mammals is characterized by reduced sexual dimorphism in morphology and behaviour. Ten pairs of Eurasian beaver Castor fiber were radio-tracked to test how far this concept can be applied to movement behaviour by focusing on sex-related effects on territory sizes and movement patterns. Within monogamous pairs, males and females occupied territories of almost equal size during the whole

Jan Herr; Frank Rosell

2004-01-01

120

Respiration Rates of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis and Ruffe: Lower Energy Costs in Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of group size on the routine metabolic rate and activity of the two shoaling percids, Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, was studied by using twin-flow intermittent respirometry and time-lapse video techniques. In both species, we found a clear group effect. In isolated fish, oxygen consumption was as much as twice that in groups of eight

Diana Schleuter; Susanne Haertel-Borer; Philipp Fischer; Reiner Eckmann

2007-01-01

121

Risk analysis for species introductions: forecasting population growth of Eurasian ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American distribution of the Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), an ecologically important and costly invasive fish, is presently limited to the Laurentian Great Lakes. Risk analyses for accidental introductions of ruffe to inland lakes should focus on the chance of establishment for small introductions such as those that would result from transporting ruffe as bait. Here I use Akaike's

John M. Drake

2005-01-01

122

Factors controlling mineralization of soil organic matter in the Eurasian steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) in the Eurasian steppe, several soil and meteorological properties were tested in order to estimate the amounts of potentially mineralizable organic carbon (PMC) and nitrogen (PMN). Total 41 surface soil samples were collected in Ukraine and Kazakhstan from cropland, forest, grassland, and desert ecosystems. The fresh soils were incubated for 133

Atsunobu Kadono; Shinya Funakawa; Takashi Kosaki

2008-01-01

123

Land-Cover and Land-Use Change under Changing Climate in the Eurasian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the studies conducted in the framework of the NASA Land-Cover\\/Land- Use Change Program focused on the Eurasian Arctic will be presented. It includes discussion of vegetation changes under climate warming and implications to carbon cycle, changes in environmental pollution, hydrologic cycle, and impacts on society. Climate change can affect land cover in the Arctic through changes in

G. Gutman

2009-01-01

124

Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Under Changing Climate in the Eurasian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is an overview of the studies conducted in the framework of the NASA Land-Cover\\/Land- Use Change Program focused on the Eurasian Arctic. It includes discussion of vegetation changes under climate warming and implications to carbon cycle, changes in environmental pollution, hydrologic cycle, and impacts on society. Climate change can affect land cover in the Arctic through changes in

G. Gutman; P. Groisman; A. Reissell

2008-01-01

125

Relationships between ice breakup dates of lakes and local air temperature on the Eurasian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice breakup dates on lakes are related to the local air temperature, and are useful for understanding the local climate. However, little study has been done on lakes on the Eurasian continent. Therefore, an ice breakup date estimation method, using water temperature trend and threshold surface temperature and aided by satellite remote sensing, was developed in our previous study in

T. Nonaka; T. Matsunaga; A. Hoyano

2007-01-01

126

Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, August 20-21, 2012)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents a diverse collection written by a well-respected group of speakers and authors which includes government leaders, policy makers, education experts and administrators from all over the higher education world. The papers collected hereunder represent the conference proceedings of the Eurasian Higher Education Leaders'…

Reagan, Timothy, Ed.; Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.

2013-01-01

127

Changes in tropopause height for the Eurasian region determined from CARDS radiosonde data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have identified the tropopause height (TH) as a promising fingerprint of climatic change. In the present paper, we report variations in TH for the Eurasian region over the period 1973–1998 and analyse the influence of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) on these variations. As previous studies indicate that the greatest increases in TH occur in the extratropics, we

Juan A. Añel; Luis Gimeno; Laura de la Torre; Raquel Nieto

2006-01-01

128

Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu

C. Torres-Rouff; L. T. Yablonsky

2005-01-01

129

Invasion genetics of the Eurasian spiny waterflea: evidence for bottlenecks and gene flow using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian spiny waterflea ( Bythotrephes longimanus ) is a predacious zooplankter that has increased its range in Europe and is rapidly invading inland water-bodies throughout North America's Great Lakes region. To examine the genetics of these invasions, we iso- lated five microsatellite DNA loci with between 5 and 19 alleles per locus. We sampled three populations where B. longimanus

ROBERT I. COLAUTTI; MARINA MANCA; MARKKU VILJANEN; HENK A. M. KETELAARS; HANSRUDOLF BÜRGI; HUGH J. M ACISAAC; DANIEL D. H EATH

2005-01-01

130

A flying start for the agreement on the conservation of African?Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with Article XIV the Agreement on the Conservation of African?Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) entered into force on November 1, 1999 after the signature and ratification by the requisite fourteen Ranges States, comprising at least seven from Africa and seven from Eurasia. A few days later, the first Meeting of the Parties took place in Cape Town, South Africa.

Bert Lenten

2001-01-01

131

Influence of Dense Growth of Eurasian Watermilfoil on Lake Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a five year period we compared summer temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) at 10 sites within dense beds of Myriophyllum spicatum L. to an unvegetated reference site in a moderately eutrophic Wisconsin lake. Average surface temperatures in the Eurasian watermilfoil beds were significantly elevated in two of the five years, while bottom temperatures were significantly depressed each year. Dissolved

Jean M. L. Unmuth; Richard A. Lillie; David S. Dreikosen; David W. Marshall

2000-01-01

132

Sequence diversity of the MHC DRB gene in the Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, coding molecules which play an important role in immune response, are the most polymorphic genes known in vertebrates. However, MHC polymorphism in some species is limited. MHC monomorphism at several MHC class I and II loci was previously reported for two neighbouring northern European populations of the Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber ) and reduced

W. BABIK; W. DURKA; J. RADWAN

2005-01-01

133

Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the Oden 91 expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oden 91 North Pole expedition obtained oceanographic measurements on four sections in the Nansen and Amundsen basins of the Eurasian Basin and in the Makarov Basin of the Canadian Basin, thereby proving the feasibility of carrying out a typical oceanographic program using an icebreaker in the Arctic Ocean. The data show greater spatial variability in water structure and circulation

L. G. Anderson; G. Björk; O. Holby; E. P. Jones; G. Kattner; K. P. Koltermann; B. Liljeblda; R. Lindegren; B. Rudels; J. Swift

1994-01-01

134

The modern «Silk way» and subregional cooperation within the Eurasian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central region of the Eurasian continent including Xinjiang of China, central and western parts of Siberia, and also adjoining areas of Mongolia and five countries of Central Asia, is allocated with riches and a variety of the resources and specific features of the environment. It is one of the most perspective regions for development in the world. Subregional cooperation

Ìà Intszjun

135

Hatching asynchrony in the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus: an experimental test of the brood reduction hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. We tested the brood reduction hypothesis by manipulating hatching spans of Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus (Linnaeus) broods during two low vole years (1996-97) in western Finland. In addition, half the broods in 1997 were food sup- plemented during the entire nestling period. 2. Nestling mortality was high, occurring in 55% of nests, and the eÄect of manipulated hatching

Jurgen Wiehn; Petteri Ilmonen; Erkki Korpimaki; Maarit Pahkala; Karen L. Wiebe

2000-01-01

136

Whole Lake Fluridone Treatments For Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil: II. Impacts on Submersed Plant Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic herbicide fluridone is being used in northern tier states to selectively control the submersed exotic species Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) growing in lakes and reservoirs. Reliable quantitative information linking changes in the submersed plant community following fluridone applications is limited, particularly with respect to water residue records. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of

John D. Madsen; Kurt D. Getsinger; R. Michael Stewart; Chetta S. Owens

2002-01-01

137

Loss of native aquatic plant species in a community dominated by Eurasian watermilfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological evaluation of the impact of an exotic species upon native plant species is frequently a combination of historical data prior to introduction and after full establishment with little observation in between. The introduction of Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Eurasian watermilfoil) into Lake George, New York, U.S.A. was first noted in 1985. In 1987, a few newly established plants were allowed

Charles W. Boylen; Lawrence W. Eichler; John D. Madsen

1999-01-01

138

Eurasian Snow Cover versus Indian Monsoon Rainfall--An Extension of the Hahn-Shukla Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent inverse relationship between Eurasian mean winter snow cover extent and the following warm season Indian monsoon rainfall, described by Hahn and Shukla for the 1967-75 period, is substantiated by the addition of five subsequent years of data if known deficiencies in satellite snow observations are accommodated. In this respect, elimination of a bias due to under-observation of snow

Robert R. Dickson

1984-01-01

139

Nestbox provisioning in a rural population of Eurasian Kestrels: breeding performance, nest predation and parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding biology of the Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in nestboxes in farmland was studied to test for differences between artificial and natural sites. We report on the direct effect of nestbox provisioning on some life- history traits and how nestbox use affects nest predation and parasitism. Five types of nest-sites were available: nestboxes on poles and trees (artificial sites),

JUAN A. FARGALLO; GUILLERMO BLANCO; JAIME POTTI; J. Vinuela

2001-01-01

140

Detection of a Novel and Highly Divergent Coronavirus from Asian Leopard Cats and Chinese Ferret Badgers in Southern China?  

PubMed Central

Since an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was averted in 2004, many novel coronaviruses have been recognized from different species, including humans. Bats have provided the most diverse assemblages of coronaviruses, suggesting that they may be the natural reservoir. Continued virological surveillance has proven to be the best way to avert this infectious disease at the source. Here we provide the first description of a previously unidentified coronavirus lineage detected from wild Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis) and Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) during virological surveillance in southern China. Partial genome analysis revealed a typical coronavirus genome but with a unique putative accessory gene organization. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the envelope, membrane, and nucleoprotein structural proteins and the two conserved replicase domains, putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase, of these novel coronaviruses were most closely related to those of group 3 coronaviruses identified from birds, while the spike protein gene was most closely related to that of group 1 coronaviruses from mammals. However, these viruses always fell into an outgroup phylogenetic relationship with respect to other coronaviruses and had low amino acid similarity to all known coronavirus groups, indicating that they diverged early in the evolutionary history of coronaviruses. These results suggest that these viruses may represent a previously unrecognized evolutionary pathway, or possibly an unidentified coronavirus group. This study demonstrates the importance of systematic virological surveillance in market animals for understanding the evolution and emergence of viruses with infectious potential.

Dong, B. Q.; Liu, W.; Fan, X. H.; Vijaykrishna, D.; Tang, X. C.; Gao, F.; Li, L. F.; Li, G. J.; Zhang, J. X.; Yang, L. Q.; Poon, L. L. M.; Zhang, S. Y.; Peiris, J. S. M.; Smith, G. J. D.; Chen, H.; Guan, Y.

2007-01-01

141

Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon and its Relationships with ENSO and Eurasian Snow Cover.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The onset of the Asian summer monsoon in relation to the land-sea thermal contrast, and its interannual variability and relationships with ENSO and Eurasian snow cover are studied using various data at NCAR data center. The onset of the Asian summer monsoon is marked by large temperature increases during summer over the Tibetan Plateau. Sensible heating of the Plateau surface in spring plays an important role in triggering the onset of the Asian summer monsoon. A monsoon index, based on the magnitude of the mean vertical shear of the zonal wind in the "South Asia" region, was used to classify the "strong" and "weak" broad -scale Asian summer monsoon seasons. Of the particular importance, the strong (weak) Asian summer monsoon years are associated with (a) strong (weak) Pacific trade winds; (b) positive (negative) air temperature anomalies in the midlatitudes, but negative (positive) air temperature anomalies in the tropics; and (c) negative (positive) SST anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific. Power spectral analyses show three significant peaks at periods near 4 ~ 6 years, 2 ~ 2.5 years and 15 months in the monsoon index, equatorial SST and Eurasian snow cover. Cross -spectral analyses show two coherent oscillations with periods near 3 ~ 6 years and 2 ~ 2.5 years in the monsoon index, equatorial SST and Eurasian snow cover. For the 3 ~ 6 year period range, phase relationships between the monsoon index, SST and Eurasian snow cover are complex and suggestive of two-way interactions. However, for the quasi-biennial period range, the Eurasian snow cover leads both SST and the monsoon index. High Eurasian winter and spring snow cover is followed by weak Asian summer monsoon and weak Pacific trade winds. The tropical east-west circulation provides a connection between the Asian monsoon and the atmosphere/ocean system in the tropical Pacific basin. Calculations of the sources and moisture sinks reveal that, over the Indian Ocean, the heat sources show distinct quasi-biennial oscillation. On the other hand, over the eastern Pacific a longer (4 ~ 6 years) periodicity is evident.

Li, Chengfeng

142

[Biogeographic zonation of the Eurasian fresh waters based on the macrobenthic faunas].  

PubMed

Spatial differentiation of the Eurasian freshwater faunas is analyzed based on the original and published data on the aquatic insects, crustaceans, and mollusks (about 8800 species in total). The Hacker-Dice similarity index is employed as a principal criterion of differentiation. The schemes of biogeographic zonation are constructed for the nine large macrobenthic taxa, namely, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Malacostraca, Gastropoda, and Bivalvia. Discussed are principal discordances in distribution of three different ecological-systematic groups of the macrobenthos, namely, limnophylic insects, rheophylic insects, and crustaceans with mollusks. A generalized zonation system of the Eurasian fresh waters is elaborated, which is fundamentally divided into Palaearctic and Oriental Regions. The former is further divided into five subregions: Euro-Ob, Near East, Central Asia, Eastern Siberia, and Japan. The latter is divided into three subregions: Indo-Himalaya, China, and Malay. Preliminary classification of the provinces is also provided. Disagreements between the biogeographic systems of different authors are discussed. PMID:20391751

Chertoprud, M V

143

Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions; EU-FP-7 e-infra ENVRI "Common Operations of Environmental Research Infrastructures" project. New Siberian research infrastructure and data products should be developed in line with the ACTRIS, ICOS and ENVRI approaches. Furthermore, The Pan-Eurasian Experiment will be supported iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem - Atmosphere Processes Study) bringing the PEEX under umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The permafrost regions and boreal forests of the Pan Eurasian area can be identified as a hot spot of climate change research in a global scale. PEEX experiment can be considered as a crucial part of the strategic aims of several international and national roadmaps for climate change research and the development of next-generation research infrastructures. In this work we present the overall Science Plan for the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and report on the progress made in two PEEX science workshops organized in Helsinki in October 2012 and in Moscow in February 2013.

Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

2013-04-01

144

A Five-Year Record of Summer Melt on Eurasian Arctic Ice Caps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatologies and annual anomaly patterns (2000-04) of melt season duration and dates of melt onset\\/ freeze-up on Eurasian Arctic ice masses were derived from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) backscatter data. Severnaya Zemlya, Russia, has later melt onset, earlier freeze-up, and shorter melt seasons than Svalbard, Norway\\/Novaya Zemlya, Russia. In all three archipelagos 2001 was the longest melt season and 2000 was

Martin Sharp; Libo Wang

2009-01-01

145

Influence of Eurasian snow on Indian summer monsoon in NCEP CFSv2 freerun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest version of the state-of-the-art global land-atmosphere-ocean coupled climate forecast system of NCEP has shown considerable improvement in various aspects of the Indian summer monsoon. However, climatological mean dry bias over the Indian sub-continent is further increased as compared to the previous version. Here we have attempted to link this dry bias with climatological mean bias in the Eurasian winter/spring snow, which is one of the important predictors of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR). Simulation of interannual variability of the Eurasian snow and its teleconnection with the ISMR are quite reasonable in the model. Using composite analysis it is shown that a positive snow anomaly, which is comparable to the systematic bias in the model, results into significant decrease in the summer monsoon rainfall over the central India and part of the Equatorial Indian Ocean. Decrease in the summer monsoon rainfall is also found to be linked with weaker northward propagation of intraseasonal oscillation (ISO). A barotropic stationary wave triggered by positive snow anomaly over west Eurasia weakens the upper level monsoon circulation, which in turn reduces the zonal wind shear and hence, weakens the northward propagation of summer monsoon ISOs. A sensitivity experiment by reducing snow fall over Eurasian region causes decrease in winter and spring snow depth, which in turn leads to decrease in Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Results from the sensitivity experiment corroborate with those of composite analysis based on long free run. This study suggests that further improvements in the snow parametrization schemes as well as Arctic sea ice are needed to reduce the Eurasian snow bias during winter/spring, which may reduce the dry bias over Indian sub-continent and hence predictability aspect of the model.

Saha, Subodh K.; Pokhrel, Samir; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.

2013-10-01

146

Ovarian fluid plays an essential role in attachment of Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs of the Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, are strongly attached to each other to form 0.5–5.5m long and 1–6cm wide floating jelly strands or ribbons. The processes involved in the initiation of egg attachment were investigated in the present study. Eggs are released together with small amounts of ovarian fluid. When the eggs come in contact with water, a fibrous

N. Mansour; F. Lahnsteiner; R. A. Patzner

2009-01-01

147

Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however,\\u000a could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship\\u000a between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years.

Jesús Martínez-Padilla; Juan A. Fargallo

2008-01-01

148

Small-Plot, Low-Dose Treatments of Triclopyr for Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-plot treatments of triclopyr were conducted on Lake Minnetonka and Lake Minnewashta, MN, during June 1998 to investigate the herbicide's potential to selectively control Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) at low doses. Applications were made on 1-ha plots with rates based on plot type: references (0 mg acid equivalent (ae)·L), protected plots (0.5 mg ae·L), semi-protected plots(1.0 mgae·L), and unprotected

Angela G. Poovey; Kurt D. Getsinger; John G. Skogerboe; Tyler J. Koschnick; John D. Madsen; R. Michael Stewart

2004-01-01

149

Spatial interactions between grey wolves and Eurasian lynx in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various species of large predators are reported to influence each other through interference or exploitation competition that\\u000a may affect demography and survival of the subordinate species. We analyzed spatial relationships between grey wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF, eastern Poland) to determine how they partitioned the space. The wolves (n = 8) and lynx (n = 14)

Krzysztof Schmidt; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Henryk Okarma; Rafa? Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

150

Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) : Legal Aspects of Regional Trade Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) is an international economic organization designed to effectively promote the formation of a customs union and a single economic space among six CIS countries : Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Moldova, Ukraine, and Armenia have observer status. As a newborn child, the EurAsEC has yet to overcome internal and external challenges. The main

Sherzod Shadikhodjaev

2008-01-01

151

Phylogeographic structure and mitochondrial DNA variation in true lemmings ( Lemmus ) from the Eurasian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic pattern of mtDNA variation in lemmings from 13 localities throughout the Eurasian Arctic was studied by using eight restriction enzymes and sequencing of the cytochromebregion. These data are used to reveal the vicariant history ofLemmus, and to examine the effect of the last glaciation on mtDNA variation by comparing diversity in formerly glaciated areas to the diversity in

VADIM FEDOROV; ANNA GOROPASHNAYA; GORDON H. JARRELL; KARL FREDGA

1999-01-01

152

Tool-use in a display behaviour by Eurasian beavers ( Castor fiber )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tool use is rare amongst rodents and has never been recorded in connection with agonistic displays. We witnessed a behaviour,\\u000a stick display (StD), involving tool use in free-living Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) that we conclude is a display behaviour. Two beavers were the main performers of the signal that was observed in at least\\u000a six beavers from three families. Beavers

Liat R. Thomsen; Ruairidh D. Campbell; Frank Rosell

2007-01-01

153

Feeding and hoarding behaviour of the Eurasian red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris during autumn in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits and hoarding behaviour of the Eurasian red squirrelSciurus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 were examined during autumn in Nopporo Forest Park (43°20’N, 141°30’E), in western Hokkaido, Japan. The diet\\u000a consisted of 32 plant species. Twelve species were both eaten and hoarded (the two most common of which wereAbies sachalinensis andPinus koraiensis), and 20 species were eaten but not hoarded.

Tsung Hung Lee

2002-01-01

154

A lithosphere-dynamics constraint on mantle flow: Analysis of the Eurasian plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method to estimate the poorly understood mechanical coupling between lithosphere and underlying mantle, and apply it to the Eurasian plate. Mechanical equilibrium of tectonic plates requires the torque from mantle tractions ($\\\\overline{T}$M) to be balanced by the torques from edge forces ($\\\\overline{T}$E) and lithospheric body forces ($\\\\overline{T}$B). The direction of $\\\\overline{T}$E proves tightly constrained by plate boundary

K. N. Warners-Ruckstuhl; P. Th. Meijer; R. Govers; M. J. R. Wortel

2010-01-01

155

Early Eurasian migration traces in the Tarim Basin revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of 58 samples from the Daheyan village located in the central Taklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin were determined in this study. Among the 58 samples, 29 haplotypes belonging to 18 different haplogroups were analyzed. Almost all the mtDNAs belong to a subset of either the defined Western or Eastern Eurasian pool. Extensive Eastern Eurasian lineages exist in the Daheyan population in which Northern-prevalent haplogroups present higher frequencies. In the limited existing Western Eurasian lineages, two sub-haplogroups, U3 and X2, that are rare in Central Asia were found in this study, which may be indicative of the remnants of an early immigrant population from the Near East and Caucasus regions preserved only in the Tarim Basin. The presence of U3 in modern and archeological samples in the Tarim Basin suggests that the immigration took place earlier than 2,000 years ago and points to human continuity in this area, with at least one Western lineage originating from the Near East and Caucasus regions. PMID:20091803

Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Chunxiang; Gao, Shizhu; Xie, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hui

2010-08-01

156

Estimating reassortment rates in co-circulating Eurasian swine influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Swine have often been considered as a mixing vessel for different influenza strains. In order to assess their role in more detail, we undertook a retrospective sequencing study to detect and characterize the reassortants present in European swine and to estimate the rate of reassortment between H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes with Eurasian (avian-like) internal protein-coding segments. We analysed 69 newly obtained whole genome sequences of subtypes H1N1–H3N2 from swine influenza viruses sampled between 1982 and 2008, using Illumina and 454 platforms. Analyses of these genomes, together with previously published genomes, revealed a large monophyletic clade of Eurasian swine-lineage polymerase segments containing H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. We subsequently examined reassortments between the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments and estimated the reassortment rates between lineages using a recently developed evolutionary analysis method. High rates of reassortment between H1N2 and H1N1 Eurasian swine lineages were detected in European strains, with an average of one reassortment every 2–3 years. This rapid reassortment results from co-circulating lineages in swine, and in consequence we should expect further reassortments between currently circulating swine strains and the recent swine-origin H1N1v pandemic strain.

Baillie, G.; Coulter, E.; Bhatt, S.; Kellam, P.; McCauley, J. W.; Wood, J. L. N.; Brown, I. H.; Pybus, O. G.; Leigh Brown, A. J.

2012-01-01

157

Estimating reassortment rates in co-circulating Eurasian swine influenza viruses.  

PubMed

Swine have often been considered as a mixing vessel for different influenza strains. In order to assess their role in more detail, we undertook a retrospective sequencing study to detect and characterize the reassortants present in European swine and to estimate the rate of reassortment between H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes with Eurasian (avian-like) internal protein-coding segments. We analysed 69 newly obtained whole genome sequences of subtypes H1N1-H3N2 from swine influenza viruses sampled between 1982 and 2008, using Illumina and 454 platforms. Analyses of these genomes, together with previously published genomes, revealed a large monophyletic clade of Eurasian swine-lineage polymerase segments containing H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes. We subsequently examined reassortments between the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments and estimated the reassortment rates between lineages using a recently developed evolutionary analysis method. High rates of reassortment between H1N2 and H1N1 Eurasian swine lineages were detected in European strains, with an average of one reassortment every 2-3 years. This rapid reassortment results from co-circulating lineages in swine, and in consequence we should expect further reassortments between currently circulating swine strains and the recent swine-origin H1N1v pandemic strain. PMID:22971819

Lycett, S J; Baillie, G; Coulter, E; Bhatt, S; Kellam, P; McCauley, J W; Wood, J L N; Brown, I H; Pybus, O G; Leigh Brown, A J

2012-09-12

158

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in England and Wales  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is found on all continents and can infect all endothermic vertebrates. Toxoplasmosis is a globally important zoonosis with potentially devastating health impacts both for humans and a range of domestic and wild species. The World Health Organisation have repeatedly recommended the collection of accurate epidemiological data for T. gondii, yet despite recognised links between infection of wildlife, domestic animals and humans, seroprevalence in wild species is rarely monitored. Here, serological investigation using the Gold Standard Sabin-Feldman Dye Test was used to test for T. gondii in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) found dead, mainly as road-kill, in England and Wales. This is the first spatially widespread study of T. gondii in UK wildlife, and the first extensive survey of T. gondii in Eurasian otters, a sentinel species of fresh waters. Findings Infection was both common (39.5% prevalence, n?=?271) and widespread, with significantly more infection in the east than the west of the UK. There was an increase in seroprevalence with age, but no sex bias. Conclusions The relatively high prevalence of T. gondii in a predominantly piscivorous freshwater mammal suggests widespread faecal contamination of freshwater ecosystems with oocysts. Continued surveillance of the Eurasian otter for T. gondii is valuable because of conservation concerns due to the otter’s ‘near threatened’ status on the IUCN Red List and because of the host’s role as a sentinel for freshwater health.

2013-01-01

159

Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe  

PubMed Central

Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA.

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim Ann; Barker, Graeme; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hanks, Bryan Kent; Li, Shuicheng; Lomitashvili, David; Ochir-Goryaeva, Maria; Sizonov, Grigory V.; Soyonov, Vasiliy; Manica, Andrea

2012-01-01

160

Remedial investigation/feasibility study badger army ammunition plant Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 3. Feasibility study report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

This Feasibility Study (FS) report for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was prepared by ABB Environmental Services, Inc. (ABB-ES) as a component of Task Order 1 of Contract DAAAl5-91-D-OOO8 with the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC). This report uses the results presented in the Final Remedial Investigation (RI) report (ABB-ES, 1993a) to develop and screen alternatives for remediation of contaminated media at BAAP. The purpose of this FS report is to develop, screen, and evaluate site-specific remedial alternatives to mitigate the impact of site-derived chemicals and ultimately provide protection of human health and the environment. Preferred alternatives for each site are included in this report. Based on previous environmental studies at BAAP, 11 potential hazardous waste sites were ranked according to potential contributions of hazardous chemicals to the environment. These sites were designated as Waste Management Areas because some of the sites contain multiple Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). The sites selected to undergo facility assessment and corrective actions are: the Propellant Burning Ground (including Landfill), Deterrent Burning Ground, existing Landfill, Settling Ponds and Spoils Disposal Area, Rocket Paste Area, Oleum Plant and Oleum Plant Pond, Nitroglycerine Pond, old Acid Area, new Acid Area, and Ballistics Pond. The USAEC added an 11th site, the Old Fuel Oil Tank, to the list in October 1989 after discovery of fuel-contaminated soils during excavation of a water line in the vicinity of the old fuel oil tank foundation.

NONE

1994-08-01

161

Phylogenetic inference and comparative evolution of a complex microsatellite and its flanking regions in carnivores.  

PubMed

We sequenced locus Mel 08, with complex short repetitive motifs, in 24 carnivore species belonging to five different families in order to explore mutational changes in the region in the context of locus and species evolution. This non-coding locus includes up to four different parts or repetitive motifs showing size variability. The variability consists of repeat additions and deletions; substitutions, insertions and/or deletions creating interruptions in the repeat; and substitutions, insertions and deletions in the flanking regions. The locus has different repeat expansions in different carnivore subfamilies. We hypothesize that the complexity of this locus is due to a high mutation rate at an ancestral DNA sequence and, thus, prompts the emergence of repeats at mutational hotspots. High levels of homoplasy were evident, with nine electromorphs representing 28 haplotypes never shared across species. The variability in flanking regions was informative for phylogenetic inference and their evolutionary content. Tree topologies were congruent with relevant hypotheses on current conflicts in carnivore phylogenies, such as: (i) the monophyly of Lutrinae, (ii) the paraphyly of Mustelinae, (iii) the basal position of the Eurasian badger, Meles meles , in the Mustelidae, (iv) the classification of skunks as a separate family, Mephitidae, and (v) the placement of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens , as a monotypic family, Ailuridae, at a basal position in the Musteloidea. PMID:16174341

Domingo-Roura, Xavier; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Saeki, Midori; Marmi, Josep

2005-06-01

162

Large-scale serosurvey of Besnoitia besnoiti in free-living carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

The disease bovine besnoitiosis is responsible for severe economic losses caused by the protozoan Besnoitia besnoiti. The identity of the definitive host (DH) of this parasite has yet to be determined, although it is presumed to be a carnivore. With the aim of advancing in the identification of B. besnoiti DH, a necessary step in implementing control strategies, the contact rate of 205 free-roaming carnivores with this parasite in Spain was studied. The study included 16 wolves (Canis lupus), 41 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 21 pine martens (Martes martes), eight stone martens (M. foina), 12 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 18 common genets (Genetta genetta), five Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 28 European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), 43 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus), and 13 other animals belonging to five other species. Serum samples were analysed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by two western immunoblots (WB, one with tachyzoite and the other with bradyzoite antigen). Twelve individuals (eight of which were cats) seroconverted by one or other of these techniques but no individual showed seroconversion by IFAT and one of the WBs. The results provided no evidence to support the idea that within the geographical regions covered by the analysis wild carnivores are implicated in the transmission of B. besnoiti in Spain. PMID:22770702

Millán, Javier; Sobrino, Raquel; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Oleaga, Alvaro; Gortazar, Christian; Schares, Gereon

2012-06-21

163

Group Contagion: The Mailbox Melee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a group situation, something goes wrong but no individual feels personal responsibility. This is called the "pie" phenomenon because everybody has a piece of the action, but all believe they are innocent. Each contributes to contagion and chaos but all say, "We didn't do nothing." In this article, the author, a pioneer in work with troubled…

Morse, William C.

2010-01-01

164

Group Contagion: The Mailbox Melee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a group situation, something goes wrong but no individual feels personal responsibility. This is called the "pie" phenomenon because everybody has a piece of the action, but all believe they are innocent. Each contributes to contagion and chaos but all say, "We didn't do nothing." In this article, the author, a pioneer in work with troubled…

Morse, William C.

2010-01-01

165

Ectoparasites of the endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

Ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. We surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 Iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes Vulpes vulpes, 24 Egyptian mongooses Herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets Genetta genetta, two Eurasian badgers Meles meles, one polecat Mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging carnivores (46 cats Felis catus, 29 dogs Canis familiaris) from June 2004 to June 2006 in the two areas where the last lynx metapopulations survive: Sierra Morena and Doñana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 65% of lynxes were parasitized (50% by ticks, 19% by fleas, 4% by lice, 31% by hippoboscid flies), as were 75% of foxes (58%, 60%, 0%, 19%), 71% of mongooses (50%, 4%, 46%, 0%), 54% of genets (18%, 36%, 0%, 0%), 30% of cats (22%, 14%, 0%, 2%), and 7% of dogs (surveyed only for ticks). Both badgers presented ticks, fleas and lice. Five species of ixodid ticks (Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev and Matikashvili, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Ixodes hexagonus Leach and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado; and Hyalomma sp.), four species of fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans Linnaeus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale), Xenopsylla cunicularis Smit), three species of chewing lice (Felicola (Felicola) inequalis (Piaget), Trichodectes (Trichodectes) melis (Fabricius), and Felicola (Lorisicola) isidoroi Pérez and Palma), and one species of hippoboscid fly (Hippobosca longipennis (Fabricius)) were found. We did not detect any cases of mange. Hippobosca longipennis is a new record for Spanish wildlife, and all the flea species are new records for the Iberian lynx. Fleas were more frequent on lynxes and foxes in winter than in spring. Rhipicephalus spp. were more frequent on cats in spring than in any other season. These and other epidemiological findings are discussed with respect to the conservation of the Iberian lynx. PMID:17897365

Millán, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Márquez, F J; Viota, M; López-Bao, J V; Paz Martín-Mateo, M

2007-09-01

166

Virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).  

