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Sample records for euroball iv hector

  1. A Study of the Jacobi Shape Transition in Light, Fast Rotating Nuclei with the EUROBALL IV, HECTOR and EUCLIDES Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Brekiesz, M.; Grebosz, J.; Meczynski, W.; Styczen, J.; Zieblinski, M.; Zuber, K.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Benzoni, G.; Million, B.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Leoni, S.; Pignanelli, M.; Wieland, O.; Airoldi, A.; Herskind, B.; Bednarczyk, P.

    2004-02-27

    The high-energy and discrete {gamma}-ray spectra, as well as the charged particle angular distribution have been measured in the reaction 105 MeV 18O+28Si using the EUROBALL IV, HECTOR and EUCLIDES arrays in order to investigate the predicted Jacobi shape transition in light nuclei. A comparison of the GDR line shape data with the predictions of the thermal shape fluctuation model, based on the most recent rotating liquid drop LSD calculations, shows evidence for such Jacobi shape transition in hot, rapidly rotating 46Ti. The found narrow low-energy component in the GDR line shape is interpreted as the consequence both of the elongated shape and of the Coriolis effect.

  2. DSAM Lifetime Studies for Gd-Nd nuclei with EUROBALL and AFRODITE

    SciTech Connect

    Lieder, E. O.; Lieder, R. M.; Pasternak, A. A.; Carlsson, B. G.; Ragnarsson, I.; Bark, R. A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Lawrie, J. J.; Mullins, S. M.; Papka, P.; Kheswa, Y.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Gast, W.; Duchene, G.

    2008-05-12

    Lifetimes of high-spin states have been measured for {sup 142}Gd and {sup 134}Nd with EU-ROBALL IV and AFRODITE, respectively, using DSAM. From calculations in the cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky model it was concluded that at the high-spin states of the (+,0){sub 1} band, {sup 142}Gd represents a triaxial nucleus rotating around the longest principal axis.

  3. Measurement of lifetimes in {sup 46}V with the EUROBALL {gamma}-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen, K.; Moeller, O.; Dewald, A.; Brentano, P. von; Fitzler, A.; Jolie, J.; Saha, B.; Petkov, P.; Brandolini, F.; Gadea, A.; Lenzi, S. M.; De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Napoli, D. R.; Gall, B. J. P.

    2006-08-15

    In {sup 46}V picosecond lifetimes were determined using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique with the Cologne plunger device coupled to the EUROBALL IV spectrometer. The experiment was carried out using the {sup 24}Mg({sup 28}Si, {alpha}pn) reaction at 110 MeV at the Strasbourg VIVITRON accelerator. Subsequently the differential decay curve method in coincidence mode was employed to derive lifetimes for four excited states in the K{sup {pi}}=0{sup -} band. The resulting transition probabilities give a comparison of isospin allowed and forbidden E1 transitions, which clarifies the decay properties of the 2{sup -},T=0 state. Furthermore the B(E2) values within the K{sup {pi}}=0{sup -} band are discussed.

  4. Les teletheses de communication: l'apport des sciences du langage a "HECTOR" (Communication Aids: The Contribution of Linguistic Science to "HECTOR").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanneret, Rene, Ed.

    A collection of papers on HECTOR, a communication aid for disabled persons without speech, includes: "La telethese de communication HECTOR" ("The Communication Aid HECTOR") (Rene Jeanneret); "Lorsque HECTOR rencontre un psycholinguiste experimentaliste...que se disent-ils?" ("When HECTOR Meets an Experimental Psycholinguist...What Do They Say to…

  5. Recent results at the N = Z line with GASP and EUROBALL

    SciTech Connect

    Farnea, E.

    2004-02-27

    Valuable information on the validity of the isospin symmetry was obtained by studying nuclei close to the N = Z line with the GASP and EUROBALL {gamma}-ray spectrometres coupled to ancillary devices. Here a few selected results on the study of mirror nuclei are presented, together with an estimate of the isospin mixing probability through the measurement of a forbidden E1 transition in 64Ge.

  6. Status and results from the decay spectroscopy project EURICA (Euroball-RIKEN cluster array)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, P.-A.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Nishimura, S.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Baba, H.; Benzoni, G.; Browne, F.; Gey, G.; Isobe, T.; Jungclaus, A.; Kiss, G.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lubos, D.; Moschner, K.; Patel, Z.; Phong, V. H.; Rice, S.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Simpson, G. S.; Sinclair, L.; Sumikama, T.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Watanabe, H.; Yagi, A.

    2016-07-01

    β- and isomer-decay spectroscopy are sensitive probes of nuclear structure, and are often the only techniques capable of providing data for exotic nuclei that are produced with very low rates. Decay properties of exotic nuclei are also essential to model astrophysical events responsible for the evolution of the universe such as the rp- and r-processes. The EURICA project (EUROBALL RIKEN Cluster Array) has been launched in 2012 with the goal of performing spectroscopy of very exotic nuclei. Since 2012, five experimental campaigns have been successfully completed using fragmentation of 124Xe beam and in-flight-fission of 238U beam. In these proceedings we will introduce the experimental setup and highlight some key recent results around 78Ni, 132Sn, and 110Zn published during 2014 and 2015.

  7. Seeking key meteorological parameters to better understand Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, S.; Ferretti, R.

    2016-02-01

    Twelve Hector events, a storm which develops in northern Australia, are analyzed with the aim of identifying the main meteorological parameters involved in the storm's convective development. Based on Crook's ideal study (Crook, 2001), wind speed and direction, wind shear, water vapor, convective available potential energy and type of convection are the parameters used for this analysis. Both the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis and high-resolution simulations from the Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used. The MM5 simulations are used to connect the mean vertical velocity to the total condensate at the maximum stage and to study the dynamics of the storms. The ECMWF analyses are used to evaluate the initial conditions and the environmental fields contributing to Hector's development. The analysis suggests that the strength of convection, defined in terms of vertical velocity, largely contributes to the vertical distribution of hydrometeors. The role of total condensate and mean lifting versus low-level moisture, convective available potential energy, surface wind and direction is analyzed for shear and no-shear conditions to evaluate the differences between type A and B for real events. Results confirm the tendency suggested by Crook's analysis. However, Crook's hypothesis of low-level moisture as the only parameter that differentiates between type A and B can only be applied if the events develop in the same meteorological conditions. Crook's tests also helped to assess how the meteorological parameters contribute to Hector's development in terms of percentage.

  8. Seeking for key meteorological parameters to better understand Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, S.; Ferretti, R.

    2015-06-01

    Twelve Hector events, a storm developing in the northern Australia, are analyzed to the aim of identifying the main meteorological parameters involved in the convective development. Based on Crook's ideal study tep{Crook} wind speed and direction, wind shear, water vapor, Convective Available Potential Energy and type of convection are the parameters used for this analysis. Both European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis and high resolution simulations from the Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used. The MM5 simulations are used to connect the mean vertical velocity to the total condensate at the maximum stage and to study the dynamics of the storms. The ECMWF analysis are used to evaluate the initial conditions and the environmental fields contributing to Hector development. The analysis suggests that the strength of convection is largely contributing to the vertical distribution of hydrometeors. The role of total condensate and mean lifting vs. low level moisture, Convective Available Potential Energy, surface wind and direction is analyzed for shear and no-shear conditions to evaluate the differences between type A and B for real events. Results confirm the tendency suggested by Crook's analysis. On the other hand, Crook's hypothesis of low level moisture as the only parameter that differentiates between type A and B can be applied only if the events develop in the same meteorological conditions. Crook's tests also helped to asses how the the meteorological parameters contribute to Hector development in terms of percentage.

  9. Cloud-resolving chemistry simulation of a Hector thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, K. A.; Huntemann, T. L.; Pickering, K. E.; Barth, M. C.; Skamarock, W. C.; Höller, H.; Betz, H.-D.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Schlager, H.

    2013-03-01

    Cloud chemistry simulations were performed for a Hector thunderstorm observed on 16 November 2005 during the SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE campaigns based in Darwin, Australia, with the primary objective of estimating the average NO production per lightning flash in this unique storm type which occurred in a tropical island environment. The 3-D WRF-Aqueous Chemistry (WRF-AqChem) model is used for these calculations and contains the WRF nonhydrostatic cloud-resolving model with online gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry and a lightning-NOx (LNOx) production algorithm. The model was initialized by inducing convection with an idealized morning sounding and sensible heat source, and initial condition chemical profiles from merged aircraft observations in undisturbed air. Many features of the idealized model storm, such as storm size and peak radar reflectivity, were similar to the observed storm. Tracer species, such as CO, used to evaluate convective transport in the simulated storm found vertical motion from the boundary layer to the anvil region was well represented in the model, with a small overestimate of enhanced CO at anvil altitudes. The lightning detection network (LINET) provided lightning flash data for the model and a lightning placement scheme injected the resulting NO into the simulated cloud. A lightning NO production scenario of 500 moles flash-1 for both CG and IC flashes yielded anvil NOx mixing ratios that compared well with aircraft observations and were also similar to those deduced for several convective modeling analyses in the midlatitudes and subtropics. However, these NO production values were larger than most estimates for tropical thunderstorms and given several uncertainties, LNOx production may have been as large as 600 moles flash-1. Approximately 85% of the simulated LNOx mass was located above 7 km in the later stages of the storm, which was greater than amounts found for subtropical and midlatitude convection. Modeled upper tropospheric NO2 partial

  10. Hector Berlioz and other famous artists with opium abuse.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Paul L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of opium on the creativity and productivity of a famous composer of classical music, an essayist, and poets including Hector Berlioz, Thomas De Quincy, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, and Jean Cocteau, is described. Opium is a narcotic drug prepared from the juice of the unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy. It contains alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, and papaverine. Medically it is used to relieve pain and produce sleep. It is used as an intoxicant. Alcohol and opium were commonly relied on in the 19th century, especially by artists, to stimulate creativity and relieve stress. These artists described the effect of opium on their creativity and productivity. PMID:20375523

  11. LiDAR Analysis of Hector Mine Fault Scarp Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Sousa, F.; Stock, J. M.; Akciz, S. O.

    2014-12-01

    The Mw 7.1 right-lateral strike-slip Hector Mine earthquake occurred on 10/16/1999 and generated an approximately 48 km long surface rupture. The Lavic Lake fault and the central section of the Bullion fault and several lesser faults ruptured, characterized by maximum strike slip of 5.25 ±0.85 m [Treiman, 2002]. As a very remote and un-populated area of the Mojave Desert, southern California, the study area is highly favorable for fault degradation studies with essentially no influence from vegetation or human activity. Airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) are used to evaluate the form and rate of degradation of scarps along the Hector Mine fault rupture, California, USA. Airborne LiDAR data were acquired in 2000 and 2012 and these data were differenced using a newly developed algorithm for point cloud matching, which is improved over prior methods by accounting for scan geometry error sources. Using the bi-temporal data (scrutinizing profiles from 2000 & 2012), parameters for a fault scarp diffusion model are estimated and then a simulation result is generated to predict the evolved landform shape at the time of the 2014 TLS data set. Results are checked against TLS 2014 data collected at five key sites within the maximum slip field study area. In the past, scarp degradation has been mostly investigated using traditional survey methods (e.g., measuring elevations of points in a line perpendicular to the scarp) that require time-consuming field work and tend to introduce bias and variance due to data limitations. Airborne, mobile and terrestrial LiDAR data offer great potential to precisely document and rigorously determine morphologic degradation of fault scarps [Hilley et al., 2010]. In the present study, a unique set of data have been acquired at three points in time across several classic types of fault scarps and offset fault zone features. This allows progress in assessing the fitting of functions and

  12. Isomerism and adduct formation in the hector's base series: A MNDO study of model compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbertson, Alastair F.; Glidewell, Christopher

    MNDO calculations on a series of a model compounds show that the observed structures for Hector's base, Dost's base and Dost's keto compound are the thermodynamically most stable tautomers and that the bond-switched structure observed for the 1:1 adduct of Hector's base with carbon disulphide and the non-bond-switched structure observed for the corresponding adducts with isocyanates and isothiocyanates are both the thermodynamically most favoured isomers, so that the occurrence or otherwise of a bond switch in these compounds is determined by thermodynamic rather than by mechanistic factors. Proposed mechanisms for the formation of the carbon disulphide adduct of Hector's base, and for its desulphurisation are supported by MNDO calculations.

  13. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling for the 1999 Hector Mine Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Mayeda, K.

    2003-12-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of studies finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Other studies find the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993; Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for attenuation, radiation inhomogeneities, bandwidth and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We try to improve upon earlier results by using consistent techniques over common paths for a wide range of sizes and seismic phases. We have examined about 130 earthquakes from the Hector Mine earthquake sequence in Southern California. These earthquakes range in size from the October 16,1999 Mw=7.1 mainshock down to ML=3.0 aftershocks into 2000. The mainshock has unclipped Pg and Lg phases at a number of high quality regional stations (e.g. CMB, ELK, TUC) where we can use the common path to examine apparent stress scaling relations directly. We are careful to avoid any event selection bias that would be related to apparent stress values. We fix each stations path correction using the independent moment and energy estimates for the mainshock. We then use those corrections to determine the seismic energy for each event based on regional Lg spectra. We use a modeling technique (MDAC) based on a modified Brune (1970) spectral shape but without any assumptions of corner-frequency scaling (Walter and Taylor, 2002). We perform similar analysis using the Pg spectra. We find the energy estimates for the same events are consistent for Lg estimates, Pg estimates and the estimates using the independent regional coda envelope technique (Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al

  14. Earthquake triggering by seismic waves following the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, J; Reasenberg, P A; Bodin, P; Harris, R A

    2001-05-24

    The proximity and similarity of the 1992, magnitude 7.3 Landers and 1999, magnitude 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in California permit testing of earthquake triggering hypotheses not previously possible. The Hector Mine earthquake confirmed inferences that transient, oscillatory 'dynamic' deformations radiated as seismic waves can trigger seismicity rate increases, as proposed for the Landers earthquake. Here we quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of the seismicity rate changes. The seismicity rate increase was to the north for the Landers earthquake and primarily to the south for the Hector Mine earthquake. We suggest that rupture directivity results in elevated dynamic deformations north and south of the Landers and Hector Mine faults, respectively, as evident in the asymmetry of the recorded seismic velocity fields. Both dynamic and static stress changes seem important for triggering in the near field with dynamic stress changes dominating at greater distances. Peak seismic velocities recorded for each earthquake suggest the existence of, and place bounds on, dynamic triggering thresholds. These thresholds vary from a few tenths to a few MPa in most places, depend on local conditions, and exceed inferred static thresholds by more than an order of magnitude. At some sites, the onset of triggering was delayed until after the dynamic deformations subsided. Physical mechanisms consistent with all these observations may be similar to those that give rise to liquefaction or cyclic fatigue. PMID:11373675

  15. Hector Garcia Middle School: A School's Design Aspires to Live Up to Its Name

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Brown discusses the history of Hector Garcia, a Mexican immigrant who, as U.S. Army captain, worked diligently to assist minority servicemen in navigating the Veterans Administration, and found the GI Forum. Dr. Garcia's activism, through the Forum, was instrumental in desegregating hospitals, swimming pools, schools and cemeteries. Brown's case…

  16. Earthquake triggering by seismic waves following the landers and hector mine earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.A.; Bodin, P.; Harris, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The proximity and similarity of the 1992, magnitude 7.3 Landers and 1999, magnitude 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in California permit testing of earthquake triggering hypotheses not previously possible. The Hector Mine earthquake confirmed inferences that transient, oscillatory 'dynamic' deformations radiated as seismic waves can trigger seismicity rate increases, as proposed for the Landers earthquake1-6. Here we quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of the seismicity rate changes7. The seismicity rate increase was to the north for the Landers earthquake and primarily to the south for the Hector Mine earthquake. We suggest that rupture directivity results in elevated dynamic deformations north and south of the Landers and Hector Mine faults, respectively, as evident in the asymmetry of the recorded seismic velocity fields. Both dynamic and static stress changes seem important for triggering in the near field with dynamic stress changes dominating at greater distances. Peak seismic velocities recorded for each earthquake suggest the existence of, and place bounds on, dynamic triggering thresholds. These thresholds vary from a few tenths to a few MPa in most places, depend on local conditions, and exceed inferred static thresholds by more than an order of magnitude. At some sites, the onset of triggering was delayed until after the dynamic deformations subsided. Physical mechanisms consistent with all these observations may be similar to those that give rise to liquefaction or cyclic fatigue.

  17. Near-field postseismic deformation associated with the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Prescott, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    After the Landers earthquake (Mw = 7.3, 1992.489) a linear array of 10 monuments extending about 30 km N50??E on either side of the earthquake rupture plus a nearby offtrend reference monument were surveyed frequently by GPS until 2003.2. The array also spans the rupture of the subsequent Hector Mine earthquake (Mw = 7.1, 1999.792 . The pre-Landers velocities of monuments in the array relative to interior North America were estimated from earlier trilateration and very long baseline interferometry measurements. Except at the reference monument, the post-Landers velocities of the individual monuments in the array relaxed to their preseismic values within 4 years. Following the Hector Mine earthquake the velocities of the monuments relaxed to steady rates within 1 year. Those steady rates for the east components are about equal to the pre-Landers rates as is the steady rate for the north component of the one monument east of the Hector Mine rupture. However, the steady rates for the north components of the 10 monuments west of the rupture are systematically ???10 mm yr1 larger than the pre-Landers rates. The relaxation to a steady rate is approximately exponential with decay times of 0.50 ?? 0.10 year following the Landers earthquake and 0.32 ?? 0.18 year following the Hector Mine earthquake. The postearthquake motions of the Landers array following the Landers earthquake are not well approximated by the viscoelastic-coupling model of Pollitz et al. [2000]. A similar viscoelastic-coupling model [Pollitz et al., 2001] is more successful in representing the deformation after the Hector Mine earthquake.

  18. NOx production by lightning in Hector: first airborne measurements during SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Schlager, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Roiger, A.; Stock, P.; Minikin, A.; Höller, H.; Schmidt, K.; Betz, H.-D.; Allen, G.; Viciani, S.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Brunner, D.

    2009-07-01

    During the SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE field phase in November-December 2005 airborne in situ measurements were performed inside and in the vicinity of thunderstorms over northern Australia with several research aircraft (German Falcon, Russian M55 Geophysica, and British Dornier-228). Here a case study from 19 November is presented in large detail on the basis of airborne trace gas measurements (NO, NOy, CO, O3) and stroke measurements from the German LIghtning Location NETwork (LINET), set up in the vicinity of Darwin during the field campaign. The anvil outflow from three different types of thunderstorms was probed by the Falcon aircraft: 1) a continental thunderstorm developing in a tropical airmass near Darwin, 2) a mesoscale convective system (MCS) developing within the tropical maritime continent (Tiwi Islands) known as Hector, and 3) a continental thunderstorm developing in a subtropical airmass ~200 km south of Darwin. For the first time detailed measurements of NO were performed in the Hector outflow. The highest NO mixing ratios were observed in Hector with peaks up to 7 nmol mol-1 in the main anvil outflow at ~11.5-12.5 km altitude. The mean NOx (=NO+NO2) mixing ratios during these penetrations (~100 km width) varied between 2.2 and 2.5 nmol mol-1. The NOx contribution from the boundary layer (BL), transported upward with the convection, to total anvil-NOx was found to be minor (<10%). On the basis of Falcon measurements, the mass flux of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) in the well-developed Hector system was estimated to 0.6-0.7 kg(N) s-1. The highest average stroke rate of the probed thunderstorms was observed in the Hector system with 0.2 strokes s-1 (here only strokes with peak currents ≥10 kA contributing to LNOx were considered). The LNOx mass flux and the stroke rate were combined to estimate the LNOx production rate in the different thunderstorm types. For a better comparison with other studies, LINET strokes were scaled with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS

  19. NOx production by lightning in Hector: first airborne measurements during SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Schlager, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Roiger, A.; Stock, P.; Minikin, A.; Höller, H.; Schmidt, K.; Betz, H.-D.; Allen, G.; Viciani, S.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Brunner, D.

    2009-11-01

    During the SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE field phase in November-December 2005, airborne in situ measurements were performed inside and in the vicinity of thunderstorms over northern Australia with several research aircraft (German Falcon, Russian M55 Geophysica, and British Dornier-228. Here a case study from 19 November is presented in detail on the basis of airborne trace gas measurements (NO, NOy, CO, O3) and stroke measurements from the German LIghtning Location NETwork (LINET), set up in the vicinity of Darwin during the field campaign. The anvil outflow from three different types of thunderstorms was probed by the Falcon aircraft: (1) a continental thunderstorm developing in a tropical airmass near Darwin, (2) a mesoscale convective system (MCS), known as Hector, developing within the tropical maritime continent (Tiwi Islands), and (3) a continental thunderstorm developing in a subtropical airmass ~200 km south of Darwin. For the first time detailed measurements of NO were performed in the Hector outflow. The highest NO mixing ratios were observed in Hector with peaks up to 7 nmol mol-1 in the main anvil outflow at ~11.5-12.5 km altitude. The mean NOx (=NO+NO2) mixing ratios during these penetrations (~100 km width) varied between 2.2 and 2.5 nmol mol-1. The NOx contribution from the boundary layer (BL), transported upward with the convection, to total anvil-NOx was found to be minor (<10%). On the basis of Falcon measurements, the mass flux of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) in the well-developed Hector system was estimated to 0.6-0.7 kg(N) s-1. The highest average stroke rate of the probed thunderstorms was observed in the Hector system with 0.2 strokes s-1 (here only strokes with peak currents ≥10 kA contributing to LNOx were considered). The LNOx mass flux and the stroke rate were combined to estimate the LNOx production rate in the different thunderstorm types. For a better comparison with other studies, LINET strokes were scaled with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS

  20. Hector Berlioz and his Vesuvius: an analysis of historical evidence from an epileptological perspective.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The epileptologically informed in-depth analysis of auto- and heteroanamnestic historical sources supports the hypothesis that Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) might have suffered from a photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome with absences, absence status, myoclonic seizures, and bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. The study outlines the possible influence of the composer's probable epilepsy on his literary and musical oeuvre, including the Symphonie fantastique en cinq parties. PMID:25684290

  1. On the reported ionospheric precursor of the 1999 Hector Mine, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jeremy N.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Butala, Mark; Rivera, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Using Global Positioning System (GPS) data from sites near the 16 Oct. 1999 Hector Mine, California earthquake, Pulinets et al. (2007) identified anomalous changes in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) starting one week prior to the earthquake. Pulinets (2007) suggested that precursory phenomena of this type could be useful for predicting earthquakes. On the other hand, and in a separate analysis, Afraimovich et al. (2004) concluded that TEC variations near the epicenter were controlled by solar and geomagnetic activity that were unrelated to the earthquake. In an investigation of these very different results, we examine TEC time series of long duration from GPS stations near and far from the epicenter of the Hector Mine earthquake, and long before and long after the earthquake. While we can reproduce the essential time series results of Pulinets et al., we find that the signal they identify as anomalous is not actually anomalous. Instead, it is just part of normal global-scale TEC variation. We conclude that the TEC anomaly reported by Pulinets et al. is unrelated to the Hector Mine earthquake.