PubMed

Enterococci are ubiquitous microorganisms found as part of the normal intestinal microbiota of many animals such as the free-ranging Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758). In this work, twenty-nine enterococci isolated from fecal samples of Eurasian otters free-living in reservoirs and associated river stretches in South Portugal were identified and typed by conventional/molecular methods and screened for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Identification allocated the isolates to the species Enterococcus faecalis (19), E. faecium (9) and E. durans (1) and PCR-fingerprinting revealed their high genomic diversity. Regarding virulence factors, three isolates produced cytolysin and six were gelatinase-positive. Genes ace and acm were detected in five enterococci each, ebpABC in seventeen, gelE in fourteen and cylA in three. All isolates showed resistance patterns and antibiotic resistance genes tet(M) and pbp5 were detected in seventeen isolates each, whereas vanB and vanD were identified in thirteen and five, respectively, being most van-harboring isolates members of E. faecium. The aac(6')-Ie-aph (2?) gene, encoding for gentamicin resistance, was observed in all gentamicin-resistant enterococci. Since all isolates harbor virulence and/or antibiotic resistance traits, the role of free-living Eurasian otters in the dissemination of virulent/resistant enterococci among other animals sharing the same ecological niche cannot be disregarded, as well as the health risk they may represent for humans directly interacting with them or their habitat. PMID:23375652

Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Nóbrega, Cláudia Silva; Ribeiro, Tânia; Pedroso, Nuno M; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tenreiro, Rogério; Tavares, Luís; Vilela, Cristina Lobo; Oliveira, Manuela

2013-01-17

167

Eurasian snow cover and Indian monsoon : A new episode of a debated relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the pioneering works of Blanford at the end of the 19th century, suggesting that Indian monsoon rainfall could be sensitive to snow conditions over Himalaya, many studies have been devoted to a better understanding of the possible teleconnection between winter/spring Eurasian snow cover and the following Indian monsoon. This issue has been recently revisited at CNRM using a maximum covariance analysis. This statistical tool has been applied on both observations (summer precipitation over India on the one hand, satellite data of snow cover or in situ measurements of snow depth on the other hand) and a subset of global coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations from the CMIP3 database. In line with former studies, the observations suggest a link between an east-west snow dipole over Eurasia and the Indian summer monsoon precipitation. However, our results indicate that this relationship is neither statistically significant nor stationary over the last forty years. Moreover, the strongest signal appears over eastern Eurasia and is not consistent with the Blanford hypothesis whereby more snow should lead to a weaker monsoon. The 20th century CMIP3 simulations provide longer timeseries to look for robust snow-monsoon relationships. Some models do show an apparent influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon precipitation, but the snow patterns are model-dependent and not the same as in the observations. Moreover, the apparent snow-monsoon relationship generally denotes a too strong ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) influence on both winter snow cover and summer monsoon rainfall rather than a direct effect of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon. New sensitivity studies with the ARPEGE-Climat model are needed to assess the potential impact of snow anomalies on the monsoon, using climatological sea surface temperature to get rid of the oceanic variability.

Peings, Y.; Douville, H.

2009-04-01

168

Anomalous sea-ice reduction in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean during summer 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2010 ice concentration in the Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean was unusually low. This study examines the sea-ice reduction in the Eurasian Basin using ice-based autonomous buoy systems that collect temperature and salinity of seawater under the ice along the course of buoy drift. An array of GPS drifters was deployed with 10 miles radius around an ice-based profiler, enabling the quantitative discussion for mechanical ice divergence/convergence and its contribution to the sea-ice reduction. Oceanic heat fluxes to the ice estimated using buoy motion and mixed-layer (ML) temperature suggest significant spatial difference between fluxes under first-year and multi-year ice. In the former, the ML temperature reached 0.6 K above freezing temperature, providing >60-70 W m-2 of heat flux to the overlying ice, equivalent to about 1.5 m of ice melt over three months. In contrast, the multiyear ice region indicates nearly 40 W m-2 at most and cumulatively produced 0.8 m ice melt. The ice concentration was found to be reduced in association with an extensive low pressure system that persisted over the central Eurasian Basin. SSM/I indicates that ice concentration was reduced by 30-40% while the low pressure persisted. The low ice concentration persisted for 30 days even after the low dissipated. It appears that the wind-forced ice divergence led to enhanced absorption of incident solar energy in the expanded areas of open water and thus to increased ice melt.

Kawaguchi, Yusuke; Hutchings, Jennifer K.; Kikuchi, Takashi; Morison, James H.; Krishfield, Richard A.

2012-04-01

169

Tool-use in a display behaviour by Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber).  

PubMed

Tool use is rare amongst rodents and has never been recorded in connection with agonistic displays. We witnessed a behaviour, stick display (StD), involving tool use in free-living Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) that we conclude is a display behaviour. Two beavers were the main performers of the signal that was observed in at least six beavers from three families. Beavers reacted to displays by increased evasive and agonistic behaviours compared with their usual behavioural patterns when at territory borders. The behaviour was almost exclusively seen between rivals at territory borders. We suggest that the display is used in agonistic encounters, mainly in a territorial context. PMID:17318623

Thomsen, Liat R; Campbell, Ruairidh D; Rosell, Frank

2007-02-23

170

Migration Dynamics and Seasonal Variation In the Biometrics of the Eurasian Curlew ( Numenius arquata ) Migrating through the Lower Vistula Valley (N Poland) in Autumn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Krupa R., Meissner W., Krupa M., Sereda A. 2009. Migration dynamics and seasonal varia- tion in the biometrics of the Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata) migrating through the lower Vistula valley (N Poland) in autumn. Ring 31, 1: 41-51. The aim of this study was to present data on the phenology of autumn migration of the Eurasian Curlew passing the lower

Robert Krupa; W?odzimierz Meissner; Ma?gorzata Krupa; Agnieszka Sereda

2009-01-01

171

Some results obtained on the study of the chemical composition of Eurasian oils depending on the depth and age of the reservoir rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfur, paraffin, resin and asphaltene contents of some 6570 Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Paleozoic Eurasian oils were analysed statistically in terms of reservoir age and depth. The database includes all principal oil-bearing basins from 60 Eurasian countries. The results of the studies of the relationships between the distribution of oils with different sulfur, paraffin, resin and asphaltene contents and the

Vilori V Ahn; Yuri M Polichtchouk; Irina G Yashchenko

2002-01-01

172

Effects of stress on growth, cortisol and glucose levels in non-domesticated Eurasian perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and domesticated rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a promising aquaculture candidate, but the growth performance of this non-domesticated species may be negatively affected by its stress responsiveness to intensive culture conditions. To evaluate this potential problem, juvenile Eurasian perch were exposed to a standardized handling stressor twice a week for an 8-week period. A similar study was conducted on domesticated rainbow trout

Sissel Jentoft; Are H. Aastveit; Peter A. Torjesen; Øivind Andersen

2005-01-01

173

Differential mobilization of terrestrial carbon pools in Eurasian Arctic river basins.  

PubMed

Mobilization of Arctic permafrost carbon is expected to increase with warming-induced thawing. However, this effect is challenging to assess due to the diverse processes controlling the release of various organic carbon (OC) pools from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes. Here, by radiocarbon dating various terrestrial OC components in fluvially and coastally integrated estuarine sediments, we present a unique framework for deconvoluting the contrasting mobilization mechanisms of surface vs. deep (permafrost) carbon pools across the climosequence of the Eurasian Arctic. Vascular plant-derived lignin phenol (14)C contents reveal significant inputs of young carbon from surface sources whose delivery is dominantly controlled by river runoff. In contrast, plant wax lipids predominantly trace ancient (permafrost) OC that is preferentially mobilized from discontinuous permafrost regions, where hydrological conduits penetrate deeper into soils and thermokarst erosion occurs more frequently. Because river runoff has significantly increased across the Eurasian Arctic in recent decades, we estimate from an isotopic mixing model that, in tandem with an increased transfer of young surface carbon, the proportion of mobilized terrestrial OC accounted for by ancient carbon has increased by 3-6% between 1985 and 2004. These findings suggest that although partly masked by surface carbon export, climate change-induced mobilization of old permafrost carbon is well underway in the Arctic. PMID:23940354

Feng, Xiaojuan; Vonk, Jorien E; van Dongen, Bart E; Gustafsson, Orjan; Semiletov, Igor P; Dudarev, Oleg V; Wang, Zhiheng; Montluçon, Daniel B; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I

2013-08-12

174

Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.  

PubMed

From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

N?mejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Kv?to?ová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Pawe?; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kvá?, Martin

2013-07-12

175

Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.  

PubMed

We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ? 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection. PMID:23778601

Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

2013-07-01

176

Response of Submersed Macrophyte Communities to Selective Removal in Eurasian Watermilfoil Dominated Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasive species such are thought to dominate communities through competitive superiority. When invasive species are controlled, revegetation by native plants is desired, but often difficult. The response of submersed macrophytes communities to selective removal of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native plants was investigated in three lakes: a lake with high water clarity and few herbivores, a lake with poor clarity and few herbivores, and a clear lake with a high density of milfoil herbivores. At each lake, 16 to 20 2mX2m plots were identified and delineated with a pvc frame on the bottom and each plot was assigned to one of 4 treatments in a randomized block design. Treatments were: remove all plants, remove Eurasian watermilfoil, remove all non-milfoil plants or remove no plants. Prior to treatment duplicate biomass samples were collected from each plot. Visual estimates of plant cover were made every 2-4 weeks and biomass samples were collected at the end of the summer. Plots were resampled similarly in the year following the manipulation. The treatments were successful at manipulating the plant community in each lake, but overall did not reveal dramatic shifts or competitive interactions. Within one year the communities reverted to their premanipulation state.

Newman, R. R.

2005-05-01

177

The invasion of a large lake by the Eurasian genotype of common reed: The influence of roads and residential construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian genotype of common reed (Phragmites australis) is one of the most aggressive plant invading North American wetlands. There is, however, little published evidence on establishment patterns of populations along lakes of the St. Lawrence River–Great Lakes watershed. We tested the hypothesis that the recent invasion of Great Lake Saint-François (Québec, Canada) by common reed was facilitated by a

Marie-Claire LeBlanc; Sylvie de Blois; Claude Lavoie

2010-01-01

178

Use of Whole-Lake Fluridone Treatments to Selectively Control Eurasian Watermilfoil in Burr Pond and Lake Hortonia, Vermont.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One method of selectively managing the invasive submersed plant Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Eurasian watermilfoil) in northern lakes is totreat the entire water body with low doses (6 to 8 micrograms/L) of the herbicide fluridone 1-methyl-3-phenyl- 5-(3-(tr...

K. D. Getsinger R. M. Stewart J. D. Madsen A. S. Way C. S. Owens

2002-01-01

179

A record of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae) in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra L.) from Poland.  

PubMed

Opisthorchid digenean Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) was isolated from liver bile ducts of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) found dead in the fishing pond complex near Wroc?aw (Lower Silesia, SW. Poland) in March 2009. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the otter from Poland, the description, biometrical data and figure are presented. PMID:22165735

Hildebrand, Joanna; Popio?ek, Marcin; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Piróg, Agnieszka

2011-01-01

180

Effects of Mechanical Harvesting of Eurasian Watermilfoil on Largemouth Bass and Bluegill Populations in Fish Lake, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined changes in populations of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus associated with mechanical plant harvesting in a lake heavily infested with Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum. In Aug 1994, 18% of the total plant biomass in Fish Lake, Dane County, Wisconsin, was removed in a radial pattern of 2-m-wide channels. Largemouth bass and bluegill abundance, survival, growth,

Jean M. L. Unmuth; Michael J. Hansen; Thomas D. Pellett

1999-01-01

181

Epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities on Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and Myriophyllum alterniflorum in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the survival and proliferation of invertebrates in freshwater eco- systems. Epiphytic invertebrate communities may be altered through the replacement of native macrophytes by exotic mac- rophytes, even when the macrophytes are close relatives and have similar morphology. We sampled an invasive exotic macrophyte, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), and native milfoils Myriophyllum sibericum and

Sarah J. Wilson; Anthony Ricciardi

2009-01-01

182

Is Predation by Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) an Important Source of Mortality for the Eurasian Watermilfoil Biocontrol Agent Euhrychiopsis lecontei?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic weevil Euhrychiopsis lecontei is a potential control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Predation by fishes may influence populations of this beneficial insect. To determine if fish predation is an important source of mortality for E. lecontei, fish stomachs from two Minnesota lakes, Lake Auburn and Cedar Lake, were sampled monthly during the summer of 1994. None of

Thomas J. Sutter; Raymond M. Newman

1997-01-01

183

The Effect of Eurasian Snow Cover on Regional and Global Climate Variations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of the global climate system to interannual variability of he Eurasian snow cover has been investigated with numerical models. It was found that heavier than normal Eurasian snow cover in spring leads to a `poor' monsoon over Southeast Asia thereby verifying an idea over 100 years old. The poor monsoon was characterized by reduced rainfall over India and Burma, reduced wind stress over the Indian Ocean, lower than normal temperatures on the Asian land mass and in the overlying atmospheric column, reduced tropical jet, increased soil moisture, and other features associated with poor monsoons. Lighter than normal snow cover led to a `good' monsoon with atmospheric anomalies like those described above but of opposite sign. Remote responses from the snow field perturbation include readjustment of the Northern Hemispheric mass field in midlatitude, an equatorially symmetric response of the tropical geopotential height and temperature field and weak, but significant, perturbations in the surface wind stress and heat flux in the tropical Pacific.The physics responsible for the regional response involves all elements of both the surface heat budget and heat budget of the full atmospheric column. In essence, the snow, soil and atmospheric moisture all act to keep the land and overlying atmospheric column colder than normal during a heavy snow simulation thus reducing the land-ocean temperature contrast needed to initiate the monsoon. The remote responses are driven by heating anomalies associated with both large scale air-sea interactions and precipitation events.The model winds from the heavy snow experiment were used to drive an ocean model. The SST field in that model developed a weak El Niño in the equatorial Pacific. A coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulation perturbed only by anomalous Eurasian snow cover was also run and it developed a much stranger El Niño in the Pacific. The coupled system clearly amplified the wind stress anomaly associated with the poor monsoon. These results show the important role of an evolving (not specified) sea surface temperature in numerical experiments and the real climate system. Our general results also demonstrate the importance of land processes in global climate dynamics and their possible role as one of the factors that could trigger ENSO events.

Barnett, T. P.; Dümenil, L.; Schlese, U.; Roeckner, E.; Latif, M.

1989-03-01

184

Installation-restoration program environmental technology development. Task Order 12. Field demonstration - composting of propellant-contaminated sediments at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Final report, Jul 87Mar 89  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field-scale demonstration of composting propellants-contaminated sediment was conducted at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Composting, as used at BAAP, is a treatment process in which organic-chemical contaminated soils or sediments are mixed with organic materials such as manure to enhance the role of microbial metabolism in degrading and stabilizing soil\\/sediment contaminants. Sediments contaminated with the propellant nitrocellulose (NC)

R. T. Williams; P. S. Ziegenfuss; P. J. Marks

1989-01-01

185

New constraining datasets for Eurasian ice sheet modelling: chronology, fjords and bedrock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing resolution of ice sheet models demands more detailed data for constraining and for comparison of results. Important data for this include ice sheet chronology, bed conditions and topography. We address this by compiling published data into three new constraining data sets. The Eurasian ice sheet chronology is reconstructed in our database-GIS solution (called DATED; Gyllencreutz et al., 2007). In DATED, we are building a database with all available dates, and a GIS with all geomorphologic features, that are relevant for the ice configuration through the Last Glacial Maximum and the following deglaciation, based on results from the literature. Reconstructions of the ice sheet configuration are presented as thousand-year time slices of the advance and decay of the Eurasian ice sheet between 25 and 10 thousand calendar years ago, based on chronologic, geomorphologic and stratigraphic data from the literature. To facilitate handling of error estimates in ice sheet modeling using our reconstructions, we made three reconstructions for every time slice: a maximum, a minimum and a "probable" ice sheet configuration, based on the limitations of the data at hand. The estimated uncertainty for the reconstructions was calculated in the GIS, and amounts to about 1 million km2 (about 1/5 of the maximum area) for most of the record before the Younger Dryas, indicating significant gaps in the knowledge of the Eurasian ice sheet configuration. In order to facilitate modeling of fast ice flow and ice streams, we compiled information about exposed bedrock from digital Quaternary maps in scale 1:1 million by the geological surveys in Norway, Sweden, Finland, UK and Ireland, together with published drift thickness estimates. The bed conditions data set was generalized to a grid resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 degrees. The Norwegian fjords are important for topographic steering; especially for fast glacier flow and draw-down from more central parts of the ice sheet. However, most fjords are less than a few kilometers wide and therefore are not captured even by high-resolution models. Therefore, we assembled information about the major Norwegian fjords, to a dataset containing fjord width, average depth, post-glacial sediment thickness, threshold elevation and drainage direction, also generalized to a 0.25 x 0.25 degrees grid resolution. The implementation of these new constraining datasets and the associated impact thereof is demonstrated by an ensemble of glacial cycle simulations using a three-dimensional thermo-mechanically coupled glacial systems model. References: Gyllencreutz, R., Mangerud, J., Svendsen, J.-I. & Lohne, Ø. 2007. DATED - A GIS-based Reconstruction and dating Database of the Eurasian Deglaciation. Applied Quaternary research in the central part of glaciated terrain. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 46, 113-120.

Gyllencreutz, R.; Tarasov, L.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, Ø. S.

2009-04-01

186

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from Portugal.  

PubMed

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections were found in two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, L. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in February and March 2010 in Castelo Branco, Portugal. At postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. Acid-fast organisms were isolated from gastrointestinal tissue samples via bacteriologic culture. These organisms were identified as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, direct IS900 PCR-positive results were obtained for multiple organs of both animals. This is the first report of MAP infection of otters in Portugal. PMID:23505727

Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Matos, Manuela; Alvares, Sofia; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

2013-03-01

187

Parvovirus infection in a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and in a European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris).  

PubMed

A Eurasian lynx and a European wildcat from the same wildlife park were submitted for necropsy examination after sudden death and after death following a clinical history of lethargy, respectively. Neither animal had been vaccinated against feline parvovirus (feline panleukopenia virus). Feral domestic cats were widespread in the area of the wildlife park and a number of these animals that had been captured had recently died from parvovirus infection. Gross and microscopical findings in the two non-domestic felids were consistent with feline parvovirus infection and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The introduction of feline parvovirus into captive non-domestic felid populations could pose a threat to their health and survival. Vaccination of captive non-domestic felids is therefore recommended. PMID:19135211

Wasieri, J; Schmiedeknecht, G; Förster, C; König, M; Reinacher, M

2009-01-08

188

Role of Eurasian snow cover in wintertime circulation: Decadal simulations forced with satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the impact of the Eurasian snow cover extent on the Northern Hemisphere winter circulation by performing a suite of ensemble simulations with the Météo-France "Arpege Climat" atmospheric general circulation model, spanning 2 decades (1979-2000). Observed snow cover derived from satellite infrared and visible imagery has been forced weekly into the model. Variability in autumn-early winter snow cover extent over eastern Eurasia is linked to circulation anomalies over the North Pacific that are influencing the North Atlantic sector in late winter through the development of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw teleconnection. The forcing of realistic snow cover in the model augments potential predictability over eastern Eurasia and the North Pacific and improves the hindcast skill score of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw teleconnection. Enhanced eastern Eurasia snow cover is associated with an anomalous upper-tropospheric wave train across Eurasia, anomalously high upward wave activity flux, and a displaced stratospheric polar vortex.

Orsolini, Yvan J.; Kvamstø, Nils G.

2009-10-01

189

Nest desertion is not predicted by cuckoldry in the Eurasian penduline tit  

PubMed Central

Engagement in extra-pair copulations is an example of the abundant conflicting interests between males and females over reproduction. Potential benefits for females and the risk of cuckoldry for males are expected to have important implications on the evolution of parental care. However, whether parents adjust parental care in response to parentage remains unclear. In Eurasian penduline tits Remiz pendulinus, which are small polygamous songbirds, parental care is carried out either by the male or by the female. In addition, one third of clutches is deserted by both male and female. Desertion takes place during the egg-laying phase. Using genotypes of nine microsatellite loci of 443 offspring and 211 adults, we test whether extra-pair paternity predicts parental care. We expect males to be more likely to desert cuckolded broods, whereas we expect females, if they obtain benefits from having multiple sires, to be more likely to care for broods with multiple paternity. Our results suggest that parental care is not adjusted to parentage on an ecological timescale. Furthermore, we found that male attractiveness does not predict cuckoldry, and we found no evidence for indirect benefits for females (i.e., increased growth rates or heterozygosity of extra-pair offspring). We argue that male Eurasian penduline tits may not be able to assess the risk of cuckoldry; thus, a direct association with parental care is unlikely to evolve. However, timing of desertion (i.e., when to desert during the egg-laying phase) may be influenced by the risk of cuckoldry. Future work applying extensive gene sequencing and quantitative genetics is likely to further our understanding of how selection may influence the association between parentage and parental care.

Meszaros, Lidia A.; van der Velde, Marco; Szekely, Tamas; Pogany, Akos; Szabad, Janos; Komdeur, Jan

2010-01-01

190

Selection on the human bitter taste gene, TAS2R16, in Eurasian populations.  

PubMed

Bitter taste is one of the most important senses alerting humans to noxious foods. In gatherer communities, sensitivity to bitterness is presumably advantageous because of various noxious plants. TAS2R16 is the gene coding the taste receptor molecules for some of the most common toxins in plants. A previous study of this gene indicated selection has increased the frequency of a derived allele in this gene that arose before the human expansion out of Africa. We have applied a different methodology for detecting selection, the Long Range Haplotype (LRH) analysis, to TAS2R16 in a larger sampling of populations from around the world. The haplotype with the derived alleles at both the functional polymorphism and a polymorphism in the regulatory region of TAS2R16 showed evidence for recent positive selection in most of the Eurasian populations, though the highest selection signal occurs in Mbuti Pygmies, an African hunter-gatherer group. In Eurasia, only populations of Mesopotamia and the southeast coast of China have no signals of selection. The evidence of recent selection found in most Eurasian populations differs from the geographic pattern seen in the earlier study of selection. One can speculate that the difference may result from a gathering lifestyle extending into the most recent 10,000 yrs and the need to recognize newly encountered bitter natural toxins as populations expanded into new environments and the biota changes with the ending of the most recent ice age. Alternatively, the promoter region variant may be a marker for altered function beyond what the derived amino acid allele conferred. PMID:21740153

Li, Hui; Pakstis, Andrew J; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

2011-06-01

191

The dynamics of the Eurasian plate and the intraplate stress field in the Middle-Late Eocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces driving and resisting plate motion together with the resulting intraplate stresses are analyzed for the Eurasian plate at 40 Ma with the aim to obtain a force model for which the stresses give the best fit to stress observations. Forces acting on a lithospheric plate can be categorized into three groups: i) edge forces due to interaction with neighboring plates; ii) lithospheric body forces and iii) mantle tractions. The direction of the edge forces is based on the boundary types of the Eurasian plate taken from the Lausanne Plate Tectonic Reconstruction (LPTR) from Stampfli and colleagues. Lithospheric body forces include ridge push, slab pull and topographic body forces and for these forces both the direction and magnitude can be computed. Since the uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas is only incompletely constrained, the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the topography (and thus the topographic body forces) at 40 Ma is investigated. Mantle tractions acting on the bottom of a lithospheric plate consist of (i) 'passive' tractions due to the relative motion of the lithosphere with respect to the mantle and ii) 'active' tractions due to the actively convecting mantle. Warners-Ruckstuhl et al. (2012) found that for the present-day Eurasian plate both passive and active tractions are relevant. This suggests that these tractions were also important in the past. Here we use tractions for the Eurasian plate from the global mantle circulation model by Webb (2012), which is based on mantle convection code TERRA, driven by a 300 Myr integration of the LPTR. The Eurasian plate is assumed to be in mechanical equilibrium. The modeled intraplate stress field resulting from different force sets is compared to paleostress observations to select the force model that best fits the data. We find that in models with small active tractions and lithospheric body forces, the magnitude of collision forces at the boundary between India and Eurasia is small. Warners-Ruckstuhl, K. N., R. Govers, and M. J. R. Wortel (2012), Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian plate, Geophys. J. Int., 189: 1253-1276. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05427. P. J. Webb (2012), Mantle circulation models: constraining mantle dynamics, testing plate motion history and calculating dynamic topography, Ph.D. Thesis Cardiff University, UK, Promotor: J. Huw Davies.

van der Burgt, Janneke; Govers, Rob; Webb, Peter; Stampfli, Gérard; Vérard, Christian; Hochard, Cyril; Davies, J. Huw; Wortel, Rinus

2013-04-01

192

3D seismic studies of unconventional reservoirs, Badger Basin Wyoming; and Viking Group Turbidite systems, Norwegian Block 35/11, northern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By integrating geologic and geophysical interpretations it is possible to form an accurate, high resolution, 3D model of the subsurface. The primary purpose of this model is to characterize heterogeneities within a potential reservoir and locate anomalous zones that correspond to potential high-quality reservoir intervals. Individual techniques used to create the final reservoir model include 3D seismic fault and horizon mapping, continuity analysis, and detailed velocity modeling from seismic stacking velocity analysis. The final model is centered around geologic interpretations from well log and core analysis. The methodology described above for Badger Basin was successful in identifying a regional abnormal underpressured compartment and locating a "sweet spot" corresponding to the best know production in the field. Integrating all of these interpretations confirmed previous analysis and has significantly reduced the uncertainty of the reservoir model for the Frontier Formation in Badger Basin. If this model was available prior to drilling the field it could have been more efficiently and cost effectively produced. The final proposed model for the Upper Jurassic Turbidites systems in Norwegian Block 35/11 suggests the presence of both axially and transversely transported turbidite systems within the elongated, fault-controlled sub-basins that developed during Late Jurassic extension. These systems appear to be sourced from the same updip depositional system, most likely from an Upper Jurassic Sognefjord Formation equivalent system. Detailed descriptions of these systems show that the architecture and shape of the turbidite systems vary greatly with respect to local tectonic setting. Comparison of the axial and transverse systems shows that although the two systems have the same transport and depositional elements, and were sourced from the same system, each has a different architecture. The axial turbidite system is represented by thinner, low width/length ratio geometry versus the more isolated, high width/length ratio geometry of the transverse system. This appears to correspond to the shape of the individual half-grabens within the sub-basin and the orientation of feeder systems associated with each fan. A major question that is left unanswered is the influence of bottom currents on the formation and preservation of these systems. This problem can only be answered by drilling new wells designed to test the present model.

Buggenhagen, John Edmund

193

Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers.  

PubMed

Northwest Siberia is geographically remote territory, which has been settled by indigenous human populations probably since the Upper Paleolithic. To investigate the genetic landscape of Northwest Siberians, we have analyzed mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA polymorphisms of 169 unrelated individuals from Khanty and Mansi ethnic groups in Northwest Siberia. In addition, HVS-I sequences (N = 3522) and Y chromosome SNP data (N = 2175), obtained from the literature, were used to elucidate the genetic relationships among the North Eurasian populations. The results show clinal distributions of mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups along East-West axis of Northern Eurasia. In this context, the Ugric-speaking Khanty and Mansi appear as unique intermediate populations carrying Upper Paleolithic and more recent haplotypes typical for both West and East Eurasian gene pools. This admixture indicates that the Khanty and Mansi populations have resided in the contact zone of genetically distinguishable eastern and western Eurasia. PMID:18506205

Pimenoff, Ville N; Comas, David; Palo, Jukka U; Vershubsky, Galina; Kozlov, Andrew; Sajantila, Antti

2008-05-28

194

Characterizing habitat preference of Eurasian river otter ( Lutra lutra ) in streams using a self-organizing map  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the habitat preferences of Eurasian river otters (Lutra lutra) using the distribution patterns of the numbers of spraints and sprainting spots of otters, as well as related environmental\\u000a variables (habitat zone, river management, bank type, vegetation coverage, width, depth, etc.) in two streams. The numbers\\u000a of otter spraints and sprainting spots were sampled monthly in two streams on

Hee-Sun Cho; Kwang-Hee Choi; Sang-Don Lee; Young-Seuk Park

2009-01-01

195

Terrestrial water storage changes and the hydrological budget over Eurasian Pan-Arctic river basins from 2003-2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution retrievals of recent changes in the Earth's gravity field using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) offers insights into Earth system processes encompassing the atmosphere, ocean, land water hydrology, and land ice. Here, we focus on the Eurasian Pan-Arctic region, where water\\/ice mass fluxes and sea ice cover are rapidly changing with potentially large impacts on river discharge and

Felix Landerer; Jean Dickey; Victor Zlotnicki

2010-01-01

196

Development of the adrenocortical response to stress in Eurasian kestrel nestlings: Defence ability, age, brood hierarchy and condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental hypothesis proposes that the adrenocortical response to stress during postnatal development in birds should not develop when the benefits of elevated corticosterone do not outweigh the deleterious effects on growth and development. We tested three predictions developed from this hypothesis in free-living, semi-altricial Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus nestlings. We measured baseline and handling-induced corticosterone levels and the binding

Claudia Müller; Susanne Jenni-Eiermann; Lukas Jenni

2010-01-01

197

Effects of Mechanical Harvesting of Eurasian Watermilfoil on Largemouth Bass and Bluegill Populations in Fish Lake, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined changes in populations of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesand bluegill Lepomis macrochirusassociated with mechanical plant harvesting in a lake heavily infested with Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum.In August 1994, 18% of the total plant biomass in Fish Lake, Dane County, Wisconsin, was removed in a radial pattern of 2-m-wide channels. Largemouth bass and bluegill abundance, survival, growth, and length frequency

Jean M. L. Unmuth; Michael J. Hansen; Thomas D. Pellett

1999-01-01

198

Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Howard, R. J.; Travis, S. E.; Sikes, B. A.

2008-01-01

199

Exclusive core areas and intrasexual territoriality in Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris ) revealed by incremental cluster polygon analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When animal home ranges overlap extensively in species lacking overt territorial behaviours, identifying exclusive core areas\\u000a within individual ranges can be difficult. By analysing the size and overlap of successively smaller core areas among individual\\u000a Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris), we determined exclusive areas within the home ranges of resident males and females. Possible effects of habitat composition\\u000a and food

Erica Di Pierro; Ambrogio Molinari; Guido Tosi; Lucas A. Wauters

2008-01-01

200

Magmatism at the Eurasian–North American modern plate boundary: Constraints from alkaline volcanism in the Chersky Belt (Yakutia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chersky seismic belt (NE-Russia) forms the modern plate boundary of the Eurasian?North American continental plate. The geodynamic evolution of this continent?continent setting is highly complex and remains a matter of debate, as the extent and influence of the Mid-Arctic Ocean spreading center on the North Asian continent since the Eocene remains unclear. The progression from a tensional stress regime

Cornelius Tschegg; Michael Bizimis; David Schneider; Vyacheslav V. Akinin; Theodoros Ntaflos

2011-01-01

201

First data on Eurasian wild boar response to oral immunization with BCG and challenge with a Mycobacterium bovis field strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is considered a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in south-central Spain. The vaccination of wildlife with BCG offers an alternative to culling and to movement restriction for the control of bTB among wildlife reservoirs. In this study, we hypothesized that oral

C. Ballesteros; J. M. Garrido; J. Vicente; B. Romero; R. C. Galindo; E. Minguijón; M. Villar; M. P. Martín-Hernando; I. Sevilla; R. Juste; A. Aranaz; J. de la Fuente; C. Gortázar

2009-01-01

202

The differ respond of China continental to the collision between Eurasian and Philippine Sea plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern margin of China continental is one of ideal area to study modern plate interaction. This area most attract geologists attention is largely covered by widely distributed late Mesozoic igneous rocks. In the past decades many studies focus on the relations of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate in the east of Taiwan region based on geological and geophysical data. In the recent decades the globe or large regional passive and active source seismic images proposed a fine geometry model in which the crust present gradually thinning from inner continent to southeastern margin. This is regarded as evidence of the southeastern margin of China continental —Eurasian plate respond to the collision over against the Taiwan Strait. Relatively the partition feature—the Model if there is difference and how to vary across margin of mainland, still remains poorly defined. In this study, the data recorded by 20 flexible broadband stations deployed onshore along the margin of main continental in Fujian province from 2008 to 2010 and 130 permanent stations of New China Digital Seismology Network (NCDSN), was combined used. And totally 16664 reliable receiver functions were obtained for imaging the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the stations array. Only visually comparison, we find the receiver functions are evident different for teleseismic events between the station located at the southwest and the northeast of Fujian province. After the auto-searching algorithm, H-k method, which sums the amplitudes of the receiver functions at the predicted arrival times of Ps and its multiple phases, has been used to determine the best estimations of crustal thickness (H) and VP/VS ratio (k). The preliminary result show that crustal thicknesses stepwise vary from 33-36,32-30 to 29-27km in average north to south, that is a poignant contras with northeastward surface tectonic.the subordinate characteristic, there seems is a Moho ditch can be tracing from about longitude 118 degree from north to south. An obvious limitation of depth level range appears around latitude 26 degree. This result is helpful for explain why there is stronger earthquake activity and much geothermal resource the southwestern than northeastern of Fujian, China.

Li, Q.; Gao, R.; He, C.; Guan, Y.; Li, W.

2010-12-01

203

Tethyan collision forces and the stress field of the Eurasian Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In previous studies of the Eurasian Plate, we have analysed the balance of plate boundary forces, tractions resulting from lithosphere-mantle coupling, and intraplate variations in topography and density structure. This yielded a range of acceptable force distributions. In this study, we investigate to which extent the observed present-day stress field provides further constraints on the distribution of forces. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate all forces as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Intraplate stress observations used are from the World Stress Map project. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be particularly sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a much lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and tractions from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.0-10.5 TN m-1 and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3-2.7 TN m-1. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0-2.5 and 0-1.3 TN m-1, respectively. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. For both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateaus, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, we find that the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force.

Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin N.; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

2013-10-01

204

Hybrid watermilfoil lineages are more invasive and less sensitive to a commonly used herbicide than their exotic parent (Eurasian watermilfoil).  

PubMed

Hybridization may stimulate the evolution of invasiveness in human-impacted habitats if unique hybrid genotypes have higher fitness than parental genotypes. Human efforts to control invasive taxa frequently involve the intentional alteration of habitats, but few studies have considered whether hybridization can result in decreased sensitivity to control measures. Here, we investigate whether interspecific hybrids between introduced Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and native northern watermilfoil (M. sibiricum) are more invasive than parental Eurasian watermilfoil, especially in regard to their relative responses to an herbicide commonly applied for their control (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4-D). In two separate laboratory experiments, hybrids on average grew faster and were less sensitive to 2,4-D compared with parental Eurasian watermilfoil. These two invasive traits appear to be common in hybrid watermilfoils, as opposed to being restricted to a few unique lineages, because they were found in a diversity of hybrid genotypes from several independent hybridization events. In addition, we found that hybrids occurred more frequently than parental species in natural lakes previously treated with 2,4-D. Our results provide compelling empirical evidence that hybridization is associated with the evolution of increased invasiveness in watermilfoils, and have important implications for their management. PMID:23745138

Larue, Elizabeth A; Zuellig, Matthew P; Netherland, Michael D; Heilman, Mark A; Thum, Ryan A

2012-11-16

205

Evaluation of a combination of SIFT-MS and multivariate data analysis for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in wild badgers.  

PubMed

The currently accepted 'gold standard' tuberculosis (TB) detection method for veterinary applications is that of culturing from a tissue sample post mortem. The test is accurate, but growing Mycobacterium bovis is difficult and the process can take up to 12 weeks to return a diagnosis. In this paper we evaluate a much faster screening approach based on serum headspace analysis using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). SIFT-MS is a rapid, quantitative gas analysis technique, with sample analysis times of as little as a few seconds. Headspace from above serum samples from wild badgers, captured as part of a randomised trial, was analysed. Multivariate classification algorithms were then employed to extract a simple TB diagnosis from the complex multivariate response provided by the SIFT-MS instrument. This is the first time that such multivariate analysis has been applied to SIFT-MS data. An accuracy of TB discrimination of approximately 88% true positive was achieved which shows promise, but the corresponding false positive rate of 38% indicates that there is more work to do before this approach could replace the culture test. Recommendations for future work that could increase the performance are therefore proposed. PMID:19684920

Spooner, Andrew D; Bessant, Conrad; Turner, Claire; Knobloch, Henri; Chambers, Mark

2009-07-17

206

Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993  

SciTech Connect

Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

1994-12-01

207

Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel.  

PubMed

Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent. PMID:22528024

Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

2012-04-22

208

Cross-amplification and sequence variation of microsatellite loci in Eurasian hard pines.  

PubMed

Microsatellite transfer across coniferous species is a valued methodology because de novo development for each species is costly and there are many species with only a limited commodity value. Cross-species amplification of orthologous microsatellite regions provides valuable information on mutational and evolutionary processes affecting these loci. We tested 19 nuclear microsatellite markers from Pinus taeda L. (subsection Australes) and three from P. sylvestris L. (subsection Pinus) on seven Eurasian hard pine species ( P. uncinata Ram., P. sylvestris L., P. nigra Arn., P. pinaster Ait., P. halepensis Mill., P. pinea L. and P. canariensis Sm.). Transfer rates to species in subsection Pinus (36-59%) were slightly higher than those to subsections Pineae and Pinaster (32-45%). Half of the trans-specific microsatellites were found to be polymorphic over evolutionary times of approximately 100 million years (ten million generations). Sequencing of three trans-specific microsatellites showed conserved repeat and flanking regions. Both a decrease in the number of perfect repeats in the non-focal species and a polarity for mutation, the latter defined as a higher substitution rate in the flanking sequence regions close to the repeat motifs, were observed in the trans-specific microsatellites. The transfer of microsatellites among hard pine species proved to be useful for obtaining highly polymorphic markers in a wide range of species, thereby providing new tools for population and quantitative genetic studies. PMID:14985972

González-Martínez, S C; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Collada, C; Díaz, A; Williams, C G; Alía, R; Cervera, M T

2004-02-20

209

Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

2012-05-01

210

Habitat correlates of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra recolonizing Central Poland.  

PubMed

The increase in Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several European countries. We address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in Central Poland over 14 years. Field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. The frequency of positive sites denoted 15 % in 1993, 38 % in 1998, and 89 % in 2007. Otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river width while negatively affected by presence of buildings at the site and river regulation. During the most intensive colonization process in the 1990s, the habitat preferences of the otter did not change. However, the sites inhabited by otters after 1998 were characterized by lower river width and tree cover and were more often located on regulated river sections, suggesting change in habitat tolerance during expansion. The otter abundance in transformed habitats is a result of increasing population numbers and the necessity to inhabit suboptimal sections of watercourses. Thus, it seems that presence-absence data for otter populations cannot be considered a reliable indicator of habitat quality, being depended of the population density. PMID:23538688

Romanowski, Jerzy; Brzezi?ski, Marcin; Zmihorski, Micha?

2012-10-14

211

Genetic diversity of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) population in Israel.  

PubMed

The Israeli population of Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) marks the Palearctic southern boundary of the species' distribution in the Levant. During the 20th century, the otter population in Israel experienced a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic habitat alterations. Currently, the otter population in Israel is estimated at about 100 individuals and defined as "Critically Endangered". The aim of this research was to characterize the Israeli otter population in order to determine its genetic diversity and fragmentation state for conservation purposes. Monitoring spraint sites during 2000-2011 along active and historic otter distribution regions indicate both stable and unstable otter subpopulations, mainly along the Jordan River. Four otter subpopulations, representing 57 individuals, were characterized by 12 microsatellites, previously used to characterize the European otter populations. The genetic results indicated three subpopulations correlating with three geographical regions: the Hula Valley, Sea of Galilee, and the Harod Valley. A moderate genetic diversity (F (st) = 0.087-0.123) was found among the subpopulations, suggesting sporadic interactions between individuals from distinct geographical locations along the Jordan Rift Valley. The Israeli otter population was found to be very small, demographically remote and genetically distinct, harboring unique alleles absent from the studied European populations. Therefore, immediate conservation actions are recommended to prevent the deterioration of the isolated, unique, and critically endangered otter population in Israel. PMID:23225879

Cohen, Tali Magory; Narkiss, Tamar; Dolev, Amit; Ben-Ari, Yossi; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Guter, Amichai; Saltz, David; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

2012-12-05

212

Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes.  

PubMed

This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River deltas are discussed. Temporal changes in the pattern of modification are also investigated, especially the dramatic homogenization of the custom resulting from the conquests of the Huns. This is contrasted with incidences of cranial modification in the south-central Andes, including the appearance of deliberate head shaping as well as shifts in the practice during the expansion of the Bolivian Altiplano state of Tiwanaku. Similarities in the use of cranial vault modification between these unrelated areas and in the alterations of the practice resulting from foreign contact are considered in light of vault modification's role as a malleable cultural artifact. PMID:15901115

Torres-Rouff, C; Yablonsky, L T

2005-01-01

213

Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?  

PubMed

The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant. PMID:12371821

Rosell, Frank

2002-08-01

214

Careful cachers and prying pilferers: Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) limit auditory information available to competitors.  

PubMed

Food-storing corvids use many cache-protection and pilfering strategies. We tested whether Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) reduce the transfer of auditory information to a competitor when caching and pilfering. We gave jays a noisy and a quiet substrate to cache in. Compared with when alone, birds cached less in the noisy substrate when with a conspecific that could hear but could not see them caching. By contrast, jays did not change the amount cached in the noisy substrate when they were with a competitor that could see and hear them caching compared with when they were alone. Together, these results suggest that jays reduce auditory information during caching as a cache-protection strategy. By contrast, as pilferers, jays did not attempt to conceal their presence from a cacher and did not prefer a silent viewing perch over a noisy one when observing caching. However, birds vocalized less when watching caching compared with when they were alone, when they were watching a non-caching conspecific or when they were watching their own caches being pilfered. Pilfering jays may therefore attempt to suppress some types of auditory information. Our results raise the possibility that jays both understand and can attribute auditory perception to another individual. PMID:23222444

Shaw, Rachael C; Clayton, Nicola S

2012-12-05

215

The role of winter precipitation and temperature on northern Eurasian streamflow trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eurasian river discharge into the Arctic Ocean has steadily increased during the 20th century, and many studies have documented the spatial distribution of the trends and hypothesized the causes. There is a large variation in the scope of these studies, including the spatial scale of interest, and they often lack consistency in the time period analyzed. Studies have shown a connection between changes in the seasonal snowpack and discharge, but they have been constrained by the limitations of the snow observational network, which contains few long-term stations. This study overcomes these problems by using both in situ observations and a land surface model to evaluate the role snowpack changes have had on increases in runoff across northern Eurasia from 1936 through 1999. Our analysis shows consistent trends in both observations and model predictions. Increases in cold season precipitation propagate into increases in maximum snow water equivalent, which lead to increases in runoff. A series of model experiments demonstrate that the nonlinear interaction between winter precipitation and temperature has driven changes in the snowpack, which are manifested in the modeled runoff trends. Given that winter precipitation is expected to continue to increase and temperatures to warm during the 21st century in this region, these results point to the importance in understanding how the projected changes will influence the seasonal snowpack, which may have important consequences for streamflow in this region and freshwater export to the Arctic Ocean.

Troy, Tara J.; Sheffield, Justin; Wood, Eric F.

2012-03-01

216

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.  

PubMed

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

2013-01-25

217

Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.  

PubMed

Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV. PMID:23602837

Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fri?ová, Jana; Pej?och, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

2013-04-16

218

Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays  

PubMed Central

State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one’s own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others’ actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female’s current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males’ sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate’s behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males’ own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates.

Ostojic, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

2013-01-01

219

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

2006-01-01

220

Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences in the predation of the western green lizard ( Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated whether the rate of predation differed during the 8-year study period and among the three habitats studied. We collected lizard remains from nest boxes of kestrels. Freshly killed lizards were sexed by visual inspection, whilst the sex of head remains was assigned by analysing the cephalic scale morphology using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that the risk of being predated by a kestrel in our population was overall about 3.55 times higher for males than for females. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a male-biased predation in a lizard species. The selective predation of males was consistent between years over the 8-year study period (1999-2006) and also consistent between the three types of kestrel hunting habitat. Overall predation rates on lizards differed between habitats, depending on the year. We propose that the observed sex-biased predation is mainly due to sex differences in lizard behaviour.

Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

2007-12-01

221

Immunity and fitness in a wild population of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The immune system of vertebrates consists of several components that partly interact and complement each other. Therefore, the assessment of the overall effectiveness of immune defence requires the simultaneous measurement of different immune components. In this study, we investigated intraspecific variability of innate [i.e. natural antibodies (NAb) and complement] and acquired (i.e. leucocyte profiles) immunity and its relationship with fitness correlates (i.e. blood parasite load and reproductive success in adults and body mass and survival until fledging in nestlings) in the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Immunity differed between nestlings and adults and also between adult males and females. Adult kestrels with higher levels of complement were less parasitised by Haemoproteus, and males with higher values of NAbs showed a higher reproductive success. In nestlings, the H/L ratio was negatively related to body mass. Survival until fledging was predicted by all measured immunological variables of nestlings as well as by their fathers' level of complement. This is the first time that innate immunity is linked to survival in a wild bird. Thus, intraspecific variation in different components of immunity predicts variation in fitness prospects in kestrels, which highlights the importance of measuring innate immune components together with components of the acquired immunity in studies assessing the effectiveness of the immune system in wild animals.

Parejo, Deseada; Silva, Nadia

2009-10-01

222

Converging migration routes of Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo crossing the African equatorial rain forest.  

PubMed

Autumn migration of adult Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo from Europe to southern Africa was recorded by satellite telemetry and observed routes were compared with randomly simulated routes. Two non-random features of observed routes were revealed: (i) shifts to more westerly longitudes than straight paths to destinations and (ii) strong route convergence towards a restricted area close to the equator (1 degree S, 15 degrees E). The birds migrated south or southwest to approximately 10 degrees N, where they changed to south-easterly courses. The maximal spread between routes at 10 degrees N (2134 km) rapidly decreased to a minimum (67 km) close to the equator. We found a striking relationship between the route convergence and the distribution of continuous rainforest, suggesting that hobbies minimize flight distance across the forest, concentrating in a corridor where habitat may be more suitable for travelling and foraging. With rainforest forming a possible ecological barrier, many migrants may cross the equator either at 15 degrees E, similar to the hobbies, or at 30-40 degrees E, east of the rainforest where large-scale migration is well documented. Much remains to be understood about the role of the rainforest for the evolution and future of the trans-equatorial Palaearctic-African bird migration systems. PMID:18986977

Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Olofsson, Patrik; Alerstam, Thomas

2009-02-22

223

Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

Chen, Shuangyan [Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Huang, Xin [Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Liu, Gongshe [Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences

2013-01-01

224

Colonization of a Submersed Aquatic Plant, Eurasian Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by Fungi under Controlled Conditions  

PubMed Central

A laboratory assay to assess colonization of a submersed aquatic plant, Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), by fungi was developed and used to evaluate the colonization potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Acremonium curvulum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, a Paecilomyces sp., and an unidentified sterile, septate fungus. Stem segments of plants were first immersed in suspensions of fungal propagules for 24 h and then washed to remove all but the tightly attached component of the population. Inoculation was followed by two growth cycles of 3 days each. At the start of each cycle, washed plants were transferred to a mineral salts medium to provide an opportunity for the attached fungal populations to grow. After each growth period, plants were again washed, and fungal populations in the medium (nonattached), loosely attached and tightly attached to the plant, and within the plant (endophytic) were assayed by dilution plating. The fungi differed in the extent to which they attached to water milfoil and in their ability to grow in association with it. There were relatively few significant differences among the tightly attached fungal populations after 24 h, but growth of the better colonizers led to a greater number of significant differences after 4 and 7 days. In addition, the better colonizers showed sustained regrowth of loosely and nonattached fungal propagules in the face of intermittent removal by washing. A milfoil pathogen, C. gloeosporioides, was the only endophytic colonizer; it was also among the best epiphytic colonizers but was not demonstrably better than A. curvulum, a fungus commonly found as an epiphyte on watermilfoil. The yeastlike hyphomycete Aureobasidium pullulans was the only fungus that consistently failed to establish an increasing population on the plant. Images

Smith, Craig S.; Chand, Tara; Harris, Robin F.; Andrews, John H.

1989-01-01

225

Seismic Tomography Of The Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone And Tectonic Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of our research is to determine P and S wave velocity structures in the crust and upper mantle in the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. In recent years the number of seismic stations has increased greatly in the region because of new and expanded seismic networks in Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iran and other countries in the region. Consequently, a large number of new P and S wave phase data has become available for tomography. Travel-time tomography is carried out by obtaining first the crustal thickness and Pn and Sn velocities from local and regional arrival time data. Then the P-velocity model is extended into the upper mantle by combining local, regional, and teleseismic data and crust model constraints. Pn velocity tomograms were obtained using 160,000 arrival times from 850 stations and 18,000 earthquakes. For Sn tomography, 75,000 phase readings were used. The Pn and Sn velocity models agree quite well although there are some local differences. Pn velocities are very low under eastern Anatolia, northwest Iran, and the Lesser Caucasus. There are localized low velocity anomalies. Velocities are low under the Iranian plateau. Pn velocities are high under the Arabian Platform, the Gulf, and the Zagros. In the north, there is an east-west trending narrow zone of high Pn velocities that includes eastern Black Sea, Kura Basin between Greater and Lesser Caucasus, south Caspian sea, and Kara and Kizil Kum Basins in Central Asia. The upper mantle tomograms show the images of the subducted Neotethys slab. The slab geometry is quite complex, reflecting the history of the changes in the plate motions and collision processes.

Toksoz, M.; Sun, Y.; Li, C.; van der Hilst, R.; Kalafat, D.

2008-12-01

226

Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus  

PubMed Central

Background Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. Methodology To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Principal Findings Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal) on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. Significance These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

Laaksonen, Toni; Negro, Juan J.; Lyytinen, Sami; Valkama, Jari; Ots, Indrek; Korpimaki, Erkki

2008-01-01

227

Neogene climatic oscillations shape the biogeography and evolutionary history of the Eurasian blindsnake.  

PubMed

Typhlops vermicularis is the only extant scolecophidian representative occurring in Europe. Its main distribution area, the eastern Mediterranean, has a complicated geological and climatic history that has left an imprint on the phylogenies and biogeography of many taxa, especially amphibians and reptiles. Since reptiles are sensitive indicators of palaeogeographical and palaeoclimatic events, we investigated the intraspecific genealogy of T. vermicularis in a phylogeographical framework. A total of 130 specimens were analyzed, while the use of formalin and ethanol as preservatives called for a special treatment of the samples. Partial sequences of two mitochondrial (12S and ND2) and one nuclear (PRLR) marker were targeted and the results of the phylogenetic analyses (NJ, ML and BI) and the parsimony-network revealed the existence of 10 evolutionary significant units within this species. In combination with the results of the dispersal-vicariance analysis, we may conclude that the Eurasian blindsnake has encountered a sequence of extinction events, followed by secondary expansion from refugia. Estimation of divergence times showed that severe climatic changes between significantly wetter and drier conditions in the Late Neogene have played a key role on the evolutionary and biogeographical history of T. vermicularis. Additionally, both markers (mtDNA and nDNA) distinguished a largely-differentiated evolutionary lineage (Jordan and south Syria), which could even be reckoned as a full species. Our study reveals the existence of cryptic evolutionary lineages within T. vermicularis, which calls for further attention both on the protection of intraspecific varieties and the respective geographic areas that hold them. PMID:22182993

Kornilios, P; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumluta?, Y; Lymberakis, P; Moravec, J; Sindaco, R; Rastegar-Pouyani, N; Afroosheh, M; Giokas, S; Fraguedakis-Tsolis, S; Chondropoulos, B

2011-12-13

228

Trends in Eurasian Arctic runoff timing and their relationship to snow cover changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pronounced land surface process changes have occurred in the Arctic and sub-Arctic in recent decades. Apparent earlier ablation of snow cover in spring implies that some of the energy that was once used to melt snow is now absorbed by the ground, thereby lowering the albedo and thus leading to more snowmelt. To date, however, confirmation of such causal explanations for hydrologic trends has been elusive, primarily because of short record lengths and/or absence of requisite data records. We examine changes in the timing of runoff from 53 unregulated Eurasian Arctic streamflow gauges distributed over the Lena, Ob and Yenisei River basins for the period 1958 - 1999. Variables examined include the onset date of the spring runoff pulse, the centroid of timing of spring runoff, and seasonal fractional flows. These results were compared with surface air temperature anomalies and (satellite) snow cover trends to diagnose the sensitivity of runoff in each of the basins to snow cover disappearance, snow-free duration and period of snowmelt. We find that there are consistent trends indicating an earlier onset of runoff in spring across many of the basins, which can be linked to changes in snowmelt timing, and an increase in winter flows, which appears to be related to shorter snow cover duration. Surface air temperature trends have less obvious linkages with the streamflow timing changes, with the exception of the Yenisei basin where an increase in May temperatures are associated with lower snowmelt season runoff, but increases in June temperatures are associated with increased June runoff.

Tan, A.; Adam, J. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2008-12-01

229

Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Na?ve and Vaccinated Pigs  

PubMed Central

Influenza viruses are characterized by an ability to cross species boundaries and evade host immunity, sometimes with devastating consequences. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus highlights the importance of pigs in influenza emergence, particularly as intermediate hosts by which avian viruses adapt to mammals before emerging in humans. Although segment reassortment has commonly been associated with influenza emergence, an expanded host-range is also likely to be associated with the accumulation of specific beneficial point mutations. To better understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic diversity of avian-like viruses in pigs, we studied the evolutionary dynamics of an Eurasian Avian-like swine influenza virus (EA-SIV) in naïve and vaccinated pigs linked by natural transmission. We analyzed multiple clones of the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) gene derived from consecutive daily viral populations. Strikingly, we observed both transient and fixed changes in the consensus sequence along the transmission chain. Hence, the mutational spectrum of intra-host EA-SIV populations is highly dynamic and allele fixation can occur with extreme rapidity. In addition, mutations that could potentially alter host-range and antigenicity were transmitted between animals and mixed infections were commonplace, even in vaccinated pigs. Finally, we repeatedly detected distinct stop codons in virus samples from co-housed pigs, suggesting that they persisted within hosts and were transmitted among them. This implies that mutations that reduce viral fitness in one host, but which could lead to fitness benefits in a novel host, can circulate at low frequencies.

Murcia, Pablo R.; Hughes, Joseph; Battista, Patrizia; Lloyd, Lucy; Baillie, Gregory J.; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H.; Ormond, Doug; Oliver, Karen; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Caccamo, Mario; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wood, James L. N.

2012-01-01

230

Protection against Tuberculosis in Eurasian Wild Boar Vaccinated with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.

Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Beltran-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijon, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C.; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramon A.; Vicente, Joaquin; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian

2011-01-01

231

Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Fargallo, Juan A.

2008-05-01

232

Macroparasite community of the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris): poor species richness and diversity.  

PubMed

The Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is the only naturally occurring tree squirrel throughout its range. We aim at improving current knowledge on its macroparasite fauna, expecting that it will have a poor parasite diversity because in species that have no sympatric congeners parasite richness should be lower than in hosts sharing their range with several closely related species, where host-switching events and lateral transmission are promoted. We examined gastro-intestinal helminth and ectoparasite communities (excluding mites) of, respectively, 147 and 311 red squirrel roadkills collected in four biogeographic regions in Italy and France. As expected, the macroparasite fauna was poor: we found five species of nematodes and some unidentified cestodes, three fleas, two sucking lice and two hard ticks. The helminth community was dominated by a single species, the oxyurid Trypanoxyuris (Rodentoxyuris) sciuri (prevalence, 87 %; mean abundance, 373?±?65 worms/host). Its abundance varied among seasons and biogeographic regions and increased with body mass in male hosts while decreased in females. The most prevalent ectoparasites were the flea Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) sciurorum (28 %), whose presence was affected by season, and the generalist tick Ixodes (Ixodes) ricinus that was found only in France (34 %). All the other helminths and arthropod species were rare, with prevalence below 10 %. However, the first record of Strongyloides robustus, a common nematode of North American Eastern grey squirrels (S. carolinensis), in two red squirrels living in areas where this alien species co-inhabits, deserves further attention, since low parasite richness could result in native red squirrels being particularly vulnerable to parasite spillover. PMID:23873618

Romeo, Claudia; Pisanu, Benoît; Ferrari, Nicola; Basset, Franck; Tillon, Laurent; Wauters, Lucas A; Martinoli, Adriano; Saino, Nicola; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

2013-07-20

233

Northern Eurasian Wetlands and the Carbon Cycle: Model Estimates of Carbon Storage and Methane Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian Arctic drainage constitutes over ten percent of the global land area, and stores a substantial fraction of the terrestrial carbon pool in its soils and boreal forests. Specifically, boreal forests in this region constitute an estimated carbon sink of 0.5 Pg/y. However, assessments of carbon storage and fluxes in this region, and their role in climate change, vary considerably due to large uncertainties in the extent of wetlands, which both store carbon as peat and emit carbon as methane. Accurate estimates of wetland extent have been confounded by insufficient resolution of satellite imagery and poor coverage of in situ observations. In this study we refine these estimates of wetland extent, carbon storage, and methane emissions using a system of linked large-scale models of hydrology, terrestrial carbon dynamics, and methane emissions. Large-scale hydrology comes from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model, which includes an updated lake/wetland parameterization that estimates the water table depth as a function of both lake level and wetland soil moisture. Fast ecosystem processes such as photosynthesis and respiration are simulated via the Biosphere Energy-Transfer Hydrology (BETHY) terrestrial carbon model. Methane emissions in areas of open water or saturated soil are simulated with the Walter-Heimann methane model. We validate this modeling system with respect to in situ observations of soil moisture and temperature, evaporation, and fluxes of CO2 and methane at flux towers at Fyodorovskoje, Hakasia, and Cherskii, Russia, over the period 1998- 2004. Sensitivity to calibration parameters such as the rooting depth and the proportionality between methane production rate and NPP are also explored.

Bohn, T. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Sathulur, K.; Bowling, L. C.; McDonald, K. C.

2006-12-01

234

Low-level temperature inversions of the eurasian arctic and comparisons with Soviet drifting station data  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal and regional variations in characteristics of the Arctic low-level temperature inversion are examined using up to 12 years of twice-daily rawinsonde data from 31 inland and coastal sites of the Eurasian Arctic and a total of nearly six station years of data from three Soviet drifting stations near the North Pole. The frequency of inversions, the median inversion depth, and the temperature difference across the inversion layer increase from the Norwegian Sea eastward toward the Laptev and East Siberian seas. This effect is most pronounced in winter and autumn, and reflects proximity to oceanic influences and synoptic activity, possibly enhanced by a gradient in cloud cover. East of Novaya Zemlya during winter, inversions are found in over 95% of all soundings and tend to be surface based. For all locations, however, inversions tend to be most intense during winter due to the large deficit in surface net radiation. The strongest inversions are found over eastern Siberia, and reflect the effects of local topography. The frequency of inversions is lowest during summer, but is still >50% at all locations. Most summer inversions are elevated, and are much weaker than their winter counterparts. Data from the drifting stations reveal an inversion in every sounding from December to April. The minimum frequency of 85% occurs during August. While the median inversion depth is over 1200 m during March, it decreases to approximately 400 m during August, with median temperature differences across the inversion layer of 12.6[degrees]and 2.8[degrees]C, respectively. The median depth of the summertime mixed layer below inversions at the drifting stations ranges from 300 to 400 m. Seasonal changes in these inversion characteristics show a strong relationship with seasonal changes in cloud cover. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Serreze, M.C.; Schnell, R.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kahl, J.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

1992-06-01

235

DNA barcoding for the discrimination of Eurasian yews (Taxus L., Taxaceae) and the discovery of cryptic species.  

PubMed

There is currently international interest in the application of DNA barcoding as a tool for plant species discrimination and identification. In this study, we evaluated the utility of five candidate plant DNA barcoding regions [rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] in Eurasian yews. This group of species is taxonomically difficult because of a lack of clear-cut morphologically differences between species and hence represents a good test case for DNA barcoding. Forty-seven accessions were analysed, representing all taxa treated in current floristic works and covering most of the distribution range of Taxus in Eurasia. As single loci, trnL-F and ITS showed the highest species discriminatory power, each resolving 11 of 11 lineages (= barcode taxa). Species discrimination using matK, trnH-psbA and rbcL individually was lower, with matK resolving 8 of 10, trnH-psbA 7 of 11 and rbcL 5 of 11 successfully sequenced lineages. The proposed CBOL core barcode (rbcL + matK) resolved 8 of 11 lineages. Combining loci generally increased the robustness (measured by clade support) of the barcoding discrimination. Based on overall performance, trnL-F and ITS, separately or combined, are proposed as barcode for Eurasian Taxus. DNA barcoding discriminated recognized taxa of Eurasian Taxus, namely T. baccata, T. cuspidata, T. fuana and T. sumatrana, and identified seven lineages among the T. wallichiana group, some with distinct geographical distributions and morphologies, and potentially representing new species. Using the proposed DNA barcode, a technical system can be established to rapidly and reliably identify Taxus species in Eurasia for conservation protection and for monitoring illegal trade. PMID:21429104

Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Gao, Lian-Ming; Zhang, De-Quan; Li, De-Zhu

2010-08-16

236

Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) overcome their current desires to anticipate two distinct future needs and plan for them appropriately.  