  2. The 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake: A test of the stress shadow hypothesis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    We test the stress shadow hypothesis for large earthquake interactions by examining the relationship between two large earthquakes that occurred in the Mojave Desert of southern California, the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. We want to determine if the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake occurred at a location where the Coulomb stress was increased (earthquake advance, stress trigger) or decreased (earthquake delay, stress shadow) by the previous large earthquake. Using four models of the Landers rupture and a range of possible hypocentral planes for the Hector Mine earthquake, we discover that most scenarios yield a Landers-induced relaxation (stress shadow) on the Hector Mine hypocentral plane. Although this result would seem to weigh against the stress shadow hypothesis, the results become considerably more uncertain when the effects of a nearby Landers aftershock, the 1992 ML 5.4 Pisgah earthquake, are taken into account. We calculate the combined static Coulomb stress changes due to the Landers and Pisgah earthquakes to range from -0.3 to +0.3 MPa (- 3 to +3 bars) at the possible Hector Mine hypocenters, depending on choice of rupture model and hypocenter. These varied results imply that the Hector Mine earthquake does not provide a good test of the stress shadow hypothesis for large earthquake interactions. We use a simple approach, that of static dislocations in an elastic half-space, yet we still obtain a wide range of both negative and positive Coulomb stress changes. Our findings serve as a caution that more complex models purporting to explain the triggering or shadowing relationship between the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes need to also consider the parametric and geometric uncertainties raised here.

  3. Hector Copland Macpherson (1888-1956), Clergyman, educator, lecturer and writer on astronomy and its history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brück, M. T.; Gavine, D. M.

    2011-02-01

    Hector Macpherson was the author of several well-known books on astronomy during the first half of the last century, his magnum opus, a Biographical Dictionary of Astronomy (1940), was for various reasons not published in his lifetime, and was not widely distributed. Now, after a long lapse of years, it has achieved its due recognition, having served as a core element in the recent Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (2007), to which Macpherson himself thus becomes a posthumous contributor. In this paper we recall the career of this energetic promoter of astronomy and significant recorder of its history and personalities.

  4. Damage to the shallow Landers fault from the nearby Hector Mine earthquake.

    PubMed

    Vidale, John E; Li, Yong-Gang

    2003-01-30

    Crustal faults have long been identified as sites where localized sliding motion occurs during earthquakes, which allows for the relative motion between adjacent crustal blocks. Although there is a growing awareness that we must understand the evolution of fault systems on many timescales to relate present-day crustal stresses and fault motions to geological structures formed in the past, fault-zone damage and healing have been documented quantitatively in only a few cases. We have been monitoring the healing of damage on the shallow Johnson Valley fault after its rupture in the 1992 magnitude-7.3 Landers earthquake, and here we report that this healing was interrupted in 1999 by the magnitude-7.1 Hector Mine earthquake rupture, which occurred 20-30 km away. The Hector Mine earthquake both strongly shook and permanently strained the Johnson Valley fault, adding damage discernible as a temporary reversal of the healing process. The fault has since resumed the trend of strength recovery that it showed after the Landers earthquake. These observations lead us to speculate that fault damage caused by strong seismic waves may help to explain earthquake clustering and seismicity triggering by shaking, and may be involved in friction reduction during faulting. PMID:12556890

  5. The Hector Survey: integral field spectroscopy of 100,000 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2015-02-01

    In March 2013, the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) began a major survey of 3400 galaxies at the AAT, the largest of its kind to date. At the time of writing, over a third of the targets have been observed and the scientific impact has been immediate. The Manga galaxy survey has now started at the SDSS telescope and will target an even larger sample of nearby galaxies. In Australia, the community is now gearing up to deliver a major new facility called Hector that will allow integral field spectroscopy of 100 galaxies observed simultaneously. By the close of the decade, it will be possible to obtain integral field spectroscopy of 100,000 galaxies over 3000 square degrees of sky down to r=17 (median). Many of these objects will have HI imaging from the new ASKAP radio surveys. We discuss the motivation for such a survey and the use of new cosmological simulations that are properly matched to the integral field observations. The Hector survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  6. An atypical genotype of Toxoplasma gondii as a cause of mortality in Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori).

    PubMed

    Roe, W D; Howe, L; Baker, E J; Burrows, L; Hunter, S A

    2013-02-18

    Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) are a small endangered coastal species that are endemic to New Zealand. Anthropogenic factors, particularly accidental capture in fishing nets, are believed to be the biggest threat to survival of this species. The role of infectious disease as a cause of mortality has not previously been well investigated. This study investigates Toxoplasma gondii infection in Hector's dolphins, finding that 7 of 28 (25%) dolphins examined died due to disseminated toxoplasmosis, including 2 of 3 Maui's dolphins, a critically endangered sub-species. A further 10 dolphins had one or more tissues that were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA using PCR. Genotyping revealed that 7 of 8 successfully amplified isolates were an atypical Type II genotype. Fatal cases had necrotising and haemorrhagic lesions in the lung (n=7), lymph nodes (n=6), liver (n=4) and adrenals (n=3). Tachyzoites and tissue cysts were present in other organs including the brain (n=5), heart (n=1), stomach (n=1) and uterus (n=1) with minimal associated inflammatory response. One dolphin had a marked suppurative metritis in the presence of numerous intra-epithelial tachyzoites. No dolphins had underlying morbillivirus infection. This study provides the first evidence that infectious agents could be important in the population decline of this species, and highlights the need for further research into the route of entry of T. gondii organisms into the marine environment worldwide. PMID:23207018

  7. Loss of genetic diversity in the endemic Hector's dolphin due to fisheries-related mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, F B; Baker, C S

    2000-01-01

    The endemic New Zealand Hector's dolphin is considered the rarest species of marine dolphin with a total abundance of less than 4000. The species is listed as vulnerable because of fisheries-related mortality due to entanglement in set nets. The vulnerability of this species is further increased by its fidelity to local natal ranges and the genetic isolation of regional populations. Here we present evidence, based on 108 contemporary samples and 55 historical samples dating back to 1870, of a significant loss of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in two regional populations of Hector's dolphin. The haplotype diversity (h) was calculated from sequences of a 206 bp fragment in the mtDNA control region, designed to identify 13 out of the 14 known maternal lineages. Over the last 20 years, the North Island population has been reduced from at least three lineages (h = 0.41) to a single lineage (h = 0; p < 0.05). Given its small size, reproductive isolation and reduced genetic diversity, this population is likely to become extinct. The diversity of the East Coast South Island population has declined significantly from h = 0.65 to h = 0.35 (p < 0.05). Based on trend analysis of the mtDNA diversity, we predict that the East Coast population will lose all mtDNA diversity within the next 20 years. This time-series of reduction in genetic variation provides independent evidence of the severity of population decline and habitat contraction resulting from fisheries and perhaps other human activities. PMID:10670959

  8. Post-Seismic Fault Healing on the Rupture Zone of the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine, California Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Vidale, J. E.; Day, S. M.; Oglesby, D. D.; Cochran, E.; Gross, K.; Burdette, T.; Alvarez, M.

    2002-12-01

    We probed the rupture zone of the October 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquake using repeated near-surface explosions in October, 2000 and November, 2001. Three dense linear seismic arrays were deployed across the north and south Lavic Lake faults (LLF) that broke to the surface in the mainshock, and across the Bullion fault (BF) that experienced minor slip in that event. Two explosions each year were detonated in the rupture zone on the middle and south LLF, respectively. We found that P and S velocities of fault-zone rocks increased by ~0.7 to 1.4% and ~0.5 to 1.0% between 2000 and 2001, respectively. In contrast, the velocities for P and S waves in surrounding rocks increased much less. This trend indicates the Hector Mine rupture zone has been healing by strengthening after the mainshock, which we attribute to the closure of cracks that opened during the 1999 earthquake. The 'crack dilatancy' mechanisms are most likely to operate for fault healing at shallow depth although the healing may be controlled by a combination of mechanical and chemical processes on the fault during the earthquake cycle. The observed fault-zone strength recovery is consistent with an apparent crack density decrease of 1.5% within the rupture zone. The ratio of travel time decrease for P to S waves was 0.72, consistent with partially fluid-filled cracks near the fault zone were. We also find variability in healing rates between the fault segments. The velocity increase with time varies from one fault segment to another at the Hector Mine rupture zone. We see greater changes on the LLF than on the BF, and the greatest change is on the middle LLF at shallow depth. We speculate that greater damage was inflicted, and thus greater healing is observed, in regions with larger slip in the mainshock. This post-seismic restrengthening of the Hector Mine rupture zone is similar to that observed on the Johnson Valley fault which ruptured in the 1992 M7.4 Landers earthquake (Li and Vidale, GRL, 2001

  9. Deep convection in the tropical area: Hector a case study using TRMM data and high resolution model simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Sabrina; Ferretti, Rossella; Silvio Marzano, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The tropics are one of the most important regions for the exchange and transport of water vapor and chemical species from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere; changes in emissions of chemicals at the ground or how quickly they are carried aloft could cause the chemistry of the stratosphere to change and as a consequence the net radiative balance. The tropical storms are one of the main devices for this type of interaction. In Australia, the tropical thunderstorms have different possible sources; in particular the development of equatorial events is related to convergence zones typical of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). One of the deepest convective systems of the globe is the tropical thunderstorm Hector that develops almost daily in the Tiwi Islands, near Darwin city (tropical northern Australia), during the pre-monsoon period and break monsoon. The thunderstorm Hector has been observed to reach to altitudes of 20 km and thus potentially in the lower stratosphere, so it represents one of processes for exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Hector is the topics of numerous campaigns because of difficulties in its predictability: during the SCOUT-O3 project (Stratosphere-Climate Links with emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere), a campaign was held on Tiwi Islands to the purposes of improving the understanding of the interaction between convection and the tropical tropopause layer. In the framework of this UE project a study of Hector tropical thunderstorm is performed to the aim of evaluating the vertical transport. The triggering factor together with the microphysical structure of this deep tropical cyclone has been investigated using MM5V3 and the new model WRF with data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar and from TRMM Microwave Imager. A comparison between the hydrometers retrieved by the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and the one detected by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has been carried out. The model

  10. A Simple Object-Oriented and Open Source Model for Scientific and Policy Analyses of the Global Carbon Cycle-Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, C.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Patel, P.; Link, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used in climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe, Hector an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes, e.g., carbon fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere, and respiration and primary production on land. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The terrestrial carbon cycle is represented by a simple design with respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. The ocean carbon cycle actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the large-scale global trends found in historical data of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperature and simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways. Hector's results compare well with current observations of critical climate variables, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), as well as, model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector has the ability to be a key analytical tool used across many scientific and policy communities due to its modern software architecture, open source, and object-oriented structure. In particular, Hector can be used to emulate larger complex models to help fill gaps in scenario coverage for future scenario processes.

  11. Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake.

    PubMed

    Pollitz, F F; Wicks, C; Thatcher, W

    2001-09-01

    Two recent large earthquakes in the Mojave Desert, California-the magnitude 7.3 1992 Landers and magnitude 7.1 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes-have each been followed by elevated crustal strain rates over periods of months and years. Geodetic data collected after the Hector Mine earthquake exhibit a temporally decaying horizontal velocity field and a quadrant uplift pattern opposite to that expected for localized shear beneath the earthquake rupture. We interpret the origin of this accelerated crustal deformation to be vigorous flow in the upper mantle in response to the stress changes generated by the earthquake. Our results suggest that transient flow in the upper mantle is a fundamental component of the earthquake cycle and that the lower crust is a coherent stress guide coupling the upper crust with the upper mantle. PMID:11546869

  12. Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: Postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Wicks, C.; Thatcher, W.

    2001-01-01

    Two recent large earthquakes in the Mojave Desert, California - the magnitude 7.3 1992 Landers and magnitude 7.1 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes - have each been fog[owed by elevated crustal strain rates over periods of months and years. Geodetic data collected after the Hector Mine earthquake exhibit a temporaLLy decaying horizOntaL velocity field and a quadrant uplift pattern opposite to that expected for LocaLized shear beneath the earthquake rupture. We interpret the origin of this accelerated crustal deformation to be vigorous flow in the upper mantle in response to the stress changes generated by the earthquake. Our results suggest that transient flow in the upper mantle is a fundamental component of the earthquake cycle and that the Lower crust is a coherent stress guide coupling the upper crust with the upper mantle.

  13. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.; Ross, S.L.; Stenner, H.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  14. Giga-LES of Hector the Convector keeping the tallest updrafts undiluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauhut, Thibaut; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Escobar, Juan; Mascart, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The trend of stratospheric water vapour during the past decades is not correctly reproduced by current GCMs. This may be due to lack of representation of rapid water transfers from troposphere to stratosphere. Our modeling study focused on a particular case of tropical very deep convection which takes an active part in this transport. We aimed at understanding its dynamics and the stratosphere moistening processes. We selected a Hector thunderstorm observed on 30 November 2005 over Tiwi Islands, Australia, during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Plumes of ice particles reaching 19 km altitude were measured by lidar aboard the Geophysica stratospheric aircraft. We performed a Giga Large-Eddy Simulation of Hector (100 m horizontal resolution, more than 1 billion grid points) using cutting-edge computing resources, as well as a series of simulations with coarser and coarser horizontal resolutions, from 200 m to 1600 m. A strong morning sea breeze deviated boundary layer westerlies and led to intense convergence of humid air over Tiwi Islands. Deep convection triggered around 12:15 pm and quickly reached 14 km altitude. The associated cold pools organised and generated upward motions at the surface. The most intense upward transport started 1 hour later and lasted around 2 hours. As a result, a couple of updrafts overshot the tropopause carrying ice crystals in the stratosphere. Part of the ice particles precipitated then whereas the remainder sublimated in the lower stratosphere. The consequent vapour pockets were transported and diluted within the stratosphere by easterlies. While moistening appeared to be robust with respect to the grid spacing used, grid spacing on the order of 100 m may be necessary for a reliable estimate of hydration (Dauhut et al. ASL 2014, doi: 10.1002/asl2.534). A comprehensive analysis of individual updrafts and their properties once sorted by their height has been carried out. The couple of updrafts that reach the stratosphere presents a higher

  15. A wetter stratosphere in Large-Eddy Simulations of Hector the convector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauhut, Thibaut; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Escobar, Juan; Mascart, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The trend of stratospheric water vapour during the past decades is not correctly reproduced by current GCMs. This may be due to lack of representation of rapid water transfers from troposphere to stratosphere. Our modeling study focused on a particular case of tropical deep convection which takes an active part in this transport. We aimed at understanding its dynamics and the stratosphere moistening processes. We selected a Hector thunderstorm observed on 30 November 2005 over Tiwi Islands, Australia, during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Plumes of ice particles reaching 19 km altitude were measured by lidar aboard the Geophysica stratospheric aircraftt. We performed a Large-Eddy Simulation of Hector (100 m horizontal resolution) using cutting-edge computing resources, as well as a series of simulations with coarser and coarser resolutions, from 200 m to 1600 m. Strong morning sea breeze deviated boundary layer westerlies and led to intense convergence of humid air over Tiwi Islands. Deep convection triggered around 1 pm. The most intense upward transport started straight after and lasted around 2 hours. Updraft cores statistics show that stronger upward winds in the boundary layer and at the cloud base lead to weaker cloud fraction aloft and higher hydrometeor content in updraft cores. Turbulence analysis also shows that the faster the updrafts are, the lower the dilution and the more efficient the vertical transfer of water. As a result, some updrafts overshooted the tropopause and carried ice crystals in the stratosphere. Overshoots in the LES compared well with the observations. Part of the ice particles precipitated then whereas the remainder sublimated in lower stratosphere. The consequent vapour pockets were transported and diluted within the stratosphere by easterlies. In total, 2776 tonnes of water were transported from troposphere to stratosphere. Associated net hydration of the lower stratosphere was found with a 16 % increase in water vapour. Upscaling

  16. Role of deep convection in moistening the stratosphere: LES of Hector the Convector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauhut, Thibaut; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Escobar, Juan; Mascart, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The trend of stratospheric water vapour during the past decades is not correctly reproduced by current GCMs. This may be due to lack of representation of rapid water transfers from troposphere to stratosphere. Our modeling study focused on a particular case of tropical deep convection which takes an active part in this transport. We aimed at understanding its dynamics and the stratosphere moistening processes. We selected a Hector thunderstorm observed on 30 November 2005 over Tiwi Islands, Australia, during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Plumes of ice particles reaching 19 km altitude were measured by lidar aboard the Geophysica stratospheric aircraft. We performed a Large-Eddy Simulation of Hector (100 m horizontal resolution) using cutting-edge computing resources, as well as a series of simulations with coarser and coarser horizontal resolutions, from 200 m to 1600 m. Strong morning sea breeze deviated boundary layer westerlies and led to intense convergence of humid air over Tiwi Islands. Deep convection triggered around 1 pm. The most intense upward transport started straight after and lasted around 2 hours. Updraft cores statistics showed that stronger upward winds in the boundary layer and at the cloud base lead to weaker cloud fraction aloft and higher hydrometeor content in updraft cores. Turbulence analysis also showed that the faster the updrafts are, the lower the dilution and the more efficient the vertical transfer of water. As a result, some updrafts overshooted the tropopause and carried ice crystals in the stratosphere. Overshoots in the LES compared well with the observations. Part of the ice particles precipitated then whereas the remainder sublimated in lower stratosphere. The consequent vapour pockets were transported and diluted within the stratosphere by easterlies. In total, 2776 tonnes of water were transported from troposphere to stratosphere. Associated net hydration of the lower stratosphere was found with a 16 % increase in water vapour

  17. InSAR and the Hector Mine Earthquake: Crustal Deformation v Atmospheric Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzia, J.

    2005-12-01

    A series of SAR interferograms of the southwestern Mojave Desert record the apparent development and collapse of a topographic anomaly near the epicenter of the 16 Oct 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake. Interferograms generated from Feb 1999 to June 2000 ERS data, using GAMMA software, record the development of an elliptical uplift, centered about 20 km north-northeast of the epicenter. The uplift covers approximately 2700 km2 and a regional amplitude of 2.8 cm; peak amplitude is nearly 7 cm. Although NOAA records indicate no rain fall in the area of the anomaly for October 1999, the close correlation between topography and interference fringes suggests atmospheric stratification between the highest peak and valley floor. Reprocessing the SAR data, using DIAPASON software, resulted in inversion of the anomaly from uplift to depression. This inversion suggests that the topographic anomaly is not caused by crustal deformation, but is a near-surface atmospheric anomaly caused by local transient conditions such as dust or smoke. Although InSAR offers a powerful new tool for earthquake prediction, this study confirms the impact that minor atmosphere contaminants can have on the interpretation of SAR data.

  18. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  19. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganicmore » carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.« less

  20. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system - Hector v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, C. A.; Patel, P.; Schwarber, A.; Link, R. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  1. A simple object-oriented and open source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global carbon cycle - Hector v0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, C. A.; Patel, P.; Schwarber, A.; Link, R. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v0.1, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector's actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways with high correlations (R>0.7) with current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector is freely available under an open source license, and its modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  2. HECTOR: A 240kV micro-CT setup optimized for research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masschaele, Bert; Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Boone, Matthieu N.; Brabant, Loes; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-10-01

    X-ray micro-CT has become a very powerful and common tool for non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of objects. Many systems are commercially available, but they are typically limited in terms of operational freedom both from a mechanical point of view as well as for acquisition routines. HECTOR is the latest system developed by the Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (http://www.ugct.ugent.be) in collaboration with X-Ray Engineering (XRE bvba, Ghent, Belgium). It consists of a mechanical setup with nine motorized axes and a modular acquisition software package and combines a microfocus directional target X-ray source up to 240 kV with a large flat-panel detector. Provisions are made to install a line-detector for a maximal operational range. The system can accommodate samples up to 80 kg, 1 m long and 80 cm in diameter while it is also suited for high resolution (down to 4 μm) tomography. The bi-directional detector tiling is suited for large samples while the variable source-detector distance optimizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for every type of sample, even with peripheral equipment such as compression stages or climate chambers. The large vertical travel of 1 m can be used for helical scanning and a vertical detector rotation axis allows laminography experiments. The setup is installed in a large concrete bunker to allow accommodation of peripheral equipment such as pumps, chillers, etc., which can be integrated in the modular acquisition software to obtain a maximal correlation between the environmental control and the CT data taken. The acquisition software does not only allow good coupling with the peripheral equipment but its scripting feature is also particularly interesting for testing new and exotic acquisition routines.

  3. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic analyses of Androctonus australis hector venom in rats: Optimization of antivenom therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hammoudi-Triki, D.; Lefort, J.; Rougeot, C.; Robbe-Vincent, A.; Bon, C.; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Choumet, V. . E-mail: vchoumet@pasteur.fr

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports the simultaneous determination of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties of Androctonus australis hector venom, in the absence and presence of antivenom (F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab), in envenomed rats. After subcutaneous injection of the venom, toxins showed a complete absorption phase from the site of injection associated with a distribution into a large extravascular compartment. The injection of Fab and F(ab'){sub 2} induced the neutralization of venom antigens in the blood compartment, as well as the redistribution of venom components from the extravascular compartment to the blood compartment. Interestingly, F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab showed distinct efficiencies depending on their route of injection. F(ab'){sub 2} induced a faster venom neutralization and redistribution than Fab when injected intravenously. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} by the intramuscular route. The hemodynamic effects of Aah venom were further investigated. Changes in mean arterial pressure and heart rate were observed in parallel with an upper airway obstruction. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} for preventing early symptoms of envenomation, whatever their route of administration. Intraperitoneal injection of F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab was similar for the prevention of the delayed symptoms, even after a late administration. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} in the inhibition of airway resistance, independent of the route and time of administration. These results show that the treatment for scorpion stings might be improved by the intravascular injection of a mixture of Fab and F(ab'){sub 2}. If antivenom cannot be administered intravenously, Fab might be an alternative as they are more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} when injected intramuscularly.