PubMed

Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present satiety to cache food they will desire in the future. Here, we show that another corvid, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), can distinguish between two distinct future desires and plan for each appropriately, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms of previous work, and suggest a way in which associative learning processes and future-oriented cognition may combine to allow prospective behaviour. PMID:22048890

Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

2011-11-02

237

Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus  

PubMed Central

The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n?=?99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n?=?19), stone marten (Martes foina, n?=?3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n?=?3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n?=?4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Silvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonca, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luis Miguel; Barros, Tania; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Monica V.

2013-01-01

238

Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can improve the characterization of emission locations, magnitudes and trends over sparsely monitored areas such as seas or oceans.

Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

2013-04-01

239

Collection of field reproductive data from carcasses of the female Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Information about reproductive physiology in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) would generate knowledge that could be useful in the management of the Swedish lynx population based on the knowledge about their reproductive potential and population development. Age-related differences in ovulation and implantation rates would affect the reproductive output and the development of the population. The aims of this study were to evaluate a protocol for collection of reproductive data from carcasses by comparisons with published field data and to generate data about reproduction in the Swedish lynx. Reproductive organs from 120 females that were harvested between March 1 and April 9 from 2009 to 2011 were collected and evaluated macroscopically for placental scars. Females had their first estrus as yearlings but did not have their first litter until the next season. Pregnancy rates were lower in 2-year-old females than in females aged 3 to 7 years but did not differ significantly from females aged 8 to 13 years (54.5%, 95.6%, and 75.0%, respectively). CL from the present season were morphologically distinctly different from luteal bodies from previous cycles (LBPC). All females ?3 years had macroscopically visible LBPC, whereas only 67% of 22 to 23 months old females had one to three LBPC and no females <1 year of age had LBPC. Females aged 34 to 35 months had up to eight LPBC, whereas the highest number of LBPC counted in females ?3 years of age was 11. These data would be in agreement with only one estrus per season and LBPC from at least three previous reproductive seasons in older females. The number of LBPC was significantly correlated with the weight of the ovaries rs = 0.648, P < 0.001) and the age of the animals (rs = 0.572, P < 0.001). Uterine weight differed significantly with the stage of the reproductive cycle and was highest for mature females in the luteal phase of the cycle. The estrous period, defined as occurrence of ovarian follicles lasted from March 5 to April 1 in this material. In conclusion, this study confirms that useful information about lynx reproduction can be collected from reproductive organs retrieved after the death of the animals. Continuous monitoring of lynx reproductive organs would therefore make a valuable contribution to collection of field data, gathering information that can be useful for the management of lynx populations and potentially for the lynx as an indicator of environmental disturbances. PMID:23987987

Axnér, E; Payan-Carreira, R; Setterlind, P; Asbrink, J; Söderberg, A

2013-08-27

240

Ongoing subduction of Eurasian continental crust beneath the Pamir constrained by teleseismic receiver functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhumation of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks testifies that the continental crust can subduct to greater depth in the mantle despite its buoyancy. However, direct observation of ongoing subduction of continental crust is rare. The Pamir is regarded as a possible place of active continental subduction because of the observed intermediate-depth seismicity, findings of crustal xenoliths from upper mantle depths and estimates of high cenozoic convergence for this region that could hardly be accommodated by crustal deformation alone. Here we present receiver function results from the seismological part of the Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic program (TIPAGE). In a high resolution north-south cross section along the main TIPAGE profile, we observe a southerly dipping thin (with a thickness of 11 km) low-velocity zone (LVZ) that starts from the base of the crust and extends to a depth of more than 150 km with an increasing dip angle to subvertical. A diagonal northwest to southeast cross section shows that towards the western Pamir the dip direction of the LVZ bends to the southeast resulting in an arcuate subduction configuration of Eurasian lithosphere beneath the Pamir. In both profiles, the LVZ identified with receiver functions appears to envelope the intermediate-depth earthquakes of the Pamir Hindu-Kush seismic zone. For imaging of the dipping interface a migration procedure is used and tested that accounts for the inclination of the conversion layers. Migrated cross sections of Q- and T-components of the P-RFs are compared. The crustal thickness is determined and mapped for this region by stacking direct Ps and multiple PpPs and PpSs phases. At the most places in the Pamir, it is ranging between 65 km and 75 km, while the greatest Moho depths of around 80 km are observed at the upper end of the LVZ. The surrounding areas namely the Tajik Depression, the Ferghana and Tarim Basins show Moho depths of around 40 to 45 km giving an estimate of the pre-collisional crustal thickness of the former Basin area that was overthrusted by the Pamir.

Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Mechie, James; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustavo; Haberland, Christian; Negmatullaev, Sobit; Abdybachaev, Ulan

2013-04-01

241

Structure of the Fram Strait branch of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent mooring-based observations at several locations along the continental slope of the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin showed a transformation of the Boundary Current (BC) from a mostly barotropic flow in Fram Strait to a jet-like baroclinic current northeast of Svalbard, and the reemergence of the barotropic structure of the flow in the eastern Eurasian Basin. This transformation is accompanied by a weakening of the flow from ˜24 cm/s in Fram Strait to ˜5 cm/s at the Lomonosov Ridge. The maximum of the baroclinic component of the BC at an intermediate depth (˜200-370 m) is associated with the Atlantic Water core. The depth range of the baroclinic current maximum is controlled by cross-slope density gradients above and below the baroclinic velocity maximum as follows from the geostrophic balance of forces. According to the model simulations, the BC splits into shallow and deep branches in the proximity of Svalbard due to a divergence of isobaths, confirming topographically-controlled BC behavior. The shallow branch is located at a shelf break with a typical bottom depth of ˜200 m and current speed of up to ˜24 cm/s. The discussed results, which provide insight on some basic aspects of the dynamics of the BC (the major oceanic heat source for the Arctic Ocean), may be of importance for understanding of the ocean's role in shaping the arctic climate system state.

Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Kikuchi, Takashi

2013-06-01

242

Investigating the ability of general circulation models to capture the effects of Eurasian snow cover on winter climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of general circulation models (GCMs) to reproduce the observed strong correlations of Eurasian snow extent in the fall to wave activity and Northern Annular Mode anomalies in the following winter is studied. The observed correlations have been hypothesized to involve two parts: a Rossby wave pulse generated in the troposphere in response to snow-forced surface cooling and a coupled zonal-mean stratosphere-troposphere response to this Rossby wave pulse involving eddy mean flow interactions. It is found that all coupled ocean atmosphere GCMs used within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) fail to capture the observed correlations. Using the CMIP3 GCMs and two versions of a particular GCM forced by prescribed sea surface temperatures, possible reasons for this are considered. The snow forcing, as represented in the spatial extent and interannual variability of snow cover area, is found to be reasonable although somewhat weak in the GCMs, as is the relationship between snow cover and the zonal-mean circulation. However, the anomaly of eddy geopotential height associated with Eurasian snow cover anomalies is found to be too localized longitudinally in the GCMs. It is proposed that the reduced longitudinal scale of the snow-forced Rossby wave pulse prevents it from propagating into the stratosphere, thus inhibiting the observed wave-driven stratosphere-troposphere response to the pulse.

Hardiman, Steven C.; Kushner, Paul J.; Cohen, Judah

2008-11-01

243

Terrestrial water storage changes and the hydrological budget over Eurasian Pan-Arctic river basins from 2003-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution retrievals of recent changes in the Earth's gravity field using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) offers insights into Earth system processes encompassing the atmosphere, ocean, land water hydrology, and land ice. Here, we focus on the Eurasian Pan-Arctic region, where water/ice mass fluxes and sea ice cover are rapidly changing with potentially large impacts on river discharge and ground storage of greenhouse gases. We use GRACE observations to infer the spatio-temporal pattern of terrestrial water storage changes and compare them with the permafrost distribution in this region. During its 7 years of measurements, GRACE reveals pronounced inter-annual variations, significant parts of which are collocated with regions of discontinuous permafrost. In combination with estimates of the atmospheric precipitation and evaporation fluxes from re-analysis data sets (e.g., the Japanese re-analyis JRA-25) as well as discharge observations for the largest rivers, we can also determine variations and trends in freshwater river discharge from the entire Eurasian Pan-Arctic river basins into the Arctic Ocean from 2003 to 2009. This analysis yields new quantitative insights into annual to inter-annual dynamics of the Pan-Arctic hydrologic mass-balance, in particular for regions of un-gauged discharge. By using datasets that carry redundant information, we are also able to quantify uncertainties and biases in the datasets and observations.

Landerer, Felix; Dickey, Jean; Zlotnicki, Victor

2010-05-01

244

Improvement in simulation of Eurasian winter climate variability with a realistic Arctic sea ice condition in an atmospheric GCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to ˜0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

2012-12-01

245

Role for Eurasian Arctic shelf sea ice in a secularly varying hemispheric climate signal during the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypothesized low-frequency climate signal propagating across the Northern Hemisphere through a network of synchronized climate indices was identified in previous analyses of instrumental and proxy data. The tempo of signal propagation is rationalized in terms of the multidecadal component of Atlantic Ocean variability—the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Through multivariate statistical analysis of an expanded database, we further investigate this hypothesized signal to elucidate propagation dynamics. The Eurasian Arctic Shelf-Sea Region, where sea ice is uniquely exposed to open ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, emerges as a strong contender for generating and sustaining propagation of the hemispheric signal. Ocean-ice-atmosphere coupling spawns a sequence of positive and negative feedbacks that convey persistence and quasi-oscillatory features to the signal. Further stabilizing the system are anomalies of co-varying Pacific-centered atmospheric circulations. Indirectly related to dynamics in the Eurasian Arctic, these anomalies appear to negatively feed back onto the Atlantic`s freshwater balance. Earth's rotational rate and other proxies encode traces of this signal as it makes its way across the Northern Hemisphere.

Wyatt, Marcia Glaze; Curry, Judith A.

2013-09-01

246

Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves.  

PubMed

Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens. PMID:22476688

Schuler, Krysten L; Green, David E; Justice-Allen, Anne E; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Ip, Hon S

2012-04-03

247

Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin: An apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected by an autonomous ice-based observatory that drifted into the Eurasian Basin between April and November 2010 indicate that the upper ocean was appreciably fresher than in 2007 and 2008. Sea ice and snowmelt over the course of the 2010 drift amounted to an input of less than 0.5 m of liquid freshwater to the ocean (comparable to the freshening by melting estimated for those previous years), while the observed change in upper-ocean salinity over the melt period implies a freshwater gain of about 0.7 m. Results of a wind-driven ocean model corroborate the observations of freshening and suggest that unusually fresh surface waters observed in parts of the Eurasian Basin in 2010 may have been due to the spreading of anomalously fresh water previously residing in the Beaufort Gyre. This flux is likely associated with a 2009 shift in the large-scale atmospheric circulation to a significant reduction in strength of the anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift Stream.

Timmermans, M.-L.; Proshutinsky, A.; Krishfield, R. A.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J. A.; Stanton, T. P.; Toole, J. M.

2011-08-01

248

The impact of Eurasian dust storms and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric nutrient deposition rates in forested Japanese catchments and adjacent regional seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry data from 1993 to 2005 are used to analyze the relationship between Eurasian dust storms and nutrient deposition rates in the Kutsuki experimental forest (near Lake Biwa). From 2000 to 2005, atmospheric deposition, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved silica (DSi) deposition rates increased by 26%, 132%, and 38%, respectively in the

Jens Hartmann; Takao Kunimatsu; Jason K. Levy

2008-01-01

249

The impact of Eurasian dust storms and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric nutrient deposition rates in forested Japanese catchments and adjacent regional seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry data from 1993 to 2005 are used to analyze the relationship between Eurasian dust storms and nutrient deposition rates in the Kutsuki experimental forest (near Lake Biwa). From 2000 to 2005, atmospheric deposition, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved silica (DSi) deposition rates increased by 26%, 132%, and 38%, respectively in the

Jens Hartmann; Takao Kunimatsu; Jason K. Levy

2010-01-01

250

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east–west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of

Wei-Hua Shou; En-Fa Qiao; Chuan-Yu Wei; Yong-Li Dong; Si-Jie Tan; Hong Shi; Wen-Ru Tang; Chun-Jie Xiao; C-J Xiao

2010-01-01

251

Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) Interactions with Climate in the Eurasian Arctic: Past and new projects in the NASA LCLUC program  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the studies conducted in the framework of the NASA Land-Cover\\/Land- Use Change Program focused on the Eurasian Arctic will be presented. It includes discussion of vegetation changes under climate warming and implications to carbon cycle, changes in environmental pollution, hydrologic cycle, and impacts on society. Climate change can affect land cover in the Arctic through changes in

G. Gutman

2009-01-01

252

Comparative performance of renewable and nonrenewable energy source on economic growth and CO2 emissions of Europe and Eurasian countries: A PVAR approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, we analyzed the relative performance of RES and NRES on economic growth in European and Eurasian countries in a panel framework. The dynamics of these variables are also analyzed in relation to CO2 emissions. We used PVAR approach for analysis for the period 1965 to 2009 and find that growth rate of NRES has negative impact on

Aviral Kumar Tiwari

2011-01-01

253

Overwinter Habitat and the Relationship of Overwinter to In-lake Densities of the Milfoil Weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, a Eurasian Watermilfoil Biological Control Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native weevil Euhrychiopsis lecontei has been associated with declines of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spica- tum). The weevil spends all summer on submersed plants, producing 3 to 6 generations. In September to November adult weevils move to shore where they overwinter in leaf lit- ter at drier sites near the shoreline. Mean November shore- line densities from 1992-1998 at Lake

DAVID W. RAGSDALE; ALYSON MILLES; CARY OIEN

254

Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which

Santi Mañosa; Rafael Mateo; Cristina Freixa; Raimon Guitart

2003-01-01

255

Predicting habitat use and trophic interactions of Eurasian ruffe, round gobies, and zebra mussels in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laurentian Great Lakes have been subject to numerous introductions of nonindige- nous species, including two recent benthic fish invaders, Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) and round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus), as well as the benthic bivalve, zebra mussel (Dreis- sena polymorpha). These three exotic species, or ''exotic triad,'' may impact nearshore benthic communities due to their locally high abundances and expanding

Candice R. Bauer; Angela M. Bobeldyk; Gary A. Lamberti

2006-01-01

256

Tertiary palaeogeography and tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Northern and Southern Peri-Tethys platforms and the intermediate domains of the African–Eurasian convergent plate boundary zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing effects of African–Eurasian convergence during the Tertiary resulted in the uplift and emergence of the Northern and Southern Peri-Tethys platforms. Palaeogeographic maps covering six selected time slices, including the Middle Eocene, late Early Oligocene, late Early Miocene, early Middle Miocene, early Late Miocene and Middle to Late Pliocene illustrate that environmental and depositional differentiations on the northern platform

Johan E. Meulenkamp; Wim Sissingh

2003-01-01

257

Stability of permafrost and gas hydrates in Arctic coastal lowlands and on the Eurasian shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last Glacial period thick continuous permafrost developed on the Siberian coastal lowlands and large shelf areas due to the up to 120 m lower sea level and the exposure of these areas to cold temperatures. With the beginning of the Holocene transgression, complex interaction processes of sea water with the permafrost landscape occurred. The occurrence of gas hydrates captured in permafrost is a characteristic feature of the the Eurasian Arctic shelf areas, especially on the shelf of the Kara, Laptev and East Siberia seas. In some of the shelf areas oceanic rift zones stretch to the continent, as for example in the Laptev Sea area where the Gakkel Ridge continues into the land. Great differences in geothermal heat flow values and in the properties of the sediments and rocks have to be assumed in undisturbed lithosphere block and in fault zones like as in continental rifts (such as Momskii and Baikalskii rifts, etc.). As a result differences in the thickness of permafrost and the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) within these structures are expected. The thickness of permafrost and the GHSZ change essentially and irregularly in the stages of regressions and transgressions of the sea. Models show that the thickness of offshore (subsea) permafrost in the stages of climatic warming and transgressions essentially decrease however, rather irregular. The possibilities and the boundary conditions for the occurrence of open taliks, which may result in an emission of greenhouse gases from sub-permafrost gases and hydrates, have been estimated. Ice-bearing and ice-bonded permafrost in the northern regions of Arctic lowlands and in the inner shelf zone, have been preserved during at least four Pleistocene climatic and glacial-eustatic cycles. Presently, they are subjected to degradation from the bottom under the impact of geothermal heat flux as well as from interaction with warmer sea water at the top. Subsea permafrost formed on the arctic continental shelves that were inundated following the end of the last Glacial period 18,000 years ago. This inundation has increased the mean annual temperature at the sediment surface since the mean annual sea bottom water temperature is higher than the temperature of the land surface before the transgression. This increase in temperature leads to the thawing of permafrost below the seabed, which can occur as a result of temperature increase, but also due to the penetration of salt-water into the seabed, which lowers the freezing point of the sediment's pore water. Coastal and subsea permafrost are important components in the global carbon system. It contains significant amounts of methane and organic carbon, which may be released to the atmosphere during permafrost warming and degradation. Gas hydrates, and in particular methane hydrates, have been observed trapped within and below arctic permafrost. Recent observations of high methane concentrations in Siberian shelf waters may indicate a shift in release rates connected to submarine permafrost degradation.

Hubberten, H. W.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Romanovskii, N.; Wetterich, S.

2011-12-01

258

Eurasian Tree Sparrows, Risk for H5N1 Virus Spread and Human Contamination through Buddhist Ritual: An Experimental Approach  

PubMed Central

Background The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 virus has dramatically spread throughout Southeast Asia since its first detection in 1997. Merit Release Birds, such as the Eurasian Tree Sparrow, are believed to increase one's positive karma when kissed and released during Buddhist rituals. Since these birds are often in close contact with both poultry and humans, we investigated their potential role in the spread of H5N1 virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven series of experiments were conducted in order to investigate the possible interactions between inoculated and exposed birds, including sparrow/sparrow, sparrow/chicken, duck/sparrow. Daily and post-mortem samples collected were tested for H5N1 virus by real-time RT-PCR and egg inoculation. When directly inoculated, Eurasian Tree Sparrows were highly susceptible to the H5N1 virus, with a fatality rate approaching 100% within 5 days post-inoculation. Although transmission of fatal infection between sparrows did not occur, seroconversion of the exposed birds was observed. Up to 100% chickens exposed to inoculated sparrows died of H5N1 infection, depending on the caging conditions of the birds, while a fatality rate of 50% was observed on sparrows exposed to infected ducks. Large quantities of H5N1 virus were detected in the sparrows, particularly in their feathers, from which infectious particles were recovered. Conclusions/Significance Our study indicates that under experimental conditions, Eurasian Tree Sparrows are susceptible to H5N1 infection, either by direct inoculation or by contact with infected poultry. Their ability to transmit H5N1 infection to other birds is also demonstrated, suggesting that the sparrows may play a role in the dissemination of the virus. Finally, the presence of significant quantities of H5N1 virus on sparrows' feathers, including infectious particles, would suggest that Merit Release Birds represent a risk for human contamination in countries where avian influenza virus is circulating and where this religious ritual is practiced.

Gutierrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Sorn, San; Nicholls, John M.; Buchy, Philippe

2011-01-01

259

Structure of intrusions and fronts in the deep layer of the Eurasian basin and Makarov basin (Arctic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous CTD data obtained in the Eurasian and Makarov basins in the Arctic during the Polarstern (1996), Oden, and Louis S. St. Laurent (1994) international polar expeditions are analysed to describe fronts and intrusions observed in the deep layer (600-1300 m). The hydrological parameters were estimated from available CTD data, which made it possible to identify different types of fronts (baroclinic, thermohaline, and compound types of fronts) and analyze intrusive layering taking into account the peculiarities of the thermohaline structure of fronts. The field data are interpreted using an interleaving model describing the formation of intrusions on the baroclinic and pure thermohaline fronts under conditions of absolutely stable stratification. It is assumed that differential mixing is the main instability mechanism. Estimates of the vertical and lateral diffusivities in the frontal zones of the deep Arctic layer are presented.

Kuzmina, N. P.; Rudels, B.; Zhurbas, N. V.

2013-07-01

260

The Effects of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the Foraging Success of Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex habitat structures can influence the foraging success of fish. Competition for food between fish species can therefore depend on the competitors' abilities to cope with structural complexity. In laboratory experiments, we comparatively assessed effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) on the foraging success of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)). In single-species and mixed-species experiments, the fish were fed caddisfly larvae (Tinodes waeneri (L.)) over complex (mussel-covered stones) and less-complex (bare stones) substrates. With intraspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe decreased significantly when the complex substrate was used. With interspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe did not change with substrate complexity, but perch clearly out-competed ruffe on both substrates. Zebra mussel beds provide a refuge for macrozoobenthos against predation by ruffe and probably also by perch. (

Dieterich, Axel; Mörtl, Martin; Eckmann, Reiner

2004-07-01

261

Coprological study on helminth fauna in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland.  

PubMed

One hundred fecal samples were collected during research on Eurasian lynx ecology and food habits in the Polish part of the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest (BPF) from 2001 to 2006. Seventy-three percent of samples contained eggs or larvae of helminths. A total of 10 species of helminths was identified, including 3 Cestoda (Diphyllobothrium latum, Spirometra janickii, and unidentified species of Taeniidae), 1 Trematoda (Alaria alata), and 6 Nematoda (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Eucoleus aerophilus, Metastrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., and Toxocara cati). Alaria alata has not been reported previously in lynx. A statistical comparison of the 2 techniques used to isolate eggs, i.e., flotation and sedimentation, indicates that sedimentation was more effective. PMID:18576790

Szczesna, J; Popio?ek, M; Schmidt, K; Kowalczyk, R

2008-08-01

262

Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.  

PubMed

Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers. PMID:20582437

Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

2010-06-26

263

Lead levels in Eurasian otters decline with time and reveal interactions between sources, prevailing weather, and stream chemistry.  

PubMed

The uptake of contaminants by biota varies spatially and temporally due to a complex range of interacting environmental variables, but such complexities are typically disregarded in studies of temporal change. Here, we use linear modeling to explore spatial and temporal variation in bone Pb levels measured in samples taken from 329 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) found dead in southwest England. Between 1992 and 2004 Pb levels in otters fell by 73%, following UK legislative control of Pb emissions implemented since the mid 1980s. Spatial variation in bone Pb was positively correlated with modeled Pb emissions and stream sediment Pb, which interacted negatively with wind-speed and sediment Ca, respectively. Opportunistic collection of samples from wildlife mortalities provided a valuable opportunity for monitoring environmental contamination, interpretation of which was aided by spatially explicit analysis of environmental variables. PMID:21294545

Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Simpson, Victor R; Nicholls, Abigail E L; Slater, Frederick M

2011-02-04

264

GCM Study of Interannual Variability of Indian Summer Monsoon: the Impact of Anomalous Spring Eurasian Snow Cover.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently improved version of the COLA GCM, which simulates the Indian monsoon circulation and precipitation pattern closely, together with snow data derived from SMMR observations, were used to investigate the effect of anomalous spring Eurasian snow cover on the interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon. We have successfully simulated the observed evidence that excessive winter/spring Eurasian snow cover is associated with a delay in monsoon onset, weak monsoon circulation, and an extended monsoon withdrawal period. JJAS simulated precipitation shows a reduction of about one standard deviation of model natural variation over the Indian region as well as a significant increase over the eastern portion of China. A study of the physical mechanisms involved reveals: (1) Energy used in melting excessive snow reduces the surface temperature over a broad region centered on the Tibetan Plateau. Reduced surface sensible heat flux reduces the mid-tropospheric temperature gradient between Tibet and equatorial Indian Ocean, resulting in a weakening of the Indian summer monsoon circulation. (2) North of Tibet, an anomalous low induced by the excessive springtime Mongolian snow cover is superimposed on the summertime central Asian trough, resulting in the deepening of the trough and the creation of a stronger-than-normal east Asian westerly jet. South of this jet, an upper-tropospheric anomalous anticyclonic circulation provides favorable conditions for convective precipitation over the southeastern part of China. Due to heating anomalies, weaker secondary circulation is accompanied by mass readjustment. Abnormal stationary wave propagation induced by an anomalous divergence field has an abnormal impact on remote regions. The use of the Plumb flux is extended to indicate the propagation of the stationary wave anomaly. Results clearly demonstrate that North America can be influenced by Tibetan anomalous snow cover via atmospheric teleconnection during the spring and that the existence of anomalous wave energy being transported from the perturbed Madagascar High to the northeastern portion of Australia during the summer is possible.

Zhou, Jiayu

265

Evolution of endogenous retroviruses in the Suidae: evidence for different viral subpopulations in African and Eurasian host species  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent remnants of an exogenous form that have become integrated in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) genome. Although they are usually inactive, the capacity of ?1 ERVs to infect human cells in vitro has raised concerns about xenotransplantation because the viruses could cross the species barrier to humans. Here we have analyzed the evolution of ?1 ERVs in ten species of Suidae (suids, pigs and hogs) from Eurasia and Africa using DNA sequences for their coding domains (gag, pro/pol and env genes). For comparison with ?1 PERVs, we have also analysed ?2 ERVs which in domestic pigs are known to be inactive and do not pose a risk to xenotransplantation. Results Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference showed that ?1 and ?2 ERVs have distinctive evolutionary histories. Firstly, two different viral lineages of ?1 ERVs were found and a coevolutionary analysis demonstrated that they correspond broadly to their host phylogeny, one of Eurasian and another of African species, and show no evidence of horizontal transmission. ?2 ERVs, however, show a bush-like evolution, suggesting a rapid viral radiation from a single common ancestor with no correspondence between host and viral evolutionary trees. Furthermore, though ?1 ERV env genes do not possess frequent stop codons, ?2 env genes do. To understand whether ?1 suid ERVs may be still replicating, we have also evaluated their likely mechanism of proliferation by statistically testing internal to terminal branches using nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitution ratios. Our results suggest that ?1 ERVs are increasing in copy number by reinfection, which requires the translocation of the virus from one cell to another. Conclusions Evidence of at least two viral subpopulations was observed in ?1 ERVs from Eurasian and African host species. These results should be taken into account in xenotransplantation since ?1 ERVs appear to be codiverging with their host and maintaining ongoing capacity to infect somatic and germ cells.

2011-01-01

266

A New Experimental Infection Model in Ferrets Based on Aerosolised Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

There is significant interest in developing vaccines to control bovine tuberculosis, especially in wildlife species where this disease continues to persist in reservoir species such as the European Badger (Meles meles). However, gaining access to populations of badgers (protected under UK law) is problematic and not always possible. In this study, a new infection model has been developed in ferrets (Mustela furo), a species which is closely related to the badger. Groups of ferrets were infected using a Madison infection chamber and were examined postmortem for the presence of tuberculous lesions and to provide tissue samples for confirmation of Mycobacterium bovis by culture. An infectious dose was defined, that establishes infection within the lungs and associated lymph nodes with subsequent spread to the mesentery lymph nodes. This model, which emphasises respiratory tract infection, will be used to evaluate vaccines for the control of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species.

McCallan, Lyanne; Corbett, David; Andersen, Peter L.; Aagaard, Claus; McMurray, David; Barry, Claire; Thompson, Suzan; Strain, Samuel; McNair, Jim

2011-01-01

267

Range use of a Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus) population in the Dadia?Lefkimi?Soufli National Park and the adjacent areas, Thrace, NE Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary goal of this study was to facilitate the management and conservation of Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus) population on a larger scale than the Dadia?Lefkimi?Soufli National Park (Dadia NP). Range use pattern of this population was studied using an integrated radio?tracking methodology. Various home range (HR) parameters were estimated for the breeding (BS) and non?breeding (NBS) season using minimum

Dimitris P. Vasilakis; Konstantinos S. Poirazidis; Javier N. Elorriaga

2008-01-01

268

Stages of geodynamic rearrangements of the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent in the Cenozoic: The amur river-sea of the Okhotsk region  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed in literature that the convergent boundary between the Pacific Plate and the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent permanently existed through the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. However, new data in combination with recent publications on the Sikhote Alin?Sakhalin [1?5] and the East China? Japan [6?8] regions testify to geodynamic and tectonic instability of the eastern margin

N. I. Filatova

2006-01-01

269

Variation of Summer Water Vapor Transport Related to Precipitation over and around the Arid Region in the Interior of the Eurasian Continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of the hydrological cycle for arid\\/semi-arid regions is important, because desertification is occurring in these regions. Even in the arid\\/semi-arid regions in the interior of the Eurasian Continent, heavy precipitation sometimes occurs. However, the relationship between water vapor transport and precipitation has not been clarified yet. In this study, water vapor transport and flux divergence in the arid

Akiyo Yatagai; Tetsuzo Yasunari

1998-01-01

270

Diet diversity and breeding of top predators are determined by habitat stability and structure: a case study with the Eurasian otter ( Lutra lutra L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on Eurasian otter was conducted in order to establish if feeding ecology and breeding of this European freshwater\\u000a top predator were affected by the habitat complexity or stability. The work was based on the comparison of contrasting environmental\\u000a settings. Significant gradients were found for otter diet parameters and breeding, both also changing according to habitat\\u000a gradient patterns (water

Jordi Ruiz-Olmo; Juan Jiménez

2009-01-01

271

Molecular cloning and expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in Eurasian perch ( Perca fluviatilis ): lack of responsiveness to growth hormone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloning of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) liver cDNA resulted in the identification of two transcripts of 794 and 713 nucleotides. Whereas the long IGF-Ib isoform consisted of 186 residues, the short IGF-Ia isoform was lacking 27 residues of the E domain due to alternative exon splicing. The long isoform was more abundant than the short

Sissel Jentoft; Are H. Aastveit; Øivind Andersen

2004-01-01

272

Eurasian-origin gene segments contribute to the transmissibility, aerosol release, and morphology of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.  