  4. Efficient and affordable catadioptric spectrograph designs for 4MOST and Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Will

    2014-08-01

    Spectrograph costs have become the limiting factor in multiplexed fiber-based spectroscopic instruments, because tens of millions of resolution elements (spectral x spatial) are now required. Catadioptric (Schmidt-like) designs allow faster cameras and hence reduced detector costs, and recent advances in aspheric lens production make the overall optics costs competitive with transmissive designs. Classic Schmidt designs suffer from obstruction losses caused by the detector being within the beam. A new catadioptric design puts the detector close to the spectrograph pupil, and hence largely in the shadow of the telescope top-end obstruction. The throughput is competitive with the best transmissive designs, and much better in the Blue, where it is usually most valuable. The design also has milder aspheres and is more compact than classic Schmidts, and avoids most of their operational difficulties. The fast cameras mean that with 15micron pixels, the PSF sampling is close to the Nyquist limit; this minimises the effects of read-noise, which for sky-limited observations, far outweighs any difference in throughput. It does introduce pixellation penalties; these are investigated and found to be modest. For 4MOST, low and high resolution designs are presented, with 300mm beams, 3 arms with f/1.3 cameras, and standard 61mm x 61mm detectors. Coverage is 380-930nm at R=5000-7000, or R~20000 in three smaller ranges. A switchable design is also presented. For Hector, a design is presented with 2 arms, 380-930nm coverage, and R=3000-4500; a 4- armed design with smaller beam-size and detectors is also presented. The designs are costed, and appear to represent excellent value.

  5. Comments on baseline correction of digital strong-motion data: Examples from the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Stephens, C.D.; Joyner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Residual displacements for large earthquakes can sometimes be determined from recordings on modern digital instruments, but baseline offsets of unknown origin make it difficult in many cases to do so. To recover the residual displacement, we suggest tailoring a correction scheme by studying the character of the velocity obtained by integration of zeroth-order-corrected acceleration and then seeing if the residual displacements are stable when the various parameters in the particular correction scheme are varied. For many seismological and engineering purposes, however, the residual displacement are of lesser importance than ground motions at periods less than about 20 sec. These ground motions are often recoverable with simple baseline correction and low-cut filtering. In this largely empirical study, we illustrate the consequences of various correction schemes, drawing primarily from digital recordings of the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake. We show that with simple processing the displacement waveforms for this event are very similar for stations separated by as much as 20 km. We also show that a strong pulse on the transverse component was radiated from the Hector Mine earthquake and propagated with little distortion to distances exceeding 170 km; this pulse leads to large response spectral amplitudes around 10 sec.

  6. Field and LiDAR observations of the Hector Mine California 1999 surface rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, F.; Akciz, S. O.; Harvey, J. C.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Scharer, K. M.; Stock, J. M.; Witkosky, R.; Kendrick, K. J.; Wespestad, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report new field- and computer-based investigations of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake. Since May 2012, in cooperation with the United States Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) at Twentynine Palms, CA, our team has been allowed ground and aerial access to the entire surface rupture. We have focused our new field-based research and imagery analysis along the ~10 kilometer-long maximum slip zone (MSZ) which roughly corresponds to the zone of >4 meter dextral horizontal offset. New data include: 1) a 1 km wide aerial LiDAR survey along the entire surface rupture (@ 10 shots/m2, May 2012, www.opentopography.org); 2) terrestrial LiDAR surveys at 5 sites within the MSZ (@ >1000 shots/m2, April 2014); 3) low altitude aerial photography and ground based photography of the entire MSZ; 4) a ground-truthed database of 87 out of the 94 imagery-based offset measurements made within the MSZ; and 5) a database of 50 new field-based offset measurements made within the MSZ by our team on the ground, 31 of which have also been made on the computer (Ladicaoz) with both the 2000 LiDAR data (@ 0.5 m DEM resolution; Chen et al, in review) and 2012 LiDAR data (@ 35 cm DEM resolution; our team). New results to date include 1) significant variability (> 2 m) in horizontal offsets measured along short distances of the surface rupture (~100 m) within segments of the surface rupture that are localized to a single fault strand; 2) strong dependence of decadal scale fault scarp preservation on local lithology (bedrock vs. alluvial fan vs. fine sediment) and geomorphology (uphill vs. downhill facing scarp); 3) newly observed offset features which were never measured during the post-event field response; 4) newly observed offset features too small to be resolved in airborne LiDAR data (< 1 m); 5) nearly 25% of LiDAR imagery-based measurements that were later ground-truthed were judged by our team to warrant removal from the database due to

  7. New investigations of the October 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake surface rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, F.; Harvey, J. C.; Hudnut, K. W.; Akciz, S. O.; Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We report on new field and computer based investigation of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake. In cooperation with the United States Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms (MCAGCC), our team was allowed ground and aerial access to the extent of the surface rupture for limited times during October - December 2012. As far as we know, this was the first scientific access granted to the entire surface rupture since the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, and the first scientific access of any kind to some parts of the maximum slip zone since before the event. This locale is an excellent natural laboratory for detailed study of a major earthquake surface rupture because: 1) complete circumscription within the boundaries of MCAGCC severely limit both past and future human disruption of the rupture, particularly in the mountainous maximum slip zone; 2) groundbreaking aerial LiDAR survey carried out six months after the earthquake was followed up by a higher density, wider swath LiDAR survey in May 2012, making the temporal evolution of this rupture perhaps the most completely physically documented of any major rupture; and 3) field investigation immediately following the event was followed up by computer based offset measurements using the April 2000 LiDAR dataset, providing a database of published offset measurements. Due to time constraints imposed by MCAGGC we focused our new research effort along the ~8 km long maximum slip zone of the rupture, roughly corresponding to the zone of >4 m dextral offset. Our investigation includes 1) walking this entire section of the fault and making >30 measurements of dextral slip while photo documenting the current state of the rupture; 2) creating a difference raster for the entire 8 km maximum slip zone from exactly congruent DEM's made from the 2000 and 2012 LiDAR data sets; 3) documenting the fault traces with a Trimble GeoXH high precision handheld GPS unit (+/- 10 cm); 4

  8. Continuous GPS observations of postseismic deformation following the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake (Mw 7.1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudnutt, K.W.; King, N.E.; Galetzka, J.E.; Stark, K.F.; Behr, J.A.; Aspiotes, A.; van, Wyk S.; Moffitt, R.; Dockter, S.; Wyatt, F.

    2002-01-01

    Rapid field deployment of a new type of continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) network and data from Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) stations that had recently begun operating in the area allow unique observations of the postseismic deformation associated with the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Innovative solutions in fieldcraft, devised for the 11 new GPS stations, provide high-quality observations with 1-year time histories on stable monuments at remote sites. We report on our results from processing the postseismic GPS data available from these sites, as well as 8 other SCIGN stations within 80 km of the event (a total of 19 sites). From these data, we analyze the temporal character and spatial pattern of the postseismic transients. Data from some sites display statistically significant time variation in their velocities. Although this is less certain, the spatial pattern of change in the postseismic velocity field also appears to have changed. The pattern now is similar to the pre-Landers (pre-1992) secular field, but laterally shifted and locally at twice the rate. We speculate that a 30 km ?? 50 km portion of crust (near Twentynine Palms), which was moving at nearly the North American plate rate (to within 3.5 mm/yr of that rate) prior to the 1992 Landers sequence, now is moving along with the crust to the west of it, as though it has been entrained in flow along with the Pacific Plate as a result of the Landers and Hector Mine earthquake sequence. The inboard axis of right-lateral shear deformation (at lower crustal to upper mantle depth) may have jumped 30 km farther into the continental crust at this fault junction that comprises the southern end of the eastern California shear zone.

  9. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  10. The Emerson Lake Body: A link between the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes, southern California, as inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic data indicate a mafic crustal heterogeneity that lies between the Hector Mine 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) and Landers 28 June 1992 (Mw 7.3) epicenters. The aftershocks and ruptures of these two events avoided the interior of the body. Two- and three-dimensional modeling of the potential-field anomalies shows that the source, here named the Emerson Lake body (ELB), extends to a depth of approximately 15 km. The source of the gravity and magnetic anomaly is most likely Jurassic diorite because exposures of these rocks coincide with both gravity and magnetic highs west of Emerson Lake. Seismic tomography also shows higher velocities within the region of the ELB. We propose that the ELB was an important influence on the rupture geometry of the Landers and Hector Mine ruptures and that the ELB may have played a role in transferring of stress from the Landers earthquake to the Hector Mine hypocenter. Seismicity before the Landers earthquake also tended to avoid the ELB, suggesting that the ELB affects how strain is distributed in this part of the Mojave Desert. Thus, faults within the body should have limited rupture sizes and lower seismic hazard than faults bounding or outside this mafic crustal heterogeneity.

  11. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  12. The 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine, California, Earthquake: Near-Field Postseismic Deformation from ERS Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Allison; Sandwell, David; Fialko, Yuri; Sichoix, Lydie

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data over the area of the Hector Mine earthquake (Mw 7.1, 16 October 1999) reveal postseismic deformation of several centimeters over a spatial scale of 0.5 to 50 km. We analyzed seven SAR acquisitions to form interferograms over four time periods after the event. The main deformations seen in the line-of-sight (LOS) displacement maps are a region of subsidence (60 mm LOS increase) on the northern end of the fault, a region of uplift (45 mm LOS decrease) located to the northeast of the primary fault bend, and a linear trough running along the main rupture having a depth of up to 15 mm and a width of about 2 km. We correlate these features with a double left-bending, rightlateral, strike-slip fault that exhibits contraction on the restraining side and extension along the releasing side of the fault bends. The temporal variations in the near-fault postseismic deformation are consistent with a characteristic time scale of 135 + 42 or - 25 days, which is similar to the relaxation times following the 1992 Landers earthquake. High gradients in the LOS displacements occur on the fault trace, consistent with afterslip on the earthquake rupture. We derive an afterslip model by inverting the LOS data from both the ascending and descending orbits. Our model indicates that much of the afterslip occurs at depths of less than 3 to 4 km.

  13. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  14. Tomography of the Mojavian Lithosphere Viscosity from Space Geodetic data of the Landers and Hector Mine Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbot, S.; Fialko, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the transient deformation following the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes (Mojave desert, Southern California) using a combination of GPS and synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) for an interval spanning 1992 to 2010. We test the possible mechanisms of postseismic relaxation using physically-based time-dependent models of deformation driven by coseismic stress changes. Considered mechanisms include viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and upper mantle, afterslip governed by a rate-dependent friction, and poroelastic rebound. We find that both afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation models can explain the horizontal post-Landers GPS data equally well. Afterslip however gives rise to vertical displacements of opposite polarity to the ones measured by GPS. A viscoelastic model marked by a strong (high viscosity) lower crust and weak (low viscosity) upper mantle transitioning at a depth of 40km -so-called ''Crême brûlée'' end-member model- gives rise to large wavelength line-of-sight (LOS) deformation in the near field which is not fully compatible with the InSAR data. Poroelasticity models are consistent with wavelength of InSAR LOS displacements and campaign GPS vertical data, but cannot explain alone the azimuth and amplitude of horizontal displacements. None of these simple models can explain all the available geodetic measurements simultaneously and a more complex explanation is required, involving either multiple mechanisms or more spatial variations in material properties. Assuming that forward models of deformation are separable in space and time we devise a linear inversion to infer the amplitude and location of source mechanisms required by all the geodetic data. For the post-Landers data a model combining viscoelastic relaxation in the lower crust and the upper mantle and poroelastic rebound best reduces the data. Afterslip taking place on the down-dip extension of the rupture may accompany a broader

  15. Relationship of the 1999 Hector Mine and 1992 Landers fault ruptures to offsets on neogene faults and distribution of late Cenozoic basins in the eastern California shear zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, R.C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Matti, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines the Hector Mine and Landers earthquakes in the broader context of faults and fault-related basins of the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ). We compile new estimates of total strike-slip offset (horizontal separation) at nearly 30 fault sites based on offset magnetic anomaly pairs. We also present a map of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rock (thickness of basin-filling late Cenozoic deposits) for the region, based on an inversion of gravity and geologic data. Our estimates of total long-term strike-slip offsets on faults that slipped during the 1999 Hector Mine (3.4 km), and the 1992 Landers earthquakes (3.1 ? to 4.6 km) fall within the 3- to 5-km range of total strike-slip offset proposed for most faults of the western ECSZ. Faults having offsets as great as 20 km are present in the eastern part of the ECSZ. Although the Landers rupture followed sections of a number of faults that had been mapped as independent structures, the similarity in total strike-slip offset associated with these faults is compatible with one of the following hypotheses: (1) the Landers multistrand rupture is a typical event for this linked fault system or (2) this complex rupture path has acted as a coherent entity when viewed over some characteristic multiearthquake cycle. The second hypothesis implies that, for each cycle, slip associated with smaller earthquakes on individual fault segments integrates to a uniform slip over the length of the linked faults. With one exception, the region surrounding the Hector Mine and Landers ruptures is devoid of deep late Cenozoic basins. In particular, no deep basins are found immediately north of the Pinto Mountain fault, a place where a number of kinematic models for development of the ECSZ have predicted basins. In contrast, some basins exist near Barstow and along the eastern part of the ECSZ, where the model of Dokka et al. (1998) predicts basins.

  16. The 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake, Southern California: Vector Near-Field Displacements from ERS InSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Smith, Bridget

    2002-01-01

    Two components of fault slip are uniquely determined from two line-of-sight (LOS) radar interferograms by assuming that the fault-normal component of displacement is zero. We use this approach with ascending and descending interferograms from the ERS satellites to estimate surface slip along the Hector Mine earthquake rupture. The LOS displacement is determined by visually counting fringes to within 1 km of the outboard ruptures. These LOS estimates and uncertainties are then transformed into strike- and dip-slip estimates and uncertainties; the transformation is singular for a N-S oriented fault and optimal for an E-W oriented fault. In contrast to our previous strike-slip estimates, which were based only on a descending interferogram, we now find good agreement with the geological measurements, except at the ends of the rupture. The ascending interferogram reveals significant west-sidedown dip-slip (approximately 1.0 m) which reduces the strike-slip estimates by 1 to 2 m, especially along the northern half of the rupture. A spike in the strike-slip displacement of 6 m is observed in central part of the rupture. This large offset is confirmed by subpixel cross correlation of features in the before and after amplitude images. In addition to strike slip and dip slip, we identify uplift and subsidence along the fault, related to the restraining and releasing bends in the fault trace, respectively. Our main conclusion is that at least two look directions are required for accurate estimates of surface slip even along a pure strike-slip fault. Models and results based only on a single look direction could have major errors. Our new estimates of strike slip and dip slip along the rupture provide a boundary condition for dislocation modeling. A simple model, which has uniform slip to a depth of 12 km, shows good agreement with the observed ascending and descending interferograms.

  17. Orthorhombic crystals and three-dimensional structure of the potent toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector.

    PubMed Central

    Fontecilla-Camps, J C; Habersetzer-Rochat, C; Rochat, H

    1988-01-01

    Orthorhombic crystals (space group P212121, a = 45.94 A, b = 40.68 A, c = 29.93 A) of the potent scorpion alpha-toxin II from Androctonus australis Hector were grown using sterile techniques. The structure was solved by a combination of heavy-atom and model phasing. Subsequently, it was refined at 1.8 A resolution by a fast-Fourier restrained least-squares procedure. The crystallographic R factor is 0.152 for data with 7.0 A greater than d greater than 1.8 A and F greater than 2.5 sigma (F) and 0.177 when all data are considered. Eighty-nine solvent molecules have been incorporated into the model. The dense core formed by the alpha-helical and antiparallel beta-sheet moieties and three of the four disulfide bridges is similar in variant 3, a toxin purified from the North American scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus, and in toxin II. However, the two molecules differ markedly in the orientation of loops protruding from the core. Toxin II seems to contain several highly ordered solvent molecules. Eight of them occupy a cavity consisting of the C-terminal region and a loop found only in scorpion alpha-toxins. The highly reactive and pharmacologically important Lys-58 is found at one of the extremes of this cavity, where it establishes a series of hydrogen bonds with protein and solvent atoms. The reactivities of the five lysine residues of toxin II are highly correlated with the formation of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and salt links. PMID:3174645

  18. [Application of ELISA for the quantification of Androctonus australis hector venom in the envenomed serum of people and rats before and after immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Hammoudi-Triki, D; Laraba-Djebari, F

    2003-11-01

    Scorpion envenomation remains an important health problem in many countries in the world, especially in North Africa, Asia and America. In Algeria, the most dangerous species for humans are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Buthus occitanus tunetanus (Bot). These scorpions are responsible for the apparition of various symptoms in envenomed patients such as: pain, hypertention, hypotension, sudation and fever. An aggravation of clinical conditions of envenomed patients is characterized by a pulmonary cedema and myocardial damage. The evaluation of the severity of scorpion envenoming by immuno-enzymatic assay requires firstly, the preparation of a specific anti-horse F(ab')2 peroxydase conjugate not yet commercialized. The restatement of conditions of ELISA sandwich test allowed its utilization in determination of the venom concentration in envenomed patients and rats sera after envenoming by scorpion venom. Standardization of this test, its reproductibility, linearity and its detection limit were defined. The venom concentrations are directly deducted from standard curves prepared by the dilution of Androctonus australis hector in human serum collected from healthy donors and in non envenomed rats serum. The present study showed that ELISA test has a good linear response in a range of concentrations of venom antigen. Its detection limit was 0.5 ng/ml of Aah venom in serum. This specific test of scorpion envenoming aims in one side at establishing a correlation between venom levels and the clinical observations and at evaluating the severity of the envenoming before and after immunotherapy. PMID:14717046

  19. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  20. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  1. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  2. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  3. High-resolution topography along surface rupture of the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California (Mw 7.1) from airborne laser swath mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudnutt, K.W.; Borsa, A.; Glennie, C.; Minster, J.-B.

    2002-01-01

    In order to document surface rupture associated with the Hector Mine earthquake, in particular, the area of maximum slip and the deformed surface of Lavic Lake playa, we acquired high-resolution data using relatively new topographic-mapping methods. We performed a raster-laser scan of the main surface breaks along the entire rupture zone, as well as along an unruptured portion of the Bullion fault. The image of the ground surface produced by this method is highly detailed, comparable to that obtained when geologists make particularly detailed site maps for geomorphic or paleoseismic studies. In this case, however, for the first time after a surface-rupturing earthquake, the detailed mapping is along the entire fault zone rather than being confined to selected sites. These data are geodetically referenced, using the Global Positioning System, thus enabling more accurate mapping of the rupture traces. In addition, digital photographs taken along the same flight lines can be overlaid onto the precise topographic data, improving terrain visualization. We demonstrate the potential of these techniques for measuring fault-slip vectors.

  4. Complement system and immunological mediators: Their involvements in the induced inflammatory process by Androctonus australis hector venom and its toxic components.

    PubMed

    Bekkari, Nadjia; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom is well known by its high toxicity, it induces massive release of neurotransmitters that lead to pathophysiological disorders in cardiovascular, neuro-hormonal and immune systems. Previous studies have shown the relationship between the severity of scorpion envenoming and immune system activation. This study was assessed to investigate the involvement of complement system and inflammatory mediators after sublethal injection of Aah venom, its toxic fraction (FtoxG50) and its main toxins (AahI and AahII) into NMRI mice. The Activation complement system by the venom is also compared to that induced of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Obtained results showed that seric complement system (CS) is activated by the venom and by its toxic components; this activation is more pronounced into liver tissue when toxic components (FtoxG50, AahI or AahII) are used. Increase of cytokine levels (IL1β, TNFα and ICAM) into hepatic tissue induced by AahI or AahII neurotoxins is correlated with tissue alterations. Aprotinin, a non specific inhibitor of complement system seems to be able to reduce CS consumption and to restore partially the induced tissue damage by venom. The mechanisms by which toxic fraction or LPS induced the activation of complement system seem to be different. Sensitivity of hepatic tissue is more pronounced after FtoxG50 injection; however lung tissue is more sensible to LPS than FoxG50. PMID:25921955

  5. Characterization of Large Volume 3.5″ x 8″ LaBr3:Ce Detectors for the HECTOR+ array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Ceruti, S.; Coelli, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Csatlòs, M.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Gulyàs, J.; Lodetti, S.; Frega, S.; Miani, A.; Million, B.; Stuhl, L.; Wieland, O.

    2014-03-01

    A selection of the properties of large volume, cylindrical 3.5" x 8" LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to a 3.5" PMT (model R10233-1000SEL from HAMAMATSU) and a special designed Voltage Divider (LABRVD) will be discussed. A number of 10 of such detectors constitute the HECTOR+ array which, in fall 2012, measured at GSI coupled to the AGATA DEMOSTRATOR at the PRESPEC experimental setup. These crystals are among the largest ever produced and needed to be characterized. We have performed several tests and here we discuss, in particular, the energy resolution measured using monochromatic γ-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ-rays up to 22.6 MeV. As already measured in two previous works a saturation in the energy resolution was observed in case of high energy gamma rays. Crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts can affect the resolution of measurements especially in case of high energy γ-rays.

  6. In vitro studies with renal proximal tubule cells show direct cytotoxicity of Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom triggered by oxidative stress, caspase activation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Saidani, Chanez; Hammoudi-Triki, Djelila; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima; Taub, Mary

    2016-09-15

    Scorpion envenomation injures a number of organs, including the kidney. Mechanisms proposed to explain the renal tubule injury include direct effects of venom on tubule epithelial cells, as well as indirect effects of the autonomic nervous system, and inflammation. Here, we report direct effects of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion venom on the viability of Renal Proximal Tubule (RPT) cells in vitro, unlike distal tubule and collecting duct cells. Extensive NucGreen nuclear staining was observed in immortalized rabbit RPT cells following treatment with Aah venom, consistent with cytotoxicity. The involvement of oxidative stress is supported by the observations that 1) anti-oxidants mitigated the Aah venom-induced decrease in the number of viable RPT cells, and 2) Aah venom-treated RPT cells were intensively stained with the CellROX(®) Deep Red reagent, an indicator of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Relevance to normal RPT cells is supported by the red fluorescence observed in Aah venom treated primary rabbit RPT cell cultures following their incubation with the Flica reagent (indicative of caspase activation and apoptosis), and the green fluorescence of Sytox Green (indicative of dead cells). PMID:27470530

  7. Energy levels and lifetimes of Nd IV, Pm IV, Sm IV, and Eu IV

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Johnson, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    To address the shortage of experimental data for electron spectra of triply ionized rare-earth elements we have calculated energy levels and lifetimes of 4f{sup n+1} and 4f{sup n}5d configurations of Nd IV (n=2), Pm IV (n=3), Sm IV (n=4), and Eu IV (n=5) using Hartree-Fock and configuration-interaction methods. To control the accuracy of our calculations we also performed similar calculations for Pr III, Nd III, and Sm III, for which experimental data are available. The results are important, in particular, for physics of magnetic garnets.