PubMed

The epidemiological success of pandemic and epidemic influenza A viruses relies on the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplet (RD) transmission of influenza viruses requires efficient replication and release of infectious influenza particles into the air. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus originated by reassortment of a North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) virus with a Eurasian swine virus that contributed the neuraminidase (NA) and M gene segments. Both the TRS and Eurasian swine viruses caused sporadic infections in humans, but failed to spread from person-to-person, unlike the pH1N1 virus. We evaluated the pH1N1 and its precursor viruses in a ferret model to determine the contribution of different viral gene segments on the release of influenza virus particles into the air and on the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. We found that the Eurasian-origin gene segments contributed to efficient RD transmission of the pH1N1 virus likely by modulating the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air. All viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of infected ferrets, suggesting that factors other than viral replication are important for the release of influenza virus particles and transmission. Our studies demonstrate that the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air correlates with increased NA activity. Additionally, the pleomorphic phenotype of the pH1N1 virus is dependent upon the Eurasian-origin gene segments, suggesting a link between transmission and virus morphology. We have demonstrated that the viruses are released into exhaled air to varying degrees and a constellation of genes influences the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. PMID:22241979

Lakdawala, Seema S; Lamirande, Elaine W; Suguitan, Amorsolo L; Wang, Weijia; Santos, Celia P; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindsley, William G; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

2011-12-29

273

Predicting habitat use and trophic interactions of Eurasian ruffe, round gobies, and zebra mussels in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laurentian Great Lakes have been subject to numerous introductions of nonindigenous species, including two recent benthic\\u000a fish invaders, Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) and round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus), as well as the benthic bivalve, zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). These three exotic species, or “exotic triad,” may impact nearshore benthic communities due to their locally high abundances\\u000a and expanding distributions. Laboratory

Candice R. Bauer; Angela M. Bobeldyk; Gary A. Lamberti

2007-01-01

274

Identification of West Eurasian mitochondrial haplogroups by mtDNA SNP screening: Results of the 2006–2007 EDNAP collaborative exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group performed a collaborative exercise on a mitochondrial (mt) DNA screening assay that targeted 16 nucleotide positions in the coding region and allowed for the discrimination of major west Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups. The purpose of the exercise was to evaluate the stability and reproducibility of the self-developed multiplex-PCR and multiplex-single base extension kit by blind-testing

Walther Parson; Liane Fendt; David Ballard; Claus Børsting; Bernd Brinkmann; Ángel Carracedo; Mónica Carvalho; Michael D. Coble; Francisco Corte Real; Stijn Desmyter; Berit M. Dupuy; Cheryl Harrison; Carsten Hohoff; Rebecca Just; Tanja Krämer; Niels Morling; Antonio Salas; Hermann Schmitter; Peter M. Schneider; Marie-Luise Sonntag; Peter M. Vallone; Anita Brandstätter

2008-01-01

275

Eurasian-Origin Gene Segments Contribute to the Transmissibility, Aerosol Release, and Morphology of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological success of pandemic and epidemic influenza A viruses relies on the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person via respiratory droplets. Respiratory droplet (RD) transmission of influenza viruses requires efficient replication and release of infectious influenza particles into the air. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus originated by reassortment of a North American triple reassortant swine (TRS) virus with a Eurasian swine virus that contributed the neuraminidase (NA) and M gene segments. Both the TRS and Eurasian swine viruses caused sporadic infections in humans, but failed to spread from person-to-person, unlike the pH1N1 virus. We evaluated the pH1N1 and its precursor viruses in a ferret model to determine the contribution of different viral gene segments on the release of influenza virus particles into the air and on the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus. We found that the Eurasian-origin gene segments contributed to efficient RD transmission of the pH1N1 virus likely by modulating the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air. All viruses replicated well in the upper respiratory tract of infected ferrets, suggesting that factors other than viral replication are important for the release of influenza virus particles and transmission. Our studies demonstrate that the release of influenza viral RNA-containing particles into the air correlates with increased NA activity. Additionally, the pleomorphic phenotype of the pH1N1 virus is dependent upon the Eurasian-origin gene segments, suggesting a link between transmission and virus morphology. We have demonstrated that the viruses are released into exhaled air to varying degrees and a constellation of genes influences the transmissibility of the pH1N1 virus.

Lakdawala, Seema S.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Wang, Weijia; Santos, Celia P.; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lindsley, William G.; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

2011-01-01

276

Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: The eurasian collared-dove streptopelia decaocto in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the spread direction consistent with empirical observations. Site persistence probability exhibits a quadratic response to density. We also succeeded at detecting differences in the relationship between density and initial colonization vs. recolonization probabilities. We provide a map of sites that may be colonized in the future as an example of possible practical application of our work. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Bled, F.; Royle, J. A.; Cam, E.

2011-01-01

277

An observational study of ecohydrology of a sparse grassland at the edge of the Eurasian cryosphere in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between July 2002 and June 2004 we recorded many ecohydrological observations at a sparse grassland site on the southern periphery of the Eurasian cryosphere in Mongolia. Grass growth at the study site shows significant difference of biomass between drier and moister years. Seasonal change of PAR albedo is a good indicator of temporal change of biomass. The stresses of atmosphere and soil water to grass have been evaluated at the study site using index of air temperature stress degree-day (SDD) and soil water stress (SWS). SDD was small and prevailingly negative. Variations in the SWS tracked precipitation fluctuations. Variability of two indexes may imply that atmospheric heat stress for the growing grass was weak compared to soil water stress for such a semiarid region. The above conclusion is supported by irrigation experimental observation as well; clear differences of biomass were observed between watered and unwatered ground after irrigation commenced. Soil evaporation and transpiration were estimated using a soil moisture parameterization and verified with micro-Lysimeter observations. Variability of evapotranspiration shows temporal decline processes' response to precipitation events or snow melting. During the observation period, evapotranspiration totaled 301.6 mm, and precipitation totaled 319.5 mm. The mean partition of transpiration in evapotranspiration was 22%, which was small during wetter grass-growing periods but large in drier periods. The growing period is short along the periphery of the cryosphere, but water fluxes during the growing period contribute significantly to the annual water cycle.

Zhang, Yinsheng; Munkhtsetseg, E.; Kadota, T.; Ohata, T.

2005-07-01

278

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

279

Siberian paleomagnetic data and the problem of rigidity of the Northern Eurasian continent in the post-Paleozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Meso-Cenozoic paleomagnetic poles from the Siberian platform and its folded margins, which comply with the modern technical and methodological standards, are analyzed. The analysis suggests the following conclusions. (1) The geometrical relationship between the Permo-Triassic poles of the Stable Europe and Siberian Platform prohibits the possibility of relative displacements of these platforms in the post-Paleozoic time. (2) The Mesozoic paleomagnetic poles of the Siberian Platform support the hypothesis of rigid Northern Eurasia. (3) The paleolatitudes of the Mesozoic sections located on the folded margins of the Siberian Platform closely agree with the Apparent Polar Wandering Path (APWP) for Europe. (4) The available data indicate that the vertical-axis rotation of separate local blocks within the folded margins of the Siberian Platform was a widespread phenomenon. Therefore, (1) the modern paleomagnetic data quite certainly show that consolidation of the Northern Eurasian continent was completed by the end of Permian, and, since the very beginning of the Mesozoic, the Siberian and East-European platforms have been parts of a single rigid megablock. (2) The Meso-Cenozoic segment of the APWP for Europe can be used as reference for the Siberian platform.

Pavlov, V. E.

2012-09-01

280

Intrageneric diversity of the cytochrome B gene and phylogeny of eurasian species of the genus mustela (mustelidae, carnivora).  

PubMed

To illuminate molecular phylogenetic relationships among Eurasian species of the genus Mustela (Mustelidae, Carnivora), we determined nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region (1,140 base pairs). Molecular phylogenetic trees, constructed using the neighbor-joining and the maximum likelihood methods, showed the common topology of species relationships to each other. The American mink M. vison first branched off and was positioned very remotely from the other species of Mustela. Excluding M. vison, the ermine M. erminea first split from the rest of the species. Two small body-sized weasels, the least weasel M. nivalis and the mountain weasel M. altaica, comprised one cluster (named "the small weasel group"). The other species formed another cluster, where the remarkably close relationships among the domestic ferret M. furo, the European polecat M. putorius, and the steppe polecat M. eversmanni were noticed with 87-94% bootstrap values (named "the ferret group"), supporting the history that the ferret was domesticated from M. putorius and/or M. eversmanni. The European mink M. lutreola was the closest to the ferret group. The genetic distance between the Siberian weasel M. sibirica and the Japanese weasel M. itatsi corresponded to differences of interspecific level, while the two species were relatively close to M. lutreola and the ferret group. These results provide invaluable insight for understanding the evolution of Mustela as well as for investigating the hybridization status between native and introduced species for conservation. PMID:18517304

Kurose, N; Abramov, A V; Masuda, R

2000-07-01

281

Flowering Time Diversification and Dispersal in Central Eurasian Wild Wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss.: Genealogical and Ecological Framework  

PubMed Central

Timing of flowering is a reproductive trait that has significant impact on fitness in plants. In contrast to recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of floral transition, few empirical studies have addressed questions concerning population processes of flowering time diversification within species. We analyzed chloroplast DNA genealogical structure of flowering time variation in central Eurasian wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. using 200 accessions that represent the entire species range. Flowering time measured as days from germination to flowering varied from 144.0 to 190.0 days (average 161.3 days) among accessions in a common garden/greenhouse experiment. Subsequent genealogical and statistical analyses showed that (1) there exist significant longitudinal and latitudinal clines in flowering time at the species level, (2) the early-flowering phenotype evolved in two intraspecific lineages, (3) in Asia, winter temperature was an environmental factor that affected the longitudinal clinal pattern of flowering time variation, and (4) in Transcaucasus-Middle East, some latitudinal factors affected the geographic pattern of flowering time variation. On the basis of palaeoclimatic, biogeographic, and genetic evidence, the northern part of current species' range [which was within the temperate desert vegetation (TDV) zone at the Last Glacial Maximum] is hypothesized to have harbored species refugia. Postglacial southward dispersal from the TDV zone seems to have been driven by lineages that evolved short-flowering-time phenotypes through different genetic mechanisms in Transcaucasus-Middle East and Asia.

Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi

2008-01-01

282

Latitude dependency of solar flare index-temperature relation occuring over middle and high latitudes of Atlantic-Eurasian region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By applying multitaper methods and Pearson test on the surface air temperature and flare index used as a proxy data for possible solar sources of climate-forcing, we investigated the signature of these variables on middle and high latitudes of the Atlantic-Eurasian region (Turkey, Finland, Romania, Ukraine, Cyprus, Israel, Lithuania, and European part of Russia). We considered the temperature and flare index data for the period ranging from January 1975 to the end of December 2005, which covers almost three solar cycles, 21st, 22nd, and 23rd.We found significant correlations between solar activity and surface air temperature over the 50-60° and 60-70° zones for cycle 22, and for cycle 23, over the 30-40°, 40-50°, and 50-60° zones.The most pronounced power peaks for surface air temperature found by multitaper method are around 1.2, 1.7, and 2.5 years which were reported earlier for some solar activity indicators. These results support the suggestion that there is signature of solar activity effect on surface air temperature of mid-latitudes.

Kilcik, A.; Özgüç, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

2010-12-01

283

Progress in Oral Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Its Main Wildlife Reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian Wild Boar  

PubMed Central

Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar.

Beltran-Beck, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaquin; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian

2012-01-01

284

A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia.  

PubMed

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society. PMID:20091844

Kim, Kijeong; Brenner, Charles H; Mair, Victor H; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Gelegdorj, Eregzen; Batbold, Natsag; Song, Yi-Chung; Yun, Hyeung-Won; Chang, Eun-Jeong; Lkhagvasuren, Gavaachimed; Bazarragchaa, Munkhtsetseg; Park, Ae-Ja; Lim, Inja; Hong, Yun-Pyo; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Dae-Jin; Chung, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Won-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2010-07-01

285

Mitochondrial DNA of ancient Cumanians: culturally Asian steppe nomadic immigrants with substantially more western Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages.  

PubMed

The Cumanians were originally Asian pastoral nomads who in the 13th century migrated to Hungary. We have examined mitochondrial DNA from members of the earliest Cumanian population in Hungary from two archeologically well-documented excavations and from 74 modern Hungarians from different rural locations in Hungary. Haplogroups were defined based on HVS I sequences and examinations of haplogroup-associated polymorphic sites of the protein coding region and of HVS II. To exclude contamination, some ancient DNA samples were cloned. A database was created from previously published mtDNA HVS I sequences (representing 2,615 individuals from different Asian and European populations) and 74 modem Hungarian sequences from the present study. This database was used to determine the relationships between the ancient Cumanians, modern Hungarians, and Eurasian populations and to estimate the genetic distances between these populations. We attempted to deduce the genetic trace of the migration of Cumanians. This study is the first ancient DNA characterization of an eastern pastoral nomad population that migrated into Europe. The results indicate that, while still possessing a Central Asian steppe culture, the Cumanians received a large admixture of maternal genes from more westerly populations before arriving in Hungary. A similar dilution of genetic, but not cultural, factors may have accompanied the settlement of other Asian nomads in Europe. PMID:16596944

Bogácsi-Szabó, Erika; Kalmár, Tibor; Csányi, Bernadett; Tömöry, Gyöngyvér; Czibula, Agnes; Priskin, Katalin; Horváth, Ferenc; Downes, Christopher Stephen; Raskó, István

2005-10-01

286

Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2013-04-25

287

Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.  

PubMed Central

Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year.

Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

2002-01-01

288

Pn tomographic imaging of mantle lid velocity and anisotropy at the junction of the Arabian, Eurasian and African plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian plate has played a major role in building the young mountain belts along the Zagros-Bitlis continent-continent collision zone. Arabia's northward motion is considered to be the primary driving force behind the present-day westerly escape of the Anatolian plate along the North and East Anatolian fault zones as well as the formation of the Turkish and the Iranian plateaux. In this study we mapped Pn-wave velocity and anisotropy structures at the junction of the Arabian, Eurasian and African plates in order to elucidate the upper-mantle dynamics in this region. Pn is a wave that propagates within the mantle lid of the lithosphere and is often used to infer the rheology and fabric of the mantle lithosphere. Applying strict selection criteria, we used arrival times of 166 000 Pn phases to invert for velocity and anisotropy in the region. Using a least-squares tomographic code, these data were analysed to solve simultaneously for both velocity and azimuthal anisotropy in the mantle lithosphere. We found that most of the continental regions in our study area are underlain by low Pn velocity structures. Broad-scale (~500 km) zones of low (<8 km s-1) Pn velocity anomalies underlie the Anatolian plate, the Anatolian plateau, the Caucasus region, northwestern Iran and northwestern Arabia, and smaller scale (~200 km), very low (<7.8 km s-1) Pn velocity zones underlie southern Syria, the Lesser Caucasus, the Isparta Angle, central Turkey and the northern Aegean Sea. The broad-scale low-velocity regions are interpreted to be hot and unstable mantle lid zones, whereas very low Pn velocity zones are interpreted to be regions of no mantle lid. The low and very low Pn velocity zones in eastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and the Caucasus region may be associated with the latest stage of intense volcanism that has been active since the Late Miocene. The low Pn velocity zones beneath the Anatolian plate, eastern Turkey and northwestern Iran may in part be a result of the subducted Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Eurasia. We also found a major low-velocity zone beneath northwestern Arabia and the Dead Sea fault system. We interpret this anomaly to be a possible extension of the hot and anomalous upper mantle of the Red Sea and East Africa rift system. High Pn velocities (8.1-8.4 km s-1) are observed to underlie the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the central and eastern Arabian plate. Observed Pn anisotropy showed a higher degree of lateral variation than did the Pn velocity structure. Although the Pn anisotropy varies even in a given tectonic region, in eastern Anatolia very low Pn velocity and Pn anisotropy structures appear to be coherent.

Al-Lazki, Ali I.; Sandvol, Eric; Seber, Dogan; Barazangi, Muawia; Turkelli, Niyazi; Mohamad, Randa

2004-09-01

289

The Badger-Bauer Rule Revisited: Correlation of Proper Blue Frequency Shifts in the OC Hydrogen Acceptor with Morphed Hydrogen Bond Dissociation Energies in OC-HX (X = F, Cl, Br, I, CN, CCH).  

PubMed

Potential morphing has been applied to the investigation of proper blue frequency shifts, ??0 in CO, the hydrogen acceptor complexing in the hydrogen bonded series OC-HX (X= F, Cl, Br, I, CN, CCH). Linear correlations of morphed hydrogen bonded ground dissociation energies D0 with experimentally determined ??0 free from matrix and solvent effects demonstrate consistency with original tenets of the Badger-Bauer rule (J. Chem. Phys. 1937, 5, 839-51). A model is developed that provides a basis for explaining the observed linear correlations in the range of systems studied. Furthermore, the generated calibration curve enables prediction of dissociation energies for other related but different complexes. The latter include D0 for H2O-CO, H2S-CO, and CH3OH-CO which are predicted by interpolation and found to be 355(13), 171(11), and 377(14) cm(-1) respectively from available experimentally determined proton acceptor shifts. Results from this study will also be discussed in relation to investigations in which CO has been used as a probe of heme protein active sites. PMID:23895042

Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; McElmurry, Blake A; Scott, Kevin W; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

2013-08-20

290

Installation-restoration program environmental technology development. Task Order 12. Field demonstration - composting of propellant-contaminated sediments at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Final report, Jul 87-Mar 89  

SciTech Connect

A field-scale demonstration of composting propellants-contaminated sediment was conducted at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Composting, as used at BAAP, is a treatment process in which organic-chemical contaminated soils or sediments are mixed with organic materials such as manure to enhance the role of microbial metabolism in degrading and stabilizing soil/sediment contaminants. Sediments contaminated with the propellant nitrocellulose (NC) were mixed with manure, alfalfa, livestock feed, and wood chips and composted in four static piles. Negative pressure aeration was used to maintain aerobiosis and remove excess heat. Experimental variables investigated during the study were temperature (mesophilic, 35 C vs. thermophilic, 55 C), sediment loading (19 to 32 weight percent), and NC loading. Small aliquots of compost (approximately 400 cu cm) were spiked with pure NC, placed in porous nylon bags and buried in compost piles. These bagged compost samples were used to determine if high levels of NC could be successfully composted. Thermophilic temperatures resulted in the highest percent reduction in NC concentration.

Williams, R.T.; Ziegenfuss, P.S.; Marks, P.J.

1989-03-01

291

HIF-1? mRNA levels in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) exposed to acute and chronic hypoxia.  

PubMed

The big advantage of using molecular biomarkers to monitor oxygen levels in aquatic systems is that responses at the molecular level tend to be more sensitive, and usually occur earlier than those at higher levels of biological organization Aquatic hypoxia is a frequent event, which can occur naturally in a variety of marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats. More often, however, hypoxia arises as a result of euthrophication of aquatic ecosystem and can lead to changes in community structure by eliminating hypoxia-sensitive species. Consequently fish have develop various physiological and biochemical mechanisms to cope with this environmental stress. Many of these adjustments depend to changes in expression of a wide range of genes. The transcriptional responses to hypoxia are primarily mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimer composed of an ? and ? subunit. This study investigated if HIF-1? mRNA levels were regulated by hypoxia in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), a hypoxia-sensitive fresh water species. The real-time PCR was utilized to monitor dynamic changes in levels of HIF-1? mRNA in response to acute (DO 0.4 ± 0.1 mg/l for 1 h) and chronic (DO 2.8 ± 0.3 mg/l for 15 days) hypoxia. Our results indicated an up-regulation of HIF-1? in brain and liver, but not in muscle tissue after acute hypoxic treatment, whereas significant changes of HIF-1? mRNA levels were detected in muscle, but not in brain and liver after chronic hypoxia exposure. This study suggests that HIF-1? mRNA level in selected perch tissues could be an useful indicator of acute exposure to hypoxia. PMID:21769480

Rimoldi, Simona; Terova, Genciana; Ceccuzzi, Pietro; Marelli, Stefano; Antonini, Micaela; Saroglia, Marco

2011-07-19

292

A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring.

Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

2013-01-01

293

Development of the adrenocortical response to stress in Eurasian kestrel nestlings: defence ability, age, brood hierarchy and condition.  

PubMed

The developmental hypothesis proposes that the adrenocortical response to stress during postnatal development in birds should not develop when the benefits of elevated corticosterone do not outweigh the deleterious effects on growth and development. We tested three predictions developed from this hypothesis in free-living, semi-altricial Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus nestlings. We measured baseline and handling-induced corticosterone levels and the binding capacity of corticosteroid binding globulins CBG on day 10 and 21 of age and related these to age, the development of the defence behaviour, hatching asynchrony and fat stores (a measure of body condition). First, the adrenocortical response to handling (total plasma corticosterone) increased with age and thus during the time when nestlings developed the ability to defend themselves, but free corticosterone did not, because of a concomitant increase of CBG with age. Second, nestlings with adequate fat stores mounted a stronger adrenocortical stress response to an acute stressor, while nestlings with low fat stores avoided additional energy expenses. While baseline corticosterone levels were negatively related to fat stores, increase in corticosterone to handling was positively related. Third, both baseline corticosterone levels and the adrenocortical response to handling were not related to hatching order, but predominantly determined by body condition. The pattern of decreasing corticosterone levels with hatching order found in the lab seems to be neutralized by opposite effects of varying body condition on corticosterone levels in free-living birds. We argue that the postnatal adrenocortical response to stress is adaptively modulated by both variations in the release of corticosterone and in CBG, which is particularly important because elevated corticosterone may adversely affect the phenotype. PMID:20600040

Müller, Claudia; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas

2010-06-30

294

The influence of climate and hydrological variables on opposite anomaly in active layer thickness between Eurasian and North American watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study not only examined the spatiotemporal variations of permafrost active layer thickness (ALT) during 1948-2006 over the terrestrial Arctic regions experiencing climate changes, but also identified the associated drivers based on observational data and a simulation conducted by a land surface model (CHANGE). The focus on the ALT extends previous studies that have emphasized ground temperatures in permafrost regions. The Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Yukon, and Mackenzie watersheds are foci of the study. Time series of ALT in Eurasian watersheds showed generally increasing trends, while ALT in North American watersheds showed decreases. An opposition of ALT variations implicated with climate and hydrological variables was most significant when the Arctic air temperature entered into a warming phase. The warming temperatures were not simply expressed to increases in ALT. Since 1990 when the warming increased, the forcing of the ALT by the higher Annual Thawing Index in the Mackenzie and Yukon Basins was offset by the combined effects of less insulation caused by thinner snow depth and drier soil during summer. In contrast, the increasing Annual Thawing Index together with thicker snow depth and higher summer soil moisture in the Lena contributed to the increase in ALT. The results imply that the soil thermal and moisture regimes formed in the pre-thaw season(s) provide memory that manifests itself during the summer. While it is widely believed that ALT will increase with global warming, this hypothesis may need modification because the ALT also shows responses to variations in snow depth and soil moisture that can over-ride the effect of air temperature. The dependence of the hydrological variables driven by the atmosphere further increases the uncertainty in future changes of the permafrost active layer.

Park, H.; Walsh, J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Sherstiukov, A. B.; Iijima, Y.; Ohata, T.

2012-07-01

295

Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37-0.47 and 0.14-0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

2013-07-03

296

Carbonate-rich melt infiltration in peridotite xenoliths from the Eurasian-North American modern plate boundary (Chersky Range, Yakutia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of mainly spinel peridotite and subordinate pyroxenite xenoliths and megacrysts were studied in detail, enabling us to characterize upper mantle conditions and processes beneath the modern North American-Eurasian continental plate boundary. The samples were collected from 37-Ma-old basanites cropping out in the Main Collision Belt of the Chersky Range, Yakutia Republic (Russian Far East). The spinel lherzolites reflect a mantle sequence, equilibrated at temperatures of 890-1,025 °C at pressures of 1.1-2 GPa, with melt extraction estimated to be around 2-6 %. The spinel harzburgites are characterized by lower P-T equilibration conditions and estimated melt extraction up to 12 %. Minor cryptic metasomatic processes are recorded in the clinopyroxene trace elements, revealing that percolating hydrous fluid-rich melts and basaltic melts affected the peridotites. One of the lherzolites preserves a unique melt droplet with primary dolomite in perfect phase contact with Na-rich aluminosilicate glass and sodalite. On the basis of the well-constrained P-T frame of the xenolith suite, as well as the rigorously documented melt extraction and metasomatic history of this upper mantle section, we discuss how a carbonated silicate melt infiltrated the lherzolite at depth and differentiated into an immiscible carbonate and silicate liquid shortly before the xenolith was transported to the surface by the host basalt. Decreasing temperatures triggered crystallization of primary dolomite from the carbonate melt fraction and sodalite as well as quenched glass from the Na-rich aluminosilicate melt fraction. Rapid entrainment and transport to the Earth's surface prevented decarbonatization processes as well as reaction phenomena with the host lherzolite, preserving this exceptional snapshot of upper mantle carbonatization and liquid immiscibility.

Tschegg, Cornelius; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Akinin, Vyacheslav V.; Hauzenberger, Christoph

2012-09-01

297

Genetic diversity of invasive species in the Great Lakes versus their Eurasian source populations: insights for risk analysis.  

PubMed

Combining DNA variation data and risk assessment procedures offers important diagnostic and monitoring tools for evaluating the relative success of exotic species invasions. Risk assessment may allow us to understand how the numbers of founding individuals, genetic variants, population sources, and introduction events affect successful establishment and spread. This is particularly important in habitats that are "hotbeds" for invasive species--such as the North American Great Lakes. This study compares genetic variability and its application to risk assessment within and among three Eurasian groups and five species that successfully invaded the Great Lakes during the mid 1980s through early 1990s; including zebra and quagga mussels, round and tubenose gobies, and the ruffe. DNA sequences are compared from exotic and native populations in order to evaluate the role of genetic diversity in invasions. Close relatives are also examined, since they often invade in concert and several are saline tolerant and are likely to spread to North American estuaries. Results show that very high genetic diversity characterizes the invasions of all five species, indicating that they were founded by very large numbers of propagules and underwent no founder effects. Genetic evidence points to multiple invasion sources for both dreissenid and goby species, which appears related to especially rapid spread and widespread colonization success in a variety of habitats. In contrast, results show that the ruffe population in the Great Lakes originated from a single founding population source from the Elbe River drainage. Both the Great Lakes and the Elbe River populations of ruffe have similar genetic diversity levels--showing no founder effect, as in the other invasive species. In conclusion, high genetic variability, large numbers of founders, and multiple founding sources likely significantly contribute to the risk of an exotic species introduction's success and persistence. PMID:16268948

Stepien, Carol A; Brown, Joshua E; Neilson, Matthew E; Tumeo, Mark A

2005-08-01

298

Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe  

PubMed Central

With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin.

Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

2012-01-01

299

Phylogeographical lineages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in North America: divergence, origins and affinities with Eurasian Thymallus.  

PubMed

The number and location of Arctic glacial refugia utilized by taxa during the Pleistocene are continuing uncertainties in Holarctic phylogeography. Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are widely distributed in freshwaters from the eastern side of Hudson Bay (Canada) west to central Asia. We studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA variation in North American T. arcticus to test for genetic signatures of survival in, and postglacial dispersal from, multiple glacial refugia, and to assess their evolutionary affinities with Eurasian Thymallus. In samples from 32 localities, we resolved 12 mtDNA haplotypes belonging to three assemblages that differed from each other in sequence by between 0.75 and 2.13%: a 'South Beringia' lineage found from western Alaska to northern British Columbia, Canada; a 'North Beringia' lineage found on the north slope of Alaska, the lower Mackenzie River, and to eastern Saskatchewan; and a 'Nahanni' lineage confined to the Nahanni River area of the upper Mackenzie River drainage. Sequence analysis of a portion of the control region indicated monophyly of all North American T. arcticus and their probable origin from eastern Siberian T. arcticus at least 3 Mya. Arctic grayling sampled from 25 localities displayed low allelic diversity and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) across five microsatellite loci (means of 2.1 alleles and 0.27 H(E), respectively) and there were declines in these measures of genetic diversity with distance eastward from the lower Yukon River Valley. Assemblages defined by mtDNA divergences were less apparent at microsatellite loci, but again the Nahanni lineage was the most distinctive. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that between 24% (microsatellite DNA) and 81% (mtDNA) of the variance was attributable to differences among South Beringia, North Beringia and Nahanni lineages. Our data suggest that extant North American Arctic grayling are more diverse phylogeographically than previously suspected and that they consist of at least three major lineages that originated in distinct Pleistocene glacial refugia. T. arcticus probably originated and dispersed from Eurasia to North America in the late to mid-Pliocene, but our data also suggest more recent (mid-late Pleistocene) interactions between lineages across Beringia. PMID:15140096

Stamford, M D; Taylor, E B

2004-06-01

300

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores.

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2011-01-01

301

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates.  

PubMed

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores. PMID:21080153

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2010-11-16

302

Eurasian Arctic climate over the past two millennia as recorded in the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the ongoing and future strong warming of the Arctic detailed knowledge of past climate changes in particular on a regional scale is crucial. An ice core drilled on the Akademii Nauk (AN) ice cap (Severnaya Zemlya, 80.52° N, 94.82° E) at a relatively low altitude of about 750 m a.s.l. has shown to provide high-resolution climate proxy data from the Central Russian Arctic, although the ice cap is affected by melt-water infiltration. Here for the first time, we present ?18O and major ion records for the last about two millennia. The age-depth relationship of the core is based on annual layer counting and volcanic reference layers for cross-checking (Bezymianny 1956, Katmai 1912, Laki 1783, unknown volcano 1259, Eldgja 934). The multi-annual AN ?18O data are highly correlated to instrumental temperature data from the Western Eurasian Arctic (e.g. Vardø/Northern Norway) and thus provide a valuable near-surface temperature proxy for this region, also underlined by the good coincidence with the Austfonna (Svalbard) ice core ?18O data. The long-term decrease of AN ?18O data does not solely reflect climate cooling but probably also a growing of AN ice cap. AN ?18O record reveal major temperature changes over the last centuries, e.g. the absolute minimum around 1800 and the exceptional warming to a maximum in early 20th century (Early Twentieth Century Warming - ETCW), representing the temperature maximum of the record. By comparison with meteorological data it can be shown that a double-peak structure of the ETCW is a peculiarity of the Barents and Kara Sea region. Neither a pronounced Medieval Climate Anomaly nor a Little Ice Age could be identified. In contrast, AN ice-core records show evidence for several abrupt warming and cooling events such as in the 15th and 16th centuries. These abrupt changes might be analogous to the ETCW and probably caused by shifts in the atmospheric circulation patterns and accompanied sea-ice feedbacks in the Barents and Kara seas region that highlight the role of the internal variability of the Arctic climate system.

Fritzsche, D.; Opel, T.; Meyer, H.

2012-04-01

303

The influence of climate and hydrological variables on opposite anomaly in active-layer thickness between Eurasian and North American watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study not only examined the spatiotemporal variations of active-layer thickness (ALT) in permafrost regions during 1948-2006 over the terrestrial Arctic regions experiencing climate changes, but also identified the associated drivers based on observational data and a simulation conducted by a land surface model (CHANGE). The focus on the ALT extends previous studies that have emphasized ground temperatures in permafrost regions. The Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Yukon, and Mackenzie watersheds are foci of the study. Time series of ALT in Eurasian watersheds showed generally increasing trends, while the increase in ALT in North American watersheds was not significant. However, ALT in the North American watersheds has been negatively anomalous since 1990 when the Arctic air temperature entered into a warming phase. The warming temperatures were not simply expressed to increases in ALT. Since 1990 when the warming increased, the forcing of the ALT by the higher annual thawing index (ATI) in the Mackenzie and Yukon basins has been offset by the combined effects of less insulation caused by thinner snow depth and drier soil during summer. In contrast, the increasing ATI together with thicker snow depth and higher summer soil moisture in the Lena contributed to the increase in ALT. The results imply that the soil thermal and moisture regimes formed in the pre-thaw season(s) provide memory that manifests itself during the summer. The different ALT anomalies between Eurasian and North American watersheds highlight increased importance of the variability of hydrological variables.

Park, H.; Walsh, J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Sherstiukov, A. B.; Iijima, Y.; Ohata, T.