  8. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... 24 hours a day. If there is a problem with the IV, you can call your home health care agency for help. If the IV comes out of ... bleeding stops. Then call the home health care agency or the doctor right away.

  9. Using PLATO IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meller, David V.

    This beginning reference manual describes PLATO IV hardware for prospective users and provides an introduction to PLATO for new authors. The PLATO terminal is described in detail in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 provides a block diagram of the PLATO IV system. Procedures for getting on line are described in Chapter 3, and Chapter 4 provides references to…

  10. On the resolution of shallow mantle viscosity structure using post-earthquake relaxation data: Application to the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, Fred F.; Thatcher, Wayne R.

    2010-01-01

    Most models of lower crust/mantle viscosity inferred from postearthquake relaxation assume one or two uniform-viscosity layers. A few existing models possess apparently significant radially variable viscosity structure in the shallow mantle (e.g., the upper 200 km), but the resolution of such variations is not clear. We use a geophysical inverse procedure to address the resolving power of inferred shallow mantle viscosity structure using postearthquake relaxation data. We apply this methodology to 9 years of GPS-constrained crustal motions after the 16 October 1999 M = 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake. After application of a differencing method to isolate the postearthquake signal from the “background” crustal velocity field, we find that surface velocities diminish from ∼20 mm/yr in the first few months to ≲2 mm/yr after 2 years. Viscoelastic relaxation of the mantle, with a time-dependent effective viscosity prescribed by a Burgers body, provides a good explanation for the postseismic crustal deformation, capturing both the spatial and temporal pattern. In the context of the Burgers body model (which involves a transient viscosity and steady state viscosity), a resolution analysis based on the singular value decomposition reveals that at most, two constraints on depth-dependent steady state mantle viscosity are provided by the present data set. Uppermost mantle viscosity (depth ≲ 60 km) is moderately resolved, but deeper viscosity structure is poorly resolved. The simplest model that explains the data better than that of uniform steady state mantle viscosity involves a linear gradient in logarithmic viscosity with depth, with a small increase from the Moho to 220 km depth. However, the viscosity increase is not statistically significant. This suggests that the depth-dependent steady state viscosity is not resolvably different from uniformity in the uppermost mantle.

  11. Enhancement of long-lasting immunoprotective effect against Androctonus australis hector envenomation using safe antigens: Comparative role of MF59 and Alum adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Abdelmounaim; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-26

    Envenomation is a public health problem in many regions of the world. The only available treatment is the serotherapy that has limited efficiency due to the delay of its administration. The goal of this study is to provide a new and more efficient alternative to this treatment. A comparative study of the effects of two adjuvants in their ability to enhance the efficiency of the detoxified and safe antigens to produce a long lasting immunoprotection is undertaken using Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant (Alum) or the water-in-oil MF59 adjuvant mixed with Androctonus australis hector (Aah) detoxified venom, and compare their effects on the immune system. Immunization schedule was performed with two groups of rabbits, which were injected with attenuated venom and Alum or MF59 adjuvant preparations, once a month during three months. Blood samples were collected each week for cell count, evaluation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinoperoxydase (EPO) activities and antibody titer. After four months from the last immunization, rabbits were challenged with increased doses of native Aah venom. Results showed that MF59 effect was immediate in the first 24h post-immunization by activating the recruitment of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils, while Alum adjuvant effect seems to be delayed, and appeared in the second week after immunization. An important cell infiltration was observed with Alum preparation, due to its specific local depot effect. However, immunized animals with MF59 preparation challenged with the native venom showed a protective effect against its toxicity until 6 LD50 compared to those immunized with Alum preparation which are only protected at 4 LD50. One week after challenge, only immunized animals with Alum preparation present an increase in cell infiltration, MPO and EPO activities. These results are correlated with the ability of MF59 adjuvant to induce a potent immunoprotective effect against Aah venom compared to Alum adjuvant. PMID:26419199

  12. Source properties of earthquakes near the Salton Sea triggered by the 16 October 1999 M 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Kanamori, H.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the source properties of a sequence of triggered earthquakes that occurred near the Salton Sea in southern California in the immediate aftermath of the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake of 16 October 1999. The sequence produced a number of early events that were not initially located by the regional network, including two moderate earthquakes: the first within 30 sec of the P-wave arrival and a second approximately 10 minutes after the mainshock. We use available amplitude and waveform data from these events to estimate magnitudes to be approximately 4.7 and 4.4, respectively, and to obtain crude estimates of their locations. The sequence of small events following the initial M 4.7 earthquake is clustered and suggestive of a local aftershock sequence. Using both broadband TriNet data and analog data from the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), we also investigate the spectral characteristics of the M 4.4 event and other triggered earthquakes using empirical Green's function (EGF) analysis. We find that the source spectra of the events are consistent with expectations for tectonic (brittle shear failure) earthquakes, and infer stress drop values of 0.1 to 6 MPa for six M 2.1 to M 4.4 events. The estimated stress drop values are within the range observed for tectonic earthquakes elsewhere. They are relatively low compared to typically observed stress drop values, which is consistent with expectations for faulting in an extensional, high heat flow regime. The results therefore suggest that, at least in this case, triggered earthquakes are associated with a brittle shear failure mechanism. This further suggests that triggered earthquakes may tend to occur in geothermal-volcanic regions because shear failure occurs at, and can be triggered by, relatively low stresses in extensional regimes.

  13. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... Often, home health care nurses will come to your home to give you the medicine. Sometimes, a family member, a friend, or ...

  14. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  15. RST (Robust Satellite Techiniques) analysis for monitoring earth emitted radiation at the time of the Hector Mine 16th October 1999 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, M.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Mazzeo, G.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have been performed, in the past years, reporting the appearance of space-time anomalies in TIR satellite imagery, from weeks to days, before severe earthquakes. Different authors, in order to explain the appearance of anomalously high TIR records near the place and the time of earthquake occurrence, attributed their appearance to the increase of green-house gas (such as CO2, CH4, etc.) emission rates, to the modification of ground water regime and/or to the increase of convective heat flux. Among the others, a Robust Satellite data analysis Technique (RST), based on the RAT - Robust AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) Techniques - approach, was proposed to investigate possible relations between earthquake occurrence and space-time fluctuations of Earth’s emitted TIR radiation observed from satellite. The RST analysis is based on a statistically definition of “TIR anomalies” allowing their identification even in very different natural (e.g. related to atmosphere and/or surface) and observational (e.g. related to time/season, but also to solar and satellite zenithal angles) conditions. The correlation analysis (in the space-time domain) with earthquake occurrence is always carried out by using a validation/confutation approach, in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in the presence/absence of significant seismic activity. The RST approach was already tested in the case of tens of earthquakes occurred in different continents (Europe, Asia, America and Africa), in various geo-tectonic settings (compressive, extensional and transcurrent) and with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9). In this paper, the results of RST analysis performed over 7 years of TIR satellite records collected over the western part of the United States of America at the time of Hector Mine earthquake (16th October 1999, M 7.1) are presented and compared with an identical analysis (confutation) performed in

  16. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  17. The PLATO IV Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based instructional system consists of a large scale centrally located CDC 6400 computer and a large number of remote student terminals. This is a brief and general description of the proposed input/output hardware necessary to interface the student terminals with the computer's central processing unit (CPU) using available…

  18. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  19. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  20. A sputnik IV saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  1. PMD IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    The main activities carried out at the PMD (Politecnico di Milano DIIAR) IVS Analysis Center during 2012 are briefly higlighted, and future plans for 2013 are sketched out. We principally continued to process European VLBI sessions using different approaches to evaluate possible differences due to various processing choices. Then VLBI solutions were also compared to the GPS ones as well as the ones calculated at co-located sites. Concerning the observational aspect, several tests were performed to identify the most suitable method to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of GNSS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) satellite positions using the VLBI technique.

  2. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC...

  3. The Illiac IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hord, M.

    1982-01-01

    The story of the Illiac IV is also in part the story of the Institute for Advanced Computation. This is the government organization formed in 1971 by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center to develop and operate this computer. The Institute provides access to the Illiac through a connection to the ARPANET, a national communication network. The Institute also performs software development, maintenance, and research in various advanced computation topics. Considerable effort has been invested by the Institute in documenting the evolution of the Illiac system and providing those publications to the user community. This material has experienced quite limited circulation and to most of the computer world the Illiac remains mysterious. This attitude is fostered by the lack of a thorough summary of the Illiac's environment, design and capabilities. It is in response to that information gap that this book is addressed.

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  5. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  6. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal. PMID:22738207

  7. EVALUATION OF THE PILLS IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the operating characteristics of the PILLS IV (Particulate Instrumentation by Laser Light Scattering) in situ particle sizing instrument. Results of both investigations show large errors in sizing particle...

  8. Two-dimensional sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance study of AaH IT, an anti-insect toxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector. Sequential resonance assignments and folding of the polypeptide chain

    SciTech Connect

    Darbon, H. ); Weber, C.; Braun, W. )

    1991-02-19

    Sequence-specific nuclear magnetic resonance assignments for the polypeptide backbone and for most of the amino acid side-chain protons, as well as the general folding of AaH IT, are described. AaH IT is a neurotoxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector and is specifically active on the insect nervous system. The secondary structure and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in the regular secondary structure elements are deduced from nuclear Overhauser effects and the sequence locations of the slowly exchanging amide protons. The backbone folding is determined by distance geometry calculations with the DISMAN program. The regular secondary structure includes two and a half turns of {alpha}-helix running from residues 21 to 30 and a three-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet including peptides 3-5, 34-38, and 41-46. Two tight turns are present, one connecting the end of the {alpha}-helix to an external strand of the {beta}-sheet, i.e., turn 31-34, and another connecting this same strand to the central one, i.e., turn 38-41. The differences in the specificity of these related proteins, which are able to discriminate between mammalian and insect voltage-dependent sodium channels of excitable tissues, are most probably brought about by the position of the C-terminal peptide with regard to a hydrophobic surface common to all scorpion toxins examined thus far. Thus, the interaction of a given scorpion toxin with its receptor might well be governed by the presence of this solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface, whereas adjacent areas modulate the specificity of the interaction.

  9. Beneficial effects of Androctonus australis hector venom and its non-toxic fraction in the restoration of early hepatocyte-carcinogenesis induced by FB1 mycotoxin: Involvement of oxidative biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nadjia, Bekkari; Fatima, Laraba-Djebari

    2015-10-01

    Some venom components are known to present potential biological activities that are useful as tools in therapeutics. In this study anti-tumoral activity of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its purified fraction on early step of hepato-carcinogenesis initiated by Fumonisin (FB1), was tested. Initiated hepatic tumor was assessed in mice by decreased doses of Fumonisin B1 associated to phenobarbital. Scorpion venom was used to investigate its activity on initiated tumor by FB1. Evaluation of oxidative unbalance, enzymatic activities and DNA quantification in the liver were correlated with tissue analysis. Obtained results showed that the initiated pathogenesis by FB1 at seven months was characterized by tissue alterations and biomarker variations. These alterations were characterized by atypical lesions such as muffled nucleus, karyo- and cyto-megaly; up normal and large number of nuclei into hepatocytes. These alterations were confirmed by DNA alteration. An unbalance of oxidative status was also observed, characterized by an increased levels of respectively oxidant (NO and MDA) and antioxidant (GSH and catalase activity) mediators. Aah venom and its non-toxic fraction used at low doses seemed to be able to restore partially the hepatic altered tissue induced by FB1. Decreased levels of oxidative and anti-oxidative mediators were also observed. DNA in hepatocytes returned also to the physiological values. Structure of hepatic tissue showed restoration of some alterations such as karyo- and cyto-megaly; decrease of polyploidy hepatocytes induced by FB1. Aah venom and its non-toxic fraction seem to contain some bioactive components with anti-tumoral activity. Purification of this activity from non-toxic fraction F1 could be of interest to identify the components with anti-tumoral activities. PMID:26142225

  10. Characterization of Caramel Colour IV.

    PubMed

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    A large number of commercial Caramel Colour IV samples were characterized in order to assess the uniformity of the class and to provide data to be used in specifications development. Owing to the chemical and physical complexity of caramel colour it was not feasible to perform detailed analysis of all constituents for assessment of uniformity. Instead, selected parameters were evaluated and judgements were made with respect to compositional uniformity based on the similarities of these parameters among the various samples. As Caramel Colour IV is required by the food industry in a range of colour intensities, there must be a range of properties that differ from sample to sample, but that are sufficiently similar for the material to still be considered as part of the Caramel Colour IV class. Fractions as well as whole caramel were analysed using selected spectrophotometric, chromatographic and chemical techniques. Samples were fractionated based on molecular weight and polarity. The data presented here provide evidence for the uniformity in composition of Caramel Colour IV with respect to molecular weight distribution, to nitrogen and sulphur content and their distribution throughout the fractions, to absorbance properties and to specific low molecular weight compounds. Thus, it can be concluded that Caramel Colour IV exhibits compositional uniformity within the range of colour intensity required by the food industry worldwide. PMID:1644377

  11. Standard Missile Block IV battery

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.

    1996-11-01

    During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

  12. The PLATO IV Communications System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne; Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based educational system contains its own communications hardware and software for operating plasma-panel graphics terminals. Key echoing is performed by the central processing unit: every key pressed at a terminal passes through the entire system before anything appears on the terminal's screen. Each terminal is guaranteed…

  13. Title IV: Improving Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Kipp A.

    The Indian Education Act of 1972, Title IV, has improved Native American education by emphasizing Native American control; it comes after 400 years of Euro-American involvement in Indian education during which assimilation was the primary goal. In 1568 Jesuit priests began "civilizing" and Christianizing the "savage" Indians; in 1794 the first…

  14. Facile Routes to Th(IV), U(IV), and Np(IV) Phosphites and Phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Eric M.; Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-08-05

    Three actinide(IV) phosphites and a NpIV phosphate, AnIV(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) and Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂, respectively, were synthesized using mild hydrothermal conditions. The first three phases are isotypic and were obtained using similar reaction conditions. Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ was synthesized using an analogous method to that of Np(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂. However, this fourth phase is quite different in comparison to the other phases in both composition and structure. The structure of Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ is constructed from double layers of neptunium(IV) phosphate with caesium cations in the interlayer region. In contrast, An(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) form dense 3D networks. The actinide contraction is detected in variety of metrics obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Changes in the oxidation state of the neptunium starting materials yield different products.

  15. Excitation of heliumlike B IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolk, K.-H.; Koenig, R.; Kunze, H.-J.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements are reported for line-intensity ratios emitted from heliumlike B IV ions in a plasma with electron density, N(e) = 1.5 x 10 to the 16th/cu cm and electron temperature, kT(e) = 175 eV. The plasma was produced in a theta-pinch discharge. The analysis supports theoretical excitation rates calculated in the distorted-wave approximation, which include the effect of resonances.

  16. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  17. Stage IV-S neuroblastoma. Results with definitive therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, S.H.; Thomas, P.R.; Perez, C.A.; Vietti, T.J.

    1984-05-15

    The results of management of 14 patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma are reported. The treatment policy, although not consistent over this time span, in general used a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy or infrequently one modality alone. Twelve of 14 (86%) survived more than 6 years. One patient, with a solitary mediastinal primary tumor, died of rapidly progressive disease at three months. The other death occurred in a 4.5-year-old presenting with hepatomegaly at diagnosis followed by skeletal dissemination 2.5 years later. Thirteen of the patients were younger than 1 year of age. Of the 11 patients that received radiotherapy, 4 experienced mild asymptomatic scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis at 3 to 12 years after initial therapy. A review of the literature indicates that spontaneous regression in this tumor is very frequent; therefore, it is recommended that for the common presentation of massive hepatomegaly in an infant, close observation is warranted, unless life threatening complications occur. However, initial therapeutic intervention may be indicated in those patients with life threatening presentations. This data did not substantiate the necessity for complete surgical excision of the primary tumor, as has been suggested by others.

  18. MECHANISM OF CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS IV.

    PubMed Central

    Lorkiewicz, Z.; Szybalski, Waclaw

    1961-01-01

    Lorkiewicz, Z. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and Waclaw Szybalski. Mechanism of chemical mutagenesis. IV. Reaction between triethylene melamine and nucleic acid components. J. Bacteriol. 82: 195–201. 1961.—Triethylene melamine interacts primarily with phosphorylated intracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) precursors and not with DNA. It was found by direct chemical and chromatographic analysis that only pyrimidine precursors of nucleic acids are attacked by triethylene melamine. In the course of the triethylene melamine-deoxycytidine reaction the mutagenicity of the reaction mixture is lost, but the mutagenicity of the triethylene melamine-thymidine reaction products significantly increases above that of the reaction substrates. Several steps are postulated to explain the mechanism of the triethylene melamine-initiated mutagenic reaction: (i) Reaction I, semireversible uptake of triethylene melamine; (ii) reaction II, chemical interaction between triethylene melamine and intracellular thymidine mono- or triphosphate with the production of a functional analogue of the latter; (iii) incorporation of this fraudulent analogue into the newly formed DNA strand; (iv) occurrence of self-perpetuating errors in the sequence of natural bases during subsequent rounds of replication of the analogue-containing DNA strand. It is postulated that the mechanism of mutagenic responses to different types of mutagens can fit either a simplified (mutagenic base analogues) or extended version (radiation) of this schema. PMID:16561917

  19. Taming Tin(IV) Polyazides.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rory; Davis, Martin F; Fazakerley, Mathew; Portius, Peter

    2015-12-14

    The first charge-neutral Lewis base adducts of tin(IV) tetraazide, [Sn(N3)4(bpy)], [Sn(N3)4(phen)] and [Sn(N3)4(py)2], and the salt bis{bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium} hexa(azido)stannate [(PPN)2Sn(N3)6] (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; py = pyridine; PPN = N(PPh3)2) have been prepared using covalent or ionic azide-transfer reagents and ligand-exchange reactions. The azides were isolated on the 0.3 to 1 g scale and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies, microanalytical and thermal methods and their molecular structures determined by single-crystal XRD. All complexes have a distorted octahedral Sn[N]6 coordination geometry and possess greater thermal stability than their Si and Ge homologues. The nitrogen content of the adducts of up to 44% exceed any Sn(IV) compound known hitherto. PMID:26767331

  20. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  1. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  2. Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev K.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Malbet, Fabien

    2014-08-01

    Optical and IR Interferometry IV at the SPIE 2014 symposium in Montreal had a strong and vibrant program. After initial fears about budget cuts and travel-funding constraints, the Program Committee had to work hard to accommodate as many quality submissions as possible. Innovative, creative and visionary work ensured that the field has progressed well, despite the bleak funding climate felt in the US, Europe and elsewhere. Montreal proved an excellent venue for this, the largest of Interferometry conferences and the only one that brings together practitioners from the world over. Let us summarize a few highlights to convey a glimpse of the excitement that is detailed in the rest of these Proceedings.

  3. Dilithium hexaorganostannate(IV) compounds.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Ireen; Zeckert, Kornelia; Zahn, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Hypercoordination of main-group elements such as the heavier Group 14 elements (silicon, germanium, tin, and lead) usually requires strong electron-withdrawing ligands and/or donating groups. Herein, we present the synthesis and characterization of two hexaaryltin(IV) dianions in form of their dilithium salts [Li2(thf)2{Sn(2-py(Me))6}] (py(Me)=C5H3N-5-Me) (2) and [Li2{Sn(2-py(OtBu))6}] (py(OtBu)=C5H3N-6-OtBu) (3). Both complexes are stable in the solid state and solution under inert conditions. Theoretical investigations of compound 2 reveal a significant valence 5s-orbital contribution of the tin atom forming six strongly polarized tin-carbon bonds. PMID:25314245

  4. Group-IV semiconductor compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Berding, M.A.; Sher, A.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-08-01

    Properties of ordered group-IV compounds containing carbon, silicon, and germanium are calculated within the local density approximation. Twenty-seven fully relaxed compounds represented by seven different compound structures are compared and, with the exception of SiC, all compounds are found to be metastable. Two trends emerge: carbon-germanium bonds are disfavored, and compounds that have carbon on a common sublattice are the least unbound because of their relatively low strain. When carbon shares a sublattice with silicon or germanium, the large strain results in a narrowing of the band gap, and in some cases the compound is metallic. The most promising structures with the lowest excess energy contain carbon on one sublattice and although they do not lattice match to silicon, they match rather well to silicon carbide. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. CHLORINE ABSORPTION IN S(IV) SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of the rate of Chlorine (Cl2) absorption into aqueous sulfite/bisulfite -- S(IV) -- solutions at ambient temperature using a highly characterized stirred-cell reactor. The reactor media were 0 to 10 mM S(IV) with pHs of 3.5-8.5. Experiment...

  6. CHLORINE ABSORPTION IN S(IV) SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rate of chlorine (Cl2) absorption into aqueous sulfite/bisulfite [S(IV)] solutions was measured at ambient temperature using a highly characterized stirred cell reactor. The reactor media were 0 to 10 mM S(IV) with pH ranging from 3.5 to 8.5. Experiments were performed using ...

  7. Stark broadening of B IV spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Christova, Magdalena; Simić, Zoran; Kovačević, Andjelka; Sahal-Bréchot, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    Stark broadening parameters for 157 multiplets of helium-like boron (B IV) have been calculated using the impact semiclassical perturbation formalism. Obtained results have been used to investigate the regularities within spectral series. An example of the influence of Stark broadening on B IV lines in DO white dwarfs is given.

  8. Stark broadening of B IV spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Christova, Magdalena; Simić, Zoran; Kovačević, Andjelka; Sahal-Bréchot, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    Stark broadening parameters for 157 multiplets of helium like boron (B IV) have been calculated using the impact semiclassical perturbation formalism. Obtained results have been used to investigate the regularities within spectral series. An example of the influence of Stark broadening on B IV lines in DO white dwarfs is given.

  9. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  10. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  11. Mucolipidosis Type IV: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyo; Gustafson, Ann Marie; Sidransky, Ellen; Goldin, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodevelopmental as well as neurodegenerative disorder with severe psychomotor developmental delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorydria. It is characterized by the presence of lysosomal inclusions in many cell types in patients. MLIV is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in MCOLN1, which encodes for mucolipin-1, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family. Although approximately 70-80% of patients identified are Ashkenazi Jewish, MLIV is a pan-ethnic disorder. Importantly, while MLIV is thought to be a rare disease, its frequency may be greater than currently appreciated, for its common presentation as a cerebral palsy-like encephalopathy can lead to misdiagnosis. Moreover, patients with milder variants are often not recognized as having MLIV. This review provides an update on the ethnic distribution, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, methods of diagnosis, molecular genetics, differential diagnosis, and treatment of patients with MLIV. An enhanced awareness of the manifestations of this disorder may help to elucidate the true frequency and range of symptoms associated with MLIV, providing insight into the pathogenesis of this multi-system disease. PMID:21763169

  12. Anomalous C IV and Si IV resonance lines in 36 Lyncis

    SciTech Connect

    Sadakane, K.

    1984-03-01

    Of the anomalously strong C IV and Si IV resonance lines found in the UV spectrum of the chemically peculiar star 36 Lyncis, the C IV lines near 1550 A are noted to be absent in about 40 other middle or late B-type main sequence stars. Also found is a peculiar intensity ratio between C IV and Si IV lines, where the former are stronger. The continuous energy distribution of 36 Lyn in the UV region fits with those of late B-type stars, and the presence of a hot, chromospheric or coronal gas is suggested. 14 references.

  13. Surprising Coordination Geometry Differences in Ce(IV)- and Pu(IV)-Maltol Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Gorden, Anne E.V.; Teat, Simon J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-12

    As part of a study to characterize the detailed coordination behavior of Pu(IV), single crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been determined for Pu(IV) and Ce(IV) complexes with the naturally-occurring ligand maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one) and its derivative bromomaltol (5-bromo-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one). Although Ce(IV) is generally accepted as a structural analog for Pu(IV), and the maltol complexes of these two metals are isostructural, the corresponding bromomaltol complexes are strikingly different with respect to ligand orientation about the metal ion: All complexes exhibit trigonal dodecahedral coordination geometry but the Ce(IV)-bromomaltol complex displays an uncommon ligand arrangement not mirrored in the Pu(IV) complex, although the two metal species are generally accepted to be structural analogs.

  14. Cognitive-enhancing effects of angiotensin IV

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Angiotensin IV is a derivative of the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and it has been shown to enhance acquisition, consolidation and recall in animal models of learning and memory when administered centrally or peripherally. Whether changes in angiotensin IV activity underlie the cognitive effects of those cardiovascular drugs designed to disrupt the peripheral renin-angiotensin system in humans remains undetermined, but angiotensin IV appears to be a worthy candidate for consideration in drug development programmes. The mechanism of action of angiotensin IV is still debated, although its AT4 receptor has been convincingly identified as being insulin-regulated amino peptidase, which is also known as oxytocinase and placental leucine aminopeptidase. It is speculated that angiotensin IV may interact with insulin-regulated amino peptidase to enhance neuronal glucose uptake, prevent metabolism of other neuroactive peptides, induce changes in extracellular matrix molecules, or induce release of acetylcholine and/or dopamine. All of these things may be responsible for the beneficial effects on cognition, but none of them are yet proven. Importantly, strain differences in murine responses to angiotensin IV suggest that some individuals may benefit from drugs targeted to the AT4 receptor whilst others may be refractory. At present it thus appears that those individuals with the poorest baseline cognition may receive greatest benefit, but possible genetic differences in responses to angiotensin IV cannot be ruled-out. PMID:19090988

  15. Stage IV work hardening in cubic metals

    SciTech Connect

    Rollett, A.D.; Kocks, U.F.; Doherty, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The work hardening of fcc metals at large strains is discussed with reference to the linear stress-strain behavior often observed at large strains and known as Stage IV. The experimental evidence shows that Stage IV is a work hardening phenomenon that is found quite generally, even in pure fcc metals subjected to homogeneous deformation. A simple model for Stage IV in pure metals is presented, based on the accumulation of dislocation debris. Experiments are described for large strain torsion tests on four aluminum alloys. The level and extent of Stage IV scaled with the saturation stress that would represent the end of Stage III in the absence of a Stage IV. Reversing the torsion after large prestrains produced transient reductions in the work hardening. The strain rate sensitivity was also measured before and during the transient and found not to vary significantly. The microstructure observed at large strains in an Mg alloy suggest that Stage IV can occur in the absence of microband formation. Previous proposals for the cause of Stage IV are reviewed and found to be not supported by recent experimental data.

  16. GSFC IVS Technology Development Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himwich, Ed; Vandenberg, Nancy; Clark, Tom

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) International Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) Service (IVS)Technology Development Center from the establishment of IVS to the end of 2000. The report forecasts activities planned for the year 2001. The GSFC IVS Technology Development Center (TDC) develops station software including the Field System (FS), scheduling software (SKED), hardware including tools for station timing and meteorology, scheduling algorithms, operational procedures, and provides a pool of individuals to assist with station implementation, check-out, upgrades, and training.

  17. Phospholipids accumulation in mucolipidosis IV cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bargal, R; Bach, G

    1988-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from mucolipidosis IV patients accumulated phospholipids when compared to normal controls or cells from other genotypes. The major stored compounds were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and to a larger extent lysophosphatidylcholine and lysobisphosphatidic acid. Pulse chase experiments of 32P-labelled phospholipids showed increased retention of these compounds in the mucolipidosis IV lines throughout the pulse and chase periods. Phospholipase A1, A2, C, D and lysophospholipase showed normal activity in the mucolipidosis IV lines and thus the metabolic cause for this storage remains to be identified. PMID:3139925

  18. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... enzymes, GAGs accumulate within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes . Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that break down ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes are called lysosomal storage disorders. In MPS IV, ...

  19. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  20. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  1. [Pu(IV) behavior in the serum].

    PubMed

    Surova, Z I

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies of the hydrolysis and polymerization of Pu(IV) in blood serum. With nitrite Pu(IV) solutions incubated with blood serum 20-34% of the nuclide were precipitated as hydroxide and 11-36% converted into polymeric forms bound by high molecular weight proteins. For citrate solutions, these values were 3.8 and 3.0%, respectively. PMID:6505160

  2. Mathematics Achievement, Comparative Study Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Norman L.; Nerenz, Anne G.

    This is one of a series of reports which provide definitions of and descriptive data on the variables used in the Comparative Study of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IEG) Evaluation Project. Phase IV investigated three curriculum programs specifically designed to be compatible with instructional programming for the individual…

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  4. 45 CFR 1355.21 - E and IV-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... compliance with the Department's regulations listed in 45 CFR 1355.30. (c) The State plans and plan... requirements for titles IV PUBLIC WELFARE Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN.... 1355.21 State plan requirements for titles IV-E and IV-B. (a) The State plans for titles IV-E and...

  5. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  7. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  8. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  9. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 265 - Tests for Significance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests for Significance IV Appendix IV to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 265, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 265—Tests for Significance As required in §...

  11. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    SciTech Connect

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Incommensurate Structure of Phosphorus Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Takeya, Satoshi; Honda, Kazumasa; Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2007-04-27

    There are six known phases for phosphorus at room temperature under high pressure. Only the structure of phase IV, which exists from 107 GPa to 137 GPa, remains unsolved. We performed a powder x-ray diffraction experiment and a Rietveld analysis and successfully determined its structure to be an incommensurately modulated structure by only 1 site of atomic position. High-pressure phases of halogens and chalcogens have previously been shown to have a similar modulated structure; however, phosphorus phase IV is different from them and was shown to be the third case.

  13. The O IV and S IV intercombination lines in solar and stellar ultraviolet spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. W.; Keenan, F. P.; Dufton, P. L.; Kingston, A. E.; Pradhan, A. K.; Zhang, H. L.; Doyle, J. G.; Hayes, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    New calculations of O IV electron density diagnostic emission-line ratios involving the 1399.8, 1401.2, 1404.8, and 14076.4 A transitions are presented. A comparison of these calculations with observational data from a quiet solar region, a sunspot, and an active region obtained with the High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS), two flares observed with the SO82B spectrograph on board Skylab, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations by the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) of Capella, gives good results using the ratio R(sub 1) = I(1407.4 A)/I(1401.2 A). However, the electron density obtained using the ratio R(sub 2) = I(1407.4 A)/I(1404.8 A) is often an order of magnitude smaller. The O IV 1404.8 A line is blended with the S IV 1404.8 A line, and we investigate whether this ratio may still be used as a density diagnostic if the S IV 1406.1 A line intensity is used to correct for the presence of S IV 1404.8 A, using previous S IV calculations by Dufton et al. We still find systematic differences compared to density determinations from line ratios that do not involve the O IV 1404.8 A line, which we suggest are due to errors in earlier theoretical calculations of the S IV atomic data, and also possibly to previously unconsidered fluorescent pumping of the upper level of the S IV 1404.8 A transition.

  14. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  15. Leveraging Information Technology. Track IV: Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers from the 1987 CAUSE conference's Track IV, Support Services, are presented. They include: "Application Development Center" (John F. Leydon); "College Information Management System: The Design and Implementation of a Completely Integrated Office Automation and Student Information System" (Karen L. Miselis); "Improving Managerial…

  16. Intelsat IV-F5 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An Atlas-Centaur space vehicle lifted off at 5:53 p.m. EDT, June 13, 1972, from Complex 36B carrying an Intelsat Communications Satellite, (Intelsat IV-F5) into Earth orbit. Visible in the foreground is the lighthouse located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  17. Painlevé IV coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, David; Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernández C, David J.

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  18. Day Camp Manual: Program. Book IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, William

    Book IV in a 5-book day camp manual discusses the camp program. Section I describes the organization, definition, and elements essential to successful day camp programs. Section II, which addresses the benefits and special considerations of mass programs, includes rainy day contingencies, materials to have on hand, and activity suggestions.…

  19. DSM IV, Culture and Child Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Cécile; Measham, Toby; Bathiche-Suidan, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective The expanding cultural diversity of children and families with mental health needs raises questions about the cultural appropriateness of diagnostic classifications like the DSM IV. This paper briefly surveys the literature on culture and DSM-IV in child psychiatry, presenting ADHD as an example of the relationship between diagnostic categories and cultural issues, and illustrating some of the clinical dilemmas of differential diagnosis in a migration context. Method a literature review was performed and analysed, and a case vignette was constructed to illustrate key points. Results The literature does not provide a definite answer about the DSM IV cultural validity in child psychiatry. On the one hand it suggests that all diagnostic categories may be found universally. On the other, variations in prevalence rates support the hypothesis of a role for social and cultural factors in the diagnostic process. The clinical formulation may be a useful tool to address the validity issue by modulating the process of diagnosis with a cultural understanding of the symptoms, the patient-therapist alliance and the appropriateness of treatment recommendations. Conclusion Although the DSM IV diagnostic categories may be found cross culturally, clinicians need to be aware of how culture may influence the diagnostic process in child psychiatry. PMID:18516309

  20. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  1. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported. PMID:23428273

  2. Origin and course of the coronary arteries in normal mice and in iv/iv mice

    PubMed Central

    ICARDO, JOSÉ M.; COLVEE, ELVIRA

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the origin and distribution of the coronary arteries in normal mice and in mice of the iv/iv strain, which show situs inversus and heterotaxia. The coronary arteries were studied by direct observation of the aortic sinuses with the scanning electron microscope, and by examination of vascular corrosion casts. In the normal mouse, the left and right coronaries (LC, RC) arise from the respective Valsalva sinus and course along the ventricular borders to reach the heart apex. Along this course the coronary arteries give off small branches at perpendicular or acute angles to supply the ventricles. The ventricular septum is supplied by the septal artery, which arises as a main branch from the right coronary. Conus arteries arise from the main coronary trunks, from the septal artery and/or directly from the Valsalva sinus. The vascular casts demonstrate the presence of intercoronary anastomoses. The origin of the coronary arteries was found to be abnormal in 84% of the iv/iv mice. These anomalies included double origin, high take-off, slit-like openings and the presence of a single coronary orifice. These anomalies occurred singly or in any combination, and were independent of heart situs. The septal artery originated from RC in most cases of situs solitus but originated predominantly from LC in situs inversus hearts. Except for this anomalous origin no statistical correlation was found between the coronary anomalies and heart situs or a particular mode of heterotaxia. The coronary anomalies observed in the iv/iv mice are similar to those found in human hearts. Most coronary anomalies appear to be due to defective connections between the aortic root and the developing coronaries. iv/iv mice may therefore constitute a good model to study the development of similar anomalies in the human heart. PMID:11693308

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Pt(IV) Fluorescein Conjugates to Investigate Pt(IV) Intracellular Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Yeung, Jessica S.; Royzen, Maksim; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Pt(IV) anticancer compounds typically operate as prodrugs that are reduced in the hypoxic environment of cancer cells, losing two axial ligands in the process to generate active Pt(II) species. Here we report the synthesis of two fluorescent Pt(IV) prodrugs of cisplatin in order to image and evaluate the Pt(IV) reduction process in simulated and real biological environments. Treatment of the complexes dissolved in PBS buffer with reducing agents typically encountered in cells, glutathione or ascorbate, afforded a 3- to 5-fold fluorescence turn-on owing to reduction and loss of their fluorescein-based axial ligands, which are quenched when bound to platinum. Both Pt(IV) conjugates displayed moderate cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values higher than that of cisplatin. Immunoblotting and DNA flow cytometry analyses of one of the complexes, Pt(IV)FL2, revealed that it damages DNA, causing cell cycle arrest in S or G2/M depending on exposure time, with ultimately triggering of apoptotic cell death. Fluorescence microscopic studies prove that Pt(IV)FL2 enters cells intact and undergoes reduction intracellularly. The results are best interpreted in terms of a model in which the axial fluorescein ligands are expelled through lysosomes, with the platinum(II) moiety generated in the process binding to genomic DNA, which results in cell death. PMID:23957697

  4. Mariner IV Mission to Mars. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jack N.

    1965-01-01

    This technical report is a series of individual papers documenting the Mariner-Mars project from its beginning in 1962 following the successful Mariner-Venus mission. Part I is pre-encounter data. It includes papers on the design, development, and testing of Mariner IV, as well as papers detailing methods of maintaining communication with and obtaining data from the spacecraft during flight, and expected results during encounter with Mars. Part 11, post-encounter data, to be published later, will consist of documentation of the events taking place during Mariner IV's encounter with Mars and thereafter. The Mariner-Mars mission, the culmination of an era of spacecraft development, has contributed much new technology to be used in future projects.

  5. Giant piezoelectricity of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Li, Wenbin; Li, Ju; Yang, Li

    We predict enormous, anisotropic piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M =Sn or Ge, X =Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their piezoelectric coefficients are about one to two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique ``puckered'' C2v symmetry and electronic structure of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in the fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character, and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

  6. [Type IV of hypersensitivity and its subtypes].

    PubMed

    Czarnobilska, Ewa; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Wsołek, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    Type IV of hypersensitivity reaction is usually manifested in the skin in different clinical pattern. According to traditional Gell and Coombs classification, the mechanism of IV type of allergic reaction has been associated with contact allergy with the activity of lymphocytes Th1 secreting interferon gamma. Now, this vision seems to be too simplified. In the last years there were publications, which can throw a new light on these complicated mechanisms leading to the development of the type IV of allergy, especially to drugs, nickel and other haptens and also can explain the differentiation of clinical pattern in respective patients. The skin symptoms in type IV of hypersensitivity are triggered by activation of specific T-cell CD4+ and CD8+. Immunohistochemical and functional analysis of reactive T-cell has shown that the delayed hypersensitivity reaction depends on the secreted cytokines. For example maculo-papular exanthema may be either triggered by Th1 or Th2 in nature and cytokines interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alfa or interleukin-4, 5 and 13. Bullous reactions (i.e. Stevens-Johnsons Syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis) are characterized by widespread keratinocyte apoptosis, a consequence of high CD8+ T-cell involvement and the molecular cytotoxicity of Fas, perforin and granzyme B. Pustular exanthema reactions are stimulated via the T-cell release of 11-8 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulatig factor (GM-CSF). For the better understanding of these inflammatory cascades deleted type IV of hypersensitivity reactions have been re-classified into four main subtypes: 1. IVa with Th1 and monocyte directed and cytokines: IFNgamma, IL-1, IL-2, 2. IVb with Th2 and eosinophils directed and cytokines: L-5, IL-4, IL-13, 3. IVc with T CD8+ directed and cytokines: perforin, granzyme B, Fas Ligand, 4. IVd with T CD4+, CD8+ and neutrophil directed and cytokines: IL8, GM-CSF. Clinically delayed hypersensitivity eruptions are often an overlap of cytokine

  7. IVS contribution to the next ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Messerschmitt, Linda; Thaller, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Generating the contribution of the International VLBI Service (IVS) to the next ITRF (ITRF2013 or ITRF2014) was the main task of the IVS Combination Center at the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Germany) in 2014. Starting with the ITRF2005, the IVS contribution to the ITRF is an intra-technique combined solution using multiple individual contributions from different institutions. For the upcoming ITRF ten international institutions submitted data files for a combined solution. The data files contain 24h VLBI sessions from the late 1970s until the end of 2014 in SINEX file format containing datum free normal equations with station coordinates and Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP). All contributions have to meet the IVS standards for ITRF contribution in order to guarantee a consistent combined solution. In the course of the generation of the intra-technique combined solution, station coordinate time series for each station as well as a Terrestrial Reference Frame based on the contributed VLBI data (VTRF) were generated and analyzed. Preliminary results using data until the end of 2013 show a scaling factor of -0.47 ppb resulting from a 7-parameter Helmert transformation of the VTRF w.r.t. ITRF2008, which is comparable to the scaling factor that was determined in the precedent ITRF generation. An internal comparison of the EOPs between the combined solution and the individual contributions as well as external comparisons of the EOP series were carried out in order to assure a consistent quality of the EOPs. The data analyses, the combination procedure and results of the combined solution for station coordinates and EOP will be presented.

  8. The IVS data input to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Alef, Walter; Amagai, Jun; Andersen, Per Helge; Andreeva, Tatiana; Artz, Thomas; Bachmann, Sabine; Barache, Christophe; Baudry, Alain; Bauernfeind, Erhard; Baver, Karen; Beaudoin, Christopher; Behrend, Dirk; Bellanger, Antoine; Berdnikov, Anton; Bergman, Per; Bernhart, Simone; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bianco, Giuseppe; Bielmaier, Ewald; Boboltz, David; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Boer, Armin; Bolotin, Sergei; Bougeard, Mireille; Bourda, Geraldine; Buttaccio, Salvo; Cannizzaro, Letizia; Cappallo, Roger; Carlson, Brent; Carter, Merri Sue; Charlot, Patrick; Chen, Chenyu; Chen, Maozheng; Cho, Jungho; Clark, Thomas; Collioud, Arnaud; Colomer, Francisco; Colucci, Giuseppe; Combrinck, Ludwig; Conway, John; Corey, Brian; Curtis, Ronald; Dassing, Reiner; Davis, Maria; de-Vicente, Pablo; De Witt, Aletha; Diakov, Alexey; Dickey, John; Diegel, Irv; Doi, Koichiro; Drewes, Hermann; Dube, Maurice; Elgered, Gunnar; Engelhardt, Gerald; Evangelista, Mark; Fan, Qingyuan; Fedotov, Leonid; Fey, Alan; Figueroa, Ricardo; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Gambis, Daniel; Garcia-Espada, Susana; Gaume, Ralph; Gaylard, Michael; Geiger, Nicole; Gipson, John; Gomez, Frank; Gomez-Gonzalez, Jesus; Gordon, David; Govind, Ramesh; Gubanov, Vadim; Gulyaev, Sergei; Haas, Ruediger; Hall, David; Halsig, Sebastian; Hammargren, Roger; Hase, Hayo; Heinkelmann, Robert; Helldner, Leif; Herrera, Cristian; Himwich, Ed; Hobiger, Thomas; Holst, Christoph; Hong, Xiaoyu; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Xinyong; Hugentobler, Urs; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Iddink, Andreas; Ihde, Johannes; Ilijin, Gennadiy; Ipatov, Alexander; Ipatova, Irina; Ishihara, Misao; Ivanov, D. V.; Jacobs, Chris; Jike, Takaaki; Johansson, Karl-Ake; Johnson, Heidi; Johnston, Kenneth; Ju, Hyunhee; Karasawa, Masao; Kaufmann, Pierre; Kawabata, Ryoji; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kawai, Eiji; Kaydanovsky, Michael; Kharinov, Mikhail; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kokado, Kensuke; Kondo, Tetsuro; Korkin, Edward; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Krasna, Hana; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Kurdubov, Sergey; Kurihara, Shinobu; Kuroda, Jiro; Kwak, Younghee; La Porta, Laura; Labelle, Ruth; Lamb, Doug; Lambert, Sébastien; Langkaas, Line; Lanotte, Roberto; Lavrov, Alexey; Le Bail, Karine; Leek, Judith; Li, Bing; Li, Huihua; Li, Jinling; Liang, Shiguang; Lindqvist, Michael; Liu, Xiang; Loesler, Michael; Long, Jim; Lonsdale, Colin; Lovell, Jim; Lowe, Stephen; Lucena, Antonio; Luzum, Brian; Ma, Chopo; Ma, Jun; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Machida, Morito; MacMillan, Dan; Madzak, Matthias; Malkin, Zinovy; Manabe, Seiji; Mantovani, Franco; Mardyshkin, Vyacheslav; Marshalov, Dmitry; Mathiassen, Geir; Matsuzaka, Shigeru; McCarthy, Dennis; Melnikov, Alexey; Michailov, Andrey; Miller, Natalia; Mitchell, Donald; Mora-Diaz, Julian Andres; Mueskens, Arno; Mukai, Yasuko; Nanni, Mauro; Natusch, Tim; Negusini, Monia; Neidhardt, Alexander; Nickola, Marisa; Nicolson, George; Niell, Arthur; Nikitin, Pavel; Nilsson, Tobias; Ning, Tong; Nishikawa, Takashi; Noll, Carey; Nozawa, Kentarou; Ogaja, Clement; Oh, Hongjong; Olofsson, Hans; Opseth, Per Erik; Orfei, Sandro; Pacione, Rosa; Pazamickas, Katherine; Petrachenko, William; Pettersson, Lars; Pino, Pedro; Plank, Lucia; Ploetz, Christian; Poirier, Michael; Poutanen, Markku; Qian, Zhihan; Quick, Jonathan; Rahimov, Ismail; Redmond, Jay; Reid, Brett; Reynolds, John; Richter, Bernd; Rioja, Maria; Romero-Wolf, Andres; Ruszczyk, Chester; Salnikov, Alexander; Sarti, Pierguido; Schatz, Raimund; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Schiavone, Francesco; Schreiber, Ulrich; Schuh, Harald; Schwarz, Walter; Sciarretta, Cecilia; Searle, Anthony; Sekido, Mamoru; Seitz, Manuela; Shao, Minghui; Shibuya, Kazuo; Shu, Fengchun; Sieber, Moritz; Skjaeveland, Asmund; Skurikhina, Elena; Smolentsev, Sergey; Smythe, Dan; Sousa, Don; Sovers, Ojars; Stanford, Laura; Stanghellini, Carlo; Steppe, Alan; Strand, Rich; Sun, Jing; Surkis, Igor; Takashima, Kazuhiro; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Tadashi; Tanir, Emine; Tao, An; Tateyama, Claudio; Teke, Kamil; Thomas, Cynthia; Thorandt, Volkmar; Thornton, Bruce; Tierno Ros, Claudia; Titov, Oleg; Titus, Mike; Tomasi, Paolo; Tornatore, Vincenza; Trigilio, Corrado; Trofimov, Dmitriy; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Tuccari, Gino; Tzioumis, Tasso; Ujihara, Hideki; Ullrich, Dieter; Uunila, Minttu; Venturi, Tiziana; Vespe, Francesco; Vityazev, Veniamin; Volvach, Alexandr; Vytnov, Alexander; Wang, Guangli; Wang, Jinqing; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Na; Wang, Shiqiang; Wei, Wenren; Weston, Stuart; Whitney, Alan; Wojdziak, Reiner; Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Yang, Wenjun; Ye, Shuhua; Yi, Sangoh; Yusup, Aili; Zapata, Octavio; Zeitlhoefler, Reinhard; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Xiuzhong; Zhao, Rongbing; Zheng, Weimin; Zhou, Ruixian; Zubko, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a primary space-geodetic technique for determining precise coordinates on the Earth, for monitoring the variable Earth rotation and orientation with highest precision, and for deriving many other parameters of the Earth system. The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS, http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is a service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The datasets published here are the results of individual Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions in the form of normal equations in SINEX 2.0 format (http://www.iers.org/IERS/EN/Organization/AnalysisCoordinator/SinexFormat/sinex.html, the SINEX 2.0 description is attached as pdf) provided by IVS as the input for the next release of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRF): ITRF2014. This is a new version of the ITRF2008 release (Bockmann et al., 2009). For each session/ file, the normal equation systems contain elements for the coordinate components of all stations having participated in the respective session as well as for the Earth orientation parameters (x-pole, y-pole, UT1 and its time derivatives plus offset to the IAU2006 precession-nutation components dX, dY (https://www.iau.org/static/resolutions/IAU2006_Resol1.pdf). The terrestrial part is free of datum. The data sets are the result of a weighted combination of the input of several IVS Analysis Centers. The IVS contribution for ITRF2014 is described in Bachmann et al (2015), Schuh and Behrend (2012) provide a general overview on the VLBI method, details on the internal data handling can be found at Behrend (2013).