2013-04-01

304

The oldest Eurasian hominoid.  

PubMed

Engelswies is an early Miocene vertebrate locality in southern Germany with a rich assemblage of terrestrial mammals, invertebrates and fossil plants. It is dated to 16.5-17.0 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy, and includes among the faunal remains a hominoid upper molar fragment, the oldest hominoid so far identified from Europe. The evidence from Engelswies suggests that hominoids arrived in Eurasia about 17 Ma, roughly contemporaneously with pliopithecoids and Deinotherium, and before the last marine transgression to isolate Eurasia from Africa. Thick enamel and low dentine penetrance may have been key adaptations that contributed to the success of hominoids of dentally modern aspect in western Eurasia and ultimately to their ability to spread to eastern Eurasia and Africa in the middle and late Miocene. PMID:11681862

Heizmann, E P; Begun, D R

2001-11-01

305

The Eurasian Growth Paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first decade of postcommunist transition, multiple growth regressions showed that the more radical and comprehensive market economic reform was, the earlier a country returned to economic growth and the more vigorous its growth, and that Central Europe took the lead. Since 2000, however, the Commonweath of Independent States (CIS) countries have had more than 4 percentage points higher

Anders Åslund; Nazgul Jenish

2006-01-01

306

The Role of Curie Principle in Understanding Composite Plane Symmetry Patterns: New Ethnomathematic Relations in Ancient Eurasian Ornamental Arts from Archaeologic Finds of the Period 1 M.B.C. and 1 M.A.D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both architectural remnants (murals, tiles) and archaeologic finds from tomb excavations (textiles, bones, bronze mounts) exhibit various complex ornamental plane symmetry structures. Curie-principle may serve as a mathematical tool to reconstruct and classify these patterns. This classification of composite patterns may serve as a tool for comparative ethnomathematical studies in Eurasian ornamental arts, because the composite plane symmetry patterns can

Szaniszló BÉRCZI

307

A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain†  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material.

Godfray, H. Charles J.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Kao, Rowland R.; Macdonald, David W.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L. N.; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B.; McLean, Angela R.

2013-01-01

308

A restatement of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a very important disease of cattle in Great Britain, where it has been increasing in incidence and geographical distribution. In addition to cattle, it infects other species of domestic and wild animals, in particular the European badger (Meles meles). Policy to control bTB is vigorously debated and contentious because of its implications for the livestock industry and because some policy options involve culling badgers, the most important wildlife reservoir. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to the control of bTB, couched in terms that are as policy-neutral as possible. Each evidence statement is placed into one of four categories describing the nature of the underlying information. The evidence summary forms the appendix to this paper and an annotated bibliography is provided in the electronic supplementary material. PMID:23926157

Godfray, H Charles J; Donnelly, Christl A; Kao, Rowland R; Macdonald, David W; McDonald, Robbie A; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Wood, James L N; Woodroffe, Rosie; Young, Douglas B; McLean, Angela R

2013-08-07

309

Carbonatite melt infiltration in mantle xenoliths from the Eurasian plate - North American modern plate collision zone (Ruditch, Yakutia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the seismic active Chersky belt, the modern border between North American and Eurasian plates (Indigirka River area, Sakha-Yakutia Republic), mantle xenoliths were found in eroded alkaline basalt dike remnants.The peridotite xenoliths are represented by mainly anhydrous spinel lherzolites that appear together with subordinate orthpyroxene, clinopyroxene and feldspar megacrysts. Spinel lherzolites have protogranular textures and are well equilibrated, lacking any mineral zonation. The constituent minerals have minor compositional variations whithin and between different samples. Olivine compositions range from Fo 89-90.5, with CaO contents between 0.04 and 0.06 wt.%. Orthopyroxenes indicate a very narrow composititional variance (Wo1En63Fs36, Mg# 90-91 and Al2O3 from 4 to 4.7 wt.%), just like clinopyroxene phases that are represented by Wo38En40Fs22, with Mg#s from 90 to 91 and Al2O3 between 6.8 and 7.6 wt.%. Spinels also show a fertile composition with Cr#s ranging between 26 and 29 and Mg#s between 77 and 78 respectively. Equlibration temperature estimations gives approx. 1000 °C at 15 kbar pressure for all studied samples. In one xenolith, a round melt pocket with 200 microns in diameter consisting of well crystallized dolomite (25 wt.% CaO, 31 wt.% MgO) in perfect contact with homogeneous glass (16 wt.% Na2O, 51 wt.% SiO2, 20 wt.% Al2O3), apparently an immiscibility of carbonatite and silicate melt, was found at the triple point of olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. Mineral chemistries show that the lithospheric mantle underneath the study area is a fertile lherzolith. Clinopyroxene LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses confirm the fertile nature of the xenoliths. The primitive mantle normalized REE patterns show a slight depletion of LREE with respect to HREE. The majority of the analyzed cpx have (La/Yb)N that vary between 0.1 and 0.5 and (Tb/Yb)N from 1.0 to 1.1 indicating the overal absense and metasomatic processes and low degree of melt extraction melting. Zr/Hf ratios vary from 30 to 40 and are similar to the theoretical ratios of primitive mantle clinopyroxenes. Melting models show that these clinopyroxenes represent the residue after 2-5% batch melting of a primitive mantle. It seems likely that shortly before transportion to the surface, the carbonate-silicate melt was introduced into the host xenolith, with subsequent rapid separation of the immiscible liquids and without any reaction with constituent xenolith mineral phases. As erupted carbonatites and highly undersaturated silica melts frequently occur together in intra-plate settings, the survival of the immiscible dolomitic and Na-rich melt in these xenoliths provide additional evidence for a common origin for the carbonatites and highly undersaturated lavas from the same primary magma.

Tschegg, Cornelius; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Akinin, Viacheslav; Hauzenberger, Christoph

2010-05-01

310

Coping with extreme: highland eurasian tree sparrows with molt-breeding overlap express higher levels of corticoserone-binding globulin than lowland sparrows.  

PubMed

In birds, suppressed expression of stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) during pre-basic molt is generally thought to reflect a physiological trade-off in self-maintenance. And reduced CORT during breeding in extreme environments may maximize reproductive success and optimize their fitness. Highland Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) are known to express significantly higher stress-induced CORT levels during the pre-basic molt stage. Here, we show that these highland sparrows are characterized by a life history strategy of molt-breeding overlap, with higher corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) levels favoring molt and breeding consistent with fitness optimization on the Tibetan Plateau. These unique behavioral and physiological strategies reflect natural selection under strong evolutionary pressures in extreme high-altitude environments. J. Exp. Zool. 319A: 482-486, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23847036

Li, Dongming; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yonghong; Duan, Xianglin; Wu, Yuefeng

2013-07-11

311

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated metabolites in the muscle tissue of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) through dietary exposure during a 56-day period.  

PubMed

Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) was exposed trophically to phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Accumulation kinetics in the muscle tissue of parent PAHs and hydroxylated metabolites were established for 56 days at 3 levels of exposure (0, 100 and 500 ?g/kg BW). Benzo[a]pyrene and 3-hydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene were not detected in the muscles. During exposure, there was an increase in phenanthrene, pyrene and their hydroxylated metabolites in the muscle tissue. Low transfer to muscle tissue was observed at equilibrium for phenanthrene (4.4±0.6% and 2.7±0.8%) and pyrene (1.0±0.2% and 0.33±0.09%), depending on the concentrations in the spiked feed. PMID:21546054

Lazartigues, Angélique; Thomas, Marielle; Grandclaudon, Christine; Brun-Bellut, Jean; Feidt, Cyril

2011-05-05

312

Identification of West Eurasian mitochondrial haplogroups by mtDNA SNP screening: results of the 2006-2007 EDNAP collaborative exercise.  

PubMed

The European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group performed a collaborative exercise on a mitochondrial (mt) DNA screening assay that targeted 16 nucleotide positions in the coding region and allowed for the discrimination of major west Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups. The purpose of the exercise was to evaluate the stability and reproducibility of the self-developed multiplex-PCR and multiplex-single base extension kit by blind-testing saliva and hair shaft samples provided by the organizing laboratory. The overall success rate in obtaining useful results was high given that some of the participating laboratories had no previous experience with the technology and/or mtDNA analysis. The results of this collaborative exercise stimulate the expansion of screening methods in forensic laboratories to increase efficiency and performance of mtDNA typing, and thus demonstrates that mtDNA SNP typing is a powerful tool for forensic casework analysis. PMID:19083791

Parson, Walther; Fendt, Liane; Ballard, David; Børsting, Claus; Brinkmann, Bernd; Carracedo, Angel; Carvalho, Mónica; Coble, Michael D; Real, Francisco Corte; Desmyter, Stijn; Dupuy, Berit M; Harrison, Cheryl; Hohoff, Carsten; Just, Rebecca; Krämer, Tanja; Morling, Niels; Salas, Antonio; Schmitter, Hermann; Schneider, Peter M; Sonntag, Marie-Luise; Vallone, Peter M; Brandstätter, Anita

2007-09-24

313

Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.  

PubMed

Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum, their ability to serve as vectors of M. bovis, and their propensity to ingest contaminated sources of M. bovis requires additional research in Michigan, USA. PMID:23531427

Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

2013-03-26

314

The impact of Eurasian dust storms and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric nutrient deposition rates in forested Japanese catchments and adjacent regional seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry data from 1993 to 2005 are used to analyze the relationship between Eurasian dust storms and nutrient deposition rates in the Kutsuki experimental forest (near Lake Biwa). From 2000 to 2005, atmospheric deposition, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved silica (DSi) deposition rates increased by 26%, 132%, and 38%, respectively in the Kutsuki experimental forest. These TN and TP increases are associated with three seasonal factors: the increasing frequency and intensity of Eurasian spring dust events (March/April); the annual typhoon period (late August/September); and autumn/early winter (October to December) monsoons. The annual typhoon and monsoon winter periods are drivers for atmospheric TP and DSi deposition due to the correlation between the deposition and precipitation. In addition, increased spring dust deposition is a primarily driver for TN deposition changes. Increased emissions from urbanized areas in China (and likely Korea) affect the chemical properties of aerosols reaching downwind Japanese regions. Aerosol processes are responsible for increasing TN in aerosols, which are affected primarily by anthropogenic emissions. From 2000 to 2005, coal burning emissions from East Asia have contributed to an increase in TP (and possibly DSi) deposition rates. The observed increase in nutrient deposition did not noticeably impact short-term (5 year) stream water fluxes in the Kutsuki experimental forest. Due to plant uptake, the forest ecosystem retained atmospherically deposited N and P. Finally, the observed increases in nutrient deposition rates over the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan may significantly influence intra-annual net primary production. It is recommended that earth system modeling incorporate changes in atmospheric nutrient deposition rates and their impacts on the regional carbon cycle as well as aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Hartmann, Jens; Kunimatsu, Takao; Levy, Jason K.

2010-05-01

315

Observations of water masses and circulation with focus on the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies). The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY). Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the water to the Atlantic layer in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream, north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, suggesting a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600-800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending, saline boundary plumes may also contribute to the warming of the deeper layers.

Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Björk, G.; Korhonen, M.; Pisarev, S.; Rabe, B.; Wisotzki, A.

2013-02-01

316

Observations of water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modelling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies). The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from icebreakers and particularly from the cruise with R/V Polarstern 2007 during the International Polar Year (IPY). Focus is on the Barents Sea inflow branch and its mixing with the Fram Strait inflow branch. It is proposed that the Barents Sea branch contributes not just intermediate water but also most of the Atlantic layer that is found in the Amundsen Basin and also in the Makarov and Canada basins. Only occasionally would high temperature pulses originating from the Fram Strait branch penetrate along the Laptev Sea slope across the Gakkel Ridge into the Amundsen Basin. Interactions between the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait branches lead to formation of intrusive layers, in the Atlantic layer and in the intermediate waters. The intrusion characteristics found downstream north of the Laptev Sea are similar to those observed in the Northern Nansen Basin and over the Gakkel Ridge, implying a flow from the Laptev Sea towards Fram Strait. The formation mechanisms for the intrusions at the continental slope, or in the interior of the basins if they are reformed there, have not been identified. The temperature of the deep water of the Eurasian Basin has increased in the last 10 yr rather more than expected from geothermal heating. That geothermal heating does influence the deep water column was obvious from 2007 Polarstern observations made close to a hydrothermal vent in the Gakkel Ridge, where the temperature minimum usually found above the 600-800 m thick homogenous bottom layer was absent. However, heat entrained from the Atlantic water into descending boundary plumes may also contribute to the warming of the deeper layers.

Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Björk, G.; Korhonen, M.; Pisarev, S.; Rabe, B.; Wisotzki, A.

2012-08-01

317

Rapid detection of Eurasian and American H7 subtype influenza A viruses using a single TaqManMGB real-time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

A real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) targeting a highly conserved HA2 H7 region was developed for the detection of all H7 subtype avian influenza viruses (PanH7). The wide phylogenetic scope and analytical sensitivity and specificity were validated with the use of a panel of 56 diverse influenza A viruses. The detection limit was determined with the use of serial dilutions of Eurasian isolates A/Ck/BE/06775/2003 and A/Ck/It/1067/v99 and North American isolates A/CK/PA/ 143586/2001 and A/Quail/PA/20304/1998, to be 1 log10 higher than the detection limit of the generic influenza A matrix RRT-PCR (about 2.5 EID50/reaction compared to 0.25 EID50/reaction for matrix). Diagnostic test properties of PanH7 were determined with the use of 102 swabs from A/Ck/It/1067/v99 experimentally infected chickens, and were not affected by the increased detection limit of PanH7. In comparison to matrix RRT-PCR and virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (VI), the PanH7 detected more weakly positive oropharyngeal swabs at the onset of the infection. PanH7 diagnostic sensitivity compared to virus isolation (VI) was 83.3% (compared to 72.2% for matrix RRT-PCR); and diagnostic specificity was 88.1% (94.0% for matrix). The PanH7 test can also be tailored to detect only American (AmH7) or only Eurasian (EurH7) strains by changing the mix of forward and reverse primers used in combination with the unique probe. Overall, this new test is a valuable tool for the detection and identification of H7 subtype influenza A. PMID:20521706

Van Borm, Steven; Suarez, David L; Boschmans, Marc; Ozhelvaci, Orkun; Marché, S; van den Berg, Thierry P

2010-03-01

318

Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea  

PubMed Central

Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2013-01-01

319

Characterization of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds (mandarin duck and Eurasian eagle owl) in 2010 in Korea.  

PubMed

Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. PMID:23611846

Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2013-04-23

320

Seasonal changes in adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrow ( Passer montanus) on the Tibetan Plateau: Comparison with house sparrow ( P. domesticus) in North America and with the migratory P. domesticus in Qinghai Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal modulation of the adrenocortical response to stress appears to be ubiquitous in arctic-breeding and temperate-zone-breeding birds, but has not been well investigated in alpine-breeding species at mid-latitude. We examined the adrenocortical response to acute stress (capture, handling and restraint) in populations of Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) among seasons and migratory house sparrow (P. domesticus bactrianus) in pre-breeding on

Dongming Li; Gang Wang; John C. Wingfield; Zhi Zhang; Changqing Ding; Fumin Lei

2008-01-01

321

Reassortment of American and Eurasian genes in an influenza A virus isolated from a great black-backed gull ( Larus marinus ), a species demonstrated to move between these regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary hosts for influenza A viruses are waterfowl, although gulls and shorebirds are also important in global avian\\u000a influenza dynamics. Avian influenza virus genes are separated phylogenetically into two geographic clades, American and Eurasian,\\u000a which is caused by the geographic separation of the host species between these two regions. We surveyed a gregarious and cosmopolitan\\u000a species, the Great Black-backed

Michelle Wille; Gregory J. Robertson; Hugh Whitney; Davor Ojkic; Andrew S. Lang

2011-01-01

322

Hydrologic Secular Trends and Variations of the Eurasian and North American Permafrost Watersheds from GRACE, SSM/I and AMSR-E Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern hemisphere permafrost regions compose the largest component by area of the cryosphere. Over the last century, substantial changes in storage and cycling of fresh water have been observed. Observations of the globally distributed hydrologic mass change from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission offer to provide a greater understanding of the processes controlling redistribution of water mass. Using nominal monthly GRACE grids, complete to degree and order 40 (which act as a low-pass spatial-temporal filter) adjusted for post-glacial rebound we investigate the hydrologic mass change of the Eurasian and North American watershed regions. The extent of continuous permafrost in the watersheds in Eurasia varies from the Ob-Irtysh which has the least to the Lena (includes part of the Yedoma Ice Complex) which has the largest. The Mackenzie watershed contains the least extent of continuous permafrost in this study. GRACE-derived watershed region-average time series show strongly positive secular trends and seasonal variations. Watershed region-averaged time series were derived from the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-for the Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) for snow water equivalent, soil moisture and vegetation water content respectively. The seasonal maxima and minima derived from SSM/I and AMSR-E occur one-to-two months ahead of those of GRACE. Secular trends of snow water equivalent, soil moisture and vegetation water content had neither significant gain nor loss over the time period. Partitioning the watershed regions into 5o by 5o sub-regions, showed GRACE sub-region secular trends varied from south-to-north and west-to-east, suggesting variation at the source of water equivalent mass change. SSM/I and AMSR-E sub-region secular trends showed no significant gains or losses of water (snow, soil moisture or vegetation content); however, mean water contents vary across sub-regions of each watershed. The Eurasian watersheds GRACE-derived water equivalent mass gains were 22.69

Muskett, R. R.

2009-04-01

323

Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world's most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora).  

PubMed

Marine invasions are taking place at an increasing rate. When occurring in blooms, zooplanktivorous comb jellies of the genus Mnemiopsis are able to cause pelagic regime shifts in coastal areas and may cause the collapse of commercially important fish populations. Using microsatellites, developed for the first time in the phylum Ctenophora, we show that Mnemiopsis leidyi has colonized Eurasia from two source regions. Our preliminary data set included four sites within the putative source region (US East Coast and Gulf of Mexico) and 10 invaded locations in Eurasian waters. Bayesian clustering and phylogeographic approaches revealed the origin of earlier invasions of the Black and Caspian Sea in the 1980s/1990s within or close to the Gulf of Mexico, while the 2006 invasion of the North and Baltic Seas can be directly traced to New England (pairwise F(ST) = 0). We found no evidence for mixing among both gene pools in the invaded areas. While the genetic diversity (allelic richness) remained similar in the Baltic Sea compared to the source region New England, it was reduced in the North Sea, supporting the view of an initial invasion of Northern Europe to a Baltic Sea port. In Black and Caspian Sea samples, we found a gradual decline in allelic richness compared to the Gulf of Mexico region, supporting a stepping-stone model of colonization with two sequential genetic founder events. Our data also suggest that current practices of ballast water treatment are insufficient to prevent repeated invasions of gelatinous zooplankton. PMID:20561193

Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bolte, Sören; Sparwel, Maximiliane; Moss, Anthony G; Javidpour, Jamileh

2010-06-17

324

Optimizing the size of the area surveyed for monitoring a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population in the Swiss Alps by means of photographic capture-recapture.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of surveyed area size on density estimates by means of camera-trapping in a low-density felid population (1-2 individuals/100 km(2) ). We applied non-spatial capture-recapture (CR) and spatial CR (SCR) models for Eurasian lynx during winter 2005/2006 in the northwestern Swiss Alps by sampling an area divided into 5 nested plots ranging from 65 to 760 km(2) . CR model density estimates (95% CI) for models M0 and Mh decreased from 2.61 (1.55-3.68) and 3.6 (1.62-5.57) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the smallest to 1.20 (1.04-1.35) and 1.26 (0.89-1.63) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the largest area surveyed. SCR model density estimates also decreased with increasing sampling area but not significantly. High individual range overlaps in relatively small areas (the edge effect) is the most plausible reason for this positive bias in the CR models. Our results confirm that SCR models are much more robust to changes in trap array size than CR models, thus avoiding overestimation of density in smaller areas. However, when a study is concerned with monitoring population changes, large spatial efforts (area surveyed ?760 km(2) ) are required to obtain reliable and precise density estimates with these population densities and recapture rates. PMID:24020463

Zimmermann, Fridolin; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Molinari-Jobin, Anja; Breitenmoser, Urs

2013-09-01

325

Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - Do people want to keep the doors open?  

PubMed

This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation. PMID:23811031

Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

2013-06-26

326

Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.  

PubMed

Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak. PMID:20414255

Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie

2010-04-23

327

Large-scale comparison between buoy and SSM/I drift and deformation in the Eurasian Basin during winter 1992-1993  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for comparing sea ice velocity, divergence, and shear at the large-scale between buoys and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) is presented. For initial testing, the method is applied in the Eurasian Basin because of its relatively simple circulation dominated by the wind. Using eight Argos buoys, 11 strain rate arrays 100-600 km in size are constructed. Daily 100 km resolution sea ice motion derived from SSM/I 85 GHz brightness temperatures is sampled 100-1000 km from the center of the buoy arrays. Over this range of possible scales, a minimum RMS difference (RMSD) for deformation is used to identify an optimal inclusion radius of 600 km corresponding to a length scale of 1000 km. This length scale is typical of local storms confirming a strong connection between wind and observed sea ice motion. On the basis of all 11 arrays, an average RMSD of 2.48±0.05 cm s-1 for velocity vector and 8.8±0.9×10-8 s-1 using all four deformation components (?ui/??j? is found at the optimal inclusion radius corresponding to average correlation coefficients of 0.896±0.002 and 0.729±0.030, respectively. RMSD are found to scale with the temporal and spatial uncertainties of the SSM/I suggesting that even better results can be achieved with higher resolution instruments.

Geiger, Cathleen A.; Zhao, Yunhe; Liu, Antony K.; HäKkinen, Sirpa

2000-02-01

328

Na Mele o Hawai'i Nei; 101 Hawaiian Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The songs in this collection of Hawaiian traditional and Christmas songs are postmissionary and owe their musical origin to missionary hymns dating from the mid-1850's to 1968. Nearly all are sung often today and are well known to Hawaiian singers. Many have not been translated before. Each song appears in Hawaiian and English, prefaced by brief…

Elbert, Samuel H., Comp.; Mahoe, Noelani, Comp.

329

Stress responses of testosterone and corticosterone-binding globulin in a multi-brooded species, Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus): Does CBG function as a mediator?  

PubMed

In avian plasma, testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT) compete to bind with corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG). Elevation of CBG may function to "buffer" the tissues against high circulating levels of T and stress-induced levels of CORT. To demonstrate the effects of acute stress on CBG and T levels and their biological functions, we investigated seasonal changes of baseline and stress-induced T and CBG levels in Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) during different life stages using the capture-handling-restraint stress method. Our results show that (1) male sparrows had significantly higher baseline T levels and CBG capacities during the nest building, the first egg-laying, and the first nestling stages, and significantly decreased stress-induced T levels only during the nest building and the first egg-laying stages. They also expressed significantly increased stress-induced CBG capacities during the second nestling stage. (2) Females showed significantly higher baseline CBG capacities but significantly decreased stress-induced CBG capacities during the nest building stage, and females also showed significantly increased stress-induced CBG capacities during the second egg-laying and the second nestling stages. Therefore, the seasonal fluctuations of baseline CBG in both sexes and baseline T in males reflect their adaptive strategies for optimizing their physiological and behavioral states to the life history cycle. The different patterns of stress-induced CBG in females suggest CBG functions as an essential mediator in regulating stress response to unpredictable perturbations. Our results highlight the need for future studies of stress-induced CBG and T levels on a wide range of vertebrate species that vary in different life history stages to gain a full understanding of the mechanisms that underlie biological functions of CBG and T for unpredictable stressors. PMID:22366504

Li, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaorui; Li, Yaqing; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Yuefeng

2012-02-15

330

Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn. PMID:12547524

Mañosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

2003-01-01

331

Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps  

PubMed Central

Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5?±?2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6?±?25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8?±?12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies.

2013-01-01

332

Trends in Land Surface Phenologies Across Central Asia and the Central Eurasian Grain Belt as Viewed From MODIS Collection 5 NBAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 precipitated a multitude of institutional changes, including the disestablishment of a centrally-planned agricultural sector. Our previous work with AVHRR data has shown that among the environmental consequences were significant shifts in land surface phenologies (LSPs) across Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Here we explored trends in LSPs across Central Asia and the central Eurasian Grain Belt that stretches westward across northern Kazakhstan and southern Russia into eastern Ukraine. We used the recently released of MODIS Collection 5 Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) product and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4, a monthly 0.5 degree product. We characterized trends from 2000-2007 using the nonparametric seasonal Mann- Kendall trend test on a per-pixel basis, thereby generating surfaces of per-pixel trend estimates with corresponding estimates of model uncertainty at each pixel. In the Pontic Steppe ecoregion of northwestern Kazakhstan, a region characterized by temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, we found spatially coherent, highly significant (p<0.01) negative trends in MODIS NDVI. This appears to be driven by regional drought, and visual inspection of Landsat TM imagery from the study area indicates drying of relatively abundant depressional wetlands accompanied by a number of large fires over the period of interest. In the neighboring Kazakh Steppe ecoregion, a landscape dominated by small-grain production, we find similar, but noisier negative trends (typically p<0.05), likely reflecting a combination of drought and highly heterogeneous land use practices. By contrast, in the Central Asian Southern Desert ecoregion of Uzbekistan, we find highly significant (p<0.01) positive trends in NDVI from 2000-2007. These xeric shrublands are nearly entirely dependent on winter and spring precipitation for water inputs. GPCC trends indicate in some regions that changes in precipitation may be partly responsible for observed changes in LSPs, but it is clear that land use change is also a factor.

Wright, C. R.; Henebry, G. M.; Kovalskyy, V.; de Beurs, K. M.

2008-12-01

333

The annual cycle of a trans-equatorial Eurasian-African passerine migrant: different spatio-temporal strategies for autumn and spring migration.  

PubMed

The small size of the billions of migrating songbirds commuting between temperate breeding sites and the tropics has long prevented the study of the largest part of their annual cycle outside the breeding grounds. Using light-level loggers (geolocators), we recorded the entire annual migratory cycle of the red-backed shrike Lanius collurio, a trans-equatorial Eurasian-African passerine migrant. We tested differences between autumn and spring migration for nine individuals. Duration of migration between breeding and winter sites was significantly longer in autumn (average 96 days) when compared with spring (63 days). This difference was explained by much longer staging periods during autumn (71 days) than spring (9 days). Between staging periods, the birds travelled faster during autumn (356 km d(-1)) than during spring (233 km d(-1)). All birds made a protracted stop (53 days) in Sahelian sub-Sahara on southbound migration. The birds performed a distinct loop migration (22 000 km) where spring distance, including a detour across the Arabian Peninsula, exceeded the autumn distance by 22 per cent. Geographical scatter between routes was particularly narrow in spring, with navigational convergence towards the crossing point from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula. Temporal variation between individuals was relatively constant, while different individuals tended to be consistently early or late at different departure/arrival occasions during the annual cycle. These results demonstrate the existence of fundamentally different spatio-temporal migration strategies used by the birds during autumn and spring migration, and that songbirds may rely on distinct staging areas for completion of their annual cycle, suggesting more sophisticated endogenous control mechanisms than merely clock-and-compass guidance among terrestrial solitary migrants. After a century with metal-ringing, year-round tracking of long-distance migratory songbirds promises further insights into bird migration. PMID:21900322

Tøttrup, Anders P; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Thorup, Kasper; Kristensen, Mikkel Willemoes; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Fox, James; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Rahbek, Carsten; Alerstam, Thomas

2011-09-07

334

Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel.  

PubMed

The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area. PMID:20234393

Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vasíková, Alzbeta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

2010-03-17

335

A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR method for neuraminidase type 1 (N1) gene detection of H5N1 Eurasian strains of avian influenza virus.  

PubMed

This work describes the development of a real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) procedure for detection of the N1 gene from avian influenza virus (AIV), based on the use of specific primers and a TaqMan-MGB (minor groove binder) probe. Nucleotide sequences of the neuraminidase type 1 gene from a collection of H5N1 Eurasian strains of AIV were aligned using ClustalW software. Conserved regions were located and used to design specific primers and a TaqMan-MGB probe using Primer Express software. A one-step RRT-PCR method was optimized using RNA from the Turkey 2005 H5N1 strain of AIV and can be completed in about 2 hr once the RNA is extracted from the sample. The specificity of the assay was assessed with non-N1 AIV strains, another related avian virus, and different avian tissue samples from healthy animals. Sensitivity was determined using 10-fold serial dilutions of the H5N1 Turkey 2005 strain and was compared with the generic RRT-PCR detection method, targeted at the matrix protein gene of AIV, commonly used at the Spanish AIV National Reference Laboratory. The N1 detection method proved to be even more sensitive than the generic (matrix-based) method, allowing a very quick confirmation (or discarding) of any Eurasian N1 strain when a positive result was obtained with the matrix RRT-PCR assay. Combined with RRT-PCR tests for general detection of AIV and H5 typing in use at the NRL, the procedure here described allows characterizing of any H5N1 Eurasian AIV strain in a field sample within a working day. PMID:17494588

Agüero, Montserrat; Sánchez, Azucena; San Miguel, Elena; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

2007-03-01

336

The fungal flora of zoo animals' ears.  

PubMed

The mycotic flora of the ears of zoo animals was investigated in a large zoological garden in Germany. Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from the following animals: big ant-eater, brown bear, common wombat, Eurasian badger, Indian elephant, Mangaliza pig and wide-mouthed rhinoceros. Aspergillus and Penicillium species, yeasts and zygomycetes were also isolated from some animals. PMID:7935595

Kuttin, E S; Müller, J

337

Spatio-temporal trends in tree and tall shrub cover in the Eurasian Low Arctic: evidence from 1960s and contemporary satellite imagery and ground observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns of tree and tall shrub occurrence form conspicuous and dynamic ecological boundaries across arctic regions. Expansion of trees and shrubs into tundra-dominated areas is one of the principal changes to arctic land cover expected with climatic warming, and there is evidence that ecological state-shifts are already occurring in ecotones of the North American Low Arctic. The ubiquity of these state-shifts across the circumpolar Low Arctic is unclear, however, because few data exist for the vast Eurasian continent. Large-scale, synchronous expansions have occurred in the past (e.g., mid-Holocene) and associated changes to land surface-atmosphere interactions could have far-reaching effects on atmospheric circulation and global climate. This study is quantifying state-level vegetation change in geographic and altitudinal tundra ecotones at ~25 sites in northern Eurasia and Alaska using comparisons of circa 1965 Corona and contemporary high-resolution satellite photography. Corona was the world’s first operational satellite surveillance system and offers a readily available data source for land-surface change studies over a ~40 year temporal interval. Remote sensing and ground-based data indicate that mean annual temperatures have increased over the last ~50 years at all study sites, although the magnitude of warming varies (~1.5 - 4 °C). The degree to which patterns of vegetation change are shared among sites will indicate the ubiquity of ecological state-shifts in the Low Arctic, as well as the relative influence of large-scale forcing mechanisms (e.g., climate change) and local environmental controls (e.g., disturbance regime, geomorphology) on tree and tall shrub expansion. Preliminary findings indicate that tall shrublands have expanded at several sites in northwestern and far eastern Siberia. Recent expansion is most apparent on floodplains, uplands, and drained lake basins. Ground data indicate that dramatic expansion of alder shrubs at a tree-line site near Kharp, northwest Siberia has occurred in areas affected by an antecedent high-intensity wildfire that removed the surface organic layer. Additionally, alder recruitment both inside and outside of the burn is concentrated on disturbed mineral soils associated with cryogenic patterned-ground features. On the southern Yamal Peninsula, Russia, comparison of 1968 Corona and 2009 aerial photographs indicate that alders have colonized retransported sands derived from barren uplands near Ozero Yaroto. Additionally, alders and willows have rapidly colonized fluvial terraces and point bars on the Tanlova River that were barren in 1968. These findings indicate that local-scale disturbance events that create mineral-dominated edaphic conditions have promoted recent shrubification and enhanced productivity in parts of the Low Arctic.

Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H.; Walker, D. A.

2009-12-01

338

The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding.  

PubMed

Genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (Felis catus, 2n = 38), American mink (Mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula, 2n = 40), Old World badger (Meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (Melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species chromosome painting with a complete set of stone marten probes. In total, 18 stone marten autosomal probes reveal 20, 19, 21, 18 and 21 pairs of homologous chromosomal segments in the respective genomes of American mink, yellow-throated marten. Old World badger, ferret badger and red panda. Reciprocal painting between stone marten and cat delineated 21 pairs of homologous segments shared in both stone marten and cat genomes. The chromosomal painting results indicate that most chromosomes of these species are highly conserved and show one-to-one correspondence with stone marten and cat chromosomes or chromosomal arms, and that only a few interchromosomal rearrangements (Robertsonian fusions and fissions) have occurred during species radiation. By comparing the distribution patterns of conserved chromosomal segments in both these species and the putative ancestral carnivore karyotype, we have reconstructed the pathway of karyotype evolution of these species from the putative 2n = 42 ancestral carnivore karyotype. Our results support a close phylogenetic relationship between the red panda and mustelids. The homology data presented in these maps will allow us to transfer the cat gene mapping data to other unmapped carnivore species. PMID:12067210

Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Fu, Beiyuan; Ying, Tian; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

2002-01-01

339

The intestinal helminths of the red fox and some other carnivores in southwest Germany.  

PubMed

In south-west Germany between 1975 and 1980, 3,573 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 84 badgers (Meles meles), 47 stone martens (Martes foina), and 387 cats (Felis catus) were examined for intestinal helminths. In foxes the extent of infections was: Taenia crassiceps 24%, T. polyacantha 8%, T. taeniaeformis 0.6%, T. serialis 0.5%, Mesocestoides leptothylacus 20%, Mesocestoides sp. 0.2%, Toxocara canis 32%, Toxascaris leonina 3%, Uncinaria stenocephala 26%. One to three foxes harboured T. hydatigena, T. pisiformis, T. martis, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothrium sp., Alaria alata, and Ancylostoma caninum (Echinococcus multilocularis will be dealth with in a separate paper by the second author). Results are compared with those of other European countries. Seasonal dynamics were exhibited by M. leptothylacus (rare in late summer), U. stenocephala (more frequent in summer than in winter), and, to a lesser extent, by T. canis (slightly less in spring and autumn than in winter and summer). Infections in fox cubs were comparable to those of adults in summer. Of the badgers, 2% harboured Taenia martis, 15.5% Atriotaenia incisa, and 4% Uncinaria criniformis; of the stone martens 6% harboured T. crassiceps and 36% T. martis; of the cats 1% were infected with T. crassiceps, 29% with T. Taeniaeformis, 2% with Mesocestoides leptothymacus, 30% with Toxocara Cati and 2% with U. stenocephala. PMID:7072323

Loos-Frank, B; Zeyhle, E

1982-01-01

340

Aquatic Life Studies at Badger Army Ammunition Plant. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Army Medical Research and Development Command has been supporting research in order to recommend environmental quality standards for the munitions industry. Areas investigated included water quality, sediment chemistry, munitions constit...

J. M. Stilwell D. C. Cooper M. A. Eischen M. C. Matthews B. E. Sherwood

1976-01-01

341

Badger History, Vol. 29, No. 3, January 1976. Wisconsin Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document focuses on the physical environment of Wisconsin and describes how movement of glaciers during the Ice Ages formed Wisconsin's present topography. The journal contains short reading selections, stories, word lists, and activities designed to help elementary school students understand the causes and effects of glacial drift. Nine…

Kanetzke, Howard W., Ed.

342

Eurasian surface wave tomography: Group velocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a study of the dispersion characteristics of broadband fundamental surface waves propagating across Eurasia. The study is broader band, displays denser and more uniform data coverage, and demonstrates higher resolution than previous studies of Eurasia performed on this scale. In addition, the estimated group velocity maps reveal the signatures of geological and tectonic features never before displayed in similar surface wave studies. We present group velocity maps from 20 s to 200 s period for Rayleigh waves and from 20 s to 125 s for Love waves. Broadband waveform data from about 600 events from 1988 through 1995 recorded at 83 individual stations across Eurasia have produced about 9000 paths for which individual dispersion curves have been estimated. Dispersion curves from similar paths are clustered to reduce redundancy, to identify outliers for rejection, and to assign uncertainty estimates. On average, measurement uncertainty is about 0.030-0.040 km/s and is not a strong function of frequency. Resolution is estimated from "checker-board" tests, and we show that average resolutions across Eurasia range from 5° to 7.5° but degrade at periods above about 100 s and near the periphery of the maps. The estimated maps produce a variance reduction relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) of more than 90% for Rayleigh waves below 60 s period but reduce to about 70% between 80 and 200 s period. For Love waves, variance reductions are similar, being above 90% for most periods below 100 s and falling to 70% at 150 s. Synthetic experiments are presented to estimate the biases that theoretical approximations should impart to the group velocity maps, in particular source group time shifts, azimuthal anisotropy, and systematic event mislocations near subducting slabs. The most significant problems are probably caused by azimuthal anisotropy, but above 100 s the effect of source group time shifts may also be appreciable. These effects are probably below the signal levels that we interpret here, however. Many known geological and tectonic structures are observed in the group velocity maps. Of particular note are the signatures of sedimentary basins, continental flood basalts, variations in crustal thickness, backarc spreading, downgoing slabs, and continental roots. Comparison of the estimated group velocity maps with those predicted by CRUST5.1/S16B30 is qualitatively good, but there are significant differences in detail which provide new information that should help to calibrate future crustal and upper mantle models of Eurasia.

Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Levshin, Anatoli L.

1998-03-01

343

LA ICP MS and Ion Probe U-Pb dating of igneous and metasedimentary units in the NE Pontides, NE Turkey: evidence of Peri-Gondwanan terrane accretion, Late Palaeozoic magmatism/metamorphism and Early Mesozoic extension along the S Eurasian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Artvin area is critical to an understanding of the tectonic development of the S margin of Eurasia and Tethys to the south. We have supplemented recent MTA mapping with 1/25,000-scale mapping of a critical area, combined with integrated stratigraphical, sedimentary, geochemical and geochronological studies. Here, we focus on U-Pb zircon dating of igneous and detrital zircons derived from basement units of the Pontide Autocthon and from overlying slice complexes, carried out by LA ICP MS at Frankfurt University and by Ion Probe at Edinburgh University. The Eastern Pontide Autocthon is overlain by north-vergent thrust sheets, mostly of continental margin origin, whereas Mesozoic (Neotethyan) ophiolites form the uppermost thrust sheet. The Autochton basement (Çaml?kaya pluton) is mainly tonalite, cut by granitic dykes. Both intrusions are of within-plate type, without a chemically identifiable subduction influence. The pluton yielded a concordant age of 330.4 ± 4.2 Ma (Visean), while crosscutting dykes gave an age of 156.3 ± 2.0 Ma (Oxfordian). The overlying lower slice complex (Slice 1) begins with a low-grade meta-clastic basement unit, intruded by coarse-grained granite. Detrital zircons from the meta-clastics yielded late Neoproterozoic (579-700), early Neoproterozoic (0.9 Ga) and Kibaran/Grenvillian (1.1-1.3 Ga) zircon populations. The oldest known zircon has an age of 2719 Ma. Slice 2 above this (Demirkent Intrusive Complex) is represented by foliated amphibolites, cut by granitic veins and, together, cut by swarms of basic-silicic dykes that postdate regional metamorphism and related deformation. A granitic vein yielded a concordia age of 325.4 ± 2.8 Ma (Visean-Serpukhovian). Slice 2 was intruded by two small tonalitic bodies, one of which yielded a concordant age of 179.8 ± 1 Ma (Toarcian). Slice 3 above this begins with granulite-facies gneiss and schist (Karada? Metamorphics). A representative 1 m-wide meta-granitic stock within paragneiss experienced lead loss, with a lower intercept at 326 Ma. One magmatic zircon from this intrusion gave an age of 358 Ma (early Carboniferous), interpreted as the crystallisation age. Metamorphic rims of these zircons cluster around 330 Ma, viewed as the time of peak Variscan metamorphism. We interpret the E Pontide region (e.g. Artvin area) as part of an active S-Eurasian continental margin during Late Palaeozoic. Accretion/collision of Peri-Gondwanan terrane(s) was likely responsible for Variscan deformation/metamorphism. Newly accreted Peri-Gondwanan crust was intruded by granitic rocks during early Carboniferous, possibly in response to delamination/slab-break off processes. Following exhumation, the Eurasian margin remained relatively inactive and erosional during Late Carboniferous-Triassic. Related to regional northward subduction of Palaeotethys, the S-Eurasian margin underwent tectonic extension and deep-marine basin formation during Early Jurassic. The dyke swarm and Toarcian felsic plutons were emplaced into extended crust behind a continental margin magmatic arc. Short-lived Mid-Jurassic compression may reflect collision of an oceanic edifice (seamount/continental fragment) with the subduction trench. Extension resumed during Late Jurassic associated with Oxfordian magmatism. A S-facing subsiding passive margin existed during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, followed by northward subduction and arc magmatism (E Pontide Arc). SSZ-type ophiolites were regionally obducted during latest Cretaceous, followed by Eocene telescoping of the Eurasian margin during final closure of Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean.

Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Ayda Ustaömer, P.

2010-05-01

344

Use of protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening for antibodies against parapoxvirus in wild animals in Japan.  

PubMed

Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. PMID:10225841

Inoshima, Y; Shimizu, S; Minamoto, N; Hirai, K; Sentsui, H

1999-05-01

345

Use of Protein AG in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening for Antibodies against Parapoxvirus in Wild Animals in Japan  

PubMed Central

Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

Inoshima, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shinya; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Hirai, Katsuya; Sentsui, Hiroshi

1999-01-01

346

Investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. The only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. This study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. A sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: American mink (Mustela vison), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pine martens (Martes martes), badgers (Meles meles), stoats (Mustela erminea), otters (Lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (Mustela putorius). Approximately 1% of mink and 1% of fox samples were positive by IFAT. According to PCR analysis of DNA extracted from brain tissue, 3% of the mink, 4% of the otters and 6% of the foxes examined were infected with N. caninum. All fecal samples tested negative for N. caninum DNA (n = 311), suggesting that the species that tested positive were intermediate not definitive hosts. This is the first time that tissues from mustelids have tested positive for N. caninum. The need to test 2 relatively large (~200 mg) targeted parts of the brain to avoid false negatives was also identified. The relatively low prevalence of N. caninum in Irish carnivores suggests that the local ecology of a species has an important influence on its epidemiological role. PMID:23068142

Stuart, Peter; Zintl, Annetta; De Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Hawkins, Conall; Lawton, Colin

2012-10-15

347

A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland.  

PubMed

The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) samples (n?=?91) were positive for Uncinaria stenocephala (38 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (26 %), Toxocara canis (20 %), Trichuris vulpis (4 %) and Isospora-like oocysts (9 %). Badger (Meles meles) samples (n?=?50) were positive for Uncinaria criniformis (40 %), E. aerophilus (6 %) and Isospora-like oocysts (16 %). No parasites were observed in pine marten (n?=?48; Martes martes) faeces. Approximately 5 % of American mink (Mustela vison) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium by polymerase chain reaction (identified as Cryptosporidium andersoni (n?=?3) and 'mink' genotype (n?=?1)). The results suggest that wild carnivores in Ireland have a range of parasites, although it is unclear from the present study to what extent these infections are associated with morbidity. While it can be expected that, via their faeces, wild carnivores contribute to the spread of these parasites, they are unlikely the primary source of environmental contamination. Therefore, they should not always be the principal target of control measures. PMID:23900557

Stuart, Peter; Golden, Olwen; Zintl, Annetta; de Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; McCarthy, Elaine; Lawton, Colin

2013-07-31

348

Associations between Trichinella species and host species in Finland.  

PubMed

Examination of 627 wild animals--raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), European lynxes (Lynx lynx), brown bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and badgers (Meles meles)--revealed Trichinella spp. The prevalence varied according to geographical region of Finland (north; southwest, SW; and southeast, SE) and was the highest among lynxes (70%, SW). The risk of trichinellosis was higher in the SE (odds ratio, OR, 19.4) and SW regions (OR 14.3), as compared with the northern region (OR 1), with no difference between the former 2 regions. Foxes (OR 2.1) and lynxes (OR 1.9) had a higher risk than raccoon dogs (OR 1) of being infected. The distribution of different Trichinella species was evaluated in 87 wild and domestic mammals by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Trichinella spiralis was detected more often in domestic and synanthropic animals than in sylvatic hosts. Trichinella nativa was detected only in wildlife. Trichinella pseudospiralis was found both in sylvatic and synanthropic hosts. Trichinella britovi was detected only in mixed infections with other Trichinella species. The raccoon dog was the sole host for all 4 Trichinella species and also carried the most intense infections. PMID:12053985

Oivanen, Leena; Kapel, Christian M O; Pozio, Edoardo; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Mikkonen, Taina; Sukura, Antti

2002-02-01

349

Performance of Proximity Loggers in Recording Intra- and Inter-Species Interactions: A Laboratory and Field-Based Validation Study  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the way in which animals interact through social networks can help to address questions surrounding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of social organisation, and to understand and manage the spread of infectious diseases. Automated proximity loggers are increasingly being used to record interactions between animals, but the accuracy and reliability of the collected data remain largely un-assessed. Here we use laboratory and observational field data to assess the performance of these devices fitted to a herd of 32 beef cattle (Bos taurus) and nine groups of badgers (Meles meles, n ?=?77) living in the surrounding woods. The distances at which loggers detected each other were found to decrease over time, potentially related to diminishing battery power that may be a function of temperature. Loggers were highly accurate in recording the identification of contacted conspecifics, but less reliable at determining contact duration. There was a tendency for extended interactions to be recorded as a series of shorter contacts. We show how data can be manipulated to correct this discrepancy and accurately reflect observed interaction patterns by combining records between any two loggers that occur within a 1 to 2 minute amalgamation window, and then removing any remaining 1 second records. We make universally applicable recommendations for the effective use of proximity loggers, to improve the validity of data arising from future studies.

Carter, Stephen P.; Bearhop, Stuart; Harrison, Xavier A.; Dall, Sasha R. X.; McDonald, Robbie A.; Delahay, Richard J.

2012-01-01

350

Angry Badgers: The Protests in Wisconsin Have Helped Revive an Old Progressive State of Being: "Badgerness" Has Been Reinvented for the Twenty-First Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The events in Wisconsin during February and March 2011 will long be considered remarkable in many ways. That includes the documenting of the protests. Perhaps at no previous time have so many journalists--paid and unpaid--gathered so much information about a protest movement and dispersed it in so many formats so quickly. Ubiquitous, touching,…

Buhle, Mari Jo; Buhle, Paul

2011-01-01

351

Synthesis and Use of New Digoxicenin- Meled Hucleotides in Non-Radioactive Labeling and Detection of Nucleic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical syntheses and use of novel digoxigenin-derivatized 5-aminoallyl-2? -deoxyuridine-5?-triphosphates are reported. The digoxigenin-modified deoxynucleotides were incorporated into DNA. Hybridization and following detection by ELISA technique allows the detection of homologous DNA down to 0,1 pg.

K. Mühlegger; H.-G. Batz; S. Böhm; H. V. D. Eltz; H.-J. Höltke; Ch. Kessler

1989-01-01

352

Fitness Consequences of Hoarding Behaviour in the Eurasian Red Squirrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding increases food availability during periods of scarcity, and therefore should enhance fitness. Although short-term advantages of hoarding have been described for birds, effects over an animal's lifetime have not yet been documented. Here, we report that in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, individuals which recovered many cached tree seeds increased their body mass and were more likely to survive

Luc A. Wauters; Jukka Suhonen; Andre A. Dhondt

1995-01-01

353

Adaptive selection of an incretin gene in Eurasian populations.  

PubMed

Diversities in human physiology have been partially shaped by adaptation to natural environments and changing cultures. Recent genomic analyses have revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with adaptations in immune responses, obvious changes in human body forms, or adaptations to extreme climates in select human populations. Here, we report that the human GIP locus was differentially selected among human populations based on the analysis of a nonsynonymous SNP (rs2291725). Comparative and functional analyses showed that the human GIP gene encodes a cryptic glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) isoform (GIP55S or GIP55G) that encompasses the SNP and is resistant to serum degradation relative to the known mature GIP peptide. Importantly, we found that GIP55G, which is encoded by the derived allele, exhibits a higher bioactivity compared with GIP55S, which is derived from the ancestral allele. Haplotype structure analysis suggests that the derived allele at rs2291725 arose to dominance in East Asians ?8100 yr ago due to positive selection. The combined results suggested that rs2291725 represents a functional mutation and may contribute to the population genetics observation. Given that GIP signaling plays a critical role in homeostasis regulation at both the enteroinsular and enteroadipocyte axes, our study highlights the importance of understanding adaptations in energy-balance regulation in the face of the emerging diabetes and obesity epidemics. PMID:20978139

Chang, Chia Lin; Cai, James J; Lo, Chiening; Amigo, Jorge; Park, Jae-Il; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy

2010-10-26

354

Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of

G. Zhang; G. Jiang; Z. Jia; R. Gao; R. Fu

2010-01-01

355

DNA content in Eurasian sturgeon species determined by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The nuclear DNA content in 10 species of chondrostean fishes was measured by flow cytometry. The sterlet Acipenser ruthenus blood cells were used as an internal standard. The sterlet DNA content was calculated on the basis of comparison with the Xenopus laevis blood cells, 2C = 6.30 pg. In the tetraploid A. ruthenus and A. stellatus the DNA content comprises 3.74 pg/nucleus and is practically invariant; in Huso dauricus it is almost the same, 3.74-3.81 pg; and in A. nudiventris it is a little higher, 3.88-4.04 pg. In the oldest chondrostean, Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni, the nuclear DNA content is slightly lower, 2C = 3.46-3.48 pg, and in the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula it is lower still, 3.17 pg. In two octoploid sturgeons, A. baeri and A. gueldenstaedti, the DNA content is twice as high as that of the sterlet, 8.29-8.31 and 7.86-7.88 pg, respectively; a very similar amount, 8.24-8.42 pg, was determined in the hybrid Huso huso x A. ruthenus. In the Sakhalin sturgeon, A. medirostris (= A. mikadoi), the DNA content is two times higher than in the octoploids, 13.93-14.73 pg; therefore its ploidy may be 16n and the number of chromosomes could be 500. PMID:8513694

Birstein, V J; Poletaev, A I; Goncharov, B F

1993-01-01

356

Woodland fragmentation affects space use of Eurasian red squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

When habitats become fragmented, variation in patch size and quality are expected to impose changes on the spacing pattern and social organization of animal populations. General theory predicts different possible responses including shrinking home ranges (fission response), increasing range overlap (fusion) and incorporation of multiple patches in the home range (expansion response) as fragmentation increases. We studied space use and

Goedele Verbeylen; Lucas A. Wauters; Luc De Bruyn; Erik Matthysen

2009-01-01

357

Palaeodietary Implications of Isotopic Variability in Eurasian Lacustrine Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic measurements were performed on bone collagen of teleostean fish from three European lakes (Lake Geneva, Lake Constance and Lake Aiguebelette) and from Lake Baikal (Russia) in order to investigate the isotopic variability of freshwater fish and its consequences for the reconstruction of prehistoric human diet in Eurasia. ?13C and ?15N values of the same species (Coregonus lavaretus) sampled in

Elise Dufour; Hervé Bocherens; André Mariotti

1999-01-01

358

Genetic analyses reveal independent domestication origins of Eurasian reindeer.  

PubMed

Although there is little doubt that the domestication of mammals was instrumental for the modernization of human societies, even basic features of the path towards domestication remain largely unresolved for many species. Reindeer are considered to be in the early phase of domestication with wild and domestic herds still coexisting widely across Eurasia. This provides a unique model system for understanding how the early domestication process may have taken place. We analysed mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites in domestic and wild herds throughout Eurasia to address the origin of reindeer herding and domestication history. Our data demonstrate independent origins of domestic reindeer in Russia and Fennoscandia. This implies that the Saami people of Fennoscandia domesticated their own reindeer independently of the indigenous cultures in western Russia. We also found that augmentation of local reindeer herds by crossing with wild animals has been common. However, some wild reindeer populations have not contributed to the domestic gene pool, suggesting variation in domestication potential among populations. These differences may explain why geographically isolated indigenous groups have been able to make the technological shift from mobile hunting to large-scale reindeer pastoralism independently. PMID:18460427

Røed, Knut H; Flagstad, Oystein; Nieminen, Mauri; Holand, Oystein; Dwyer, Mark J; Røv, Nils; Vilà, Carles

2008-08-22

359

Integrated Laboratory and Field Investigations: Assessing Contaminant Risk to American Badgers  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript provides an example of integrated laboratory and field approach to complete a toxicological ecological risk assessment at the landscape level. The core findings from the study demonstrate how radio telemetry data can allow for ranking the relative risks of contam...

360

Geophysical investigation at an existing landfill, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-water contaminants were found in ground-water monitoring wells at the existing landfill. More wells to define the horizontal and vertical extent of the contaminant plume are to be installed. Geophysical techniques (electro-magnetic induction, vertical electrical resistivity, and horizontal resistivity profiling) were used to map the extent of the contaminant plume. Using the geophysical, ground-water elevation, and geologic data, five anomalous

C. B. Whitten; K. J. Sjostrom

1991-01-01

361

Geophysical investigation at an existing landfill, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water contaminants were found in ground-water monitoring wells at the existing landfill. More wells to define the horizontal and vertical extent of the contaminant plume are to be installed. Geophysical techniques (electro-magnetic induction, vertical electrical resistivity, and horizontal resistivity profiling) were used to map the extent of the contaminant plume. Using the geophysical, ground-water elevation, and geologic data, five anomalous areas south and east of the landfill were identified as locations for additional ground-water monitoring wells.

Whitten, C.B.; Sjostrom, K.J.

1991-04-01

362

Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin: Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study and report is to develop a systematic program of energy consumption reductions in compliance with the stated goals of the Army Facilities Energy Plan (AFEP). This report will: Develop a systematic plan of energy conservation opportunities (ECO`s) that will meet the objectives of the AFEP. Develop a coordinated facility-wide energy study. Prepare DD Form 1391 and Project Development Brochure (PDB`s) and required documentation for feasible projects. Include all practical energy conservation methods and determine economic feasibility in accordance with given guidelines. List and prioritize recommended projects.

NONE

1983-12-30

363

Female teat size is a reliable indicator of annual breeding success in European badgers: Genetic validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing which females have bred successfully is a central requirement in many ecological field studies, providing an estimate of the effective female population size. Researchers have applied teat measurements previously to assess whether females, in a variety of mammalian species, have bred; however, this technique has not been validated genetically. Furthermore, several analytical techniques are available to classify individuals, but

Hannah L. Dugdale; Dan Davison; Sandra E. Baker; Stephen A. Ellwood; Chris Newman; Christina D. Buesching; David W. Macdonald

2011-01-01

364

Impact of localized badger culling on tuberculosis incidence in British cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens that are transmitted between wildlife, livestock and humans present major challenges for the protection of human and animal health, the economic sustainability of agriculture, and the conservation of wildlife. Mycobacterium bovis, the aetiological agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), is one such pathogen. The incidence of TB in cattle has increased substantially in parts of Great Britain in the past

Christl A. Donnelly; Rosie Woodroffe; D. R. Cox; John Bourne; George Gettinby; Andrea M. Le Fevre; John P. McInerney; W. Ivan Morrison

2003-01-01

365

Badger History, Vol. 31, No. 2, November 1977. Tracing Your Roots [And] Teacher Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school pupils are introduced to a genealogical approach to state and local history. Although the examples in the booklet pertain to Wisconsin, the format can be easily adapted for classroom use by teachers in other locations. A teacher's supplement accompanies the booklet and offers a bibliography, background information, additional…

Kanetzke, Howard W., Ed.

366

Geophysical Investigation at an Existing Landfill, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ground-water contaminants were found in ground-water monitoring wells at the existing landfill. More wells to define the horizontal and vertical extent of the contaminant plume are to be installed. Geophysical techniques (electro-magnetic induction, verti...

C. B. Whitten K. J. Sjostrom

1991-01-01

367

Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH) proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS) increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS) to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future.

Johnson, Dominic DP; Baker, Samantha; Morecroft, Michael D; Macdonald, David W

2001-01-01

368

Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.  

PubMed

Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years. PMID:21498265

Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

2011-04-06

369

The abundance threshold for plague as a critical percolation phenomenon.  

PubMed

Percolation theory is most commonly associated with the slow flow of liquid through a porous medium, with applications to the physical sciences. Epidemiological applications have been anticipated for disease systems where the host is a plant or volume of soil, and hence is fixed in space. However, no natural examples have been reported. The central question of interest in percolation theory, the possibility of an infinite connected cluster, corresponds in infectious disease to a positive probability of an epidemic. Archived records of plague (infection with Yersinia pestis) in populations of great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) in Kazakhstan have been used to show that epizootics only occur when more than about 0.33 of the burrow systems built by the host are occupied by family groups. The underlying mechanism for this abundance threshold is unknown. Here we present evidence that it is a percolation threshold, which arises from the difference in scale between the movements that transport infectious fleas between family groups and the vast size of contiguous landscapes colonized by gerbils. Conventional theory predicts that abundance thresholds for the spread of infectious disease arise when transmission between hosts is density dependent such that the basic reproduction number (R(0)) increases with abundance, attaining 1 at the threshold. Percolation thresholds, however, are separate, spatially explicit thresholds that indicate long-range connectivity in a system and do not coincide with R(0) = 1. Abundance thresholds are the theoretical basis for attempts to manage infectious disease by reducing the abundance of susceptibles, including vaccination and the culling of wildlife. This first natural example of a percolation threshold in a disease system invites a re-appraisal of other invasion thresholds, such as those for epidemic viral infections in African lions (Panthera leo), and of other disease systems such as bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:18668107

Davis, S; Trapman, P; Leirs, H; Begon, M; Heesterbeek, J A P

2008-07-31

370

78 FR 5436 - Combined Notice of Filings #1  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...6/13. Docket Numbers: ER13-767-000. Applicants: Badger Windpower, LLC. Description: Badger Windpower, LLC submits tariff filing per 35.15: Badger Windpower Tariff Cancellation to be effective 12/21/2012. Filed Date:...

2013-01-25

371

Effects of Grazing on the Hydrology and Biology of the Badger Wash Basin in Western Colorado, 1953-66  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An intensive study of the effect of grazing on the hydrologic and biotic characteristics of small drainage basins on the Colorado Plateau was begun in the fall of 1953. This report presents data obtained during the first 13 years of the proposed 20-year study. For the period of record 1954-66, runoff from grazed watersheds has averaged about 33 acre-feet per square mile per year. Runoff from ungrazed watersheds averaged from 71 to 76 percent of that from grazed watersheds. During the last 6 years of the period, however, ungrazed watersheds produced 69 to 71 percent as much runoff as grazed watersheds. The sediment yield frown grazed watersheds during the same period was about 3 acre-feet per square mile per year. Sediment yield from ungrazed watersheds ranged from 51 to 75 percent of that from grazed watersheds and averaged 66 percent. The largest change in these relations occurred about 2 years after livestock were excluded from certain watersheds. The causative factors for changes in the runoff and sediment yield relations are not entirely clear. At the end of 13 years, a significant change had occurred in the amount of bare soil and rock. in the ground-cover index, and in the litter and moss on the grazed watersheds. These items remained essentially unchanged on ungrazed watersheds. The changes in ground-cover factors were not of large magnitude and did not occur at the same rate as the changes in runoff and sediment yield. A large part of the difference appears to have been caused by a change in the structure of surface soil. which was brought about by the elimination of trampling by livestock. Deer mice were the most common rodent present on the experimental watersheds, but even their population was not great enough to affect the composition of range vegetation. Deer mice populations remained comparable on grazed and ungrazed watersheds during the study. Other rodents were not present in sufficient numbers to allow their comparison on grazed and ungrazed range. Desert cottontail rabbits and black-tailed jackrabbits were more plentiful in ungrazed watersheds but were not present in large enough numbers to affect range vegetation.

Lusby, Gregg C.; Knipe, O. D.

1971-01-01

372

Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America.  

PubMed

Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are rare, and few pertain to the critically important late Tertiary period, during which intensified global climatic changes took place. Moreover, strong phylogenetic affinities between the flora of eastern North America and eastern Asia clearly demonstrate formerly contiguous connections, but disparity among shared genera (eastern Asia-eastern North America disjunction) implies significant periods of separation since at least the Miocene epoch. Lacustrine sediments deposited within a former sinkhole in the southern Appalachian Mountains provide a rare example of a late Miocene to early Pliocene terrestrial biota from a forested ecosystem. Here we show that the vertebrate remains contained within this deposit represent a unique combination of North American and Eurasian taxa. A new genus and species of the red (lesser) panda (Pristinailurus bristoli), the earliest and most primitive so far known, was recovered. Also among the fauna are a new species of Eurasian badger (Arctomeles dimolodontus) and the largest concentration of fossil tapirs ever recorded. Cladistical analyses of the two new carnivores strongly suggest immigration events that were earlier than and distinct from previous records, and that the close faunal affinities between eastern North America and eastern Asia in the late Tertiary period are consistent with the contemporaneous botanical record. PMID:15457257

Wallace, Steven C; Wang, Xiaoming

2004-09-30

373

Prevailing Negative Soil Biota Effect and No Evidence for Local Adaptation in a Widespread Eurasian Grass  

PubMed Central

Background Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10–80 km) and between (ca. 3300 km) regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their ‘home soil’ was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant - soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified.