  9. Genome Sequencing and Analysis Conference IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    J. Craig Venter and C. Thomas Caskey co-chaired Genome Sequencing and Analysis Conference IV held at Hilton Head, South Carolina from September 26--30, 1992. Venter opened the conference by noting that approximately 400 researchers from 16 nations were present four times as many participants as at Genome Sequencing Conference I in 1989. Venter also introduced the Data Fair, a new component of the conference allowing exchange and on-site computer analysis of unpublished sequence data.

  10. In vitro removal of actinide (IV) ions

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1982-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  11. Thorium(IV) hydrous oxide solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.L.; Rai, D.

    1987-12-02

    The results of a study of the solubility of amorphous, hydrous ThO/sub 2/ over the pH range 3.5 - 14.2 are reported. The solubility is high at pH 3.5 and decreases rapidly at pH 4.5. The chemical modes of solubility over various pH ranges are discussed. No conclusive evidence for any amphoteric behavior of Th(IV) is reported. 22 references, 1 figure.

  12. Planning a Kinetic and Mechanistic Study with Cerium (IV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Samir B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents a kinetic study that utilizes a method for varying the concentrations of the possible Ce(IV) species and computing the concentration distribution of the sulfato and hydroxo species of Ce(IV). (MLH)

  13. Type IV Pilin Proteins: Versatile Molecular Modules

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Nguyen, Ylan

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Type IV pili (T4P) are multifunctional protein fibers produced on the surfaces of a wide variety of bacteria and archaea. The major subunit of T4P is the type IV pilin, and structurally related proteins are found as components of the type II secretion (T2S) system, where they are called pseudopilins; of DNA uptake/competence systems in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species; and of flagella, pili, and sugar-binding systems in the archaea. This broad distribution of a single protein family implies both a common evolutionary origin and a highly adaptable functional plan. The type IV pilin is a remarkably versatile architectural module that has been adopted widely for a variety of functions, including motility, attachment to chemically diverse surfaces, electrical conductance, acquisition of DNA, and secretion of a broad range of structurally distinct protein substrates. In this review, we consider recent advances in this research area, from structural revelations to insights into diversity, posttranslational modifications, regulation, and function. PMID:23204365

  14. Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Harold

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.

  15. 45 CFR 302.33 - Services to individuals not receiving title IV-A assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... application under this section; or (ii) Is a non-IV-A Medicaid recipient; or (iii) Has been receiving IV-D services and is no longer eligible for assistance under the title IV-A, IV-E foster care, and Medicaid... IV-A, IV-E foster care, and Medicaid programs, the IV-D agency must notify the family, within...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 600 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reserved IV Appendix IV to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendix IV to Part 600...

  17. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor... PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated... administrator shall determine each participant's estimated title IV benefit. The estimated title IV...

  18. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 261 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reserved IV Appendix IV to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION... Materials Wording of the instruments. Appendix IV to Part 261...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 261 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserved IV Appendix IV to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION... Materials Wording of the instruments. Appendix IV to Part 261...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 261 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reserved IV Appendix IV to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION... Materials Wording of the instruments. Appendix IV to Part 261...

  2. Structure and luminescence properties of tellurium(IV) complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedakova, T. V.; Mirochnik, A. G.; Karasev, V. E.

    2011-05-01

    Using the tellurium(IV) complex compounds as an example, we study the interrelation between the geometric structure and spectral luminescence properties. We find that, in the series of compounds of Te(IV), which are characterized by the island octahedral coordination of Te(IV) ions, the luminescence intensity depends on the degree of distortion of the Te(IV) coordination polyhedron, the Stokes shift, and the energy of the luminescence transition. We revealed that the considered series of Te(IV) compounds possess reversible thermochromic properties.

  3. Ternary Porphyrinato Hf(IV) and Zr(IV) - Polyoxometalate Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Falber, Alexander; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Radivojevic, Ivana; Todaro, Louis; Saleh, Raihan; Francesconi, Lynn; Drain, Charles Michael

    2010-01-01

    We report a facile, high yield synthesis and characterization of discrete, ternary porphyrin-metal-polyoxometalate (Por-M-POM) complexes where a group (IV) transition metal ion is bound both to the porphyrin core and to the lacunary site of a Keggin POM, PW11O39−7. The remarkably robust complexes exploit the fact that Hf(IV) and Zr(IV) are 7–8 coordinate and reside outside the plane of the porphyrin macrocycle, thus enabling the simultaneous coordination to meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) or meso-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TPyP) and to the defect site in the Keggin framework. The physical properties of the (TPP)Hf(PW11O39)[TBA]5, (TPyP)Hf(PW11O39)[TBA]5, and (TPP)Zr(PW11O39)[TBA]5 complexes are similar because the metal ions have similar oxidation states, and coordination chemistry. This architecture couples the photonic properties of the porphyrin to the POM because the metal ion is incorporated into both frameworks. Thus the ternary complexes can serve as a basis for the characterization of Hf(IV) and Zr(IV) porphyrins bound to oxide surfaces via the group (IV) metal ions. The Hf(Por) and Zr(Por) bind strongly to TiO2 nanoparticles and indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces, but significantly less binds to crystalline SiO2 or TiO2 surfaces. Together, the strong binding of the metalloporphyrins to the POM, nanoparticles, and the ITO surfaces, and paucity of binding to crystalline surfaces, suggests that the 3–4 open coordination sites on the Hf(Por) and Zr(Por) are predominantly bound at surface defect sites. PMID:20543903

  4. Impacts of Title IV in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwell, J.; Ellis, H.; Corio, L.; Seinfelt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Maryland Department of Natural Resources` Power Plant Research Program has evaluated the environmental effects of acid deposition on Maryland`s air, land, water (especially the Chesapeake Bay), and human resources since the mid-1980`s. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) has focused much attention on the mandated reductions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) to control acid deposition. Baseline data on acidic deposition and air emissions/pollution control for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} acquired through PPRP studies have proved useful in evaluating the impacts of Title IV on Maryland power plants and resources. Three example programs are discussed: The first is an evaluation of SO{sub 2} emissions on ecosystems through the use of critical loads--the amount of acid rain that an ecosystem can tolerate without continuing to acidify. Results support the use of broadly based emissions trading scenarios: The second study is an evaluation of the potential for reducing nitrate loading in the Chesapeake Bay by reducing NO{sub x} emissions. Results indicate substantial NO{sub x} emission reductions could offer significant reductions in nitrate deposition to the Bay: The final study is a review of the impacts of Title IV on the Maryland coal industry and the prospects for coal cleaning and advanced combustion technologies. Current results indicate that Maryland coal will meet Phase 2 SO{sub 2} emission standards using advanced combustion techniques, such as fluidized bed technologies, but that additional emissions controls, such as a scrubber would be required in a conventional boiler.

  5. Control of melanoma cell invasion by type IV collagen.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Sylvie; Brassart, Bertrand; Ramont, Laurent; Maquart, François-Xavier; Monboisse, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from diseases of the skin. This review summarizes the data from the literature and our laboratory addressing the effects of type IV collagen on melanoma progression. Many different sequences from type IV collagen promote melanoma cell adhesion, migration and invasion. The triple helical conformation of the collagenous domain plays a critical role in some of these interactions. However, recent studies from our group demonstrated that a sequence from the alpha3(IV) NC1 domain inhibits melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by decreasing MMP production and activation. Peptide sequences from the alpha1(IV), alpha2(IV) and alpha3(IV) chains named arresten, canstatin and tumstatin, respectively were shown to inhibit angiogenesis. Further investigations regarding the inhibitory effects of the alpha(IV) NC1 domains will have a paramount relevance for the design of efficient strategies to limit melanoma development. PMID:15936594

  6. Report for 2011 from the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bellanger, Antoine; Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Baudry, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center during the year 2011. The work focused on (i) regular analysis of the IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions with the GINS software package; (ii) systematic VLBI imaging of the RDV sessions and calculation of the corresponding source structure index and compactness values; (iii) imaging of the sources observed during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy IVS observing session; and (iv) continuation of our VLBI observational program to identify optically-bright radio sources suitable for the link with the future Gaia frame. Also of importance is the enhancement of the IVS LiveWeb site which now comprises all IVS sessions back to 2003, allowing one to search past observations for session-specific information (e.g. sources or stations).

  7. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  8. IV Leiomyomatosis on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaona; Li, Fang; Lu, Zhaohui; Cheng, Wuying

    2016-07-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of right lower extremity edema. Clinical examination only showed right lower limb swelling. Routine laboratory examination revealed no abnormal results. Abdominal ultrasonography identified uterine leiomyoma and soft tissue masses. An abdominal CT demonstrated a continuous mass extending from the right internal and external iliac vein into the common iliac vein and inferior vena cava. To distinguish the mass from malignancy, the patient underwent PET/CT scan which showed increased FDG activity in the mass. However, histopathological examination proved the mass to be IV leiomyomatosis. PMID:26914578

  9. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Swindeman; Douglas L. Marriott

    2009-12-18

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  10. Onsala Space Observatory: IVS Network Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Ruediger; Elgered, Gunnar; Loefgren, Johan; Ning, Tong; Scherneck, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    During 2012 we participated in 40 IVS sessions. As in the previous four years, we used the majority of the sessions that involved both Onsala and Tsukuba to do ultra-rapid dUT1 observations together with our colleagues in Tsukuba. We observed one four-station ultra-rapid EOP session together with Tsukuba, Hobart, and HartRAO. We also observed the RadioAstron satellite and several GLONASS satellites using the Onsala 25-m telescope. The highlight in 2012 was that our proposal to the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation to establish a twin-telescope system at Onsala in accordance with the VLBI2010 recommendations was accepted.

  11. Styrene Aziridination by Iron(IV) Nitrides.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Salvador B; Lee, Wei-Tsung; Dickie, Diane A; Scepaniak, Jeremiah J; Subedi, Deepak; Pink, Maren; Johnson, Michael D; Smith, Jeremy M

    2015-09-01

    Thermolysis of the iron(IV) nitride complex [PhB(tBuIm)3Fe≡N] with styrene leads to formation of the high-spin iron(II) aziridino complex [PhB(tBuIm)3Fe-N(CH2CHPh)]. Similar aziridination occurs with both electron-rich and electron-poor styrenes, while bulky styrenes hinder the reaction. The aziridino complex [PhB(tBuIm)3Fe-N(CH2CHPh)] acts as a nitride synthon, reacting with electron-poor styrenes to generate their corresponding aziridino complexes, that is, aziridine cross-metathesis. Reaction of [PhB(tBuIm)3Fe-N(CH2CHPh)] with Me3SiCl releases the N-functionalized aziridine Me3SiN(CH2CHPh) while simultaneously generating [PhB(tBuIm)3FeCl]. This closes a synthetic cycle for styrene azirdination by a nitride complex. While the less hindered iron(IV) nitride complex [PhB(MesIm)3Fe≡N] reacts with styrenes below room temperature, only bulky styrenes lead to tractable aziridino products. PMID:26179563

  12. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design.

  13. Atmosphere of Mars: Mariner IV Models Compared.

    PubMed

    Fjeldbo, G; Fjeldbo, W C; Eshleman, V R

    1966-09-23

    Three classes of models for the atmosphere of Mars differ in identifying the main ionospheric layer measured by Mariner IV as being analogous to a terrestrial F(2), F(1), or E layer. At an altitude of several hundred kilometers, the relative atmospheric mass densities for these models (in the order named) are approximately 1, 10(2), and 10(4), and the temperatures are roughly 100 degrees , 200 degrees , and 400 degrees K. Theory and observation are in best agreement for an F, s model, for which photodissociation of CO(2), and diffusive separation result in an atomic-oxygen upper atmosphere, with O(+) being the principal ion in the isothermal topside of the ionosphere. The mesopause temperature minimum would be at or below the freezing point of CO(2), and dry ice particles would be expected to form. However, an F(1) model, with molecular ions in a mixed and warmer upper atmosphere, might result if photodissociation and diffusive separation are markedly less than would be expected from analogy with Earth's upper atmosphere. The E model proposed by Chamberlain and McElroy appears very unlikely; it is not compatible with the measured ionization profile unless rather unlikely assumptions are made about the values, and changes with height, of the effective recombination coefficient and the average ion mass. Moreover our theoretical heat-budget computations for the atmospheric region probed by Mariner IV indicate markedly lower temperatures and temperature gradients than were obtained for the E model. PMID:17749730

  14. Stabilization of polynuclear plutonium(IV) species by humic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsac, Rémi; Banik, Nidhu Lal; Marquardt, Christian Michael; Kratz, Jens Volker

    2014-04-01

    Although the formation of tetravalent plutonium (Pu(IV)) polymers with natural organic matter was previously observed by spectroscopy, there is no quantitative evidence of such reaction in batch experiments. In the present study, Pu(IV) interaction with humic acid (HA) was investigated at pH 1.8, 2.5 and 3, as a function of HA concentration and for Pu total concentration equal to 6 × 10-8 M. The finally measured Pu(IV) concentrations ([Pu(IV)]eq) are below Pu(IV) solubility limit. Pu(IV)-HA interaction can be explained by the complexation of Pu(IV) monomers by HA up to [Pu(IV)]eq ∼ 10-8 M. However, the slope of the log-log Pu(IV)-HA binding isotherm changes from ∼0.7 to ∼3.5 for higher [Pu(IV)]eq than ∼10-8 M and at any pH. This result suggests the stabilization of hydrolyzed polymeric Pu(IV) species by HA, with a 4:1 Pu:HA stoichiometry. This confirms, for the first time, previous observations made by spectroscopy in concentrated systems. The humic-ion binding model, Model VII, was introduced into the geochemical speciation program PHREEQC and was used to simulate Pu(IV) monomers binding to HA. The simulations are consistent with other tetravalent actinides-HA binding data from literature. The stabilization of a Pu tetramer (Pu4(OH)88+) by HA was proposed to illustrate the present experimental results for [Pu(IV)]eq > 10-8 M. Predictive simulations of Pu(IV) apparent solubility due to HA show that the chosen Pu(IV)-polymer has no impact for pH > 4. However, the comparison between these predictions and recent spectroscopic results suggest that more hydrolyzed polymeric Pu(IV) species can be stabilized by HA at pH > 4. Polymeric Pu(IV)-HA species might significantly enhance Pu(IV) apparent solubility due to humics, which support a colloid-facilitated transport of this low solubility element.

  15. Transferring Success ESEA IV. Part C, Education Innovation and Support. Volume IV: Replication Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnier, Paul; Khan, Muhammad

    This planning guide provides eligible education agencies in New York State with the necessary information and instructions for replication grant competition in Title IV of the Elementary Secondary Education Act. Replication is the final phase of the "transferring success" process whereby a demonstrator's program is adopted by a New York State…

  16. A Mn(IV)/Fe(IV) Intermediate in Assembly of the Mn(IV)/Fe(III) Cofactor of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase†

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Hoffart, Lee M.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2008-01-01

    We recently showed that the class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from the human pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, uses a MnIV/FeIII cofactor to generate protein and substrate radicals in its catalytic mechanism [Jiang, W., Yun, D., Saleh, L., Barr, E. W., Xing, G., Hoffart, L. M., Maslak, M.-A., Krebs, C., and Bollinger, J. M., Jr. (2007) Science 316, 1188-1191]. Here, we have dissected the mechanism of formation of this novel heterobinuclear redox cofactor from the MnII/FeII cluster and O2. An intermediate with a g = 2 EPR signal that shows hyperfine coupling to both 55Mn and 57Fe accumulates almost quantitatively in a second order reaction between O2 and the reduced R2 complex. The otherwise slow decay of the intermediate to the active MnIV/FeIII-R2 complex is accelerated by the presence of the one-electron reductant, ascorbate, implying that the intermediate is more oxidized than MnIV/FeIII. Mössbauer spectra show that the intermediate contains a high-spin FeIV center. Its chemical and spectroscopic properties establish that the intermediate is a MnIV/FeIV-R2 complex with an S = 1/2 electronic ground state arising from antiferromagnetic coupling between the MnIV (SMn = 3/2) and high-spin FeIV (SFe = 2) sites. PMID:17616152

  17. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  18. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption... that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  19. The MAX IV storage ring project

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Pedro F.; Leemann, Simon C.; Sjöström, Magnus; Andersson, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The MAX IV facility, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, features two electron storage rings operated at 3 GeV and 1.5 GeV and optimized for the hard X-ray and soft X-ray/VUV spectral ranges, respectively. A 3 GeV linear accelerator serves as a full-energy injector into both rings as well as a driver for a short-pulse facility, in which undulators produce X-ray pulses as short as 100 fs. The 3 GeV ring employs a multibend achromat (MBA) lattice to achieve, in a relatively short circumference of 528 m, a bare lattice emittance of 0.33 nm rad, which reduces to 0.2 nm rad as insertion devices are added. The engineering implementation of the MBA lattice raises several technological problems. The large number of strong magnets per achromat calls for a compact design featuring small-gap combined-function magnets grouped into cells and sharing a common iron yoke. The small apertures lead to a low-conductance vacuum chamber design that relies on the chamber itself as a distributed copper absorber for the heat deposited by synchrotron radiation, while non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating provides for reduced photodesorption yields and distributed pumping. Finally, a low main frequency (100 MHz) is chosen for the RF system yielding long bunches, which are further elongated by passively operated third-harmonic Landau cavities, thus alleviating collective effects, both coherent (e.g. resistive wall instabilities) and incoherent (intrabeam scattering). In this paper, we focus on the MAX IV 3 GeV ring and present the lattice design as well as the engineering solutions to the challenges inherent to such a design. As the first realisation of a light source based on the MBA concept, the MAX IV 3 GeV ring offers an opportunity for validation of concepts that are likely to be essential ingredients of future diffraction-limited light sources. PMID:25177978

  20. The reduction of platinum(IV) and palladium(IV) ions by 2,6-pyridinedihydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Darren; Chopra, Atish; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Marmion, Celine J

    2008-12-28

    Reaction of K(2)[Pt(IV)Cl(6)] and K(2)[Pd(IV)Cl(6)] with 2,6-pyridinedihydroxamic acid (2,6-pyha) and its disodium salt, 2,6-pyhaNa(2), yielded not the desired Pt(IV) and Pd(IV) 2,6-pyridinedihydroxamato complexes, but rather the Pt(II) and Pd(II) 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylato complexes, trans-[Pt(II)(2,6-pyca(H-1))(2)].2H(2)O and trans-[Pd(II)(2,6-pyca(H-1))(2)].2H(2)O respectively (2,6-pyca = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid). Thus in the presence of Pt(IV) and Pd(IV), the dihydroxamic acid was adventitiously hydrolysed to the corresponding dicarboxylic acid and Pt(IV) and Pd(IV) reduced to Pt(II) and Pd(II) in situ. The X-ray crystal structures of 2,6-pyha, 2,6-pyhaNa(2).8H(2)O, trans-[Pt(II)(2,6-pyca(H-1))(2)].2H(2)O and trans-[Pd(II)(2,6-pyca(H-1))(2)].2H(2)O are reported, together with a possible mechanism for the metal-assisted hydrolysis of the dihydroxamic acid and reduction of Pt(IV) and Pd(IV) to Pt(II) and Pd(II) respectively. PMID:19050779

  1. SOLAR TRANSITION REGION LINES OBSERVED BY THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH: DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE O IV AND Si IV LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Dudík, J.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.; Dzifčáková, E.; Golub, L.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the transition region O IV and Si IV lines observable by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is investigated for both Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian conditions characterized by a κ-distribution exhibiting a high-energy tail. The Si IV lines are formed at lower temperatures than the O IV lines for all κ. In non-Maxwellian situations with lower κ, the contribution functions are shifted to lower temperatures. Combined with the slope of the differential emission measure, it is possible for the Si IV lines to be formed at very different regions of the solar transition region than the O IV lines; possibly close to the solar chromosphere. Such situations might be discernible by IRIS. It is found that photoexcitation can be important for the Si IV lines, but is negligible for the O IV lines. The usefulness of the O IV ratios for density diagnostics independently of κ is investigated and it is found that the O IV 1404.78 Å/1399.77 Å ratio provides a good density diagnostics except for very low T combined with extreme non-Maxwellian situations.