Wagner, Viktoria; Antunes, Pedro M.; Ristow, Michael; Lechner, Ute; Hensen, Isabell

2011-01-01

374

Prey depletion by the foraging of the Eurasian treecreeper, Certhia familiaris , on tree-trunk arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined to what extent breeding insectivorous treecreepers, Certhia familiaris, affect the abundance and the mean size of their prey population on the surface of tree trunks. In order to determine foraging pressure on tree trunks, we observed the parent birds' foraging behaviour in marked squares (25Ꭱ m) at a short (10 m) and long distance (90 m) from the

Ari Jäntti; Teija Aho; Harri Hakkarainen; Markku Kuitunen; Jukka Suhonen

2001-01-01

375

Neo-seismotectonic Evolution in the Far-eastern Eurasian Plate around the Korean Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korean Peninsula and its neighboring regions are intraplate regions that comprise the far-eastern Eurasia plate. These regions have experienced complex tectonic evolutions including continental collisions and a rifting. The ambient stress fields around the Korean Peninsula are induced from nearby plate boundaries against to the Pacific, Philippine Sea, and Indian plates. Historically dozens of devastating earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 6 occurred around the Korean Peninsula. Strike-slip faulting is typically expected in such intraplate regions. Unusual major thrustal earthquakes occur in the East Sea, and normal-faulting earthquakes in the Yellow Sea. We investigate the neo-seismotectonics from geological features, seismicity, fault-plane solutions and seismic tomography. The compressional-axis directions in the East Sea rapidly change from NE to SE in the East Sea. High seismicity of reverse-faulting events is observed in the marginal regions of the East Sea. The regions correspond to rigid continental margins associated with the paleo-rifting. We suggest that the current compressional stress field causes reverse activation of the paleo-normal faults in the East Sea. East-west directional normal-faulting earthquakes are observed in central Yellow Sea between the Shandong Peninsula and the central Korean Peninsula. The E-W directional zoning and striking suggest a N-S directional collision and post-collisional delamination. This normal-faulting region is interpreted to be the northern margin of collision belt and the eastern extent of the Dabie-Sulu belt in the Yellow Sea. The observation suggests that the Dabie-Sulu belt is connected to the Korean Peninsula crossing the Yellow Sea.

Hong, T.; Choi, H.

2011-12-01

376

North America-Greenland-Eurasian relative motions: implications for circum-arctic tectonic reconstructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-Arctic region is based on constraints imposed by (1) relative motion histories of the three major plates (North America, Greenland, and Eurasia) and a number of smaller pieces, and (2) distribution and age of sutures, accretionary prisms, volcanic arcs, fold-thrust belts, stretched continental crust, strike-slip faults, and ocean floor. The authors conclude that: (1)

D. B. Rowley; A. L. Lottes; A. M. Ziegler

1985-01-01

377

The Road That Never Was: The Silk Road and Trans-Eurasian Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The Silk Road is commonly used as a convenient blanket term to describe the many trade routes and points of contact that criss-crossed Central Asia. The term is generally overused, to the point that everything in the history of the region is conceptualized within the confines of the Silk Road(s). By reading Greco-Roman and particularly Chinese sources on the contacts

Khodadad Rezakhani

2010-01-01

378

The Road That Never Was: The Silk Road and Trans-Eurasian Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Silk Road is commonly used as a convenient blanket term to describe the many trade routes and points of contact that criss-crossed Central Asia. The term is generally overused, to the point that everything in the history of the region is conceptualized within the confines of the Silk Road(s). By reading Greco-Roman and particularly Chinese sources on the contacts

Khodadad Rezakhani

2010-01-01

379

Genetic structure of Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) based on microsatellites: clarification for their breed classification.  

PubMed

We pool three previously published data sets and present population genetic analyses of microsatellite variation in 48 Bos taurus cattle breeds from a wide range of geographical origins in Eurasia, mostly its northern territory. Bayesian model-based clustering reveals six distinct clusters: besides a single-population cluster of the Yakutian Cattle from Far Eastern Siberia and a cluster of breeds characteristic of an early origin, the other four major clusters largely correspond to previously defined morphological subgroups of Red Lowland, Lowland Black-Pied, Longhorned Dairy and North European Polled cattle breeds. The results highlighted past expansion events of the productive breeds such as Danish Red, Angeln, Holstein-Friesian and Ayrshire in northern and Eastern Europe. Based on genetic assignment of the breeds and the availability of breed information, we provide a preliminary classification of the five breeds that were to date undefined. Furthermore, in the analysis of molecular variance, despite some correspondence between geographical proximity and genetic similarity, the breed classification appears to be a better predictor of genetic structure in the cattle populations (the among-group variance component: breed classification, 2.47%, P < 0.001; geographical division, 0.77%, P < 0.001). PMID:19845598

Li, M-H; Kantanen, J

2009-10-21

380

Determinants of parental effort: a behavioural study in the Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recorded behaviour of kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) in western Finland during the courtship (1988–1992), incubation (1989–1991), early nestling (age of young 1–2 weeks, 1989–1992) and late nestling stages (3–4 weeks, 1989–1991) to examine determinants of their parental effort (PE). In males, PE was estimated as the hunting effort (the proportion of budget time spent in flight-hunting) and in females as

Pasi Tolonen; Erkki Korpimäki

1994-01-01

381

Selective foraging on woody plant species by the Eurasian beaver ( Castorber ) in Telemark, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beavers Castor spp. are generalist herbivores, feeding on the bark, shoots and leaves of woody plants, terrestrial herbs and forbs, ferns and aquatic vegetation. As central-place foragers, beavers move out from water to select and cut trees and vegetation, and then transport it back to their refuge. These terrestrial forays are energetically costly; therefore, beavers should concentrate their foraging activity

O. Haarberg; F. Rosell

382

A Regional GPS Network Solution fop Monitoring Deformations of the Southeastern Eurasian Plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of deformation styles in Asia have already led to new kinematic models that predict the spatial and temporal evolution of deformations in the region. Test- ing these models is now within realm of current GPS technology. In this study, GPS data during 4 months from six stations in Asia, including a new station from Hong Kong whose data were

Hung Hum

383

Genetic and environmental effects on morphology in clonal sedges in the Eurasian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the variation in morphological characters of importance for resource acquisition and storage in 21 populations of four clonal sedge taxa in arctic Eurasia, Carex bigelowii, C. ensifolia subsp. arctisibirica, C. lugens, and C. stans, and the response to transplantation to a common garden in Tromsø, Norway. The morphology of C. stans was distinct from the other three taxa,

ANNA STENSTROM; INGIBJORG S. JONSDOTTIR; MAGNUS AUGNER

2002-01-01

384

Human influence on distribution and extinctions of the late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Pleistocene extinctions are of interest to paleontological and anthropological research. In North America and Australia, human occupation occurred during a short period of time and overexploitation may have led to the extinction of mammalian megafauna. In northern Eurasia megafaunal extinctions are believed to have occurred over a relatively longer period of time, perhaps as a result of changing environmental

Diana Pushkina; Pasquale Raia

2008-01-01

385

Human influence on distribution and extinctions of the late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna.  

PubMed

Late Pleistocene extinctions are of interest to paleontological and anthropological research. In North America and Australia, human occupation occurred during a short period of time and overexploitation may have led to the extinction of mammalian megafauna. In northern Eurasia megafaunal extinctions are believed to have occurred over a relatively longer period of time, perhaps as a result of changing environmental conditions, but the picture is much less clear. To consider megafaunal extinction in Eurasia, we compare differences in the geographical distribution and commonness of extinct and extant species between paleontological and archaeological localities from the late middle Pleistocene to Holocene. Purely paleontological localities, as well as most extinct species, were distributed north of archaeological sites and of the extant species, suggesting that apart from possible differences in adaptations between humans and other species, humans could also have a detrimental effect on large mammal distribution. However, evidence for human overexploitation applies only to the extinct steppe bison Bison priscus. Other human-preferred species survive into the Holocene, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus ferus, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Equus hemionus, Saiga tatarica, and Sus scrofa. Mammuthus primigenius and Megaloceros giganteus were rare in archaeological sites. Carnivores appear little influenced by human presence, although they become rarer in Holocene archaeological sites. Overall, the data are consistent with the conclusion that humans acted as efficient hunters selecting for the most abundant species. Our study supports the idea that the late Pleistocene extinctions were environmentally driven by climatic changes that triggered habitat fragmentation, species range reduction, and population decrease, after which human interference either by direct hunting or via indirect activities probably became critical. PMID:18199470

Pushkina, Diana; Raia, Pasquale

2008-01-15

386

Cone selection by Eurasian red squirrels in mixed conifer forests in the Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree squirrels are arboreal granivores that harvest and consume tree seeds both prior to and after seed-dispersal. Inter- and intraspecific patterns of seed predation suggest that squirrels may exert strong selective pressure on cone morphology and patterns of cone production, and suggest coevolutionary interactions between squirrels and conifers. In some pine species (genus Pinus), mutualistic relationships have evolved between cone (seed) traits and seed-dispersal behaviour by birds and rodents. In other species, feeding by seed predators has selected for cone traits that decrease intensity of seed consumption. In mixed conifer forests, red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) feed intensively in some (target) trees but avoid others (nontarget trees). Here we explore defensive cone traits and seed traits correlated with tree selection for conifer species with different seed-dispersal strategies. No selection for cone traits existed in Pinus cembra, which has large wingless seeds, dispersed by birds and rodents. In Picea abies, the most favoured species, target trees had cones with more seeds per cone than nontarget trees, and number of seeds increased with cone length. Cone selection was most pronounced in Pinus sylvestris, where target trees had bigger cones with more seeds and higher total seed mass than nontarget trees. However, ratio of seed mass on cone mass did not differ among target and nontarget trees, suggesting that bigger cones also had more protective tissue, probably increasing difficulties for seed predators to gain access to seeds. Our results suggest that cone and seed traits of P. cembra facilitate seed consumption by squirrels, but that defensive cone traits of small-seeded conifers, in combination with annual differences in seed production (masting), might be the result of coevolution with seed-eating squirrels.

Molinari, A.; Wauters, L. A.; Airoldi, G.; Cerinotti, F.; Martinoli, A.; Tosi, G.

2006-07-01

387

[Comparative phylogenetic study of native north Eurasian populations from a panel of autosomal microsatellite loci].  

PubMed

Genetic relationships among eighth Siberian and Central Asian ethnic groups were examined using autosomal microsatellite loci. Genetic similarity of Buryats and Evenks, as well as close relationships between Tuvinians and Kyrgyzes, most likely resulting from the Altai-Slavic co-ancestry of their gene pools, was demonstrated. Studies of gene flow in these populations demonstrated that, in general, Turkic ethnic groups of Southern Siberia (Altaians and Tuvinians) were the recipients of more intense gene flow compared to Eastern Siberian populations belonging to Altaic family. The local Buryat populations displayed substantial differences in the direction and the level of deviation of the observed gene diversity from the expected one, which was probably caused by the differences in the degree of isolation and/or in effective population sizes. PMID:14714470

Stepanov, V A; Spiridonova, M G; Puzyrev, V P

2003-11-01

388

Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context  

PubMed Central

Progress in the mapping of population genetic substructure provides a core source of data for the reconstruction of the demographic history of our species and for the discovery of common signals relevant to disease research: These two aspects of enquiry overlap in their empirical data content and are especially informative at continental and subcontinental levels. In the present study of the variation of the Y chromosome pool of ethnic Russians, we show that the patrilineages within the pre-Ivan the Terrible historic borders of Russia have two main distinct sources. One of these antedates the linguistic split between West and East Slavonic-speaking people and is common for the two groups; the other is genetically highlighted by the pre-eminence of haplogroup (hg) N3 and is most parsimoniously explained by extensive assimilation of (or language change in) northeastern indigenous Finno-Ugric tribes. Although hg N3 is common for both East European and Siberian Y chromosomes, other typically Siberian or Mongolian hgs (Q and C) have negligible influence within the studied Russian Y chromosome pool. The distribution of all frequent Y chromosome haplogroups (which account for 95% of the Y chromosomal spectrum in Russians) follows a similar north-south clinal pattern among autosomal markers, apparent from synthetic maps. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots comparing intra ethnic and interethnic variation of Y chromosome in Europe show that although well detectable, intraethnic variation signals do not cross interethnic borders, except between Poles, Ukrainians, and central-southern Russians, thereby revealing their overwhelmingly shared patrilineal ancestry.

Balanovsky, Oleg; Rootsi, Siiri; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Kivisild, Toomas; Churnosov, Michail; Evseeva, Irina; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Boldyreva, Margarita; Yankovsky, Nikolay; Balanovska, Elena; Villems, Richard

2008-01-01

389

Comparative Phylogenetic Study of Native North Eurasian Populations Using a Panel of Autosomal Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships among eight Siberian and Central Asian ethnic groups were examined using autosomal microsatellite loci. Genetic similarity of Buryats and Evenks, as well as close relationships between Tuvinians and Kyrgyzes, most likely resulting from the Altai-Slavic co-ancestry of their gene pools, was demonstrated. Studies of gene flow in these populations demonstrated that, in general, Turkic ethnic groups of Southern

V. A. Stepanov; M. G. Spiridonova; V. P. Puzyrev

2003-01-01

390

Rangewide phylogeography of a bird-dispersed Eurasian shrub: contrasting Mediterranean and temperate glacial refugia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the phylogeography of alder buckthorn ( Frangula alnus ), a bird-dispersed shrub or small tree distributed over most of Europe and West Asia and present in three of the four main refugia of West Palaearctic temperate woody plants: the Iberian Peninsula, the Balkans and Anatolia. A total of 78 populations from 21 countries were analysed for chloroplast DNA

A. Hampe; J. Arroyo; P. Jordano; R. J. Petit

2003-01-01

391

Movement pattern and home range use by the Eurasian lynx in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement patterns of free-living lynx, Lynx lynx, were studied by radio- telemetry in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Eighteen lynx were fitted with radio-collars and their movements were recorded by continuous 24-h sequences and daily relocations. On average, lynx moved 7.2 km per day, and males covered longer distances than females (9.0 and 6.8 km, respectively). In males, the daily

Wlodzimierz Jedrzejewski; Krzysztof Schmidt; Henryk Okarma; Rafal Kowalczyk

392

Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil in Houghton Lake, Michigan: 2002-2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Houghton Lake is the largest inland water body in Michigan, covering a surface area of nearly 9,000 ha (22,000 acres). The lake is a major natural and recreational resource for the region with activities including sport fishing, boating, snowmobiling, and...

A. G. Poovey C. S. Smith K. D. Getsinger M. D. Netherland W. F. James

2012-01-01

393

Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnimals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs.MethodologyTo examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes

Toni Laaksonen; Juan J. Negro; Sami Lyytinen; Jari Valkama; Indrek Ots; Erkki Korpimäki; Robert Brooks

2008-01-01

394

Does interspecific competition with introduced grey squirrels affect foraging and food choice of Eurasian red squirrels?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, introduced from North America, have replaced red squirrels, S.vulgaris, over much of Britain and parts of north Italy, but the reasons why are unclear. Spatial and temporal changes in the quantity and quality of their primary foods, namely tree seeds, may provide the focus for interspecific resource competition and hence go some way to explain the

Luc A. Wauters; John Gurnell; Adriano Martinoli; Guido Tosi

2001-01-01

395

New estimates of annual and seasonal variability in river discharge across the Eurasian pan-Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River runoff is an important integrator of hydrological behavior across large regions and it plays a significant role in the fresh-water budget of the Arctic Ocean. Ocean salinity and sea ice formation are critically affected by river input. Changes in the fresh water flux to the Arctic Ocean may slow down global ocean circulation by affecting North Atlantic deep water formation. Eurasia contributes 75% of the total terrestrial runoff to the Arctic Ocean and has three of the four major arctic rivers. Observations of combined river discharge from the six largest Russian arctic rivers (N.Dvina, Pechora, Ob, Yenisei, Lena and Kolyma) have demonstrated an increase of 7% over the period 1936-1999. Our more recent estimates have shown this increase has continued into the 21st Century with a new historical maximum observed in 2007 when a record minimum in Arctic Ocean sea ice was observed. Analysis of the long-term sea-ice and discharge records showed a significant correlation between sea ice minimum extent and Russian river discharge (r = -0.7), which suggests an increase in atmospheric moisture transport to land surface due to extension of ice free Arctic Ocean during summer-fall. To better understand the physical mechanisms driving the observed runoff changes we explore alterations due to both global climate change and local anthropogenic influences. To estimate the contribution of each of these factors we used reconstructions of naturalized hydrographs with a newly developed Hydrograph Transformation Model. A combined analysis of observed and naturalized river discharge characteristics showed a significant redistribution of seasonal discharge along the Yenisei River due to reservoir regulation. However, naturalized discharge records also demonstrate a significant increase during the winter. This suggests that natural causes such as permafrost changes, increasing number and magnitude of winter snowmelt events, and an increase in the ground water table may be important contributing factors to the winter discharge change.

Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.; Golovanov, O. Ph.; Rawlins, M. A.; Tretjaykov, M.

2009-04-01

396

Regional patterns in recent trends in sediment yields of Eurasian and Siberian rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multipurpose hydrological and statistical analysis of long-term changes in suspended sediment yield has been made for large Russian rivers discharging to the Arctic Ocean. Factors affecting sediment yield formation, e.g., snow pack duration, mean air temperature and mean water discharge, have been analyzed as well. The duration of observations at 13 selected meteorological stations varies from 56 to 113

Nelly N Bobrovitskaya; Alexander V Kokorev; Nataly A Lemeshko

2003-01-01

397

Regional patterns in recent trends in sediment yields of Eurasian and Siberian rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multipurpose hydrological and statistical analysis of long-term changes in suspended sediment yield has been made for large Russian rivers discharging to the Arctic Ocean. Factors affecting sediment yield formation, e.g., snow pack duration, mean air temperature and mean water discharge, have been analyzed as well. The duration of observations at 13 selected meteorological stations varies from 56 to 113 years and covers the period from 1883 to 1995. The duration of water discharge measurements at 22 hydrological stations varies from 20 to 120 years; measurements were made from 1881 to 2000. The duration of sediment yield observations is shorter (from 1936 to 2000) and varies from 14 to 62 years. The air temperature rise is evident for 10 stations while temperature fall is observed at 3 stations (Dickson Island, Narjan Mar, Kiusiur). These three stations are established in the coastal area of the Arctic Ocean. The most impressive coincidence of trends towards an increase of mean air temperature and mean annual water discharge is observed in the Pechora, Angara, Lena, Aldan, Yana and Indugirka river basins, and in the lower reaches of the Ob and Yenisei river basins. A decrease of water discharge is observed in the Severnaya Dvina river, probably refracting by the effect of cut forest on water availability in the river. The decrease of water discharges in the upper parts of the Ob and Yenisei river basins refracts reservoirs. Changes in suspended sediment yield depend more on man's activity than on climate change. Construction of reservoirs in the upper reaches of the Ob and Yenisei rivers explains the decreased sediment yield. An increase of sediment yield in the Kolyma river basin has been observed due to the gold mining there.

Bobrovitskaya, Nelly N.; Kokorev, Alexander V.; Lemeshko, Nataly A.

2003-10-01

398

COMPARISONS BETWEEN MORPHOMETRIC AND GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION AMONG POPULATIONS OF THE EURASIAN TREE SPARROW (PASSER MONTANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

EU~S~~~ Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) populations, established by intro- ductions outside of the native range, provide a unique opportunity to assess the relationship of morphometric and genetic change in a new environment. No statistically significant morphometric-genetic relationships were found among six populations ofP. montanus when we (1) correlated morphometric size with heterozygosity; and (2) estimated degree of pop- ulation differentiation

ANDJON C. BARLOW

399

Investment Options and Bargaining Power the Eurasian Supply Chain for Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use cooperative game theory to analyze how the architecture of the pipeline network determines the power structure in the supply chain for Russian gas. If the assessment is narrowly focused on the abilities to obstruct flows in the existing system, the main transit countries, Belarus and Ukraine, appear to be strong. If investment options are accounted for, however, Russia

Franz Hubert; Svetlana Ikonnikova

2009-01-01

400

Strategic Eurasian Natural Gas Model for Energy Security (Revised 6 April 2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical formulation of a large-scale equilibrium natural gas simulation model is presented. Although large-scale natural gas models have been developed and used for energy security and policy analysis quite extensively (e.g., Holz (2007), Egging et al. (2008), Holz et al. (2009) and Lise et al. (2008)), this model differs from earlier ones in its detailed representation of the structure

C. K. Chyong; B. F. Hobbs

2011-01-01

401

INVESTMENT OPTIONS AND BARGAINING POWER: THE EURASIAN SUPPLY CHAIN FOR NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use cooperative game theory to analyze the power structure in the pipeline network for Russian gas. If the assessment is narrowly focused on the abilities to obstruct flows in the existing system, the main transit countries, Belarus and Ukraine, appear to be strong. Once investment options are accounted for, Russia achieves clear dominance. Competition between transit countries is of

FRANZ HUBERT; SVETLANA IKONNIKOVA

2011-01-01

402

Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI\\/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny

Khaled K Abu-Amero; Ana M González; Jose M Larruga; Thomas M Bosley; Vicente M Cabrera

2007-01-01

403

Eurasian wild asses in time and space: morphological versus genetic diversity.  

PubMed

The Equidae have a long evolutionary history that has interested palaeontologists for a long time. Their morphology-based taxonomy, however, is a matter of controversy. Since most equid species are now extinct, the phylogenetic tree based on genetic data can be established only imperfectly via deduction of present day genomes and little is known about the past genetic diversity of these species. Recent studies of ancient DNA preserved in fossil bones have led to a simplification of the phylogenetic tree and the classification system. The situation is still particularly unclear for the wild asses whose geographical distribution in the Pleistocene and the early Holocene stretched from Northern Africa to Eurasia before they became endangered or extinct. Therefore, we performed a phylogeographic study of bone remains of wild asses covering their former geographic range over the past 100,000 years based on the analysis of ancient mitochondrial DNA. Here, we will not show but rather discuss our results calling the morphology-based classification into question and indicating that morphological criteria alone can be an unreliable index in inferring various equid species. Indeed, the diversity of mitochondrial lineages in populations with similar morphology along with genetic signatures shared between morphologically distinct animals reveal a significant morphological plasticity among Equus species. The classification of palaeontological species based on morphological and genetic criteria will be discussed. PMID:21820882

Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

2011-07-08

404

What shapes Eurasian lynx distribution in human dominated landscapes: selecting prey or avoiding people?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the multi-use landscape of southern Norway, the distribution of lynx is likely to be determined both by the abundance of their favoured prey the roe deer and the risk associated with the presence of humans because most lynx mortalities are caused by humans (recreational harvest, poaching, vehicle collisions). We described the distribution of the reproductive portion of the lynx

Mathieu Basille; Ivar Herfindal; Hugues Santin-Janin; John D. C. Linnell; John Odden; Reidar Andersen; Kjell Arild Høgda; Jean-Michel Gaillard

2009-01-01

405

An Apparent Relationship between Eurasian Snow Cover and Indian Monsoon Rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short record of year-to-year variations of summer monsoon rainfall over India is compared with that of winter snow cover over Eurasia as derived from satellite data. An inverse relationship between these two quantities is indicated, i.e., winters with extensive (little) snow cover over Eurasia tend to be followed by summers with less (more) rainfall over India.

Douglas G. Hahn; J. Shukla

1976-01-01

406

Fungi associated with the southern Eurasian orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall.  

PubMed

The hitherto unknown relationships between the European orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall and its internally associated fungi were explored by a combined approach involving microscopy-based investigations at a morpho-histological level as well as by molecular analyses of the identity of the eukaryotic endophytes present in the root tissue of the plant. We found that this orchid which is currently reported to have a vulnerable status in northern Italy, can host and interact with at least nine types of fungi. Some of these fungi show similarity to mycorrhizal genera found in orchids such as the Ceratobasidium-Rhizoctonia group. Other fungi found are from the genera Davidiella (Ascomycota), Leptosphaeria (Ascomycota), Alternaria (Ascomycota), and Malassezia (Basidiomycota), some of which until have not previously been reported to have an endophytic relationship with plants. The repeated occurrence of often pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Alternaria sp., within healthy specimens of this orchid suggests a tempered interaction with species that are sometimes deleterious to non-orchid plants. The fact is reminiscent of the symbiotic compromise established by orchids with fungi of the rhizoctonia group. PMID:22483052

Tondello, Alessandra; Vendramin, Elena; Villani, Mariacristina; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea

2012-02-28

407

EURASIAN ORIGINS OF NORTH AMERICAN YELLOW STARTHISTLE (CENTAUREA SOLSTITIALIS L.) AS ESTIMATED BY MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Centaurea solstitialis is a widespread invasive plant species in the Western U.S. Biocontrol with pathogens and insects is a viable control strategy for rangeland, riparian areas and wild lands. Understanding genetic structure and origins of populations is important in developing controls for inva...

408

Eurasian fundamental mode surface wave phase velocities and their relationship with tectonic structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We automatically analyzed 32,000 fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh wave signals with earthquake-station paths traversing Eurasia and Indonesia and obtained robust average phase velocity measurements between 20 s and 170 s periods along 4389 Love and 4020 Rayleigh paths. These were inverted to give phase velocity maps at 14 fixed periods. Resolution tests suggest that features with diameter >750 km

Andrew Curtis; Jeannot Trampert; Roel Snieder; Bernard Dost

1998-01-01

409

Response of Eurasian Watermilfoil to Integrated Fluridone-Fungal Pathogen Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note describes laboratory investigations conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the herbicide fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5 3- (TRIFLUOROMETHYL) PHENYL-4(1H)-pyridinone) and the fungal pathogen Mt (Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Gerd.) Os...

L. S. Nelson J. F. Shearer

2002-01-01

410

Are Vegetative Reproduction Capacities the Cause of Widespread Invasion of Eurasian Salicaceae in Patagonian River Landscapes?  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, invasive willows and poplars (Salicaceae) have built dense floodplain forests along most of the rivers in Patagonia, Argentina. These invasion processes may affect Salix humboldtiana as the only native floodplain tree species in this region. It is assumed, that the property to reproduce vegetatively can play an important role in the establishment of invasive species in their new range. Thus, in order to contribute to a better understanding of willow and poplar invasions in riparian systems and to assess the potential impacts on S. humboldtiana the vegetative reproduction capacities of native and invasive Salicaceae were analysed. In a greenhouse experiment, we studied cutting survival and growth performance of the three most dominant invasive Salicaceae of the Patagonian Río Negro region (two Salix hybrids and Populus spec.), as well as S. humboldtiana, taking into account three different moisture and two different soil conditions. In a subsequent experiment, the shoot and root biomass of cuttings from the former experiment were removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to re-sprout. The two invasive willow hybrids performed much better than S. humboldtiana and Populus spec. under all treatment combinations and tended to re-sprout more successfully after repeated biomass loss. Taking into account the ecology of vegetative and generative recruits of floodplain willows, the results indicate that the more vigorous vegetative reproduction capacity can be a crucial property for the success of invasive willow hybrids in Patagonia being a potential threat for S. humboldtiana.

Thomas, Lisa K.; Tolle, Lena; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Leyer, Ilona

2012-01-01

411

The Eurasian Female Hero[ine]: Sydney Fox as Relic Hunter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to historical representations of women of color as victims and villains, the author argues that the portrayal of contemporary women of color as heroines can be linked to globalization, the economic power of Asian minorities, and prevailing discourses of multiculturalism. Drawing on the television series Relic Hunter, the author outlines the use of the racialized female hero as

Yasmin Jiwani

2005-01-01

412

Transmission of Eurasian avian H2 influenza virus to shorebirds in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A virus of the H2 subtype caused a serious pandemic in 1957 and may cause similar outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolution and the antigenic relationships of avian influenza H2 viruses, we sequenced the haemagglutinin (HA) genes of H2 isolates from shorebirds, ducks and poultry in North America and derived a phylo- genetic tree to establish their

N. V. Makarova; N. V. Kaverin; S. Krauss; D. Senne; R. G. Webster

1999-01-01

413

Cross-amplification and sequence variation of microsatellite loci in Eurasian hard pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite transfer across coniferous species is a valued methodology because de novo development for each species is costly and there are many species with only a limited commodity value. Cross-species amplification of orthologous microsatellite regions provides valuable information on mutational and evolutionary processes affecting these loci. We tested 19 nuclear microsatellite markers from Pinus taeda L. (subsection Australes) and three

S. C. González-Martínez; J. J. Robledo-Arnuncio; C. Collada; A. Díaz; C. G. Williams; R. Alía; M. T. Cervera

2004-01-01

414

Do variations in Arabian plate lithospheric structure control deformation in the Arabian-Eurasian convergence zone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabian plate has been converging with Eurasia for 20-30 Ma, currently at 2-3 cm\\/year. Convergence is manifested differently along strike, with collision and tectonic escape in the west (Anatolia) and subduction of Arabia beneath Eurasia in the east (Iran). The reason for these differences may reflect the greater density of the Arabian lithosphere in the east relative to that

Robert J Stern; Peter R Johnson

2008-01-01

415

Relation between Eurasian Snow Cover, Snow Depth, and the Indian Summer Monsoon: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite-derived snow cover data for 22 yr and snow depth data for 9 yr over Eurasia have been analyzed to reexamine the possible relation of snow with the Indian summer monsoon. In contrast to the previous studies that use snow cover averaged over all of Eurasia as a single number, the frequency of occurrence of snow at each grid point

A. S. Bamzai; J. Shukla

1999-01-01

416

Paleomagnetism in the Tajikistan: continental shortening of European margin in the Pamirs during Indian Eurasian collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable and well defined magnetization with D = 350°, I = 55.5° and alpha95 = 4°, carried by hematite, is isolated in the red beds of the Tajik basin. The fold test is positive (99% probability) and this magnetization predates the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene folding phase in the Tajik basin. The coordinates of the VGP are: 82°N, 323°E, dp

Jean-Pierre Pozzi; Hugues Feinberg

1991-01-01

417

Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages  

Microsoft Academic Search

About a fifth of the human gene pool belongs largely either to Indo-European or Dravidic speaking people inhabiting the Indian peninsula. The 'Caucasoid share' in their gene pool is thought to be related predominantly to the Indo-European speakers. A commonly held hypothesis, albeit not the only one, suggests a massive Indo-Aryan invasion to India some 4,000 years ago (1). Recent

T. Kivisild; M. J. Bamshad; K. Kaldma; M. Metspalu; E. Metspalu; M. Reidla; S. Laos; J. Parik; W. S. Watkins; M. E. Dixon; S. S. Papiha; S. S. Mastana; M. R. Mir; V. Ferak; R. Villems

1999-01-01

418

China and the emerging Eurasian agenda: From special interests to strategic cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

[extract] China remains a multinational and multi-ethnic state with diverse relations across its southern, northern and western borders. From the third century B.C. onwards trade contacts were made westwards along the ancient Silk Road, while by the Tang Dynasty China had established strong influence in Central Asia. Today a 'new Silk Road' is being developed, this time based on oil

R. James Ferguson

2001-01-01

419

Molecular genetic analysis among subspecies of two Eurasian sturgeon species, Acipenser baerii and A. stellatus.  

PubMed

Two species, the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, and stellate sturgeon, A. stellatus, were studied using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (D-loop, cytochrome b (cyt-b) and ND5/6 genes) sequencing to determine whether traditionally defined subspecies correspond to taxonomic entities and conservation management units. Initially, several mtDNA regions for each taxon (A. baerii: 737 bp D-loop, 750 bp ND5, 200 bp ND6, and 790 bp cyt-b; A. stellatus: 737 bp D-loop and 600 bp ND5) were examined. The D-loop was the most variable region and was s