  2. Analgesia after Epidural Dexamethasone is Further Enhanced by IV Dipyrone, but Not IV Parecoxibe Following Minor Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Righeti, Claudia CF; Kitayama, Antonio T

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidural administration of dexamethasone has been suggested for pain control after minor orthopedic surgery. This study was conducted to assess its efficacy after such surgery, combined or not to IV dipyrone, IV parecoxibe or their combination. Methods 91 patients were randomly assigned to seven groups. Patients were submitted to spinal bupivacaine anesthesia combined to epidural administration of either 10 ml saline or 10 mg dexamethasone diluted to 10-ml volume. Patients also received 10 ml IV saline or 1 gr dipyrone and/or 40 mg parecoxibe diluted to 10 ml with saline. Control group (CG) received epidural and IV saline. Dexamethasone group (DexG) received epidural dexamethasone and IV saline. Dipyrone group (DipG) received epidural saline and IV dipyrone. Dex-Dip G received epidural dexamethasone and IV dipyrone. Parecoxibe group (ParG) received epidural saline and IV parecoxibe. Dex-ParG received epidural dexamethasone and IV parecoxibe. Finally, Dex-Dip-ParG received epidural dexamethasone and IV dipyrone plus IV parecoxibe. Results The CG expressed 4h of analgesia and sooner requested pain killer. DexG was similar to DipG or ParG or Dex-ParG (7-hours), and they requested less ketoprofen compared to the CG (P < 0.05). However, the Dex-DipG and the Dex-Dip-ParG resulted in longer time to demand pain killer (17-hours) and less ketoprofen consumption in 24-hours (P < 0.002). Adverse effects were similar among groups. Conclusions The analgesia secondary to epidural dexamethasone was enhanced by IV dipyrone, while no effects were observed by the addition of IV parecoxibe. PMID:25317284

  3. Review of the BCI Competition IV

    PubMed Central

    Tangermann, Michael; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Aertsen, Ad; Birbaumer, Niels; Braun, Christoph; Brunner, Clemens; Leeb, Robert; Mehring, Carsten; Miller, Kai J.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; Nolte, Guido; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Preissl, Hubert; Schalk, Gerwin; Schlögl, Alois; Vidaurre, Carmen; Waldert, Stephan; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The BCI competition IV stands in the tradition of prior BCI competitions that aim to provide high quality neuroscientific data for open access to the scientific community. As experienced already in prior competitions not only scientists from the narrow field of BCI compete, but scholars with a broad variety of backgrounds and nationalities. They include high specialists as well as students. The goals of all BCI competitions have always been to challenge with respect to novel paradigms and complex data. We report on the following challenges: (1) asynchronous data, (2) synthetic, (3) multi-class continuous data, (4) session-to-session transfer, (5) directionally modulated MEG, (6) finger movements recorded by ECoG. As after past competitions, our hope is that winning entries may enhance the analysis methods of future BCIs. PMID:22811657

  4. Diaqua-tetra-bromidotin(IV) trihydrate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Reuter, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The title compound, [SnBr(4)(H(2)O)(2)]·3H(2)O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetra-bromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr(4) and is isostructural with the corresponding -hydrate of SnCl(4). It is composed of Sn(IV) atoms octa-hedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water mol-ecules. The octa-hedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium-strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water mol-ecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis) while the chains are inter-connected via longer O-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:22969439

  5. Ratchet model for type IV pilus retraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindén, Martin; Tuohimaa, Tomi; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Type IV pilus rectraction is required for twitching motility in a wide range of bacteriae, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Myxococcus xanthus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mechanism of retraction is believed to be filament disassembly mediated by PilT, a member of the AAA family of motor proteins. Recent laser tweezer measurements of the force-velocity relation of PilT in N. gonorrhoeae, reveal that single PilT complexes generate forces of over 100 pN. We assume that PilT forms a cyclic ATPase surrounding the base of the pilus and formulate a model of retraction in terms of coupled flashing ratchets. We obtain a force-velocity relation by numerical simulation of the model which is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  6. The fourth spectrum of iridium (Ir IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarov, Vladimir I.; Gayasov, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    The spectrum of three times ionized iridium, Ir IV, was investigated in the 650-2045 Å wavelength region. The analysis has led to the determination of the 5d6, 5d5 6 s and 5d5 6 p configurations. Twenty-nine of 34 theoretically possible 5d6 levels, 44 of 74 possible 5d5 6 s levels and 150 of 214 possible 5d5 6 p levels have been established. The levels are based on 1348 classified spectral lines. The level structure and transition probabilities were calculated using the orthogonal operators technique. The energy parameters have been determined by the least squares fit to the observed levels. Calculated energy values and LS-compositions obtained from the fitted parameter values are given. The level optimization procedure and the determination of uncertainties of the obtained energy level values are discussed.

  7. Characterization of a Grape Class IV Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A chitinase was purified from Vitis vinifera Manzoni Bianco grape juice and characterized. On the basis of proteomic analysis of tryptic peptides, a significant match identified the enzyme as a type IV grape chitinase previously found in juices of other V. vinifera varieties. The optimal pH and temperature for activity toward colloidal chitin were found to be 6 and 30 °C, respectively. The enzyme was found to hydrolyze chitin and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, generating N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and N-acetylglucosamine as products, but was inactive toward N,N′-diacetylchitobiose. The enzyme exhibited both endo- and exochitinase activities. Because yeast contains a small amount of chitin in the cell wall, the possibility of growth inhibition was tested. At a concentration and pH expected in ripe grapes, no inhibition of wine yeast growth by the chitinase was observed. PMID:24845689

  8. Stroke Mimic Secondary to IV Fentanyl Administration.

    PubMed

    Uhegwu, Nnamdi; Bashir, Asif; Dababneh, Haitham; Hussain, Mohammed; Misthal, Sara; Mocco, J Duffy

    2015-02-01

    Fentanyl is a potent opioid used commonly in acute care because of its rapid onset and short duration of action. It has fewer side effects when compared with commonly available opioids, such as morphine and hydromorphine. We report an unusual side effect of transient aphasia following fentanyl administration. A 61-year-old female presented for an elective embolization of a periophthalmic artery aneurysm. She developed immediate episodes of aphasia on two separate occasions following administration of intravenous (IV) fentanyl. The high lipid solubility explains the rapid onset of action of fentanyl as it rapidly passes through the blood-brain barrier and through cell membranes. Immediately following the administration of fentanyl, the patient developed aphasia. There were no other clinical or neurological imaging findings that could account for these symptoms. We believe that aphasia may be an unusual side effect of fentanyl, and it is something clinicians should be aware of. PMID:25825627

  9. Overoxidation of phenol by hexachloroiridate(IV).

    PubMed

    Song, Na; Stanbury, David M

    2011-12-19

    It has been previously established that the aqueous oxidation of phenol by a deficiency of [IrCl(6)](2-) proceeds through the production of [IrCl(6)](3-) and phenoxyl radicals. Coupling of the phenoxyl radicals leads primarily to 4,4'-biphenol, 2,2'-biphenol, 2,4'-biphenol, and 4-phenoxyphenol. Overoxidation occurs through the further oxidation of these coupling products, leading to a rather complex mixture of final products. The rate laws for oxidation of the four coupling products by [IrCl(6)](2-) have the same form as those for the oxidation of phenol itself: -d[Ir(IV)]/dt = {(k(ArOH) + k(ArO(-))K(a)/[H(+)])/(1 + K(a)/[H(+)])}[ArOH](tot)[Ir(IV)]. Values for k(ArOH) and k(ArO(-)) have been determined for the four substrates at 25 °C and are assigned to H(2)O-PCET and electron-transfer mechanisms, respectively. Kinetic simulations of a combined mechanism that includes the rate of oxidation of phenol as well as the rates of these overoxidation steps show that the degree of overoxidation is rather limited at high pH but quite extensive at low pH. This pH-dependent overoxidation leads to a pH-dependent stoichiometric factor in the rate law for oxidation of phenol and causes some minor deviations in the rate law for oxidation of phenol. Empirically, these minor deviations can be accommodated by the introduction of a third term in the rate law that includes a "pH-dependent rate constant", but this approach masks the mechanistic origins of the effect. PMID:22087767

  10. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  11. DNA Ligase IV regulates XRCC4 nuclear localization

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Dailia B.; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chavez, Jose; Chu, Jennifer; Malu, Shruti; Hanna, Mary; Cortes, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    DNA Ligase IV, along with its interacting partner XRCC4, are essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Together, they complete the final ligation step resolving the DNA break. Ligase IV is regulated by XRCC4 and XLF. However, the mechanism(s) by which Ligase IV control the NHEJ reaction and other NHEJ factor(s) remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a C-terminal region of Ligase IV (aa 620 to 800), which encompasses a NLS, the BRCT I, and the XRCC4 interacting region (XIR), is essential for nuclear localization of its co-factor XRCC4. In Ligase IV deficient cells, XRCC4 showed deregulated localization remaining in the cytosol even after induction of DNA double strand breaks. DNA Ligase IV was also required for efficient localization of XLF into the nucleus. Additionally, human fibroblasts that harbor hypomorphic mutations within the Ligase IV gene displayed decreased levels of XRCC4 protein, implicating that DNA Ligase IV is also regulating XRCC4 stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of DNA Ligase IV in controlling the cellular localization and protein levels of XRCC4. PMID:24984242

  12. Structural dynamic testing of the Engineering Test Satellite-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, K.; Mitsuma, H.; Matsushita, T.; Izumi, H.

    The Engineering Test Satellite-IV (ETS-IV) was the first large scale spacecraft developed and launched successfully in Japan on a new N-II launch vehicle. This paper presents an approach taken for the structural development of the ETS-IV. Extensive structural tests were performed to demonstrate that the ETS-IV spacecraft meets all design requirements and will survive all critical environments. Details of the static load test, vibration tests, acoustic test, and pyrotechnic shock test were described. The test results were compared with analyses and measured flight data.

  13. Non-helical type IV collagen polypeptides in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Daisuke; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Yoshikawa, Kiwamu; Hattori, Shunji; Sado, Yoshikazu; Imamura, Yasutada; Hayashi, Toshihiko

    2004-01-30

    Our previous reports showed that cultured human cells secrete non-disulfide-bonded non-helical alpha1(IV) and alpha2(IV) chains under physiological conditions. In the present report we show that the alpha(IV) chains in non-helical form were reactive to lectin ABA (Agaricus bisporus agglutinin), whereas the alpha(IV) chains secreted in triple-helical form were not. These results indicate that ABA could be used to distinguish the two conformational isomers of type IV collagen polypeptides. An alpha1(IV) chain isolated from human placenta with an antibody-coupled column showed a positive reaction to ABA, indicating that gelatin form of the type IV collagen alpha1(IV) chain is produced and retained in the tissue in vivo. A possible significance of the gelatin form is discussed from the finding that the non-helical alpha1(IV) chain purified with EDTA-free buffer contained degraded polypeptides including NC1-size domain and showed an apparent inhibition against activated pro-MMP-9. This is the first report to show that a gelatin form of protein exists in vivo. PMID:14715239

  14. A classification system for O-B2 stars based on the Si IV and C IV resonance lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.; Wray, J. D.; Parsons, S. B.

    1981-01-01

    Low-dispersion ultraviolet spectra from Skylab Experiment S-019 are used to explore the variations of Si IV and C IV line strengths with temperature and luminosity. These considerations lead to a classification system in which the Si/C ratio is used to discriminate luminosity among the O stars and temperature among the O9-B2 stars of lower luminosity. Stars falling in these two regimes may be distinguished either by the presence of C IV emission or on the basis of C IV absorption strength. The log(Si IV/C IV) vs C IV diagram is proposed as a primary tool in such a classification system. The rapid variation in the Si IV/C IV ratio from less than 1/10 at O9 to greater than 10 at B1.5 for luminosity class III-V stars appears to be an especially useful criterion for the temperature classification of stars in this spectral range.

  15. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  16. 77 FR 64398 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region IV AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Assistant Deputy Secretary... Succession for the Atlanta Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region IV). This Order of...

  17. CALIBRATING C-IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Shin, Jaejin; Denney, Kelly D. E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: kelly@dark-cosmology.dk

    2013-06-20

    We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei and high-quality UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis, we measure the C IV line widths (FWHM{sub C{sub IV}} and line dispersion, {sigma}{sub C{sub IV}}) and the continuum luminosity at 1350 A (L{sub 1350}) to calibrate the C-IV-based mass estimators. By comparing with the H{beta} reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators with the best-fit relationships, i.e., M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.50{+-}0.07}{sigma}{sub C{sub IV}{sup 2}} and M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.52{+-}0.09} FWHM{sub C{sub IV}{sup 0.56{+-}0.48}}. The new C-IV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature. Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by {approx}0.25 dex if our recipe is adopted.

  18. Beyond the DSM-IV: Assumptions, Alternatives, and Alterations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Shane J.; Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto; Prosser, Ellie C.; LaRue, Stephanie; Spalitto, Susan Vehige; Ulven, Jon C.

    2006-01-01

    Current diagnostic processes reflect the limitations and utility of the framework of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Clinical information in the DSM-IV's 5-axis system almost exclusively focuses on weaknesses and pathology and is summarized in a flawed…

  19. Maize RNA polymerase IV defines trans-generational epigenetic variation.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Parkinson, Susan E; Gross, Stephen M; Barbour, Joy-El R; Lim, Jana P; Hollick, Jay B

    2013-03-01

    The maize (Zea mays) RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV) largest subunit, RNA Polymerase D1 (RPD1 or NRPD1), is required for facilitating paramutations, restricting expression patterns of genes required for normal development, and generating small interfering RNA (siRNAs). Despite this expanded role for maize Pol IV relative to Arabidopsis thaliana, neither the general characteristics of Pol IV-regulated haplotypes, nor their prevalence, are known. Here, we show that specific haplotypes of the purple plant1 locus, encoding an anthocyanin pigment regulator, acquire and retain an expanded expression domain following transmission from siRNA biogenesis mutants. This conditioned expression pattern is progressively enhanced over generations in Pol IV mutants and then remains heritable after restoration of Pol IV function. This unusual genetic behavior is associated with promoter-proximal transposon fragments but is independent of sequences required for paramutation. These results indicate that trans-generational Pol IV action defines the expression patterns of haplotypes using co-opted transposon-derived sequences as regulatory elements. Our results provide a molecular framework for the concept that induced changes to the heterochromatic component of the genome are coincident with heritable changes in gene regulation. Alterations of this Pol IV-based regulatory system can generate potentially desirable and adaptive traits for selection to act upon. PMID:23512852

  20. 77 FR 53873 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV AGENCY: United States Transportation... Transportation Regulation (DTR) Part IV (DTR 4500.9R). These business rules will encompass Transportation Service... CONTACT: Mr. Jim Teague, United States Transportation Command, TCJ5/4-PI, 508 Scott Drive, Scott Air...

  1. Conducting Phase IV clinical studies: a moral imperative?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, TP

    2012-01-01

    The answer to this question lies in knowing the moral standing of Phase IV studies and whether we ought to conduct them. And to know this, in part, we need to compare them to studies in Phases I, II, and III and then determine where Phase IV studies stand in relation to Phase I–III studies scientifically and commercially.

  2. Area 4 has layer IV in adult primates

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabezas, Miguel Ángel; Barbas, Helen

    2014-01-01

    There are opposing views about the status of layer IV in primary motor cortex (area 4). Cajal described a layer IV in area 4 of adult humans. In contrast, Brodmann found layer IV in development but not in adult primates and called area 4 ‘agranular’. We addressed this issue in rhesus monkeys using the neural marker SMI-32, which labels neurons in lower layer III and upper V, but not in layer IV. SMI-32 delineated a central unlabeled cortical stripe in area 4 that corresponds to layer IV, which was populated with small interneurons also found in layer IV in ‘granular’ areas (such as area 46). We distinguished layer IV interneurons from projection neurons in the layers above and below using cellular criteria. The commonly used term ‘agranular’ for area 4 is also used for the phylogenetically ancient limbic cortices, confusing areas that differ markedly in laminar structure. This issue pertains to the systematic variation in the architecture across cortices, traced from limbic cortices through areas with increasingly more elaborate laminar structure. The principle of systematic variation can be used to predict laminar patterns of connections across cortical systems. This principle places area 4 and agranular anterior cingulate cortices at opposite poles of the graded laminar differentiation of motor cortices. The status of layer IV in area 4 thus pertains to core organizational features of the cortex, its connections and evolution. PMID:24735460

  3. Equilibrium between Different Coordination Geometries in Oxidovanadium(IV) Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugone, Valeria; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, the equilibrium between square pyramidal and octahedral V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes is described. We propose a set of experiments to synthesize and characterize two types of V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes. The experiment allows great flexibility and may be effectively used at a variety of levels and the activity…

  4. PLATO IV: First Year Report, Computerized Training System, Project ABACUS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Lawrence R.

    This report covers the PLATO IV activities during calendar year 1973 at the Computerized Training System. The work reported herein is supported by a program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to evaluate the PLATO IV system for use in training, oriented to the needs of the Armed Services. The report presents a synopsis of…

  5. CDDIS Data Center Summary for the 2003 IVS Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes activities during the year 2003 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staffing supporting the system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.

  6. CDDIS Data Center Summary for the 2004 IVS Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes activities during the year 2004 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staffing the support system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.

  7. 32 CFR 2003.4 - Membership (Article IV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Membership (Article IV). 2003.4 Section 2003.4...) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.4 Membership (Article IV). (a) Member organizations... writing an alternate, or alternates, to represent it on all occasions when the primary member is unable...

  8. 32 CFR 2003.4 - Membership (Article IV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Membership (Article IV). 2003.4 Section 2003.4...) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.4 Membership (Article IV). (a) Member organizations... writing an alternate, or alternates, to represent it on all occasions when the primary member is unable...

  9. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  10. Adsorption of sulfur(IV) oxide by amide sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Nikandrov, I.S.; Kogtev, S.E.; Kazimirov, O.E.; Pavlova, I.V.

    1994-04-10

    Adsorption of sulfur(IV) oxide by industrial amide plastics has been studied. Sorption capacity of the sorbents studied has been determined under static and dynamic conditions. Physical and chemical interaction has been demonstrated to take place between sulfur(IV) oxide and the sorbent studied.

  11. Cellular Origins of Type IV Collagen Networks in Developing Glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Dale R.; Hudson, Billy G.; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; St. John, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Laminin and type IV collagen composition of the glomerular basement membrane changes during glomerular development and maturation. Although it is known that both glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes produce different laminin isoforms at the appropriate stages of development, the cellular origins for the different type IV collagen heterotrimers that appear during development are unknown. Here, immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and podocytes of immature glomeruli synthesize collagen α1α2α1(IV). However, intracellular labeling revealed that podocytes, but not endothelial or mesangial cells, contain collagen α3α4α5(IV). To evaluate the origins of collagen IV further, we transplanted embryonic kidneys from Col4a3-null mutants (Alport mice) into kidneys of newborn, wildtype mice. Hybrid glomeruli within grafts containing numerous host-derived, wildtype endothelial cells never expressed collagen α3α4α5(IV). Finally, confocal microscopy of glomeruli from infant Alport mice that had been dually labeled with anti-collagen α5(IV) and the podocyte marker anti-GLEPP1 showed immunolabeling exclusively within podocytes. Together, these results indicate that collagen α3α4α5(IV) originates solely from podocytes; therefore, glomerular Alport disease is a genetic defect that manifests specifically within this cell type. PMID:19423686

  12. Cellular origins of type IV collagen networks in developing glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Dale R; Hudson, Billy G; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; St John, Patricia L

    2009-07-01

    Laminin and type IV collagen composition of the glomerular basement membrane changes during glomerular development and maturation. Although it is known that both glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes produce different laminin isoforms at the appropriate stages of development, the cellular origins for the different type IV collagen heterotrimers that appear during development are unknown. Here, immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and podocytes of immature glomeruli synthesize collagen alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha1(IV). However, intracellular labeling revealed that podocytes, but not endothelial or mesangial cells, contain collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV). To evaluate the origins of collagen IV further, we transplanted embryonic kidneys from Col4a3-null mutants (Alport mice) into kidneys of newborn, wildtype mice. Hybrid glomeruli within grafts containing numerous host-derived, wildtype endothelial cells never expressed collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV). Finally, confocal microscopy of glomeruli from infant Alport mice that had been dually labeled with anti-collagen alpha 5(IV) and the podocyte marker anti-GLEPP1 showed immunolabeling exclusively within podocytes. Together, these results indicate that collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) originates solely from podocytes; therefore, glomerular Alport disease is a genetic defect that manifests specifically within this cell type. PMID:19423686

  13. CDDIS Data Center Summary for the IVS 2012 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes activities during 2012 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staff supporting the system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.

  14. 75 FR 70217 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Register April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16445-16446). The interim response and disposition of comments can be viewed on the USTRANSCOM Web site (under misc) at http://www.transcom.mil/dtr/part-iv/misc.cfm . Additional... of the Secretary Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV AGENCY: United States...

  15. Evaluation Report of the Busby School Title IV Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streiff, Paul R.

    In the 1976-77 school year, the Title IV Program included 11 components: continuation of the Parent Advisory Committee; sponsorship of 4 community/school feasts centered around Title IV concerns; employment of classroom aides; development of cultural instructional objectives and materials; elementary school counselor to help meet the most serious…

  16. Independent Verification and Validation (IV and V) Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this appendix is to establish quantifiable criteria for determining whether IV&V should be applied to a given software development. Since IV&V should begin in the Formulation Subprocess of a project, the process here described is based on metrics which are available before project approval.

  17. FORTRAN IV Digital Filter Design Programs. Digital Systems Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuss, E.; And Others

    The goals of the Digital Systems Education Project (DISE) include the development and distribution of educational/instructional materials in the digital systems area. Toward that end, this document contains three reports: (1) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for Low-Pass Butterworth and Chebychev Digital Filters; (2) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for…

  18. 78 FR 18325 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... of the Secretary Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV AGENCY: United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), DoD. ACTION: Announcement. SUMMARY: On September 4, 2012 (77 FR 53873-53874), the Department of Defense published a notice titled Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV. DoD has...

  19. 75 FR 16445 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Secretary Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV AGENCY: United States Transportation... for the Defense Personal Property Program (DP3) in the Defense Transportation Regulation (DTR) Part IV.... Jim Teague, United States Transportation Command, TCJ5/4-PI, 508 Scott Drive, Scott Air Force Base,...

  20. Isolation of Bacterial Type IV Machine Subassemblies

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Mayukh K.; Husnain, Seyyed I.; Jakubowski, Simon J.; Christie, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) deliver DNA and protein substrates to bacterial and eukaryotic target cells generally by a mechanism requiring direct contact between donor and target cells. Recent advances in defining the architectures of T4SSs have been made through isolation of machine sub-assemblies for further biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Here, we describe a protocol for isolation and characterization of VirB protein complexes from the paradigmatic VirB/VirD4 T4SS of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This protocol can be adapted for isolation of T4SS subassemblies from other gram-negative bacteria as well as gram-positive bacteria. The biological importance of isolated T4SS subcomplexes can be assessed by assaying for copurification of trapped or cross-linked substrates. This can be achieved with a modified form of the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay termed transfer DNA immunoprecipitation (TrIP). Here, a TrIP protocol is described for recovery of formaldehyde-cross-linked DNA substrate–channel subunit complexes from cells employing T4SSs for conjugative DNA transfer. PMID:23299736

  1. CEM data management for Title IV

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, R.; Rengert, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) has developed a data management system to handle Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) data collected to meet the requirements of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The NMPC data management system described in this paper has three components: hardware, software, and procedures. The data management system`s hardware consists of computers and the existing wide area network system. The systems includes a Data Acquisition and Handling System (DAHS) computer at each stack, a database server at the corporate offices, a wide area network for data transfer from the DAHS to the server, a CEMS workstation, and PCs connected to the network. The second component of the system is the software. The DAHS uses a program that acquires the data and generates all the required reports. It is the only certified software. Data review, analysis and preparation for submittal is done through commercial software products and programs developed in-house. The last component, procedures, governs the flow of data from the stack to the diskette submitted under the Designated Representative`s signature. This component is included to document that all the data have been reviewed completely.

  2. Structure of a Type IV Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Calzada, Angel; Braun, Nathalie; Connery, Sarah; Dujeancourt, Annick; Lu, Fang; Redzej, Adam; Fronzes, Rémi; Orlova, Elena V.; Waksman, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems translocate virulence factors into eukaryotic cells1,2, distribute genetic material between bacteria, and have shown potential as a tool for the genetic modification of human cells3. Given the complex choreography of the substrate through the secretion apparatus4, the molecular mechanism of the T4S system has proven difficult to dissect in the absence of structural data for the entire machinery. Here we use electron microscopy (EM) to reconstruct the T4S system encoded by the Escherichia coli R388 conjugative plasmid. We show that eight proteins assemble in an intricate stoichiometric relationship to form a ~3 megadalton (MDa) nanomachine that spans the entire cell envelope. The structure comprises an outer membrane-associated core complex1 connected by a central stalk to a substantial inner membrane complex that is dominated by a battery of twelve VirB4 ATPase subunits organised as side by side hexameric barrels. Our results show a secretion system with markedly different architecture, and consequently mechanism, to other known bacterial secretion systems1,4-6. PMID:24670658

  3. Conference Report: Masters Forum IV, February 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the APPL Masters Forum is to bring together some of the best project managers at NASA, as well as those in industry and other government agencies, for 2 1/2 days of knowledge sharing. The project managers come eager to reflect on their project experiences, to learn new things from one another--and to unlearn a few things, too. This was the fourth Masters Forum, and the first one held outside Washington, DC. Fifty participants from across the country came to Dallas at the American Airlines Conference Center, a wonderful facility that was conveniently located by the airport and yet still seemed isolated from the rest of the world. Masters Forum IV was also the first one held during the winter. Previous Masters Forums have been during the summer. Hot, sticky Washington, D.C. in the summer may sound unpleasant, but frankly the popularity of earlier Forums is what led to this annual event becoming a semiannual one.

  4. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  5. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  6. Development of Methodologies for IV and V of Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Darrah, Marjorie

    2003-01-01

    Non-deterministic systems often rely upon neural network (NN) technology to "lean" to manage flight systems under controlled conditions using carefully chosen training sets. How can these adaptive systems be certified to ensure that they will become increasingly efficient and behave appropriately in real-time situations? The bulk of Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) research of non-deterministic software control systems such as Adaptive Flight Controllers (AFC's) addresses NNs in well-behaved and constrained environments such as simulations and strict process control. However, neither substantive research, nor effective IV&V techniques have been found to address AFC's learning in real-time and adapting to live flight conditions. Adaptive flight control systems offer good extensibility into commercial aviation as well as military aviation and transportation. Consequently, this area of IV&V represents an area of growing interest and urgency. ISR proposes to further the current body of knowledge to meet two objectives: Research the current IV&V methods and assess where these methods may be applied toward a methodology for the V&V of Neural Network; and identify effective methods for IV&V of NNs that learn in real-time, including developing a prototype test bed for IV&V of AFC's. Currently. no practical method exists. lSR will meet these objectives through the tasks identified and described below. First, ISR will conduct a literature review of current IV&V technology. TO do this, ISR will collect the existing body of research on IV&V of non-deterministic systems and neural network. ISR will also develop the framework for disseminating this information through specialized training. This effort will focus on developing NASA's capability to conduct IV&V of neural network systems and to provide training to meet the increasing need for IV&V expertise in such systems.

  7. School Background Variables. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerenz, Anne G.; And Others

    This is one of a series of reports which provide definitions of and descriptive data on the variables used in the Comparative Study of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IEG) Evaluation Project. Phase IV investigated three curriculum programs specifically designed to be compatible with instructional programming for the individual…

  8. Means of Instruction Variables. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV Project Paper, 80-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerenz, Anne G.; Webb, Norman L.

    This is one of a series of reports which provide definitions of and descriptive data on the variables used in the Comparative Study of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IEG) Evaluation Project. Phase IV investigated three curriculum programs specifically designed to be compatible with instructional programming for the individual…

  9. Actinide Corroles: Synthesis and Characterization of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) bis(-chloride) Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Ashleigh L.; Buckley, Heather L.; Gryko, Daniel T.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Arnold, John

    2013-12-01

    The first synthesis and structural characterization of actinide corroles is presented. Thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) macrocycles of Mes2(p-OMePh)corrole were synthesised and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, variable-temperature 1H NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry.

  10. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas Functional Living Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The…

  11. From yellow to black: dramatic changes between cerium(IV) and plutonium(IV) molybdates.

    PubMed

    Cross, Justin N; Duncan, Patrick M; Villa, Eric M; Polinski, Matthew J; Babo, Jean-Marie; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Booth, Corwin H; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2013-02-20

    Hydrothermal reactions of CeCl(3) and PuCl(3) with MoO(3) and Cs(2)CO(3) yield surprisingly different results. Ce(3)Mo(6)O(24)(H(2)O)(4) crystallizes as bright yellow plates (space group C2/c, a = 12.7337(7) Å, b = 22.1309(16) Å, c = 7.8392(4) Å, β = 96.591(4)°, V = 2194.6(2) Å(3)), whereas CsPu(3)Mo(6)O(24)(H(2)O) crystallizes as semiconducting black-red plates (space group C2/c, a = 12.633(5) Å, b = 21.770(8) Å, c = 7.743(7) Å, β = 96.218(2)°, V = 2117(2) Å(3)). The topologies of the two compounds are similar, with channel structures built from disordered Mo(VI) square pyramids and (RE)O(8) square antiprisms (RE = Ce(IV), Pu(IV)). However, the Pu(IV) compound contains Cs(+) in its channels, while the channels in Ce(3)Mo(6)O(24)(H(2)O)(4) contain water molecules. Disorder and an ambiguous oxidation state of Mo lead to the formula CsPu(3)Mo(6)O(24)(H(2)O), where one Mo site is Mo(V) and the rest are Mo(VI). X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) experiments were performed to investigate the source of the black color of CsPu(3)Mo(6)O(24)(H(2)O). These experiments revealed Pu to be tetravalent, while the strong pre-edge absorption from the distorted molybdate anions leaves the oxidation state ambiguous between Mo(V) and Mo(VI). PMID:23360299

  12. Hydrolysis of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) and Their Complexation by Aqueous Orthosilicic Acid Si(OH)4

    SciTech Connect

    Yusov, A B.; Fedoseev, A M.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2004-12-10

    The hydrolysis and interaction of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) with orthosilicic acid, Si(OH)4, were studied in 0.1-1.0 M ionic strength aqueous solutions. Spectrophotometry was used to study these reactions at about 10-4 M Np(IV) and Pu(IV) concentrations. The first hydrolysis constants, Khydr, agree with the majority of earlier spectrophotometric and potentiometric data. The absorption spectra of NpOH3+ and PuOH3+ were obtained by spectral deconvolution. Reasons to explain the overestimation of Khydr obtained by other methods [by extraction of trace amounts of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) and by solubility] are discussed. Formation of the complexes NpOSi(OH)33+ and PuOSi(OH)33+ is demonstrated in the p[H+] range 1.4-2.1 and 0.7-1.4, respectively. Measured values of equilibrium constants of the reaction M4+ + Si(OH)4 ? MOSi(OH)33+ + H+ at ionic strength I=1.0 are log ?1 = 0.41?0.02 and 1.04?0.04, respectively, for Np(IV) and Pu(IV). The stability constants of the NpOSi(OH)33+ and PuOSi(OH)33+ complexes, recalculated to zero ionic strength, are log ?10 = 11.2 and 11.8, respectively. The correlation between Khydr and ?1, as observed for all earlier studied metal ions, also occurs for both Np(IV) and Pu(IV).

  13. The soft, fluctuating UVB at z ˜ 6 as traced by C IV, Si IV, and C II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, B. D.; Davé, Romeel; Zackrisson, E.; Thompson, Robert; Huang, Shuiyao

    2016-07-01

    The sources that drove cosmological reionization left clues regarding their identity in the slope and inhomogeneity of the ultraviolet ionizing background (UVB): bright quasars (QSOs) generate a hard UVB with predominantly large-scale fluctuations while Population II stars generate a softer one with smaller scale fluctuations. Metal absorbers probe the UVB's slope because different ions are sensitive to different energies. Likewise, they probe spatial fluctuations because they originate in regions where a galaxy-driven UVB is harder and more intense. We take a first step towards studying the reionization-epoch UVB's slope and inhomogeneity by comparing observations of 12 metal absorbers at z ˜ 6 versus predictions from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation using three different UVBs: a soft, spatially inhomogeneous `galaxies+QSOs' UVB; a homogeneous `galaxies+QSOs' UVB, and a `QSOs-only' model. All UVBs reproduce the observed column density distributions of C II, Si IV, and C IV reasonably well although high-column, high-ionization absorbers are underproduced, reflecting numerical limitations. With upper limits treated as detections, only a soft, fluctuating UVB reproduces both the observed Si IV/C IV and C II/C IV distributions. The QSOs-only UVB overpredicts both C IV/C II and C IV/Si IV, indicating that it is too hard. The Haardt & Madau (2012) UVB underpredicts C IV/Si IV, suggesting that it lacks amplifications near galaxies. Hence current observations prefer a soft, fluctuating UVB as expected from a predominantly Population II background although they cannot rule out a harder one. Future observations probing a factor of 2 deeper in metal column density will distinguish between the soft, fluctuating and QSOs-only UVBs.

  14. 19 CFR Annex IV to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administrative Reviews IV Annex IV to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex IV Annex IV to Part 351—Deadlines for Parties... initiation) 66 days 2 Notification of difficulty in responding to questionnaire 351.301(c)(2)(iv) (14...

  15. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Table IV to Subpart E...

  16. Group IV photonics for the mid infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soref, Richard

    2013-02-01

    This paper outlines the challenges and benefits of applying silicon-based photonic techniques in the 2 to 5 μm midinfrared (MIR) wavelength range for chem.-bio-physical sensing, medical diagnostics, industrial process control, environmental monitoring, secure communications, Ladar, active imaging, and high-speed communications at 2 μm. Onchip passive and active components, mostly waveguided, will enable opto-electronic CMOS or BiCMOS integrated "circuits" for system-on-a-chip applications such as spectroscopy and lab-on-a-chip. Volume manufacture in a silicon foundry is expected to yield low-cost (or even disposable) chips with benefits in size-weight-power and ruggedness. This is "long-wavelength optoelectronic integration on silicon" which we call LIOS. Room temperature operation appears feasible, albeit with performance compromises at 4 to 5 μm. In addition to the electronics layer (which may include RF wireless), a 3-D LIOS chip can include several inter-communicating layers utilizing the photonic, plasmonic, photoniccrystal and opto-electro-mechanical technologies. The LIOS challenge can be met by (1) discovering new physics, (2) employing "new" IV and III-V alloys, (3) scaling-up and modifying telecom components, and (4) applying nonlinearoptical wavelength conversion in some cases. This paper presents proposals for MIR chip spectrometers employing frequency-comb and Ge blackbody sources. Active heterostructures employing Si, Ge, SiGe, GeSn and SiGeSn are key for laser diodes, photodetectors, LEDs, switches, amplifiers, and modulators that provide totally monolithic foundry integration, while numerous III-V semiconductor MIR devices within the InGaAsSb and InGaAsP families offer practical hybrid integration on Si PICs. Interband cascade and quantum cascade lasers on Ge waveguides are important in this context.

  17. Tourists for conservation. Interview: Hector Ceballos-Lascurain.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Ecotourism is a new phenomenon that consists of traveling to and visiting natural areas, the features of the landscape, flora, and fauna as well as involving the local people so that they can have socioeconomic benefits from this process. It also implies having strict guidelines for minimum negative impact on the environment. According to studies of the World Tourism Organization and George Washington University, adventure travel including ecotourism is the fastest growing segment of tourism in the world. The Canadian Wildlife Service has estimated that 235 million travelers who went abroad in 1990 engaged in some kind of ecotourism, spending on the average about $1000 or well over $200 billion in total, on ecotourism activities. In protected areas in Third World countries it would provide additional funds to national park managements operating on very low budgets. These countries need national ecotourism plans with anthropologists recommending ways to avoid conflicts between local people and tourists. National, state, and local ecotourism guidelines are recommended for entrepreneurs. The management plan for protected areas includes physical facilities for tourists, it implies using ecotechniques such as solar energy, capturing and recycling rainwater, recycling refuse, a certain level of self-sufficiency, and aquaculture or small ecological farms in the buffer zones of these protected areas. In Australia and New Zealand ecotourism is becoming a substantial source of income. However, limitation of the numbers of visitors may be necessary as in the Altamira caves in Spain. In a world of 15 billion rather than a world of 8 billion these protected areas would be especially precious even if population could be stabilized eventually. PMID:12317705

  18. The U.S. Generation IV Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    This report has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to respond to Congressional direction contained in Senate Report 107-220 from the Senate Committee on Appropriations regarding the Energy and Water Development Appropriations for 2003. In that report, the Committee instructed the Department to prepare a report regarding how it intends to carry out the results of the Generation IV Roadmap. This report is the U.S. Department of Energy's response to the Congressional directive. It summarizes results from the Generation IV Technology Roadmap and the strategy for implementing of the Generation IV program in the United States. Planning for the implementation of the Generation IV program is based on (1) the long-term outlook for nuclear energy in the United States, (2) the advice of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee during the two-year development of the Generation IV Technology Roadmap, and (3) the need for the Generation IV program to be integrated with other nuclear energy research programs of the Department. Considerable emphasis is given to developing the priorities and necessary timelines for the U.S. Generation IV Program, as well as developing international R&D cooperation that will benefit the program and strengthen U.S. leadership in nuclear technology R&D.

  19. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th...

  20. Long-Term IQ Stability Using the WISC-IV and WAIS-IV among a Sample of Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the stability of scores on the WISC-IV and WAIS-IV over an approximate six-year period. Previous research using older versions of the WISC and WAIS have suggested that these scales demonstrate strong stability of scores. Since research that has compared the stability of scores between the WISC-IV and the WAIS-IV is…

  1. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process. PMID:1886521

  2. Characterization of protease IV expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Conibear, Tim C R; Willcox, Mark D P; Flanagan, Judith L; Zhu, Hua

    2012-02-01

    Expression of protease IV by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during ocular infections contributes significantly to tissue damage. However, several P. aeruginosa strains isolated from ocular infections or inflammatory events produce very low levels of protease IV. The aim of the present study was to characterize, genetically and phenotypically, the presence and expression of the protease IV gene in a group of clinical isolates that cause adverse ocular events of varying degrees, and to elucidate the possible control mechanisms of expression associated with this virulence factor. Protease IV gene sequences from seven clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were determined and compared to P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 and PA103-29. Production and enzyme activity of protease IV were measured in test strains and compared to that of quorum-sensing gene (lasRI) mutants and the expression of other virulence factors. Protease IV gene sequence similarities between the isolates were 97.5-99.5 %. The strains were classified into two distinct phylogenetic groups that correlated with the presence of exo-enzymes from type three secretion systems (TTSS). Protease IV concentrations produced by PAOΔlasRI mutants and the two clinical isolates with a lasRI gene deficiency were restored to levels comparable to strain PAO1 following complementation of the quorum-sensing gene deficiencies. The protease IV gene is highly conserved in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates that cause a range of adverse ocular events. Observed variations within the gene sequence appear to correlate with presence of specific TTSS genes. Protease IV expression was shown to be regulated by the Las quorum-sensing system. PMID:21921113

  3. Understanding Humic Acid / Zr(IV) Interaction - A Spectromicroscopy Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, Joerg; Plaschke, Markus; Denecke, Melissa A.

    2007-02-02

    Complexation of Zr(IV) by humic acid (HA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) is investigated from the point of view of the organic ligand. STXM Spectromicroscopy and C 1s-NEXAFS point to different interaction mechanisms between Zr(IV) cations and oxo/hydroxo colloids and PAA. Under conditions where the metal aquo ion is stable, strong complexes are formed. In contrast, unspecific surface coating is identified when PAA is contacted with Zr(IV) oxo/hydroxide colloids. HA exhibits similar C 1s-NEXAFS features indicating a complexation reaction.

  4. PREFACE: Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's Functions IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Balzer, Karsten

    2010-04-01

    This is the fourth volume1 of articles on the theory of Nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and their modern application in various fields such as plasma physics, semiconductor physics, molecular electronics and high energy physics. It contains 23 articles written by experts in many-body theory and quantum transport who summarize recent progress in their respective area of research. The articles are based on talks given at the interdisciplinary conference Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions IV which was held 17-21 August 2009 at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. This conference continues the tradition of the previous meetings which started in 1999 and which aimed at an informal exchange across field boundaries. The previous meetings and the earlier proceedings proved to be very stimulating not only for young researchers but also for experienced scientists, and we are convinced that this fourth volume will be as successful as the previous ones. As before, this volume includes only extended review-type papers which are written in a way that they are understandable to a broad interdisciplinary audience. All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administrated by the Editors assuring highest scientific standards. In the review process some papers were substantially revised and improved and some were rejected. This conference would not have been possible without the remarkable work of the local organizing team around John Barker and Scott Roy and the generous financial support from the University of Glasgow and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB-Transregio 24. Michael Bonitz and Karsten Balzer Kiel, February 2010 1 The first two volumes are Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions, M Bonitz (ed) and Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions II, M Bonitz and D Semkat (eds), which were published by World Scientific (Singapore), in 2000 and 2003, respectively (ISBN

  5. Electrometric direct current I/V converter with wide bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Holt, S; Skyba, P

    2012-06-01

    A principle of operation and electrical characteristics of a high frequency current-to-voltage (I/V) converter are presented. The I/V converter measures the electric current with selectable gains of 10(5), 10(4), and 10(3) V/A in the frequency range from DC to 500 kHz, 1.2 MHz, and 2.4 MHz, respectively. These properties make this I/V converter suitable for wide range of applications such as tuning forks, torsion oscillators, ultrasound transducers measurements, detection of the piezoelectric transducers used in STM techniques, etc., in low temperature physics. The influence of the input impedance of a I/V converter on the precision of alternating current measurements is also discussed. PMID:22755647

  6. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuanxian; Rao, Linfeng; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.

    2010-02-02

    The complexation of Pu(IV) with fluoride at elevated temperatures was studied by solvent extraction technique. A solution of NaBrO3 was used as holding oxidant to maintain the oxidation state of plutonium throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-F- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of fluoride ions on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Pu(IV) and fluoride at 25 degrees C - 55 degrees C were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures by using the Van’t Hoff equation.

  7. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-10-05

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  8. Platinum(iv) anticancer prodrugs - hypotheses and facts.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Dan

    2016-08-16

    In this manuscript we focus on Pt(iv) anticancer prodrugs. We explore the main working hypotheses for the design of effective Pt(iv) prodrugs and note the exceptions to the common assumptions that are prevalent in the field. Special attention was devoted to the emerging class of "dual action" Pt(iv) prodrugs, where bioactive ligands are conjugated to the axial positions of platinum in order to obtain orthogonal or complementary effects that will increase the efficacy of killing the cancer cells. We discuss the rationale behind the design of the "dual action" prodrugs and the results of the pharmacological studies obtained. Simultaneous release of two bioactive moieties inside the cancer cells often triggers several processes that together determine the fate of the cell. Pt(iv) complexes provide many opportunities for applying new concepts in targeting, synergistic cell killing and exploiting novel nanodelivery systems. PMID:27214873

  9. Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften gives a shove to the previously troubled Syncom IV-3 communications satellite. Dr. van Hoften stands on a foot restraint/extension to the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm.

  10. The Syncom IV-4 communications satellite deployed from payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Syncom IV-4 communications satellite is deployed from the payload bay of the Shuttle Discovery in a frisbee fashion. A portion of the cloudy surface of the earth can be seen to the left of the frame.